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GNED 05: Communication Process, Principles and Ethics

Nature and Process of Communication

1. Sender: The communication process begins with a sender,
the person who transmits a message.
The term “communication” has been defined by a
number of writers and here are some of the definitions: 2. Message: Message is a key idea that the sender wants to
communicate. It must be ensured that the main objective of
(a) Koontz and O'Donnell — "Communication is an the message is clear.
intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages; and is a
way that one organization member shares meaning and 3. Encoding: The sender must choose certain words or
understanding with another." nonverbal methods to send an intentional message. This
activity is called encoding.
(b) Newmann and Summer — "Communication is an
exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more 4. Channel: The channel (sometimes called the medium) is the
persons." method used to deliver a message. Even when a message gets
to its intended receiver intact, there’s no guarantee it will be
(c) Allen Louis A. — "Communication is a sum of all the things understood as the sender intended it to be.
one person does when he wants to create understanding in
the minds of another. It involves a systematic and continuous 5. Receiver: This is the person for whom the message is
process of telling, listening and understanding." intended, aimed, or targeted. The receiver is the one who
attaches meaning to the words or behavior.
Communication has a symbolic nature and it is an act of
sharing one’s ideas, emotions, attitudes, or perceptions 6. Decoding: Receivers don’t just absorb messages like
passive sponges. Instead, they actively interpret and respond
with another person or group of persons through words
to them. The process of a receiver attaching meaning to a
(written or spoken), gestures, signals, signs, or other
message is called decoding.
modes of transmitting images.
7. Context: Communication is affected by the context in which
it takes place. This context may be physical, social,
chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with
context. The sender chooses the message to communicate
within a context.

8. Feedback: Misunderstandings often arise because

messages can be decoded in more than one way. The
receiver’s response to a sender’s message is called feedback.
It is the main component of communication process as it
permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It
helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of
message by the decoder.

Levels of Communication

There are FIVE Levels of Communication:

1. Intrapersonal: This level of communication exists within

The Communication Model yourself. In other words, it is the sound of your thinking or the
little voice from within. In this case, you are both the person
'sending' and 'receiving' the message.
Components/Essential Elements of the
2. Interpersonal: This level of communication involves two
Communication Process:
people who are exchanging ideas or information with each
• Message • Channel/Medium • Context other.
• Sender/Encoder • Receiver/Decoder • Feedback
• Encoding • Decoding
Prepared by Ms. Paula Borja (Department of Teacher Education - CvSU Bacoor City Campus)
GNED 05: Communication Process, Principles and Ethics

3. Small Group Communication: This level of communication Five philosophical principles offer standards that can help you
involves 3 or more people. decide how to behave in a principled manner. When faced
with a decision about how to communicate ethically, it’s
4. Public Communication: This is also known as public helpful to ponder the situation from several viewpoints before
speaking, wherein there is a presence of 12 or more proceeding:
audiences. Public communication takes place when people
gather in a group that is too large for everyone to talk and 1. Utilitarian Approach (Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart
participate. Mill): Does this action provide the greatest good for the
greatest number?
5. Mass Communication: refers to any type of media that is 2. Rights Approach (Immanuel Kant): Does this action respect
used to communicate with mass audiences. Examples of mass the moral rights (truth, privacy, noninjury, promises) of
media include books, television, radios, films, computer everyone?
technologies, magazines and newspapers. Although mass 3. Fairness or Justice Approach (Aristotle, John Rawls): Is this
communication does include certain computer technologies, action fair and free of discrimination or favoritism?
it does not include technologies like email that are used to 4. Common-Good Approach (Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, John
communicate one-on-one with someone. Mass Rawls): Does the action further the common or community
communication is responsible for giving us views of events, good?
issues and people from cultures that differ from ours. It 5. Virtue Approach: Does this action promote the
enables us to learn what is going on in distant places in the development of moral virtue (character) in me and my
world and lets us learn the viewpoints of people and cultures community?
with whom we do not have direct contact.
Two additional guidelines can help you evaluate whether you
are behaving ethically:
Functions of Communication
6. Professional Ethic: How would an impartial jury of your
1. Regulation/Control- functions to control one’s behavior professional peers judge this action?
2. Social Interaction - functions to produce and develop 7. Publicity Test: Would you be comfortable having the public
social relationships, bonds, and intimacy; used to express learn about your behavior in the broadcast or print media?
preferences, desires, needs, wants, decisions, goals, and
strengths; used for giving and getting information
3. Motivation - functions to motivate or to encourage people
to live better References:
4. Information - functions to convey information Adler, R., Elmhorst, J.M., & Lucas. Communication at Work: Strategies
5. Emotional Expression - facilitates people’s expression of for Success in Business and the Professions. NY: McGraw
their feelings and emotions Hill, 2012.

P. (n.d.). The Nature and Process of Communication. Retrieved

Principles of Communication August 10, 2019, from
• Communication is unavoidable.
• Communication is strategic.
• Communication is irreversible.
• Communication is a process.
• Communication is not a panacea.

Communication Ethics

Ø Behaving ethically is an essential part of being an

effective, promotable employee.

Ø Ethics centers on a sense of responsibility for

someone other than yourself.

Prepared by Ms. Paula Borja (Department of Teacher Education - CvSU Bacoor City Campus)