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Sep 12, 2019

Performance Analysis of Large Intelligent

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LIS

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Performance Analysis of Large Intelligent

LIS

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Surfaces (LISs): Asymptotic Data Rate and

Channel Hardening Effects

arXiv:1810.05667v3 [cs.IT] 27 Mar 2019

Youngrok Jang, Gyuyeol Kong, and Sooyong Choi, Member, IEEE

Abstract

The concept of a large intelligent surface (LIS) has recently emerged as a promising wireless

communication paradigm that can exploit the entire surface of man-made structures for transmitting

and receiving information. An LIS is expected to go beyond massive multiple-input multiple-output

(MIMO) system, insofar as the desired channel can be modeled as a perfect line-of-sight. To understand

the fundamental performance benefits, it is imperative to analyze its achievable data rate, under practical

LIS environments and limitations. In this paper, an asymptotic analysis of the uplink data rate in an

LIS-based large antenna-array system is presented. In particular, the asymptotic LIS rate is derived in

a practical wireless environment where the estimated channel on LIS is subject to estimation errors

and interference channels are spatially correlated Rician fading channels. Moreover, the occurrence of

the channel hardening effect is analyzed and the performance bound is asymptotically derived for the

considered LIS system. The analytical asymptotic results are then shown to be in close agreement

with the exact mutual information as the numbers of antennas and devices increases without bounds.

Moreover, the derived ergodic rates show that noise and interference from estimation errors and the

A preliminary version of this work was submitted to IEEE SPAWC 2019 [1].

M. Jung, Y. Jang, G. Kong, and S. Choi are with Advanced Communications Laboratory, School of Electrical Electronic En-

gineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea (e-mail: hosaly@yonsei.ac.kr; dynamics@yonsei.ac.kr; gykong@yonsei.ac.kr;

csyong@yonsei.ac.kr).

W. Saad is with Wireless@VT, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061

USA (e-mail: walids@vt.edu).

2

non-line-of-sight path become negligible as the number of antennas increases. Simulation results show

that an LIS can achieve a performance that is comparable to conventional massive MIMO with improved

reliability and a significantly reduced area for antenna deployment.

Index Terms

large intelligent surface (LIS), large system analysis, channel estimation, ergodic rate, channel

hardening effect.

I. I NTRODUCTION

Future man-made structures, such as buildings, roads, and walls, are expected to be elec-

tromagnetically active [2]–[5]. As such, these structures can be leveraged to provide wireless

connectivity to emerging services, such as Internet of Things (IoT) applications [6]–[10], via

the emerging concept of a large intelligent surface (LIS) [2]–[4]. If properly operated and

deployed, LISs are expected to provide wireless connectivity to a plethora of IoT devices, such as

sensors, vehicles, and surveillance cameras, through man-made structures. The LIS concept can

be essentially viewed as a scaled-up version of conventional massive multiple-input and multiple-

output (MIMO) systems. However, an LIS exhibits several key differences from massive MIMO

systems. First, unlike conventional massive MIMO systems where transmission and reception

are carried out via a base station (BS), an LIS can transmit and receive signals through all

surfaces of man-made structures. Accordingly, higher data rates in both downlink and uplink

can be achieved, compared to massive MIMO systems. In particular, an LIS can provide very

high data rates for indoor devices. Second, LISs will be densely located in both indoor and

outdoor spaces, making it possible to perform near-field communications through a line-of-sight

(LOS) path [2]–[4]. Since an LOS path is highly correlated to the channel components between

antennas, antenna spacing of greater than half a wavelength is meaningless in order to obtain full

diversity gain. Consequently, an LIS can enable dense antenna arrays 1 . Finally, an LIS enables

simpler channel estimation and feedback, compared to conventional massive MIMO systems that

typically require channel state information (CSI) for hundreds of antennas. Since the overhead

from pilot training and CSI feedback is proportional to the number of antennas, the overhead can

1

Indeed, distortions in radiation patterns can occur due to mutual coupling. However, we envision an LIS that can perfectly

correct the distortions in the radiation patterns of any array with any antenna spacing, as in [11] and [12].

3

be prohibitive in massive MIMO systems [13], [14]. However, the desired channel of an LIS-

based large antenna-array system is highly correlated with the LOS path, facilitating accuracy

and simplicity in terms of channel estimation and feedback.

For these reasons, the use of an LIS has recently attracted attention in the wireless literature

[2]–[5]. These recent works focus on addressing a number of LIS challenges that include perfor-

mance analysis, estimating user location, user assignment, and power allocation. For instance, in

[2], the authors derived the data rates of the optimal receiver and the matched filter (MF) in the

uplink of an LIS-based system. Meanwhile, in [3], the authors obtained the Fisher-information

and Cramer–Rao lower bound for user positions using the uplink signal for an LIS. In [4],

the authors proposed optimal user assignments to select LIS units that maximize the sum rate

and minimum individual rate. The authors in [5] proposed the use of LIS as a relay station

for a massive MIMO system and developed a power allocation scheme to maximize energy

efficiency. However, these previous studies have not considered practical LIS environments and

their limitations, such as imperfect channel estimations and a user-specific channel model. For

instance, both [2] and [3] assumed an LIS with an infinite surface area and considered that a

single infinite LIS performs the MF over all devices. Moreover, [2]–[5] assumed perfect channel

estimations for an LIS. Finally, all of the interference channels in [2]–[4] were assumed as

following a LOS path, and [5] considered independent Rayleigh fading both in desired and

interference channels. Given that LISs are densely located and devices are reasonably close

to their target LISs, desired channels can be modeled as a LOS path whereas interference

channels must be modeled depending on the distances between interfering devices and the

target LISs. Therefore, the interference channel can be composed of a deterministic LOS path

and spatially correlated non-line-of-sight (NLOS) path describing a device-specific spatially

correlated multipath environment.

The main contribution of this paper is a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the uplink rate of

an LIS-based large antenna-array system that considers a practical LIS environment and its

limitations. In this regard, we assume that each device uses as desired surface that maps to a

limited area of the entire LIS that we refer to as an LIS unit. Further, the MF procedure across the

surface is assumed to be performed under realistic channel estimation errors. The interference

channels are modeled as spatially correlated Rician fading channels, composed of a deterministic

LOS path and stochastic NLOS path according to the distance between the interfering device

4

and the target LIS unit. We then analyze the uplink ergodic rate of each device in presence of

a large number of antennas and devices, and derive an asymptotic ergodic rate of LIS. This

approximation allows the estimation of the uplink ergodic rate accurately without the need for

extensive simulations, and then it enables to obtain optimal operating parameters such as an

optimal size of an LIS unit. The asymptotic variance of the uplink rate is also derived in order

to verify the occurrence of channel hardening effect theoretically, that is a particularly important

phenomenon in large antenna-array systems such as massive MIMO and LIS [15]. Given that the

channel hardening determines several practical implications such as system reliability, latency,

and scheduling diversity, we analyze the occurrence of the channel hardening effect in an LIS-

based system and compare it to a massive MIMO system. On the basis of the asymptotic ergodic

rate and variance, the performance bound of an LIS-based system is obtained by using a scaling

law for the uplink signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). We then show a particular

operating characteristic of LIS whereby noise, estimation errors, and NLOS interference become

negligible compared to LOS interference from other devices. Our simulations show that LIS can

be a promising technology beyond massive MIMO given that LIS can provide a comparable

rate to massive MIMO, with improved reliability and a significantly reduced area for antenna

deployment.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the LIS-based system model.

Section III describes the asymptotic analysis of the uplink data rate and Section IV describes the

channel hardening effect and performance bound based on the results in Section III. Simulation

results are provided in Section V to support and verify the analyses, and Section VI concludes

the paper.

Notations: Throughout this paper, boldface upper- and lower-case symbols represent matrices

2

and vectors respectively, and I M denotes a size-M identity matrix. µX and σX denote the mean

and variance of a random variable X, respectively. The conjugate, transpose, and Hermitian

transpose operators are denoted by (·)∗ , (·)T , and (·)H , respectively. The norm of a vector a is

denoted by |a|. E [·], Var [·], and Cov [·] denote expectation, variance, and covariance operators,

respectively. O (·) and ⊗ and denote the big O notation and the Kronecker product. The operators

Re (·) take the real part. CN (m, σ 2 ) denotes a complex Gaussian distribution with mean m and

variance σ 2 .

5

Fig. 1. Illustrative system model of the considered uplink LIS having multiple LIS units and serving K users.

devices, as shown in Fig. 1. The LIS is located in a two-dimensional space along the xy-plane

at z = 0 in Cartesian coordinates. We define the notion of an LIS unit which corresponds to a

subarea of the entire LIS and has a square shape with an area limited to 2L × 2L centered on the

(x, y) coordinates of the corresponding device. Each LIS unit has a large number of antennas,

M, distributed on its surface with antenna spacing of ∆L in a rectangular lattice form. Each user

device communicates with its corresponding LIS unit and controls the transmission power toward

the center of the LIS unit according to target signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), in order to avoid the

near-far problem. We define the location of device k as (xk , yk , zk ). Then, antenna m of LIS unit

k will be located at (xLIS LIS LIS LIS

km , ykm , 0) where xkm ∈ [xk − L, xk + L] and ykm ∈ [yk − L, yk + L].

In contrast to the works in [2] and [3], that consider an infinite L, we consider a finite L which

is a more practical assumption.

Depending on the location of the device, LIS units may overlap which, in turn, can seriously

degrade the performance. To overcome this problem, we assume that the LIS allocates orthogonal

resources among devices with similar (x, y) coordinates using an appropriate resource allocation

and scheduling scheme. Therefore, we assume that each device communicates with a non-

6

The desired channel hkk ∈ CM between device k and LIS unit k is assumed to be a LOS

path. Then, hkk can be given by:

L L

T

hkk = βkk1 hkk1 , . . . , βkkM hkkM , (1)

L L L

where βkkm = αkkm lkkm denotes a LOS channel gain between device k and antenna m of LIS

√

unit k. Here, aLkkm = cos θkkm denotes the antenna gain and θkkm is the angle-of-arrival between

device k and antenna m of LIS unit k. Since device k has a distance of zk from the center of its

target LIS unit, we obtain cos θkkm = zk /dkkm, where dkkm denotes the distance between device

k and antenna m of LIS unit k, given by

q

2 LIS 2

dkkm = (xk − xLIS 2

km ) + (yk − ykm ) + zk .

L

p

Also, lkkm = 1/ 4πd2kkm is the free space path loss attenuation, and hkkm is the LOS channel

state between device k and antenna m of LIS unit k, obtained as follows [17]:

where λ denotes the wavelength of a signal. Further, hjk ∈ CM is the interference channel

between device j and LIS unit k, expressed as a combination of LOS and NLOS:

r s

κjk 1

hjk = hLjk + hNL , (2)

κjk + 1 κjk + 1 jk

where κjk is the Rician factor between device j and LIS unit k. Here, hLjk ∈ CM is the

deterministic LOS component from device j to LIS unit k given by:

L T

hLjk = βj1 L

hjk1, . . . , βjM hjkM ,

L L L

where βjm = αjkm ljkm and hjkm are LOS channel gain and state, respectively, between device

j and antenna m of LIS unit k. hNL

jk is the correlated NLOS component defined as:

1/2

hNL

jk = Rjk g jk ,

where Rjk ∈ CM ×P is the deterministic correlation matrix from device j to LIS unit k and

g jk = [gjk1, . . . , gjkP ]T ∼ CN (0, I P ) is an independent fast-fading channel vector. Here, P

7

represents the number of dominant paths among all NLOS paths and is related to the amount

of scattering in the wireless channel environment [18]. Since we consider an LIS located in a

two-dimensional space along the xy-plane, it can be modeled as a uniform planar array (UPA)

[20]. Given a UPA model, Rjk is obtained as follows:

1/2

Rjk = lNL jk D jk , (3)

NL

D jk = αjk1 d φvjk1, φhjk1 , . . . , αjkP

NL

d φvjkP , φhjkP ,

where lNL

jk = diag l NL

jk1 . . . , l NL

jkM is a diagonal matrix including the path loss attenuation factors

NL −β /2

ljkm = djkmPL with a path loss exponent βPL . Here, d φvjkp, φhjkp ∈ CM represents NLOS path

p at given angles of φvjkp, φhjkp . By using a UPA model, d φvjkp , φhjkp will be given by:

1

d φvjkp, φhjkp = √ dv φvjkp ⊗ dh φhjkp , (4)

M

h √ iT

dv φvjkp = 1, ej λ φjkp , · · · , ej λ ( M−1)φjkp ,

2π∆L v 2π∆L v

h √ iT

dh φhjkp = 1, ej λ φjkp , · · · , ej λ ( M −1)φjkp ,

2π∆L h 2π∆L h

v

and φhjkp = sin θjkp

h h

cos θjkp when the elevation and azimuth angles of path

v h NL

p between device j and LIS unit k are θjkp and θjkp , respectively [21]. αjkp indicates the antenna

q

gain of path p which can be obtained by αjkpNL

= cos θjkp v h

cos θjkp where θjkp ∈ − π2 , π2 and

v h

θjkp ∈ θjkp , θjkp .

The uplink signal received from all devices at LIS unit k is expressed using (1) and (2), as

follows:

K

X

√ √

yk = ρk hkk xk + ρj hjk xj + nk ,

j6=k

where xk and xj are uplink transmit signals of devices k and j, respectively, assumed as

independent Gaussian variables with zero means and unit variances. Further, ρk and ρj are

the uplink transmit SNRs of devices k and j, respectively, and nk ∈ CM ∼ CN (0, I M ) is the

noise vector. We consider a linear receiver f H

k for signal detection. Then, the received signal at

K

X

√ √

fH

k yk = ρk f H

k hkk xk + ρj f H H

k hjk xj + f k nk . (5)

j6=k

8

We consider an MF receiver defined by f k = ĥkk where ĥkk is the estimated channel of hkk .

In the case of perfect channel estimation, f k = hkk . Under the imperfect CSI results from an

least square estimator, f k can be given as follows [22]

r

τ2

f k = ĥkk = hkk + ek , (6)

1 − τ2

L L

T

where parameter τk ∈ [0, 1] represents the imperfectness of ĥkk . ek = βk1 ek1 , ..., βkM ekM ∈

CM denotes the estimation error vector uncorrelated with hkk and nk . The elements of the

estimation error vector has independent random variables of ekm ∼ CN (0, 1). Using (5) and

(6), we have the received SINR at LIS unit k as follows:

ρk (1 − τk2 ) |hkk |4

γk = p 2 p 2 ,

2 P

K

H H

ρk τk2 |eH

k hkk | + ρj 1 − τk2 hkk hjk + τk eH

k hjk + 1 − τk2 hkk + τk eH

k

j6=k

ρk Sk (1 − τk2 )

γk = , (7)

Ik

where

Sk = |hkk |4 , ∀k (8)

K

X

Ik = ρk τk2 Xk + ρj Yjk + Zk , ∀k (9)

j6=k

and

2

Xk = eH

k hkk , ∀k (10)

q 2

Yjk = 1 − τk hkk hjk + τk ek hjk , ∀j, k

2 H H

(11)

q 2

2 H H

Zk = 1 − τk hkk + τk ek , ∀k. (12)

Rk = log (1 + γk ) . (13)

Given this uplink data rate, we will analyze the moments of mutual information asymptotically

as M and K increase without bounds.

9

antennas that are densely distributed on a contiguous LIS and each LIS unit occupies a subarea

of the LIS with M antennas. Given a massive number of IoT devices will be connected via

wireless communication systems in the near future [6], we present an asymptotic analysis of

the data rate in an LIS-based system as M and K increase. In conventional massive MIMO

systems, there is a relationship between M and K such that M/K ≥ 1 and M/K is constant

as in [18] and [19]. In contrast, LIS enables wireless communications without any constraint on

the relationship between M and K.

From (8), we can describe the desired signal power, Sk , as

M

!2 M

!2

X 2

X 2

Sk = |hkk |4 = β L hkkm

km = L

βkm .

m m

PM L

2

m βkm is the summation of the desired signal power received at LIS unit k, and this

is equivalent to the summation of the power received within the ranges of −L ≤ x ≤ L

and −L ≤ y ≤ L when the signal is transmitted from the location of (0, 0, zk ) in Cartesian

coordinates [2]. Then, Sk converges as Sk − S̄k2 −−−−→ 0 where we define

M →∞

1 zk

¨

S̄k = 2 3 dxdy

4π∆L −L≤(x,y)≤L (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 2

! k

2

1 L pk

= 2

tan−1 p = , ∀k

π∆L zk 2L2 + zk2 π∆L2

L 2

where pk = tan −1 √ 2 2 . Then, we have

zk 2L +zk

M →∞

p2k

where p̄k = π 2 ∆L4

. (14) shows that Sk converges to a constant value, p̄k , depending on zk and

L. Therefore, the mean and variance of Rk can be readily derived, as follows.

Corollary 1. The mean and variance of Rk can be respectively approximated as follows:

σγ2k

µRk ≈ log (1 + µγk ) − , (15)

2(1 + µγk )2

σγ2k σγ4k

σR2 k ≈ − , (16)

(1 + µγk )2 4(1 + µγk )4

10

where µγk and σγ2k represent the mean and variance of the uplink SINR, respectively, which are

likewise approximated as

1 σI2k

µγk ≈ ρk Sk 1 − τk2 + , (17)

µIk µ3Ik

σI2k

2 2

σI4k

σγ2k 2 2

≈ ρk Sk 1 − τk − 6 , (18)

µ4Ik µI k

Proof: From [23], the mean of a function f for a random variable X using Taylor expansions

can be approximated by

f ′′ (µX ) 2

E [f (X)] ≈ f (µX ) + σX .

2

The variance of a function f for a random variable X can be approximated as

2 2 (f ′′ (µX ))2 σX

4

Var [f (X)] ≈ (f ′ (µX )) σX − .

4

Since Sk is constant, (17) and (18) can be obtained when f (Ik ) = ρk Sk (1 − τk2 ) /Ik from (7).

Similarly, (15) and (16) can be obtained when f (γk ) = log (1 + γk ) from (13).

Corollary 1 shows that both the mean and variance of the uplink rate are determined exclusively

by a random variable Ik . Based on the results from Corollary 1, the mean and variance of Ik

will be analyzed asymptotically.

A. Asymptotic Analysis of Rk

We provide an asymptotic analysis of uplink data rate, Rk , by following three steps. Given

that Rk exclusively depends on a random variable Ik , we first analyze the moments of random

variables Xk , Yjk , and Zk from (9). We then asymptotically obtain the asymptotic moments of

Ik given the covariances between Xk , Yjk , and Zk . We finally derive asymptotic moments of Rk

from Corollary 1 using the derived asymptotic moments of Ik .

In order to obtain the moments of Ik , we first derive the following lemmas from the asymptotic

a.s.

analyses. Here, “−−→” denotes almost sure convergence.

PM L

4 a.s. 2

Lemma 1. The mean and variance of Xk follow µXk − m βkm −−→ 0 and σX −

P 4 2 a.s.

k

M L

m βkm −−→ 0, respectively.

Proof: The detailed proof is presented in Appendix A.

Lemma 2. The mean and variance of Yjk follow µYjk − µ̄Yjk −−−−→ 0 and σY2jk − σ̄Y2jk −−−−→ 0,

M →∞ M →∞

respectively, where µ̄Yjk and σ̄Y2jk are given in (34) and (35), respectively.

11

PM L

2 a.s.

Lemma 3. The mean and variance of Zk follow µZk − m βkm −−→ 0 and σZ2 k −

P 4 a.s.

τk2 (2 − τk2 ) M L

m βkm −−→ 0, respectively.

Proof: The detailed proof is presented in Appendix C.

PM L 2 √

m βkm in Lemma 3 can be asymptotically obtained by p̄k using (14). Similarly,

PM L 4

m βkm in Lemma 1 and 3 can be obtained by

M

X

L

4

βkm − q̄k −−−−→ 0,

M →∞

m

qk

where q̄k = 16π 2 ∆L2

and qk is given by

zk2

¨

qk = 3 dxdy

−L≤(x,y)≤L (x2 + y 2 + zk2 )

!

L2 L (2L2 + 3zk2 ) L

= 2 2 2 2

+ 3/2

tan−1 p .

(L + zk ) (2L + zk ) (zk (L + zk ))

2 2 2 L2 + zk2

Next, we asymptotically derive the covariances between Xk , Yjk , and Zk , and then the

asymptotic mean and variance of Ik are obtained by the following lemma.

Lemma 4. The mean and variance of Ik follow µIk − µ̄Ik −−−−→ 0 and σI2k − σ̄I2k −−−−−→ 0,

M →∞ M,K→∞

respectively, where µ¯Ik and σ̄I2k are given as

K

X √

µ̄Ik = ρk τk2 q̄k + ρj µ̄Yjk + p̄k ,

j6=k

K

X K

X

σ̄I2k = ρ2k τk4 q̄k2 + τk2 2 − τk2 q̄k + ρ2j σ̄Y2jk + ρi ρj ω̄ijk ,

j6=k i,j6=k:i6=j

Proof: The detailed proof is presented in Appendix D.

Lemma 4 shows that µ̄Ik and σ̄I2k are deterministic values depending on locations of the devices

and the correlation matrices. By respectively replacing µIk and σI2k in (17) and (18) with µ̄Ik

and σ̄I2k from Lemma 4, we obtain the mean and variance of the asymptotic uplink SINR. Let

us define the mean and variance of the asymptotic uplink SINR of device k as µ̄γk and σ̄γ2k ,

respectively, then µ̄γk and σ̄γ2k are also deterministic values. Therefore, we can approximate the

mean and variance of Rk as follows.

12

Theorem 1. The mean and variance of Rk follow µRk −µ̄Rk −−−−→ 0 and σR2 k −σ̄R2 k −−−−−→ 0,

M →∞ M,K→∞

where µ̄Rk and σ̄R2 k are

σ̄γ2k

µ̄Rk = log (1 + µ̄γk ) − , (19)

2(1 + µ̄γk )2

σ̄γ2k σ̄γ4k

σ̄R2 k = − . (20)

(1 + µ̄γk )2 4(1 + µ̄γk )4

We refer to µ̄Rk and σ̄R2 k as the asymptotic mean and variance of Rk , respectively.

Given deterministic values of µ̄γk and σ̄γ2k , Theorem 1 shows that the mean and variance

of uplink data rate in an LIS-based large antenna-array system can be obtained based on

deterministic values such as the locations of the devices and the correlation matrices. Then,

we can evaluate the performance of an LIS-based system in terms of ergodic rate, reliability,

and scheduling diversity, without extensive simulations. In particular, we can easily estimate the

ergodic rate from (19), and verify system reliability and the scheduling diversity gain from (20).

Furthermore, the results from Theorem 1 will be in close agreement with the moments of mutual

information resulting from an actual LIS-based system as the number of devices and antennas

increase.

The channel hardening effect is an important feature in large antenna-array systems whereby

the variance of mutual information shrinks as the number of antennas grows [15]. Since a

wireless system’s reliability and scheduling diversity depend on the fluctuations of the mutual

information, it is important to estimate the fluctuations that can be expected in a given large

antenna-array systems such as an LIS. Given the importance of the channel hardening effect,

next, we verify its occurrence in an LIS-based large antenna-array system and we then derive

the performance bound of the ergodic rate.

Since M = (2L/∆L)2 , (7) is given by using (14) as

p2

ρk (1 − τk2 ) L4kπ2

γ̄k = , (21)

16I¯k /M 2

where γ̄k denotes the asymptotic value of γk and I¯k denotes a random variable with a mean and

variance of µ̄Ik and σ̄I2k from Lemma 4, respectively. With M = (2L/∆L)2 , µ̄Ik and σ̄I2k are

13

represented by

K

Mρk τk2 qk Mpk X

µ̄Ik = + + ρj µ̄Yjk , (22)

64π 2 L2 4πL2 j6=k

K K

M 2 ρ2k τk4 qk2 Mτk2 qk (2 − τk2 ) X 2 2 X

σ̄I2k = + + ρj σ̄Yjk + ρi ρj ω̄ijk , (23)

4096π 4L4 64π 2 L2 j6=k i,j6=k:i6=j

We can observe in (21) that the mean and variance of γ̄k are determined by µ̄Ik /M 2 and σ̄I2k /M 4 ,

respectively. Lemma 5 is used to determine the scaling laws of µ̄Ik /M 2 and σ̄I2k /M 4 according

to M, as discussed in [24].

Lemma 5. According to the scaling laws for M, the mean and variance of I¯k /M 2 follow

µ̄Ik /M 2 − µ̂Ik −−−−→ 0 and σ̄I2k /M 4 −−−−→ 0, respectively, where

M →∞ M →∞

XK

ρj κjk (1 − τk2 ) H L 2

µ̂Ik = h h .

j6=k

M 2 (1 + κjk ) kk jk

P

K P

K

ρ2j σ̄Y2jk + ρi ρj ω̄ijk

σ̄I2k ρ2k τk4 qk2 τk2 qk (2 − τk2 ) j6=k i,j6=k:i6=j

= + + . (24)

M4 4096π 4 L4 M 2 64π 2 L2 M 3 M4

ρ2 τ 4 q 2 τk2 qk (2−τk2 )

From the scaling laws for M, 4096πk 4kL4kM 2 and 64π 2 L2 M 3 in (24) converge to zero as M goes to

!2 2

σ̄Y2jk sLjk + sN1 N2

jk + sjk 2µLjk sLjk + sN1 N2

jk + sjk

= + . (25)

M4 M2 M4

In order to verify the scaling law of (25), we determine the scaling laws of sLjk , sN1 N2

jk , sjk , and

L 2 L 2

µ according to M. From (29), sL is calculated by the sum of β L βjm over all m where

jk jk km

m = 1, . . . , M. Consequently, sLjk

increases with O(M) as M → ∞. From (30), sN1 jk is calculated

H 2

by the sum of hkk r jkp over all p where p = 1, . . . , P . Given that r jkp is a correlation vector

√

normalized by M from (4) and hH N1

kk r jkp is calculated by the sum of M elements, sjk increases

NL L NL 2

with O(M) as M → ∞. From (33), sN2 jk is calculated by the sum of αjkp βkm ljkm /M for all

L

m and p. Thus, sN2 H L

jk follows O(1) as M → ∞. From (28), µjk is obtained from hkk hjk which

2

is calculated by the sum of M elements. Therefore µLjk increases with O(M 2 ) as M → ∞.

14

PK

Hence, (25) goes to zero as M → ∞ and we have ρ2j σ̄Y2jk /M 4 −−−−→ 0 2 . Similarly, ω̄ij

j6=k

M →∞

P

from (38) increases with O(M 3 ) as M → ∞. Then, we have K 4

i,j6=k:i6=j ρi ρj ω̄ijk /M −−−−→ 0

M →∞

and (24) eventually converges to zero as M → ∞.

From (22), µ̄Ik /M 2 is obtained by

X ρj µ̄Yjk K

µ̄Ik ρk τk2 qk pk

= + + . (26)

M2 64π 2 L2 M 4πL2 M M2

j6=k

ρk τk2 qk pk

From the scaling laws for M, 64π 2 L2 M

and 4πL2 M

in (26) converge to zero as M → ∞. µ̄Yjk /M 2

in (26) is presented by using (34) as

L 2

µ̄Yjk sLjk + sN1 + s N2

+ µ

jk jk jk

= .

M2 M2

L 2

From the scaling laws of sLjk , sN1 , s N2

, and µ according to M, we have

jk jk jk

L 2

µ̄Yjk µ

jk

− −−−−→ 0.

M2 M 2 M →∞

Therefore, (26) is asymptotically obtained as

2

µ̄Ik X ρj µLjk

K

− −−−−→ 0,

M 2 j6=k M 2 M →∞

Lemma 5 shows that I¯k /M 2 does not converge to a random variable, but rather to a constant

without any variance as M increases. Therefore, we can prove the following result related to the

occurrence of the channel hardening effect and the performance bound of the uplink data rate.

Theorem 2. The asymptotic variance of Rk goes to zero as M → ∞, and an asymptotic

bound of the uplink data rate, µ̂Rk , is given by

p2k ρk (1 − τk2 )

µ̂Rk = log 1 + .

16L4 π 2 µ̂Ik

Proof: From Lemma 5, I¯k /M 2 converges on a constant value of µ̂Ik as M → ∞. Then, γ̄k

from (21) also converges on a constant value without any variance as M → ∞, as given by

p2k ρk (1 − τk2 )

γ̄k − −−−−→ 0.

16L4 π 2 µ̂Ik M →∞

2

If the number of devices that dominantly transmits interference signals to a target LIS unit is as large as M , it will not

converge to 0. However, there are actually far fewer such devices than M because the minimum distance of the (x, y) coordinates

between adjacent devices is considered under the assumption that the LIS units do not overlap. Therefore, we assume that this

value always converges to 0.

15

TABLE I

S IMULATION PARAMETERS

Parameter Value

Minimum distance 1m

between LIS & device

Therefore, the asymptotic uplink data rate, R̄k , converges in distribution to a constant value, as

given by

p2k ρk (1 − τk2 )

R̄k − log 1 + −−−−→ 0.

16L4 π 2 µ̂Ik M →∞

p2k ρk (1 − τk2 )

µ̄Rk − log 1 + −−−−→ 0,

16L4 π 2 µ̂Ik M →∞

σ̄R2 k −−−−−→ 0,

M,K→∞

Theorem 2 shows that an LIS-based large antenna-array system is subject to the channel

hardening effect resulting in several practical implications. First, an LIS-based system lacks

scheduling diversity given that the fluctuations of the mutual information are small. Further, an

LIS offers an improved reliability insofar as it has a nearly deterministic data rate. Also, an

LIS provides a low latency of having a deterministic data rate. Furthermore, Theorem 2 shows

that the ergodic rate of an LIS converges to the asymptotic bound µ̂Rk as M increases. We can

2

observe that µ̂R is a function of µ̂I which depends exclusively on hH hL . Therefore, the

k k kk jk

asymptotic bound is only affected by the interference signals through the LOS path from other

devices. Noise and interference from estimation errors and the NLOS path become negligible

16

10

dm=8L

9

7

dm=4L

dm=2L

5

Simulation

Estimation

Asymptotic bound

3

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Number of antennas on each LIS unit (M)

Fig. 2. Ergodic rates of an LIS-based system with LOS interference as a function of the number of antennas on the LIS unit.

compared to LOS interference as M increases. If all of the interference is generated from the

NLOS path, the asymptotic bound goes to infinity as M increases.

In this section, simulation results for the uplink rate in an LIS-based large antenna-array system

are presented under a practical-sized environment with finite M and K. Further, the asymptotic

analyses are compared with the numerical results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations (all

simulations are statistically averaged over a large number of independent runs). The simulation

parameters are provided in Table I and we do not consider shadowing given that the desired

channel of LIS can be modeled as a perfect LOS.

In Figs. 2 and 3, Theorems 1 and 2 are verified in the following scenario. The devices are

located at z = 1 in parallel with the LIS on a two-dimensional plane. The devices are located in

the ranges of −10 ≤ x ≤ 10 and −10 ≤ y ≤ 10 (in meters). The distance between the adjacent

devices is set equally to dm and the target device is located at (0, 0, 1).

Figs. 2 and 3 compare the ergodic rates resulting from the simulations to the estimations from

17

13

dm=8L

11 dm=4L

dm=2L

9

Simulation

Estimation

5

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Number of antennas on each LIS unit (M)

Fig. 3. Ergodic rates of an LIS-based system with NLOS interference as a function of the number of antennas on the LIS unit.

Theorem 1 as M increases. In Fig. 2, we assume that every interference signal from the other

devices is generated entirely from the LOS path and in Fig. 3, it is generated entirely from the

NLOS path. As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the asymptotic mean values derived from Theorem 1

are close to the results of our simulations over the entire range of M. We can also observe from

Fig. 2 that the ergodic rate converges to the asymptotic bound obtained from Theorem 2 as M

increases. However, in Fig. 3, the ergodic rate goes to infinity as M increases without bound. As

proved in Theorem 2, we can see that only the interference stemming from a LOS path affects

the ergodic rate of an LIS-based system.

In Figs. 4–8, we consider that the devices are uniformly distributed within a three-dimensional

space. In particular, these figures are generated for a scenario in which we randomly and

uniformly deploy the devices in a 4 m× 4 m × 2 m room. Based on the 3GPP model in

[16], the existence of a LOS path depends on the distance from the transmitter and receiver. The

probability of LOS is then given as follows:

(d − d ) /d , 0 < d < d ,

LOS C jk C jk C

Pjk =

0, djk > dC ,

18

6.5

K=20

5.5

4.5

K=50

K=80

3.5

Simulation

Estimation

Asymptotic bound

2.5

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Number of antennas on each LIS unit (M)

Fig. 4. Ergodic rates of an LIS-based system with randomly located devices as a function of the number of antennas on the

LIS unit.

where djk is the distance in meters between device j and the center of LIS unit k, and dC denotes

a cutoff point, which is typically set to 300 m in a cellular environment [16]. Since the antenna

of a BS in a cellular system is located at a high altitude, dC takes a large value such as 300 m.

However, in an LIS environment, a relatively smaller dC value is more reasonable. In Figs. 4–8,

dC = 10 m is assumed. If a LOS path occurs, the Rician factor, κjk , is calculated according to

djk as per in Table I.

Figs. 4 and 5 show the ergodic rate and variance of the rate, respectively, as a function of

M. The asymptotic mean and variance derived from Theorem 1 are close to the results of our

simulations and the accuracy improves as M increases. In Fig. 4, the asymptotic means closely

approximate the results of the simulations regardless of K, whereas the asymptotic variances

approach the results of the simulations as K increases as shown in Fig. 5. Based on Theorem

1, the gap between the actual mean and asymptotic mean approaches zero as M increase, while

the gap between the actual variance and asymptotic variance approaches zero as both M and K

increase. Fig. 4 also shows that the ergodic rate gradually converges to the asymptotic bound

19

0.14

Simulation

0.12 Estimation

0.08

K=20

0.04

K=80 K=50

0

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Number of antennas on each LIS unit (M)

Fig. 5. Variances of uplink rates of an LIS-based system with randomly located devices as a function of the number of antennas

on the LIS unit.

obtained from Theorem 2. Given that the interference power increases as K increases, the ergodic

rate gradually decreases as K increases.

Fig. 5 shows the channel hardening effect whereby the rate variance gradually converges

to zero as M increases. Moreover, the rate variance gradually decreases as K increases for a

fixed M. From the scaling laws of µ̄Ik and σ̄I2k in Lemma 4, µ̄Ik and σ̄I2k follow O (K) and

O (K 2 ), respectively. Then, σ̄R2 k follows O (1/K 2 ) from (16)–(18). Therefore, σ̄R2 k decreases as

K increases.

In Figs. 6 and 7, we compare the performances of an LIS-based large antenna-array system

and a massive MIMO system. We consider a multi-user massive MIMO system in which an MF

is used for uplink signal detection. Since massive MIMO systems typically operate via far-field

communications, we assume that every wireless signal is from an NLOS path and the distance

from a device to all BS antennas is taken as equal [18]. For a massive MIMO system with a

uniform linear array (ULA), the wireless channels from the NLOS path can be modeled using

20

8

K=10

4

K=20

K=30

2

LIS (Simulation)

LIS (Estimation)

Massive MIMO

0

0 1000 2000 3000 3600

Number of antennas (M)

Fig. 6. Performance comparison between the ergodic rates of an LIS-based system and a massive MIMO system as a function

of the number of antennas.

h

1 h j 2πν

sin θ h j 2πν

(M −1) sin θ h

iT

d θjkp =√ 1, e λ jkp , ··· e λ jkp ,

M

which is then applied to (4). Here, ν is the antenna spacing of a massive MIMO system assuming

ν = λ/2. We also assume a single BS with M antennas and P = M/2, as in [18], and the same

device distribution is considered as in the case of the LIS. For a fair comparison, we assume

that the antenna gain is always equal to 1 in both cases (i.e., with massive MIMO and the LIS).

Fig. 6 compares the ergodic rates of an LIS-based large antenna-array system and a massive

MIMO system as M increases. This figure shows that the ergodic rates resulting from LIS

are higher than those resulting from massive MIMO in the range of practical-sized M. The

performance gap decreases as M increases because the interference signal from the NLOS path

becomes negligible, and eventually the massive MIMO system becomes an interference-free

environment. When K = 30, an LIS shows a 3-fold increase in the ergodic rate compared to

massive MIMO at M = 100, but two systems achieve a nearly equal ergodic rate at M = 3600.

However, the increase of M indicates an increase in the physical area for deploying the massive

21

0.14

0.12 LIS

Massive MIMO

K=20

Variance of data rate

0.09

K=50

0.06

K=80

0.03

0

0 1000 2000 3000

Number of antennas (M)

Fig. 7. Performance comparison between variances of uplink rates resulting from an LIS-based system and a massive MIMO

system as a function of the number of antennas.

antennas, whereas the physical area of the LIS remains constant at 2L × 2L. For example, the

ergodic rates resulting from the LIS and the massive MIMO systems are almost equal when

K = 30 and M = 3600. The total physical length of the massive MIMO antennas is equal to

180 m under the assumption of a ULA with λ/2-spacing. Even if we consider a two-dimensional

antenna deployment, a 60×60 antenna-array occupies an area of roughly 9 m2 . However, the LIS

unit only occupies an area of 0.25 m2 . An interference-free MIMO environment is practically

impossible given that the size of its array would have to be tremendous. This clearly shows the

advantages of an LIS for space-intensive wireless communication.

Fig. 7 compares the variances of uplink rates resulting from an LIS-based large antenna-array

system and a massive MIMO system as M increases. In Fig. 7, we plot the rate variance of

LIS using the estimated value obtained from Theorem 1. We can observe that the rate variance

of massive MIMO increases as M increases and then eventually converge to constant value

exemplifying the so-called reduced channel hardening effect [15]. However, the rate variance of

LIS converges to zero as M increases due to the channel hardening effect. Therefore, an LIS

22

5.5

K=5

4.5

K=10

Ergodic rate (bps/Hz)

3.5 K=20

Optimal point

2.5

LIS (Simulation)

LIS (Estimation)

1.5

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

L (m)

has improved reliability having a deterministic rate and it results in lower latency compared to

a massive MIMO system.

Fig. 8 shows the ergodic rates resulting from an LIS-based large antenna-array system as a

function of L when M = 100. In the LIS, the maximum SINR is achieved at the central antenna

of the LIS unit and the SINR gradually decreases as the antenna moves from the center to the

edge. Thus, the ergodic rate increases as L increases when L is small and decreases when L

exceeds some threshold point. As shown in Fig. 8, the maximum ergodic rates can be achieved

through optimal L values. Furthermore, an optimal L can be obtained numerically using the

asymptotic analysis from Theorem 1 as given by L = 0.4 in Fig. 8.

VI. C ONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we have asymptotically analyzed the uplink data rate of an LIS-based large

antenna-array system. We have derived the asymptotic moments of mutual information by

considering a practical LIS environment in which a large LIS can be divided into smaller LIS

units, each of which having a limited area. We have studied the uplink rate in presence of

23

limitations such as imperfect channel estimation and interference that is generated by device-

specific spatially correlated Rician fading. We have shown that our analyses can accurately

determine the performance of an LIS analytically, without the need for extensive simulations.

Furthermore, we have demonstrated that a channel hardening effect will occur in an LIS-based

system. We have also derived the asymptotic bound of the uplink data rate and shown that

noise and interference from channel estimation errors and the NLOS path become negligible

as M increases. The simulation results have shown that the results of our asymptotic analyses

agree with those resulting from extensive simulations, and the ergodic rate and the variance

of rate respectively converge to the derived asymptotic bound and zero as M and K increase.

Moreover, we have observed that an LIS enables reliable and space-intensive communication,

which renders it a promising technology beyond massive MIMO systems. We expect that our

asymptotic analyses will be invaluable to predict the theoretical performance of an LIS-based

large antenna-array system when conducting system-level simulations and developing prototypes.

A PPENDIX A

P ROOF OF L EMMA 1

H 2

Given the definition of Xk = ek hkk from (10), we have

2

XM

L 2 ∗

Xk = βkm ekm hkkm .

m

ekm = β L 2 e∗ hkkm ∀k, m. Then, X

Let us define X ekm ∼ CN 0, β L 4 and Xk can be

km km km

described as follows:

P

M

L

4

βkm

m

Xk ∼ χ22 ,

2

where χ2k denotes the chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, which completes the

proof.

A PPENDIX B

P ROOF OF L EMMA 2

p 2

2 H H

Given the definition of Yjk = 1 − τk hkk hjk + τk ek hjk from (11), we have

2 2

Yjk = ΣYjk = YjkL + YjkN1 + YjkN2 ,

24

r !

q M

X

κ jk

YjkL = 1 − τk2 hH L

kk hjk + τk

L

βkm L ∗

βjm ekm hjkm , ∀j, k

κjk + 1 m

s q

N1 1 2 H 1/2

Yjk = 1 − τk hkk Rjk g jk

κjk + 1

s

P

1 − τk2 X H

= h r jkpgjkp , ∀j, k

κjk + 1 p kk

s

1

N2 H 1/2

Yjk = τk ek Rjk g jk

κjk + 1

s

M,P

τk2 X L

= β rjkmp e∗km gjkp, ∀j, k (27)

κjk + 1 m,p km

1/2

where Rjk = [r jk1, . . . , rjkP ] and r jkp = [rjk1p , . . . , rjkM p]T ∀j, k, p. Given that ekm , gjkp, and

ekm gjkp are independent of each other, YjkL , YjkN1 , and YjkN2 are independent random variables.

Further, ekm and gjkp are standard complex Gaussian random variables respectively independent

across m and p, thus YjkL and YjkN1 follow complex Gaussian distributions:

YjkL ∼ CN µLjk , sLjk ,

YjkN1 ∼ CN 0, sN1

jk ,

where

s

κjk (1 − τk2 ) H L

µLjk = hkk hjk , (28)

κjk + 1

M

κjk τk2 X L L 2

sLjk = βkm βjm , (29)

κjk + 1 m

P

1 − τk2 X H 2

sN1

jk = hkk rjkp . (30)

κjk + 1 p

PM L 2

P 2

Here, hH L

kk hjk in (28), m

L

βkm βjm in (29), and Pp hHkk r jkp

in (30) are deterministic values

depending on the locations of the devices and the correlation matrices.

In order to obtain a random variable YjkN2 , we use the law of large numbers to approximate

P

(27) for a large M. M L ∗

m βkm rjkmp ekm gjkp in (27) is thus expressed as follows:

M

X M

X

L NL L NL

βkm rjkmp e∗km gjkp = αjkp βkm ljkm djkmpe∗km gjkp ,

m m

25

P

where djkmp is element m of d φvjkp, φhjkp . We define Yejkp = M L NL

m βkm ljkm djkmp yjkmp ∀j, k, p

where yjkmp = e∗ gjkp . Then, the random variable Yejkp follows Corollary 2.

km

Corollary 2. On the basis of the Lyapunov central limit theorem (CLT) [25], a random variable

Yejkp asymptotically follows a complex Gaussian distribution:

s

M d

PM L NL 2 Yejkp − −−−→ CN (0, 1) ,

M →∞

m βkm ljkm

d

where “ −−−−→” denotes the convergence in distribution.

M →∞

Proof: In order to follow the Lyapunov CLT, yjkmp should be independent random variable

across m and the following Lyapunov’s condition should be satisfied for some δ > 0 [25]:

M

1 X h 2+δ i

lim E βkm ljkm djkmpyjkmp − µm

L NL

= 0, (31)

M →∞ s2+δ

M m

PM

where s2M = m

2

σm 2

, and µm and σm are the mean and variance of the random variable

L NL

βkm ljkm djkmpyjkmp , respectively. Here, yjkmp = e∗km gjkp is a random variable product of two

independent random variables. Since ekm is an independent random variable across m and

independent with gjkp, {yjk1p , ..., yjkM p} is a sequence of independent random variables, each

L NL 2

with zero mean and unit variance. Then, we can obtain µm = 0 and σm 2

= βkm ljkm |djkmp|2 =

L NL 2

βkm ljkm /M ∀m. We consider δ = 2, such that (31) is obtained as follows:

P

M

L NL 4

P

M

L NL 4

βkm ljkm E |yjkmp|4 4 βkm ljkm

m

lim M 2 = lim m

M →∞ P L NL 2 (a) M →∞ PM

L NL 2

2

βkm ljkm βkm ljkm

m m

4ᾱjk

= lim , (32)

M →∞ M α̃2

jk

P L NL 4

P L NL 2

where we define ᾱjk = M

m βkm ljkm /M and α̃jk = M m βkm l jkm /M ∀j, k. (a) results from

4

E |yjkmp | = 4 ∀m since yjkmp is product of two independent random variables that follow an

L NL

identical standard complex Gaussian distribution. Given that 0 < βkm ≤ 1 and 0 < ljkm ≤ 1, we

have 0 < ᾱjk ≤ 1 and 0 < α̃jk ≤ 1. Therefore, (32) goes to zero, which completes the proof.

d

Based on Corollary 2, we have √1N2 YjkN2 −−−−→ CN (0, 1), where

sjk M →∞

M,P

τk2 X NL L NL 2

sN2

jk = α β l /M. (33)

κjk + 1 m,p jkp km jkm

26

NL L NL

Here, αjkp βkm ljkm is a deterministic value depending on the locations of the devices and the

correlation matrices. Given that YjkL , YjkN1 , and YjkN2 are independent of each other, we have

d

√ L 1N1 N2 ΣYjk − µLjk −−− −→ CN (0, 1). By using the characteristic of a noncentral chi-

sjk +sjk +sjk M →∞

squared distribution, we have following result.

P

Corollary 3. For a random variable Y = i |Xi |2 , where Xi is a complex Gaussian random

variable independent across i such as Xi ∼ CN (mi , σi2 ), the mean and variance of Y are

respectively obtained by

X

µY = σi2 + |mi |2 ,

i

X

σY2 = σi4 + 2|mi |2 σi2 .

i

Y is

X

Y = σi2 |x|2 + |mi |2 + 2Re (σi m∗i x) .

i

Since Cov |x|2 , x = 0, the proof is complete.

From Corollary 3, µ̄Yjk and σ̄Y2jk are ultimately obtained by

L 2

µ̄Yjk = sLjk + sN1 N2

jk + sjk + µjk , (34)

N2 2

L 2 L

σ̄Y2jk = sLjk + sN1

jk + s jk + 2 µjk sjk + sN1 N2

jk + sjk . (35)

A PPENDIX C

P ROOF OF L EMMA 3

q 2 M

X

Zk = 1 − τk hkk + τk ek =

2 H H

|zkm |2 ,

m

p L L

where we define zkm = 1 − τk2 βkm h∗kkm + τk βkm e∗km ∀k, m. Then, zkm follows a complex

Gaussian distribution:

q

L

2

zkm ∼ CN 1− τk2 βkm h∗kkm , τk2 L

βkm .

PM L

2

From Corollary 3, we can obtain the mean and variance of Zk as µZk = m βkm and

P 4

σZ2 k = τk2 (2 − τk2 ) M L

m βkm , respectively.

27

A PPENDIX D

P ROOF OF L EMMA 4

P

Given the definition of Ik = ρk τk2 Xk + K j6=k ρj Yjk + Zk from (9), we have

K q 2 q 2

2 H

2 X

Ik = ρk τk ek hkk + 2 H H 2 H H

ρj 1 − τk hkk hjk + τk ek hjk + 1 − τk hkk + τk ek . (36)

j6=k

K

X √

µ̄Ik = ρk τk2 q̄k + ρj µ̄Yjk + p̄k .

j6=k

P

We can observe from (36) that Xk , j ρj Yjk , and Zk are function of a common random variable

vector ek . Similarly, Yik and Yjk ∀i 6= j also include a common random variable vector ek . As

K increases, the sum of covariances between Yik and Yjk ∀i 6= j becomes dominant and the

P

covariances between Xk , j ρj Yjk , and Zk becomes negligible. Then, the variance of Ik can be

asymptotically obtained based on Lemmas 1–3 as σI2k − σ̄I2k −−−−−→ 0, where

M,K→∞

K

X K

X

σ̄I2k = ρ2k τk4 q̄k2 + τk2 2− τk2 q̄k + ρ2j σ̄Y2jk + ρi ρj ω̄ijk .

j6=k i,j6=k:i6=j

ω̄ijk denotes the asymptotic value of ωijk = Cov [Yik , Yjk ] = µYik Yjk − µYik µYjk ∀i 6= j, where

µYik Yjk = E [Yik Yjk ], µYik = E [Yik ], and µYjk = E [Yjk ]. For convenience, we use the following

notations.

q

ctk = 1 − τk2 hH kk htk

s !

2 XP

1 − τk √

= κtk hH L

kk htk + hH

kk r tkp gtkp ,

κtk + 1 p

s !

XP

τk2 √

atmk = βL L

κtk βtm htkm + rtkmp gtkp ,

κtk + 1 km p

PM

for t ∈ {i, j} and ∀m, k. With atmk , we have τk eH

k htk = m atmk e∗km . Here, ctk and atmk are

complex Gaussian random variables independent with ekm such as ctk ∼ CN µctk , σc2tk and

28

atmk ∼ CN µatmk , σa2tmk , where

s

κtk (1 − τk2 ) H L

µctk = hkk htk ,

κtk + 1

P

1 − τk2 X H 2

σc2tk = hkk r tkp ,

κtk + 1 p

s

τk2 κtk L L

µatmk = β β htkm ,

κtk + 1 km tm

2 P

τk2 βkm

L X

2

σatmk = |rtkmp |2 .

κtk + 1 p

By using the above notations, we have

q 2

Ytk = 1 − τk hkk htk + τk ek htk

2 H H

2

M

X

= ctk + atmk e∗km

m

M

! M M

2

X X X

= |ctk | + 2Re ctk a∗tmk ekm + atmk e∗km a∗tmk ekm .

m m m

With a standard complex Gaussian distribution for ekm , we have E [ekm ] = 0, E [e2km ] = 0,

E [e3km ] = 0, and E |ekm |2 = 1. Then, µYtk and µYik Yjk are obtained as follows:

M

X

µYtk = µCtk + µAtmk ,

m

" M

X

µYik Yjk = E |cik |2 |cjk |2 + |cik |2 |ajmk |2 |ekm |2

m

M M

! #

2

X 2 2

X

+ |cjk | |aimk | |ekm | + 2Re cik c∗jk a∗imk ajmk |ekm |2 +ξ

m m

M M M

!

X X X

= µCik µCjk + µCik µAjmk + µCjk µAimk + 2Re µcik µ∗cjk µ∗aimk µajmk + µξ ,

m m m

2

where we define µCtk = E |ctk | and µAtmk = E |atmk |2 for t ∈ {i, j} and ∀m, k. From

Corollary 3, we have

29

M

X M

X M

X M

X

ξ= aimk e∗km a∗imk ekm ajmk e∗km a∗jmk ekm ,

m m m m

"M M M M

#

X X X X

µξ = E |aimk |2 |ekm |2 |ajmk |2 |ekm |2 + aimk a∗jmk |ekm |2 a∗ink ajnk |ekn |2 .

m m m n6=m

M

! M M

X X X

ωijk = 2Re µcik µ∗cjk µ∗aimk µajmk + µξ − µAimk µAjmk . (37)

m m m

kk htk which is calculated by the sum of M elements. Then, the

first term of ωijk in (37) increases with O(M 3 ) as M → ∞. Similarly, the second and the last

term of ωijk increase with O(M 2 ) as M → ∞. According to the scaling laws for M, we have

M →∞

where !

M

X

ω̄ijk = 2Re µcik µ∗cjk µ∗aimk µajmk . (38)

m

We can observe from (38) that ω̄ijk can be obtained by a deterministic value and the LOS

component of the interference channel exclusively produces ω̄ijk .

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