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Hydraulics Engineering 2019

FINAL EXPERIMENT
TITLE: “Determine the effect of Solenoid using Valve MV2 & MV1
to the Wave celerity using Water Hammer”
Objectives:
 To determine wave celerity when using solenoid valve MV1 and MV2.
 To determine the relation of Wave Celerity and Change in pressure.
 To determine bulk modulus (E)
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
 To determine wave celerity using solenoid valve MV1 and MV2.
 To determine the relation of Wave Celerity and Change in pressure.
 To determine the solenoid valve MV1 is a direct acting two-way solenoid valve and has
a fixed closing time of 20 - 30 sec. The solenoid valve MV2 is a pilot controlled two-way
solenoid valve and has an adjustable closing time of 1 - 4s.
Discussion:

The HM 155 trainer is used to investigate water hammer in long pipes. If the flow in a
system with long pipes, for example a communal water supply network, is suddenly
delayed, the changes in speed cause pressure changes.

If these changes happen very rapidly, pressure fluctuations propagate as water hammer
in the pipe from the point of disturbance to both sides (direct waves). At irregularities, for
example changes of cross–section, pipe branches, control or shut-out, fittings, pumps or
tanks, depending on the general condition they are reflected as excess pressure waves
or vacuum waves (indirect waves).

On the HM 155 trainer, water hammers (direct waves) are generated by closing different
valves (point of disturbance). These water hammers are then reflected as indirect waves
at the water surface in the pressure tank (reflection point). To achieve sufficiently long
reflection times, a 60m long pipe coil has been installed.

The interaction of all direct and indirect waves at a particular point at a particular time
determines the prevailing condition. The pressure fluctuations and the maximum

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pressures occurring can lead to overloading of system components, even to destruction
of these components in the worst case. Particularly at system components higher up, the
minimum pressure can reach the vapour pressure of the liquid and thus trigger
cavitations, which can also lead to damage to system components.

Resources / instruments Required:

HM 155 WATER HAMMERS IN PIPES

1 Strainer 11 Solenoid valve


MV2
2 Water inlet 12 Solenoid valve
connection MV1
Procedures: 3 Water outlet 13 Pressure sensor
connection
4 Valve V1 14 Valve V3
5 Valve V2 15 Manometer
6 Valve V5 16 Rotameter
7 Pressure Tank 17 Water discharge
8 Valve V4 18 Pipe section
9 Control unit 19 Water discharge
10 Safety Valve
Setting up and connecting

1. Setting up the trainer.


2. Connect the device to a water connection in the laboratory using hose supplied.
3. Connect the hose supplied to the water outlet on the device and fun the hose to a drain
in the laboratory.
4. Secure the two castors on the front of the device.
5. Set up the control unit on the device.
6. Connect the PC, pressure sensor, solenoid valves MV1 and MV2, flow sensor and
mains power using the cable supplied.

Filling the device with water

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1. Close valves V1, V2 and V3.
2. Close bleed valves V4 and V5 on the pressure tank
3. Close both water discharges.
4. Fill the device with water from the laboratory water supply, until water emerges at the
water outlet into the laboratory drain.

Closing time for solenoid valves MV1 and MV2

The closing time is the time span from the moment at which the open solenoid valve is
disconnected from the current to the moment at which the valve is completely closed.

The closing time of the solenoid valve MV1 is fixed and cannot be changed.

The closing time of the solenoid valve MV2 can be adjusted as follows:

o Reducing the valve closing time:


With a hexagon socket wrench 3 turn the set screw anticlockwise
(counterclockwise)
o Extending the valve closing time:
With a hexagon socket wrench 3 turn the set screw clockwise.

Notice: DO NOT ADJUST SCREWS SECURED WITH RED PAIN

Data & Results:

Formula used:

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For 100 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 ---- ---- 0.105

2 ---- ---- 0.102

5 --- --- 0.108

10 1---- ---- 0.107

For 130 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 1125 ---- 0.107

2 1125 ---- 0.107

5 1043 ---- 0.115

10 973 ---- 0.123

For 140 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 --- 851.92 0.130

2 --- 518.4 0.167

5 --- 851.91 0.130

10 --- 508.36 0.168

For 160 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 ---- 1058.84 0.117

2 ---- 654.48 0.148

5 --- 613.08 0.153

10 ---- 508.36 0.168

For 180 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 857 ---- 0.140

2 867 ---- 0.138

5 818 ---- 0.147

10 783 ---- 0.153

For 200 Flow Rate using MV1

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 --- 921.6 0.125

2 --- 946.72 0.135

5 --- 790.32 0.123

10 --- 946.72 0.123

For 100 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 252 ---- 0.477

2 252 ---- 0.477

5 265 ---- 0.453

10 295 ---- 0.407

For 130 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 ---- 93.02 0.393

2 ---- 90.6 0.398

5 ---- 87.02 0.522

10 ---- 83.5 0.415

For 140 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 326 ---- 0.368

2 306 --- 0.502

5 326 ---- 0.368

10 305 ---- 0.393

For 160 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 381 145.1 0.315

2 358 128.16 0.335

5 358 128.16 0.335

10 358 128.16 0.335

For 180 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 371 0.323

2 383 0.313

5 371 0.323

10 391 0.307

For 200 Flow Rate using MV2

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Time Base Wave Celerity (m/s) Bulk Modulus (Mpa) Time (s)

1 514 0.233

2 426 0.282

5 474 0.253

10 490 0.245

Related Readings Literature (RRL):

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The three-dimensional behavior of surface water waves as they interact with wind,
bottom, obstructions, currents, and each other is very complex. Much insight into the general
behavior of waves can be obtained by first studying two-dimensional, monochromatic,
progressive waves using the so-called small amplitude wave theory. The figure below
defines the terms most commonly used in discussions of water waves:

As waves pass some fixed point, the time between consecutive crests is the wave period T.
The speed of the wave, or its celerity, C, (as ocean engineers refer to it), is the distance
travelled by a crest per unit time, or

C = L/T Equation 1

The small amplitude theory requires that both a/L and a/d be small. Using this assumption
and solving the equation of motion for small amplitude waves yields the following expression
for the wave celerity:

where g is the gravitational acceleration.

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It is clear from Equation 2 that the wave celerity is a function of both the wave length (L)
and the water's relative depth d/L. Since the hyperbolic tangent function (tanh) has simple
limiting forms for both small and large values of its argument, it is useful to classify waves
according to the relative depth, as follows;

Note that in deep water the celerity is independent of water depth, which is not
surprising in view of the fact that the waves do not interact with the bottom. What is
interesting, however, is that the celerity depends on the wave length. Water is therefore a
dispersive medium with respect to deep water surface waves, in much the same way that it is
a dispersive medium for light waves. Shallow water surface waves, on the other hand, do feel
the bottom, and slow down as the square root of the depth. Their speed is not a function of
the wave length.

As surface waves travel across various depths of water their period T does not change
(for a proof see the article entitled "Constancy of Wave Period"). In deep water, therefore, the
wave length is constant, but as waves approach a beach the wave length decreases as the
square root of the depth.

Wind-generated waves typically have periods from 1 to 25 seconds, wave lengths from
1 to 1000 meters, speeds from 1 to 40 m/s, and heights less than 3 meters. Seismic waves,
or tsunamis, have periods typically from 10 minutes to one hour, wave lengths of several
hundreds of kilometers, and mid-ocean heights usually less than half a meter. Because of
their long wavelengths, tsunamis often satisfy the criterion for shallow-water waves. For
example, when a tsunami with a wave length of 200 km passes over a depth of 4 km (the
average depth of the oceans) the relative depth is d/L=.02. Since this is less than .05, this
tsunami is a "shallow-water wave", and its celerity depends only on the water depth

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Robert M. Sorensen, "Basic Wave Mechanics for Coastal and
Ocean Engineers" (John Wiley & Sons, 1993), Chapter 2.

Bulk Elastic Properties

The bulk elastic properties of a material determine how much it will compress under a
given amount of external pressure. The ratio of the change in pressure to the fractional
volume compression is called the bulk modulus of the material.

A representative value for the bulk modulus for steel is

and that for water is

The reciprocal of the bulk modulus is called the compressibility of the substance. The
amount of compression of solids and liquids is seen to be very small

The bulk modulus of a solid influences the speed of sound and other mechanical waves
in the material. It also is a factor in the amount of energy stored in solid material in the
Earth's crust. This buildup of elastic energy can be released violently in an earthquake, so
knowing bulk moduli for the Earth's crust materials is an important part of the study of
earthquakes. The bulk modulus is a factor in the speed of seismic waves from earthquakes.

A common statement is that water is an incompressible fluid. This is not strictly true, as
indicated by its finite bulk modulus, but the amount of compression is very small. At the
bottom of the Pacific Ocean at a depth of about 4000 meters, the pressure is about 4 x
107N/m2. Even under this enormous pressure, the fractional volume compression is only
about 1.8% and that for steel would be only about 0.025%. So, it is fair to say that water
is nearly in compressible.

Halliday, Resnick, Walker, 5th Ed. Extended.

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Young's Modulus

For the description of the elastic properties of linear objects like wires, rods, columns
which are either stretched or compressed, a convenient parameter is the ratio of the stress to
the strain, a parameter called the Young's modulus of the material. Young's modulus can be
used to predict the elongation or compression of an object if the stress is less than the yield
strength of the material.

Elastic Properties of Selected Engineering Materials

Young's Ultimate
Density Yield Strength
Material Modulus Strength
(kg/m3) 106 N/m2
109 N/m2 106 N/m2
Steel 7860 200 400 250
Aluminum 2710 70 110 95
Glass 2190 65 50 ...
Concrete 2320 30 40 ...
Wood 525 13 50 ...
Bone 1900 9 170 ...
Polystyrene 1050 3 48 ...

Structural steel (ASTM-A36), b In compression, c High strength, d Douglas fir


Data from Table 13-1, Halliday, Resnick, Walker, 5th Ed. Extended.

Despite the frequent assumption that hydraulic fluid is incompressible, the fact remains:
All fluids have some degree of compressibility. Granted, fluid compressibility may be

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neglected in systems that do not require tight control of response and where operating
pressure and fluid volume are moderate. However, when applying high pressure to a large
volume of fluid, a significant amount of energy can be expended to compress the fluid —
essentially squeezing the fluid's molecules closer together.

The result can be delayed response — a loaded actuator may not move until upstream
fluid has been compressed, and the energy stored in the fluid may cause the actuator to
continue moving after its control valve has closed. Bulk modulus is a property that indicates
the compressibility of a fluid. With many of today's hydraulic systems operating at pressures
5000 psi and higher, ignoring bulk modulus can compromise response time of a system.

Applied pressure should directly affect the action of the system rather than compress
the fluid. Therefore, it is so important to design systems with as little fluid as possible
between the control valve and the actuator.

What is bulk modulus?

Most substances diminish in volume when exposed to a uniform, externally applied


pressure. A typical plot of volume, V, versus pressure, P, is shown in Figure 1. The curve
shows that volume of the fluid is a function of applied pressure, compressibility of the fluid, k,
and initial volume of the fluid, V0:

V = f (P, V0, k)
V0 = initial volume, in, l, or m3
P = pressure, PSI, Pa, or bar
k = compressibility, usually negative, in.2/lb
(V - V0) ÷ V = specific volume, commonly used for x-axis

The term bulk modulus usually means the reciprocal of compressibility and defines the
slope of the curve when plotted against specific
volume, Figure 1. Because specific volume is
dimensionless, units of bulk modulus are the same
as pressure — psi (bar, Pa, N/m2). Thus, the bulk
modulus is a measure of resistance to
compressibility of a fluid. A flat slope signifies a

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compressible fluid having a low bulk modulus. A steep slope indicates a stiff, or only slightly
compressible fluid.
Figure 1. Increasing the pressure applied to
a fluid decreases its volume.

Defining bulk modulus

The plot in Figure 1 is not a straight line, so its slope changes from point to point. Two
common methods are used to define the slope, or bulk modulus 1:

Secant bulk modulus is the product of the original fluid volume and the slope of the line
drawn from the origin to any specified point on the plot of pressure versus specific volume
(the slope of the secant line to the point).

Mathematically, secant bulk modulus, BS, is:

BS = (V0 × P) ÷ (V0 –V)

Tangent bulk modulus is the product of fluid volume at any specified pressure and the
derivative of fluid pressure with respect to volume at that point (the slope of the tangent line
to the point). Mathematically, tangent bulk modulus, B T, is:

BT = V0 (dP/dV)

Before giving some typical values for bulk moduli, we must take one more variable into
consideration, namely, temperature.

Temperature and bulk modulus

Temperature is important because a fluid compresses as its temperature rises. As the


temperature rises, the fluid attempts to expand, which, in turn, creates additional pressure.
This can occur rapidly or slowly. Compressing the fluid very slowly allows generated heat to
dissipate. This bulk modulus is called isothermal (constant temperature) bulk
modulus. Adiabatic or isentropic bulk modulus occurs by compressing the fluid rapidly and
measuring the pressure — even though it results from both compression and thermal
expansion.

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Because we are concerned with rapidly moving, tightly controlled systems, most
hydraulic applications are considered isentropic. Therefore, most of the bulk moduli
discussed here are isentropic. Table 1 shows values of isentropic secant modulus for some
typical hydraulic fluids at a fixed pressure and temperature.

Halliday, Resnick, Walker, 5th Ed. Extended.

Water hammer or hydraulic shock is the momentary increase in pressure, which occurs
in a water system there is a sudden change of direction or velocity of the water. When a
rapidly closed valve suddenly stops water in a pipeline, pressure energy is transferred to the
valve and pipe wall, shock wave is set up within the system. Pressure waves travel backward
until encountering the next solid obstacle, then forward, then back again. The pressure
wave’s velocity is equal to the speed of the sound; therefore it “bangs” as it travels back and
forth, until dissipated by friction losses. Anyone who has lived in an older house is familiar
with the “bangs” that resounds through the pipes when a faucet is suddenly closed. This is an
effect of water hammer.

If water is flowing along a long pipe and is suddenly brought to rest by the closing of a
valve, or by any similar cause, there will be a sudden rise in pressure due to the momentum
of the water being destroyed. This will cause a wave of high pressure to be transmitted along
the pipe with a velocity equal to the sound wave, which may setup noises known as
Knocking. The magnitude of this pressure will depend on:

(i) The mean pipe flow velocity


(ii) The length of the pipe
(iii) The time taken to close the valve and
(iv) The elastic properties of the pipe material and that of water

CELERITY OF PRESSURE WAVE

The speed with which a pressure wave (or elastic wave) travel through still liquid in pipe
is known as the celerity of pressure wave and it is represented by symbol (c). let there be a
column of still liquid in the pip. Let us consider a length l of this column as free body. Let, r be
the internal radius of pipe in meters and hence radius of liquid column. p be the pressure-
intensity, in Kg/ , applied on the left vertical face of this column. p + δ p be the pressure-

intensity, in Kg/ , applied on the right vertical face this column.

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Thus, on this column, there in more intensity of pressure on the right face, the excess of
pressure-intensity from the right-side binge δp. Because of this, the pressure wave will travel
from the right to the left with celerity c (m/sec) and in time δt (seconds), this pressure wave
will travel over (c. δt) meters.

PRESSURE DUE TO SUDDEN VALVE CLOSURE (Neglecting the elasticity of pipe walls
but considering the compressibility of the liquid)

Under this condition, it is assumed that the pipe walls are rigid and inelastic and hence,
they do not get distended when the intensity of pressure increases or decreases periodically
due to sudden closure. It is however assumed that when the intensity of pressure increases,
the volume of liquid (in pipe) decreases due to the compressibility of liquid. Let, I be the
length of pipe under consideration. d be the diameter of the pipe. V be the volume of liquid
in the pipe of length I. υ be the velocity of flow in the pipe, when the valve is fully open.

Now, let the valve be suddenly closed. Due to this, the circular vertical slice of liquid-
column (shown hatched), in the immediate backside of the valve will have is velocity
reduced from υ to also due to the increase in pressure of the slice by pi Kg/m^٢, the slice
of liquid gets compressed from its original small thickness b to the thickness (b - δb).
Other slices, in turn, will meet the same fate of the first slice and hence after some time tw

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(where tw = I/υv) second, the entire column of liquid of length, I diameter d and velocity υ
will become of length (I-δi) , velocity zero, and same diameter d since the pipe walls are
assumed to be rigid and unyielding.

Pressure due to sudden valve closure


(Considering both the elasticity of pipe walls and the compressibility of the liquid)

When the intensity of pressure of the liquid increases, the pipe walls (which are elastic)
get distended to diameter d+δd and hence the diameter of liquid- column under pressure
also increases from d to (d+ δ d). Thus, at the end of two seconds we have:

WATER HAMMER CONTROL

As mentioned before, the most frequently encountered water hammer problems in water
engineering are related to either sudden pump stopping as due to power failure, or due to
rapid valve closure. There is one basic principle which should be always considered in the
design and operation of pipelines, that is avoiding sudden changes in velocity. As water
hammer is related to changes in velocity, the change in pressure is directly related to the
change in velocity.

Therefore, avoiding sudden changes in velocity will generally avoid serious water
hammer pressures.

Sarbast Othman Qadir Civil Engineer, 2014

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Bulk modulus

Numerical constant that describes the elastic properties of a solid or fluid when it is
under pressure on all surfaces. The applied pressure reduces the volume of a material,
which returns to its original volume when the pressure is removed. Sometimes referred to as
the incompressibility, the bulk modulus is a measure of the ability of a substance to withstand
changes in volume when under compression on all sides. It is equal to the quotient of the
applied pressure divided by the relative deformation.

When the bulk modulus is constant (independent of pressure), this is a specific form
of Hooke’s law of elasticity. Because the denominator, strain, is a ratio without dimensions,
the dimensions of the bulk modulus are those of pressure, force per unit area. In the English
system the bulk modulus may be expressed in units of pounds per square inch (usually
abbreviated to psi), and in the metric system, newtons per square metre (N/m 2), or pascals.

The value of the bulk modulus for steel is about 2.3 × 107 psi, or 1.6 × 1011 pascals,
three times the value for glass. Thus, only one-third the pressure is needed to reduce a glass
sphere the same amount as a steel sphere of the same initial size. Under equal pressure, the
proportional decrease in volume of glass is three times that of steel. One may also say that
glass is three times more compressible than steel. In fact, compressibility is defined as the
reciprocal of the bulk modulus. A substance that is difficult to compress has a large bulk
modulus but a small compressibility. A substance that is easy to compress has a high
compressibility but a low bulk modulus.

Relationship between Celerity, Pressure and Bulk modulus

The elasticity of any medium is characterized by the deformation due to the application
of force. If the medium is a liquid, this force is also called pressure force. Bulk modulus is a
physical property of a fluid that describes the relationship between the force and deformation.

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The cause (pressure increase) and effect (volume reduction) is expressed as the bulk
modulus of elasticity given by the formula

A relationship between a liquid’s modulus and density yields the characteristic WAVE
CELERITY

The characteristic Wave Celerity (a) is the speed with which disturbances move through
a fluid. Injecting a small percentage of bubble can lower the effective wave speed of fluid
provided it remains well mixed.

In 1848, Helmholtz demonstrated that the wave celerity in a pipeline depends on the
elasticity of the pipeline walls. Thirty years later, Korteweg developed an equation to
determine celerity as a function of pipeline elasticity and liquid compressibility. Research
uses an elastic model formulation that requires the wave celerity to be corrected to account
for pipeline elasticity.

The characteristic Wave Celerity (a) is the speed with which disturbances move through
a fluid. Injecting a small percentage of bubble can lower the effective wave speed of fluid
provided it remains well mixed.
In 1848, Helmholtz demonstrated that the wave celerity in a pipeline depends on the
elasticity of the pipeline walls. Thirty years later, Korteweg developed an equation to
determine celerity as a function of pipeline elasticity and liquid compressibility. Research
uses an elastic model formulation that requires the wave celerity to be corrected to account
for pipeline elasticity.

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Advances in Control and Automation of Water Systems,


Kaveh Hariri Asli PhD.

Impact of biodiesel bulk modulus on injection pressure and injection timing. The
effect of residual pressure

As the demand for energy rises fossil fuel reserves are depleted daily, increasing the
interest in alternative fuels. Biodiesel is one of the best candidates in this class and its
use is expected to expand rapidly throughout the world. Numerous researchers have
been investigating how biodiesel affects combustion, pollutant formation and exhaust
aftertreatment.

There is general agreement that its combustion characteristics are like those of
standard diesel fuel, except for a shorter ignition delay, a higher ignition temperature, and
greater ignition pressure and peak heat release.

Engine power output is similar with both fuels. About emissions, reductions in
particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) and increases in nitrogen oxides
(NOx) are described with most biodiesel blends. The latter is referred to as the ‘biodiesel
NOx effect’. Most researchers who explored the effect of biodiesel did so in mechanical
injection engines.

They found that the primary mechanism by which biodiesel increases NOx emissions
is by an inadvertent advance in the start of injection timing, caused by a higher modulus
and viscosity.

However, more recent studies show that NOx emissions also increase in biodiesel-
fueled common rail engines, and that in some cases they decrease in engines with
mechanically controlled fuel injection systems. This cannot be explained solely by
differences in compressibility and remains an open question.

The present study provides a contribution to the discussion in this field by describing
a new method to evaluate the injection advance in engines with mechanically controlled
pumps. The experimental data show that the advances in the start of injection timing,

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using biodiesel rather than mineral diesel, are smaller than those calculated with
standard methods and may even not occur at all, depending on injection system design.

In addition, they demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, injection pressure does
not always increase when using biodiesel. These data may help explain why some
researchers have found similar or even reduced NOx emission also with mechanical
injection systems.

Via Brecce Bianche, 5 October 2010

SURGE AND WATER HAMMER

Water hammer or pressure surge is the sudden rise or fall in pressure caused by an abrupt
change in the fluid velocity within the pipe system. The usual cause of these flow changes
is the rapid closing or opening of valves or sudden starting or stopping of pumps such as
during a power failure. The most important factors which influence the water hammer
pressure in a pipe system are the change in velocity of the fluid, rate of change of the
velocity (valve closing time), compressibility of the fluid, stiffness of the pipe in the “hoop”
direction, and physical layout of the pipe system.

An approximate relationship for the maximum conceivable pressure increase at a given


point in a straight pipeline with negligible friction loss can be calculated from the formula:

Δ H = (wΔv)/g

where:

Δ H = increase in pressure, m
w = surge wave celerity, m/s
Δ v = change in water velocity, m/s
g = gravity acceleration, m/s²

The surge wave celerity of FLOWTITE pipes is in the range 340 – 620 m/s,
depending on pressure class and stiffness class (and to some extent diameter). For steel
and ductile iron, it is in the range 950 – 1050 m/s, i.e. between 1.5 and 3.0 times higher
than for FLOWTITE pipes, with corresponding increase in surge pressure.

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In addition to this, due to its extra high initial strength (see AWWA M45), FLOWTITE
pipes have a surge pressure allowance of 40% of the nominal pressure, i.e. a pipe may be
operated at PN allowing surge pressures up to 1.4 x PN.

The potential for damage in FLOWTITE pipe systems due to water hammer is thus
considerably lower than for stiffer pipes. See more about water hammer and surge wave
celerity in the technical characteristics.
D. Energetica, 21 October 2010

RELATION BETWEEN TIDAL DAMPING AND WAVE CELERITY IN ESTUARIES.

Observations in estuaries indicate that an amplified tidal wave moves considerably


faster than is indicated by the classical equation for wave propagation. Similarly, the
celerity of propagation is lower if the tidal wave is damped. This phenomenon is clearly
observed in the Schelde estuary (located in the Netherlands and Belgium) and in
the Incomati estuary in Mozambique.

In the Incomati, the tidal wave is damped throughout, whereas in the Schelde the tidal
range increases from the mouth until the city of Antwerp, after which it decreases
until Gent. This paper derives a new analytical expression for the celerity of the tidal wave
that considers the effect of tidal damping, as an expansion of the classical equation for
tidal wave propagation. In the new equation the phase lag between high water and high-
water slack plays a crucial role.

It is one of the main parameters determining tidal wave propagation in alluvial


estuaries. The equation is successfully applied to observations in the Schelde and the
Incomati.

H. G. Savenije, Ed J. M. Veling, 21 April 2005

OBSERVATIONS OF WAVE HEIGHT AND WAVE CELERITY IN THE SURF ZONE

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Observations of wave crest elevation, wave trough elevation, and wave celerity
have been made in the surf zone on a natural beach. A series of 22 wave poles having
vertical gradations of 7 cm (near shore) and I I cm (off shore) were placed across the
surf zone from outside the break point to the swash zone. Movements of l0 individual
waves all having a break point within one wave pole spacing of each other have been
photographed, and the data on wave height changes and wave speed changes have
been analyzed.

Wave celerity within the surf zone, given as a ratio M to solitary wave celerity,
shows a systematic increase of wave speeds near the break point to a peak of M - 1.2,
thence a decrease farther shoreward to M 0.8, and finally a second increase where M >
I. Wave height decay after breaking follows the theory of turbulent dissipation recently
presented by Sawaragi and lwata (1974). The wave height to water depth ratio within the
surf zone is a function of distance from the break point and ranges from 2.0 to 0.6.

The results indicate that the use of linear and nonlinear no viscous wave theories
to quantify surf zone wave characteristics is misleading insofar as quantitative prediction
is concerned.

N. R. Pettigrew, March 1998

A review of wave celerity in frictionless and axisymmetric steel-lined pressure


tunnels

Generally applicable approaches for estimating the “quasi-static”, which means


without fluid–structure interaction and frequency-dependent water-hammer wave speed in
steel-lined pressure tunnels are analyzed. The external constraints and assumptions of
these approaches are discussed in detail.
The reformulated formulas are then compared to commonly used expressions.
Some special cases of wave speed calculation such as unlined pressure tunnels and
open-air penstocks are investigated. The quasi-static wave speed is significantly
influenced by the state of the backfill concrete and the near-field rock zone (cracked or
uncracked). In the case when these two layers are cracked, the quasi-static wave speed is
overestimated in between 1% and 8% compared to uncracked concrete and near-field
rock layers.
Depending on the stiffness of steel liner and penstock, the fluid–structure interaction
leads to significant difference in wave speeds values. Compared to the quasi-static case,
the fluid–structure interaction approach, applied to steel-lined tunnels, results up to 13%

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higher wave speed values in the high-frequency range (higher than 600 Hz) and up to
150% lower values for frequencies between 150 and 300 Hz in the considered test case.

F. de Lausanne, 6 November 2010

CALCULATE CELERITY OF A COMPOUND PIPE

I am about to calculate water hammer for a sewerage rising (pumped/forced) main


using the Bentley HAMMER software. The main is currently Hobas (a type of sand-filled
resin with fiber glass (fiberglass) reinforcing material). We are going to slip-line this pipe
using polyethylene (PE) pressure pipe. The Hobas pipe is DN450 with an ID of 487mm
and the PE pipe has an OD of 355mm. We are planning to fill the gap between the two with
a cementitious grout. I presume the PE pipe may float a little in the grout and so I think it is
reasonable to assume the grout will be around the entire outer face of the PE pipe, though
unevenly.

My problem is how to calculate a realistic celerity for this compound pipe.

It seems to me that the two pipes will be acting together and the celerity would have to
be higher than either of them acting alone, particularly since they are bridged with the
grout.

The only model I have found, and which seems reasonable to me, has been used for
steel pipe having a cement mortar lining. It transforms the thickness of the two materials
using the ratio of their elastic moduli and combining their wall thicknesses.

t eq. = t + T(Ecl / Est)

where
t eq = transformed pipe wall thickness (mm)
t = steel pipe wall thickness (mm)

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T = cement mortar lining thickness (mm)
Ecl = Young's Modulus for cement mortar (MPa)
Est = Young's Modulus for steel (MPa)

My reference notes that this will give a conservative value and assumes that perfect
bonding will NOT occur between the steel and the cement mortar, which would require the
wall to be modelled as a T shape having far higher E value. I think it is quite reasonable to
assume in my case that the plastic pipes will not bond well, if at all, to the cement grout and
so the simple transformation given in the above formula seems appropriate to me.
Therefore, I propose to use this model.

S. Frank, June 2009

Conclusion/s:

We therefore conclude that:

 The wave celerity in using MV1 got a higher speed of velocity than MV2 because
the closing time of solenoid valve MV1 is fixed and cannot be changed and the
closing time of MV2 is reducing the wave celerity.

 The wave celerity and change in pressure on experimental measured that we


conducted it gives a small surface of elevation with a constant wavelength.

 When the bulk modulus is increase the wave celerity is also increase because of
the fluid when it is under pressure on all surfaces.

Recommendation:

It is recommended to install non-slam check valves as they do not rely on gravity or


fluid flow for their closure. For vertical pipes, other suggestions include installing new

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piping that can be designed to include air chambers to alleviate the possible
shockwave of water due to excess water flow because some check valve slam is a
sudden deceleration on pressure, a check valve may slam shut rapidly, depending on
the dynamic characteristic of the check valve and the mass of the water between a
check valve and tank.

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