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NAME:……………………………………………………………CLASS:……………

DEEPER LIFE HIGH SCHOOL


FIRST TERM; E– LEARNING NOTES
SCHEME OF WORK
SUBJECT: MATHEMATICS
CLASS: JS1 (BASIC 7)
FIRST TERM
WEEK TOPICS
1. Whole numbers: (a) Development of number system (Roman Numerals, counting board, abacus etc.)
(b) Place value: whole numbers and decimal fractions (c) Counting: tens, hundreds… trillions. (d)
Translating numbers written in figures to words and vice versa. (e) Quantitative reasoning: simple coding
etc.
2. Basic Operations on whole numbers (Addition and Subtraction): (a) Order of operations
(PEMDAS/BODMAS) (b) Use of number line. (c) Addition and subtraction with place value (d) Addition and
subtraction of positive and negative numbers.
3. Basic Operations on whole numbers (Multiplication and Division) (a) Multiplication of positive and
negative numbers. (b) Division of integer (c) Word Problems.
4. LCM and HCF of whole numbers: (a) Rules of divisibility. (b) Definitions: Even, odd, Prime and
composite numbers. (c) Factors and Multiples and Index form. (d) LCM and HCF of given whole numbers.
(e) Quantitative reasoning.
5. Counting in base 2: (a) Counting in group of twos. (b) Conversion of base 10 numerals to binary
numbers.
6 Fractions: (a) Definition and types of fractions (b) Conversion of fractions to decimals and vice versa. (c)
Conversion of fractions to percentages and vice versa.
7 Mid-term break.
8 Fractions: (a) Equivalent Fractions. (b) Ordering of fractions. (c) Quantitative reasoning.
9 Basic Operations on Fraction: (a) Addition and Subtraction of fractions (b) Multiplication and Division of
fractions.
10 Revision.
11 Examination.
WEEK 1
TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS.
CONTENTS:
 Development of number system
 Place values
 Counting: tens; hundreds; thousands; millions;….trillions
 Translating numbers written in figures to words.
 Quantitative reasoning.

DEVELOPMENT OF NUMBER SYSTEM


There were many ancient ways of writing numbers part of which are the Hindu Arabic system, tally system,
Roman system, etc. While so many have gone into extinction, the Roman system is still in use up to date.

ROMAN NUMBER SYSTEM


The Roman number system was developed about 300BC. The Romans used capital letters of the alphabet for
numerals. Table 1.1 shows how to use the letters.

Table 1.1

EXAMPLE 1: Write these numbers in Roman numerals.


a) 25 b) 105 c) 49 d) 2011
Solution
a) 25 = XXV
b) 105 = CV
c) 49 = XLIX
d) 2011 = MMXI

EXAMPLE 2: What numbers do these Roman numerals represent?


1. XLVI 2. XCIX 3. MMCMLIV 4. MMMDCI
Solution: 1. XLIV = 46 2. XCIX = 99 3. MMCMLIV = 2954 4. MMMDCI = 3601
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Write these numbers in Roman Numerals
a) 352 b) 1 257 c) 2456
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2. Add the following Roman numerals and give your answers in figures
a) XXV and CV b) XXIV and MDCIX.

What are whole numbers?


Whole Numbers are also called Integers. There are positive Integers and negative Integers. Examples of positive
integers are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc., while examples of negative integers are – 1, – 2, – 3, – 4, – 5, etc.
The figure 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are called digits or units which form counting numbers.
PLACE VALUES
The value of the position of a digit within a number is called the place value. When any whole number is written,
the value of each digit depends on its position in the number. In the common decimal system that we use, the
value of a digit increases each time it moves from left to right by ten times, e.g. 4 = 4 units
40 = 4 tens
400 = 4 hundreds
4 000 = 4 thousands
The number 7483 is represented as
THOUSANDS HUNDREDS TENS UNITS
7 4 8 3
EXAMPLE1: What is the place value of 6 in 8643?
Solution: The place value of 6 in 8643 is six hundreds.
EXAMPLE2: What is the place value of 3 in
a) 25.436? Answer: three hundredths
b) 5.368? Answer: three tenths
c) 346.12? Answer: three hundreds.

CLASS ACTIVITY
1. What is the value of 5 in: a) 3572? b) 5372? c) 25347869?
2. State the place value of the quoted digit in each of the following
i) 43’7’68
ii) 56.73’2’4
iii) 4.’5’21096
iv) ‘7’09431.58
Counting in tens, hundreds, thousands, ten thousands, hundred thousands, millions and billions

i. Numbers written in tens contains 2 digits. Examples: 12, 78, 73 etc.


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ii. Numbers written in hundreds are always in 3 digits. Examples: 185, 359, 675, etc.
iii. Numbers written in thousand contains 4 digits. Examples: 1254, 7566, 9081, etc.
iv. Numbers written in ten thousands contains 5 digits.
Examples: 12 000 stands for 12 thousand
78 000 stands for 78 thousand
v. Numbers written in hundred thousand contains 6 digits.
Examples: 460 000 stands for 460 thousands
300 000 stands for 300 thousands
vi. Numbers written in millions must contain at least 7 digits. The seven digits must have two spaces separating
them in “threes” from the right hand side.
Examples: 12 000 000 stands for 12 million.
2 000 000 stands for 2 million.
1 000 000 stands for 1 million.
238 000 000 stands for 238 million.
Counting in billions:
Numbers written in billions must contain at least ten digits with three spaces separating them in “threes” from
the right hand side.
Examples: 12 000 000 000 stands for 12 billion.
4 000 000 000 stands for 4 billion.
7 456 201 456 stands for 7 billion, four hundred and fifty six million, two hundred and
one thousand, four hundred and fifty six.
835 000 000 000 stands for 835 billion.
Counting in trillions
Numbers written in trillions must contain at least thirteen digits with four spaces separating them in “threes”
from the right hand side.
Examples: 7 000 000 000 000 stands for 7 trillion.
25 000 000 000 000 stands for 25 trillion.
714 000 000 000 000 stands for 714 trillion.
1 000 million is called a trillion.

CLASS ACTIVITY: State what the following numbers stands for


i) 178 000 000 (ii) 234 000 000 000 (iii) 23 000 (iv)500 000 000 000 (v) 67 000 000 000 000

TRANSLATION OF NUMBERS WRITTEN IN FIGURES TO WORDS AND VICE-VERSA


Example 1
Write the following numbers in words:
(a) 51 807 508 051 754
Solution:
51 807 508 051 754 = 51 807 508 051 754 stands for fifty one trillion, eight hundred and seven billion, five
hundred and eight million, fifty one thousand, seven hundred and fifty four
(b) 6 006 006 006
Solution:
(c) 6006006006 = 6 006 006 006 stands for six billion, six million, six thousand and six
Example 2
Write the following words in numerals
(a) Three hundred and fifty four thousand, seven hundred and twenty
(b) Seven billion, two hundred and sixty four million, one hundred and one thousand, two hundred and two

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Solution:
(a) Using expanded form,
300 000 + 50 000 + 4000 + 700 + 20 = 354 720
(b) 7 000 000 000 + 200 000 000 + 60 000 000 + 4 000 000 + 100 000 + 1000 + 200 + 2
= 7 264 101 202
NOTE: We no longer use commas between the groups of digits. Many countries use a comma as a
decimal point; thus, to avoid confusion do not use commas for grouping the digits.
CLASS ACTIVITY:
Question 1. Write the following figures in words:
(i). 15284037 (ii). 789030861 (iii). 512278374415
(iv). 734015090700018 (v). 89780260044784 .
Question 2. Express the following in figures:
(i). Seven hundred and ninety-eight million, one hundred and thirty- two thousand five
Hundred and forty- five.
(ii). Twenty-four billion, seventy-eight million, four hundred and thirty-six thousand, one
Hundred and forty -eight.
(iii). Thirteen trillion, nine hundred and forty-one billion, three hundred and twenty-four million, forty-
seven thousand, one hundred and ninety-eight.
(iv). Four hundred and seventeen trillion, two hundred and eighty billion, five hundred and six
thousand, eight hundred and eighteen.
(v). Eighteen million, twenty-five thousand, six hundred and one.
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE REASONING
Problem solving in quantitative aptitude reasoning using large numbers
Sample1:
Study these examples and use them to answer the given questions.
(81:9) (100:10) (144:12)
(5:25) (8:64) (13:169)
(a) (7:49) (10:100) (11:?)
Here first numbers in a bracket are squared to have the second number.
(11:?) = (11: 121)
(b) (490000: 700) (1210000:?)
Here the square root of the first numbers in a bracket gives second number.
(1210000: ?) = (1210000: 1100)
Evaluation:
Now do the following:
1. (12300 : 151290000) (45600 : ?)
2. (10000 : 100000000) (200000 : ?)
3. (9000 : 30) (?:250)
Sample 2 4 100
(a) (b)
3 5 50 5 000 000 ?
60
(b) 50 x 100 x ? = 5 000 000
5 000 x ? = 5 000 000
5 000 000
? = 5 000 = 1 000

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Class activity
Now do the following using the above samples
(a) ? (b) 110

30 50 500 250
60 000 ?

Simple codes
A way of sending messages is by using numbers to represent letters of the alphabet. The method is called coding.
Example: What does (13, 25) (6, 1, 20, 8, 5, 18) mean if 1 – 26 is represented by the letters of the English alphabet
A – Z.
Solution: 13 = M; 26 = Y; 6 = F; A = 1; T = 20; H = 8; E = 5; 18 = R.
Thus, (13, 25) (6, 1, 20, 8, 5, 18) mean MY FATHER.
Class activity
Given that the English alphabets is represented with figures 1 to 26, translate
1. a) (20, 8, 5) (2, 15, 25) b) (14, 9, 7, 5, 18) (1, 18, 5, 1)
2. Change the following messages to codes:
a) A funny boy
b) I love figures
c) Maths is fun.
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1. Write the year you were admitted to DLHS in Roman numerals.
2. What is the place value of 7 in: a) 76500000000; b) 4.752 c) 347108.345?
3. Write 90457623145 in words
4. Write Three trillion, four hundred and fifty-eight billion, five hundred and four in figures.
5. The place value of 5 in 43.576 is ……
ASSIGNMENT
1. Find the sum of MCDV and XCIV leave your answer in Roman numeral.
2. Write 1999 in Roman numeral
3. Express in words only: a) 2.5 billion b) 1.3 trillion
4. Express a) 560 000 b) 3 500 000 in a mixture of digits and words.
5. Write in figures only, three billion, four hundred and fifty thousand, and seven.
KEYWORDS
i) Numbers ii) Place value iii) Numeral.

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WEEK TWO

TOPIC: WHOLE NUMBERS

CONTENTS:

 Order of Operations (PEMDAS/ BODMAS)


 Addition and subtraction of numbers with place values
 Use of number line.
 Addition and subtraction of positive and negative numbers.

ORDER OF OPERATIONS (PEMDAS/ BODMAS)

Can you answer this?

7-1x0+3÷3= ?

In arithmetic, there are two types of components: the numbers themselves and the operators (also called
operations) that tell you what to do with those numbers. The basic operators in arithmetic are addition (sum),
subtraction (difference), multiplication (product) and division (quotient).

So, in the sum 7 x 3 + 5 there are three numbers; 7, 3 and 5 and two operators, a multiplication (x) and an
addition (+). The order of operations used throughout mathematics, science, technology and many computer
programming languages is expressed here.

1. exponents (index) and roots


2. multiplication and division
3. addition and subtraction

The definitive order of operations is summed up in the acronym BODMAS, which stands for Brackets, Order,
Divide, Multiply, Add, Subtract. It would be easier if BODMAS was recognised worldwide, but unfortunately it
isn’t.

In the USA it’s normally called PEMDAS (Parenthesis, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract). Canadians sit in
the middle with BEMDAS (Brackets, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract).
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Regardless of the exact terminology, the sequence remains the same:

Step 1: Brackets

The highest level order is defined by anything contained in brackets. These sums are always calculated first. But
what if there is more than one set of brackets? The rule then is to start at the innermost set and work outwards.
Performing each bracketed calculation should leave you with a single number, allowing that set of brackets to be
removed.

Step 2: Order or Exponent

The terms Order or Exponent all relate to operations containing powers or indices such as squaring or square
rooting. These calculations are all performed second.

Steps 3 and 4: Divide and Multiply

The third and fourth steps, division and multiplication, have equal weight and so form a third level order of
operations that are carried out at the same time. Importantly, when two or more operations of the same order
appear one-after-another, the operations should be carried out from left to right.

So, if faced with a sum like:

18 ÷ 6 × 4 ÷ 8

You just work from left to right. Eighteen over six is three, times four is twelve, divided by eight is 1.5.

Steps 5 and 6: Add and Subtract

Again, these carry equal weight. Therefore the addition and subtractions form the fourth and final level order of
operations The third and fourth steps, division and multiplication, have equal weight and so form a third level
order of operations that are carried out at the same time, again working from left to right.

Can you answer this NOW?

7 - 1 x 0 + 32 ÷ 3 = ?

Here’s the solution:

7–0+9÷3 = 7 – 0 + 3 = 10

CLASS ACTIVITY

Evaluate the values of the following:

A. 7x5+2–7÷1
B. 15 ÷ 3 + 5 x 2
C. 7–5+8÷2x2
D. 12 (2 + 1) ÷ 2 + 2

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ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION BY PLACE VALUE
A digit is any symbol used to write a whole number. A digit is one of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. All
numbers are made up of one or more digits. A group of three digits is called a period. A small space separate the
periods. At each space, say the name of the period. A place-value chart shows the value of the digits in a number.

EXAMPLES

1. T U 2. H T U 3. T H T U 4. T H T U
3 4 4 2 3 6 4 2 1 9 6 0 5
9 5 8 - 2 8 9 8 - 4 3 2 6
4 2 + 3 6 1 3 5 2 3 5 2 7 9
8 5 8 4 2

CLASS ACTIVITY

1. T U 2. H T U 3. T H T U 4. T H T U
7 9 8 6 2 0 4 6 3 4 1 6
8 6 1 2 7 - 1 4 2 - 2 8 3 2
+5 7 + 6 3

USE OF NUMBER LINE

A number line is a graduated straight line which is used to represent numbers which can be positive or negative.
The numbers increase as we progress to the right and decrease as we move to the left as shown in the figure

below.

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The arrows at the end of both sides of the straight line show the numbers progress along the number line. 0 is
called the origin because positive and negative numbers ORIGINate from that point.

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION ON THE NUMBER LINE

Addition: to add using the number line, we move to the right (forward) of the number line counting each step till
the addition is complete. The number at the end is the result of the addition.

Subtraction: to subtract using the number line, we move to the left (backwards) of the number line counting each
step till the subtraction is complete. The number at the end is the result of the subtraction.

Try out the exercises on this worksheet using the first representation as an example:

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KEYWORDS:

BODMAS, PEMDAS, Place Value, addition, subtraction, number line

ASSIGNMENT:

PRACTICE EXERCISE:

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WEEK 3

BASIC OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS

CONTENTS:

 Multiplication of positive and negative numbers


 Division of integer
 Word problems

Multiplication of whole numbers

The numbers used in multiplication have special names as illustrated below:

141(factor) x 17 (factor) = 2397 (product)

The product is a multiple of each of the factors, i.e.

2397 is a multiple of 141

2397 is a multiple of 17

Multiplication is a short way of writing repeated additions. For example,

3x4 = 3 lots of 4

= 4+4+4

= 12

With directed numbers,

(+4) + (+4) + (+4) = 3 lots of (+4)

= 3 X (+4)

The multiplier is 3. It is positive. Thus,

(+3) X (+4) = (+4) + (+4) + (+4) = +12

(+3) X (+4)

1 X (+4)

0 +4 +8 +12

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The illustration above shows 1 x (+4) and (+3) x (+4) as movement on the number line. The movements are in the
same direction from 0.

Similarly,

(-2)+ (-2) + (-2) + (-2) + (-2)

= 5 lots of (-2)

= 5 X (-2)

The multiplier is 5. It is positive.

Thus, (+5) x (-2)

= (-2) + (-2) + (-2) + (-2) + (-2)

= -10

This is illustrated below:

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0

In general, (+a) x (+b) = + (a x b)

(+a) x (-b) = - (a x b)

(-a) x (-b) = + (a x b)

Examples 1:

i. (+9) x (+4) = + (9 x 4) = +36


ii. (+17) x (-3) = - (17 x 3) = - 51
iii. (-9) x (-3) = + ( 9 x 3) = + 27

Negative multiplier

In general: (-a) x (-b) = -(a x b)


(-a) x (-b) = + (a x b)

Examples 2

Simplify the following:

a. (-7) x (+4) = -(7 x 4) = -28


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b. (-5) x (-18) = + (5 x 18) = +90

CLASS ACTIVITY:

1) Simplify the following:


(i) (-9) × (-5) × (-3)
(ii) –(15 + -5) ÷ (-4)
(iii) (- 120) ÷ (-3)
2) Copy and complete the table below

Division of whole numbers

Division by a number, e.g., 4 is best considered as multiplication by 1/4, and then we can use the results for
the multiplication that we have established. Thus,

+8 ÷ (+2) = + 1/2 x (+8) = + 4

-8 ÷ (+2) = + 1/2 x (-8) = -4

+8 ÷ (-2) = - 1/2 x (+8) = -4

-8 ÷ (-2) = - 1/2 x (-8) = +4

In general: (+a) ÷(-b) = - (a ÷ 𝑏)

(-a) ÷(-b) = + (a ÷ 𝑏)

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Examples:

Simplify the following:

i) 5 + 8 ÷ (+4)
ii) (-3 + (-5)) ÷ (-2)
iii) (+6 – (- 8)) ÷ (-4)

Solutions:

i) 5 + 8 ÷ (+4)
Since 2 x (+4) +8,
Then 5 + 8 =13
ii) (-3 + (-5)) ÷ (-2)
First, (-3 + (-5)) = -3-5 = -8
Therefore, (-3 + (-5)) ÷ (-2) = -8 ÷ -2
= + (8 ÷ 2) = 4
iii) (+6 – (-8)) ÷ (-4)
= (6 + 8) ÷ (-4)
= 14 ÷ (-4)
= - (14 ÷ 4)
= -31/2

CLASS ACIVITY:

Simplify the following:

i) (+5 – (-8)) ÷ (-2)


ii) (+7 – (0)) ÷2
iii) (+6) ÷ (-2)

Word problems

Examples:

1) When 5 is added to a certain number, the result is 6. Find the number.


2) I think of a number and subtract 7 from it. The result is 10. Find the number.
3) Find the number which when multiplied by 4, the result is 36.
4) When a certain number is divided by 15, the result is 6. Find the number.

Solutions:

1) Using diagram,
NUMBER ADD 5 6

1 16
SUBTRACT 5 6
Therefore, the number = 6-5 = 1

Calculation:

Let number be x, then,

x+5=6

subtract 5 from both sides:

x+5–5=6–5

x+0=1

Therefore, x = 1.

2) Using diagram,
NUMBER SUBTRACT 7 10
17 10
ADD 7
Therefore, the number is 10 + 7 = 17.

Calculation:

Let the number be x, then

x – 7 = 10

add 7 from both sides:

x – 7 + 7 = 10 + 7

x – 0 = 17

Therefore, x = 17.

3) Using diagram,

NUMBER MULTIPLY BY 4 36

9 DIVIDE BY 4 36

Therefore, the number is 36 ÷ 4 = 9.

Calculation:

Let the number be X,


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X * 4 = 36

Divide both sides by 4:

(X * 4) ÷ 4 = 36 ÷ 4

X*1=9

Therefore, X = 9.

CLASS ACTIVITY: Simplify the following:

i) Find the number which when 3 is subtracted from, the result is 4.


ii) Kolade was given a certain amount of money as allowance. He spent £405 and he has £395 left. How
much did he have left?
iii) Find the number which when multiplied by 5/2, it gives 10
iv) When 4 is multiplied by a certain number and divided by 3, the result is 5. Find the number?

PRACTICE QUESTIONS

1) Simplify the following


i) (+20) ÷ (-10)
ii) (-14) ÷ (-7)
iii) (+60) ÷ ((-3) x (-5))
iv) ((-2) x (-12)) ÷ (+6)2
v) (-8) x (+5) ÷ (-10)
2) Copy and complete the multiplication table below
X -6 -4 -2 +2 +4 +6
-6
-4
-2
0
+2
+4
+6
ASSIGNMENT

1) Copy and complete the following

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2) I think of a number, added 12 to it and the result gives 20. What number did I think of?
3) When 4is subtracted from 5 times a certain number, the result is 26. What is the number?
4) Three quarters of a certain number is 18. Find the number.
5) A man borrowed a certain amount from a cooperative society and was to pay back in 12 equal
installments. If each payment is £1500, what is the sum of money borrowed?

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WEEK – 4
TOPIC: LCM and HCF of whole numbers:
CONTENTS:
 Rules of divisibility
 Definitions: Even, odd, Prime and composite numbers.
 Factors, Multiples and Index form.
 Expressing Numbers as product of Prime Factors.
 Common factors and the Highest Common Factor (H.C.F) of whole numbers
 Least Common Multiple (L.C.M) of whole numbers.
 Quantitative reasoning.
Rules of Divisibility
There are some simple rules of divisibility which enable us to find out whether a certain number is divisible by 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 or 11.
Any whole number is exactly divisible by
2 if its last digit is even or zero
3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3
4 if its last two digits form a number divisible by 4
5 if its last digits is 5 or 0
6 if its last digit is even and the sum of its digits is divisible by 3
8 if its last three digits form a number divisible by 8
9 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9
10 if its last digit is 0
11 if the difference between the sum of the digits in the odd places and the sum of the digits in the
even places is divisible by 11, or the difference is zero.

CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Using the rules of divisibility, find out which of the following numbers are divisible by
a) 2 b) 5 c) 4
i) 136 ii) 4 881 iii) 372 iv) 62, 784 v) 1010
2. Which of the following numbers are divisible by a) 3 and 9 b) 4 and 5?
a) 637 245 b) 134 721 c) 10140.
DEFINITIONS
EVEN NUMBERS: Even numbers are numbers that when divided by two has no remainder. All numbers that end in
0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 are even. Examples include: 34, 86, 26890, etc.
ODD NUMBERS: These set of numbers has a remainder of one when it is divided by 2. All numbers that end in 1,
3, 5, 7 and 9 are odd numbers. Examples are 81, 1247, 30096, etc.
COMPOSITE NUMBERS: These are numbers that are not prime numbers. They have factors other than 1 and the
number itself. All even numbers except 2 are composite numbers.
FACTORS, MULTIPLES & THEIR RELATIONSHIP
FACTORS: When two or more smaller numbers multiply to give a bigger number, these smaller numbers are
called factors of the bigger number. In another sense we can say a factor is a number which can divide another
number exactly without any remainder.
Examples:
 The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , and 24.
 The factors of 60 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 60.
 The factors of 50 are 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50.

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MULTIPLES: This is the product of numbers (factors) that gives other numbers.
Thus, 24 is: a multiple of 1 twenty-four times.
a multiple of 2 twelve times.
a multiple of 3 eight times.
a multiple of 4 six times.
a multiple of 6 four times.
a multiple of 8 three times.
a multiple of 12 two times.
a multiple of 24 (itself) once.
This shows the relationship between Factors and Multiples.
NOTE: The Teacher can make students do same analysis (orally) for 60 and 50 as has just been done for 24
above.
PRIME NUMBERS.
A prime number is a whole number that has only two factors which are 1 and the number itself. In other words, a
whole number that has no other factor(s) except 1 and the number itself is referred to as a Prime Number.
Number 1 or Integer 1 is not considered as a Prime Number.
Examples of Prime Numbers:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71,
73, 79, 83, 89, 97 as those prime numbers between 1 and 100.
NOTE: Other higher ones should be listed also.
CLASS ACTIVITY
1: List the factors of (a). 48. (b). 64. (c)105 .
2: 48, 64, 108 are multiples of which numbers?
3: Define a Prime Number; find the sum of all the prime numbers between 1 and 30.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FACTORS AND PRIME FACTORS
 The factors of 24 are 1, 2 , 3, 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , and 24. However, those factors that are Prime
among all these are only 2 and 3. Hence, the Prime Factors of 24 are 2 and 3 only.
 The factors of 60 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 60. However, those factors that
are Prime among all these are only 2, 3 and 5. Hence, the Prime Factors of 60 are 2, 3 and 5
only.
 The factors of 50 are 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50. However, those factors which are Prime among all
these are only 2 and 5. Hence, the Prime Factors of 50 are 2 and 5 only.
EXPRESSING NUMBERS AS PRODUCT OF PRIME FACTORS.
Examples:
1. Express 200 as product of prime factors in index form.
Solution:
200 = 4 × 50 = 2 × 2 × 25 = 2 × 2 × 5 × 5 = 22 × 52
2. Express 180 as product of prime factors in index form.
Solution:
2 × 90 = 2 × 2 × 45 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 15 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 = 22 × 32 × 5.
3. Express 510 as product of prime factors in index form.
Solution:
2 × 255 = 2 × 3 × 85 = 2 × 3 × 5 × 17 .
CLASS ACTIVITY
1: List the factors of 250 and the Prime factors of 250.
2: List the factors and prime factors of 180.
3: Express 252 as product of prime factors in index form.

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4: Express 440 as product of prime factors in index form.
5: Express 15288 as product of prime factors in index form.
COMMON FACTORS AND HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR (H.C.F) OF TWO, THREE OR MORE NUMBERS.
Worked Examples:
1. Find the Common factors of 42 and 70.
Solution:
The factors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 , 14 , 21, 42.
The factors of 70 are 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 35, 70.
The factors that are common to both numbers or which are found in the two lists are: 1, 2, 7, 14.
The highest of the common factors here is 14. Hence, the Highest Common Factor (H.C.F ) of 42 and 70 = 14.
2. Find the Common Factors of 18, 27 and 36. What is their Highest Common Factor?
Solution:
The factors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18.
The factors of 27 are 1, 3, 7, and 27.
The factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36.
Their Common Factors are: 1, 3. Thus, their Highest Common Factor ( H.C. F ) is 3.
Note: Teacher may improvise ALITERNATIVES (other methods) and demonstrate to learners in class.
LEAST COMMON MULTIPLE (L.C.M) OF NUMBERS.
Worked Examples:
1. Find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of 42 and 70.
Solution:
Write 42 as product of prime numbers as follows:
42 = 2 × 21 = 2 × 3 × 7.
Write 70 as product of prime numbers as follows:
70 = 2 × 35 = 2 × 5 × 7.
Notice those numbers common to both set of prime numbers. The common numbers are 2 and 7.
The Product of 2 and 7 gives 14. Thus, in another way and by the way 14 is the Highest Common Factor
(H.C.F). But the L.C.M (Lowest Common Multiple) = 2 × 7 × 3 × 5 = 21 × 10 = 210.
Therefore the L. C. M of 42 and 70 = 210.
2. Find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of 18, 27 and 36.
Solution:
Write 18 = 2 × 9 = 2 × 3 × 3 = 2 × 32
Write 27 = 3 × 9 = 𝟑 × 3 × 3 = 33 .
Write 36 = 2 × 18 = 2 × 2 × 9 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 = 22 × 32 .
NOTE: Teacher to assist Learners to read out those numbers which are to be selected and multiplied together
from among the listed prime factors of the given numbers (as in above ) so as to arrive at the final correct L.C.M
value.
In this example, the numbers to be picked for L.C.M are 33 × 22 .
Therefore the Least Common Multiple of 18, 27 and 36 = 33 × 22 = 27 × 4 = 𝟏𝟎𝟖.
NOTE: Teachers should ensure the difference between LCM and HCF is appreciated at the course of teaching
these topics
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Find the Common Factors of 60 and 84. State the Highest Common Factor.
2. What is the Lowest Common Multiple of (L.C.M) of 60 and 84?
3. Find the L.C.M and H.C.F of 42, 90 and 105.

22
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE REASONING ON LCM
Sample:
23x23x7 = 448
2x32x5 = 90
22x32 = 36
Example:
Find the missing number: ?? x 3 x 5 x 7 = 1680
Solution:
Let the number be 𝑥 ∴ 𝑥 × 3 × 5 × 7 = 1680 → 105𝑥 = 1680
1680
→𝑥=
105
→ 𝑥 = 16
Expressing 16 as a multiple of 2 in index form yields 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 2 4
Therefore 24 x 3 x 5 x 7 = 1680
CLASS ACTIVITY
Do the following:
1. ?? x 3 x 5 = 60
2. 2 x ?? x 5 = 6480
3. 52 x 7 x ?? = 1925

QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE REASONING ON HCF


Sample:
(a). 28 = 2 x 2 x 7 = 22 x 7 (b). 36 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 = 22 x 32 (c). 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 23 x 3
Example: Find the missing number in 64 = 𝑥6
Solution:
64 = 𝑥 × 𝑥 × 𝑥 × 𝑥 × 𝑥 × 𝑥
Multiply 2 by it-self in 6 times gives 64.
∴ the missing number is 2 . This implies 64 = 26
ACTIVITY
Now do the following by supplying the missing number in each case:
1. 84 = ?? x 2 x 3 x 7
2. ?? = 2 x 3 x 5
3. ?? = 32 x 52
PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. Given the numbers 3510, 7460, 4815, and 5645, state which of the numbers are:
a) Divisible by 3 b) divisible by 5 c) divisible by 15.
2. List the factors of: a) 45 b) 60 c) 120
3. Find the LCM and HCF of a) 20, 30 and 60; b) 32, 48 and 72
4. Express 72 as a product of its prime factors in index form
5. List the first five multiples of 7.
ASSIGNMENT
1. Which of the following numbers are divisible by 6?
a) 2352 b) 8134 c) 7812
2. List the common factors 45 and 60
3. Find the positive difference between the HCF of 24 and 36 and the LCM of 15 and 20.
4. Express 120 as products of its prime factors in index form.
5. Find the prime factors of a) 24 b) 60 c) 35.

23
WEEK 5

TOPIC: Counting in Base Two

CONTENTS:

(a) Counting in group of twos.


(b) Conversion from base 10 numerals to binary numbers.
(c) Conversion from binary to decimal

NUMBER BASES

In Mathematics, a base or radix is the number of different digits or combination of digits and letters that a system
of counting uses to represent numbers. For example, the most common base used today is the decimal system.
Because "dec" means 10, it uses the 10 digits from 0 to 9. Most people think that we most often use base 10
because we have 10 fingers.

A base can be any whole number bigger than 0 (if it was 0, then there would be no digits). The base of a number
may be written next to the number: for instance, 238 means 23 in base 8 (which is equal to 19 in base 10).

NUMBER OF BASE DIGITS USED NAMES


2 0, 1 Binary
3 0, 1, 2 Ternary
4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quaternary
5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Quinary
6 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Senary
7 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Septenary
8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Octal
9 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Nonary
10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Decimal/ denary
11 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Undecimal
12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Duodecimal
16 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F Hexadecimal
20 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J Vigesimal

The popularity of the base 2, 8 and 16 is because of its use in modern technology.

COUNTING IN GROUPS OF TWOS (BINARY)

A Binary Number is made up of only 0s and 1s. An example is 110100

There is no 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 in Binary! A "bit" is a single binary digit. The number above has 6 bits.

Binary numbers have many uses in Mathematics and beyond. In fact the digital world uses binary digits.

24
To show that a number is a binary number, follow it with a little 2 like this: 1012. This way people won't think it is
the decimal number "101" (one hundred and one).

How do we Count using Binary?

Binary
0 We start at 0
1 Then 1
??? But then there is no symbol for 2 ... what do we do?
Well how do we count in Decimal?
0 Start at 0
... Count 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and then...
9 This is the last digit in Decimal
So we start back at 0 again, but add 1 on the
10
left

The same thing is done in binary.

Binary
0 Start at 0
1 Then 1
10 Now start back at 0 again, but add 1 on the left
11 1 more
??? But NOW what?
What happens in Decimal?
99 When we run out of digits, we ...
... start back at 0 again, but add 1 on the
100
left

And that is what we do in binary.

Binary
0 Start at 0
1 Then 1
10 Start back at 0 again, but add 1 on the left
11
start back at 0 again, and add one to the number on the left...
100 ... but that number is already at 1 so it also goes back to 0 ...
... and 1 is added to the next position on the left
101
110
111
25
Start back at 0 again (for all 3 digits),
1000
add 1 on the left
1001

Decimal vs. Binary

Here are some equivalent values:

DECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
BINARY 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

Binary numbers also have a beautiful and elegant pattern:

BINARY PLACE VALUES (POSITION)

In the Decimal System there are Ones, Tens, Hundreds, etc

In Binary there are Ones, Twos, Fours, etc, like this:

Converting numbers in base 10 to base 2

26
Numbers in base 10 are sometimes referred to as Decimal Numbers or Denary. Decimal numbers can be
converted to binary numbers by dividing the number repeatedly by 2 and the remainders written on the right
column until the last number is zero (0).

Worked Examples: 2. Express 140ten as a binary number.

1. Express 2710 as a binary number. Solution

Solution 2 140

2 27 2 70 remainder 0

2 13 remainder 1 2 35 remainder 0

2 6 remainder 1 2 17 remainder 1

2 3 remainder 0 2 8 remainder 1

2 1 remainder 1 2 4 remainder 0

2 0 remainder 1 2 2 remainder 0

2 1 remainder 0

2 0 remainder 1

CONVERTING NUMBERS IN BASE 2 TO BASE 10

When binary number are expressed as a sum of multiple of power of two ,the sum of the values of those powers
is a number in base ten . Hence, to convert numbers in base two (binary number ) to numbers in base ten , we
express the numbers as sums of multiples of two.

Example 1

Convert 1011₂ to a number in base ten Example 2

Solution Convert 1001two to base 10

1011₂ = 1 × 2³ + 0 × 2² + 1× 2¹+ 1×2° Solution:


= 1 × 8 + 0 × 4 +1× 2+1 ×1
10012 = 1×23+0×22+0×21+1×20
= 8 + 0 + 2+ 1
= 1×8+0×4+0×1+1×1
= 1110
= 8+0+0+1
10112= 1110
= 910

10012 = 910

27
ASSIGNMENT

Convert the following base ten numbers into binary

(a) 62 (b) 23 (c) 93 (d) 74

Convert the following base ten numbers into binary

(a) 1011
(b) 10101
(c) 10010
(d) 1100

What is the last digit of:

(a) an even binary number?


(b) an odd binary number?

1. Covert the following binary to base ten


(a) 25
(b) 60
(c) 56
(d) 71
(e) 32
(f) 19

2. Study the table below. Fill in the answer section from the

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Binary Place 512 = 2 256 = 2 128 = 2 64 = 2 32 = 2 16 = 2 8=2 4=2 2=2 1=2
Value ANSWERS
Questions
A 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 32 + 8 + 2 = 42
B 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
C 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
D 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
E 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
F 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
G 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
WEEK 6
TOPIC: FRACTIONS
CONTENTS:
 Definition and types
 Conversion of fraction to decimal and vice versa
 Conversion of fractions to percentages and vice versa.

What are fractions?


Fractions are portion or part of whole number that describes quantities. Examples
Consider the shapes below:

1 ½ 1/4

Whole half

Types of fraction
Fractions are divided into four basic types:
(i). A Proper Fraction – It is a fraction having both numerator and denominator. And such is
said to be rational. In a proper fraction, its numerator is smaller in quantity than its
denominator. We can use a funny example to explain. Suppose a 15 years old boy is made
to carry on his head two small tubers of yam. We can see that he can comfortably and
conveniently carry them without feeling the heaviness of the weight of the tubers, on his
neck. If we let the boy be the denominator and the two tubers of yam to be numerator, we
can reason or compare that the numerator (the yam tubers) and the 15 year-old boy (the
denominator) are not equal in weight. Obviously in this example the numerator is lighter
than the denominator. It is a proper thing for anyone to do when placing loads on a child’s
head. The load on a child’s head should not be heavier than the body mass of that child. So,
it is proper. That is exactly what a proper fraction looks like.
4 1 12 43 34 122 72
Examples of proper fractions are : 19 , 13 , 13 , 81 , 43 , 123 , 144 , etc.
(ii). An Improper Fraction – It is also a fraction having both numerator and denominator. But
for an improper fraction its numerator is bigger in quantity than its denominator. Using our
funny example above, we will believe that it is not proper for a seven-year old boy to carry
a whole drum of petrol upon his head. It will be improper to do that. So, an improper
fraction has its numerator larger in quantity than its denominator.
19 21 72 243 53 123 172
Examples of improper fractions are : 9 , 13 , 63 , 81 , 35 , 122 , 144 , etc.
(iii). A mixed Fraction – It is a fraction having two parts merged together. One part is a whole
number while the other part is purely a proper fraction. Therefore, a mixed fraction is a
2
joining of both a whole number and a proper fraction. As an example 4 5 is a mixed
2
fraction, containing 4 as a whole number and as proper fraction. Other examples of
5
1 7 9 3 111 7 10
mixed fractions are : 7 7 , 7 8 , 1 13 , 2 5 , 123 121 , 40 9 , 41 11 , etc.
(iv). A decimal Fraction – It is simply another language or another word for a decimal number.
i.e. a number having a decimal point present in it. A decimal number (decimal fraction) is
opposed to a vulgar fraction. A vulgar fraction is a fraction having both a numerator and a
denominator. The word vulgar simply means common or familiar. Both the proper and the
improper fractions can be called as vulgar fractions, because both types have numerators and
denominators. Another name for vulgar fraction is common fraction. Examples of Decimal
Fractions are: 9.45 , 9.4558976 , 0.0003287 , 8.91234 , 9.00674 , 0.1 , 0.01432 , etc.
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. What do you understand by word ‘fractions’?
2. List or mention 4 types of fractions and give 2 examples of each.
3. State the difference between ‘vulgar’ and ‘decimal’ fractions.
CONVERSION OF FRACTION TO DECIMAL
There are two methods of doing this conversion. There is the general method which can be used any
time and on any type of vulgar fraction; and there is another method when the denominator of the
fraction contains power/powers of ten. In this second case the given fraction can first be converted
to an equivalent fraction.

Examples:
1. Convert the following common fractions to decimal fractions (decimal numbers).
2 3 144
, 4 , 225 .
5
Solutions:
First, we can use the equivalent fractions method, before the general method.
2 2 2×2 4 2
 Write 5 as 5 = 5 × 2 = 10 = 0.4 = 0.4
5
3 3 3 × 25 75 3
Write as = = = 0.75 ∴ = 0.75
4 4 4 × 25 100 4
144 144 144 × 4 576 144
 Write 225 as 225 = 225 × 4 = 1000 = 0.576 ∴ 225 = 0.576
Second, the general method (for all condition) is used when the denominator of the
given fraction does not contain power(s) of 10. This is by dividing the numerator by
the denominator mentally or through long-division previously learnt by students in
their Primary School days.
NOTE: Teachers to demonstrate this approach to students as an alternative method.
Conversion of decimals to fractions.
Examples:
1. Convert 0.65 to a common or a vulgar fraction.
Solution:
To do this we simply multiply the given decimal fraction by 100 and at the same time divide it by
100.
0.65 × 100
Write 0.65 as 0.65 = 100 . If we carefully notice the expression we will see that what we are
doing
100
in essence is just multiplying 0.65 by unity (1). Because = 1.
100
0.65 × 100 65 13 13
⇒ = 100 = 20 , ( when further reduced to the lowest term ). ∴ 0.65 = 20 .
100
2. Convert 0.6 to a common or a vulgar fraction.
Solution:
To do this we simply multiply the given decimal fraction by 10 and at the same time divide it by 10.
0.6 × 10 6 3 3
Write 0.6 as 0.6 = 10 = 10 = 5 . ⇒ ∴ 0.6 = 5 .
3. Convert 0.125 to a common fraction.
Solution:
To do this we multiply the given decimal fraction by 1000 and at the same time divide it by 1000 , to
0.125 × 1000 125 25 5 1
have 0.125 = = = = = , ( when fully simplified to its lowest form ).
1000 1000 200 40 8
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Change the following common/vulgar fractions to decimal fractions.
9 1 2 17 123
, , , , .
15 19 23 3 341
2. Change the following decimal fractions to the vulgar or common fractions. Change the
following common/vulgar fractions to decimal fractions.
9 1 2 17 123
, 19 , 23 , 3 , 341 .
15

0.56 , 0.0015 , 5.35 , 0.222 , 1.98


Conversion of fractions to percentages.
Examples :
𝟐
1. Express 𝟏𝟓 as percentage.
Solution:
There are two possible ways to answer the question.
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐𝟎𝟎 𝟏
METHOD – 1: Write 𝟏𝟓 as 𝟏𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟏𝟓 = 𝟏𝟑 𝟑 %.
𝟐 𝟏
= 𝟏𝟑 𝟑 % in percentage.
𝟏𝟓
𝟐⁄ 𝟐⁄ 𝟐 𝟒𝟎⁄ 𝟏
𝟐 ×𝟐𝟎 𝟏𝟑
𝟑 𝟑 𝟑 𝟑 𝟑
METHOD – 2: Write as 𝟏𝟓⁄ = = = =
𝟏𝟓 𝟑 𝟓 𝟓×𝟐𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝟐 𝟏
= 𝟏𝟑 𝟑 % in percentage also
𝟏𝟓
Conversion of percentages to fractions.
Examples:
1. Express 65% as fraction.
Solution:
𝟔𝟓 𝟏𝟑 𝟏𝟑
Write 65% as 65% = = . 65% = .
𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟐𝟎 𝟐𝟎
2. Express 24% as fraction .
Solution:
𝟐𝟒 𝟔 𝟔
Write 24% as 24% = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟐𝟓 . ∴ 24% = 𝟐𝟓 .
3. Express 0.35% as fraction.
Solution:
𝟎.𝟑𝟓 𝟎.𝟑𝟓 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝟑𝟓 𝟕
Write 0.35% as 0.35% = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎 .
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Express each of the following fractions as percentage.
𝟓 𝟏𝟕 𝟗 𝟏
, 𝟐𝟎 , 𝟐𝟓 , 𝟗𝟎 .
𝟖
2. Express each of the following percentages as fraction.
64% , 45 % , 0.125 % , 0.17 % .

Quantitative aptitude
Problems solving in quantitative aptitude reasoning on equivalent fractions

Sample A:
2 7 1
=7= =
5 49 7
1 4 1
=4= =
3 16 4
1 3 1
=3= =
2 9 3
7 4 3
We want to see how we got the answer, , and
49 16 9
We do some reasoning:
2 7
=7=
5 49

Becomes:
7 7 1
= =
(2 + 5) × 7 49 7

1 4
=4=
3 20
Becomes:
4 4 1
= =
(1 + 3) × 4 16 4

1 3
=3=
2 9
Becomes:
3 3 1
= =
(1 + 2) × 3 9 3

i. ii. iii.
¼ 5 2 3
¼ 32

1. 2. 3.
20 5/4 1½ 6
128 8

3 3 ? 2 2 ¼
4 5 6.

? 3 5 13 1/8 ?
1/7 ? 1/8 6 2 1/4

21 3/7 ? 3/4 1/8 ?

PRACTICE EXERCISE
𝟏
1. Express the following as improper fraction a) 𝟏𝟑 𝟑 a) 23⅗
2 17 123
2. Convert the following to decimal fractions, a) , b) , c)
23 3 341
19 21 72 243 53 123 172
3. Express as a mixed number: , , , , , ,
9 13 63 81 35 122 144
4. Convert the following decimal fractions to common fractions a) 0.56 b) 12.5 c) 1.65
5. Express each of the following percentages as fraction.
a) 75% b) 60 %
ASSIGNMENT
2 3
1. Express the following fractions in percentages a)5 , 𝑏) 4
2. What fraction of 1 minute is 15 seconds?
3. What fraction of 360 is 30?
4. Express 0.85 as percentages
5. Express the following as terminating decimals a) 5/9 b) 4 7/16.
KEY WORDS:
 Fraction
 Improper fraction
 Decimal
 Percentage
 Denominator and Numerator.
WEEK 8
TOPIC: FRACTIONS
CONTENTS:
 Equivalent fraction
 Ordering of fraction
 Quantitative reasoning
Equivalent fractions.
When are fractions said to be equivalent?
Two or more fractions are said to be equivalent or exactly the same if they have the same quantity
or have same value. In other words two or more fractions are equivalent if they can be reduced to
the same lowest terms. Examples:
1 2 3 4 5 7 14
= 4 = 6 = 8 = 10 = 14 = 28 = . . . These entire fractions are same, as they all have same
2
amount, value or quantity.
3 9 12 15 21
The same thing applies to these ones: 7 = 21 = 28 = 35 = 49 = . . . , they are all equal and are
therefore equivalent value.
Test of Equivalent Fractions.
𝒎 𝒕
If two fractions 𝒏 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝒌 are equivalent then, 𝒎 × 𝒌 = 𝒏 × 𝒕. So to test whether or not two
fractions are the same we equate them and then cross multiply. If the two results of cross multiplying
are exactly the same then it shows that the two fractions are equivalent.
Examples:
3 9
 If 7 = 21, then 3 x 21 = 7 x 9 = 63.
5 7
 If = , then 10 x 7 = 5 x 14 = 70.
10 14
9 18
 If 7 = 14 , then 7 x 18 = 9 x 14 = 126.
ALITERNATIVELY: Each of the fractions can be reduced to its lowest term. If the lowest terms are
equal to each other or to one another after the reduction, then it shows the equivalence. However, if
after reduction the results are not the same, it then means the fractions are not equivalent.
NOTE: Teacher to demonstrate this approach to students with few examples.
Writing Equivalent Fractions.
One fraction can be converted to another or to a new one which is still the original fraction.
This is done either by Multiplying the numerator and denominator of the initial fraction by a fixed
number (a fixed amount) or by Dividing the numerator and denominator of the initial fraction by a
𝒂
fixed number (a fixed amount). To explain this again, we mean to change 𝒃 to an equivalent
𝑎 𝑎𝑥𝑚 𝑎 𝑎⁄
fraction we can write it either as = or as = 𝑏⁄𝑚 .
𝑏 𝑏𝑥𝑚 𝑏 𝑚
Examples:
4 16
 We can convert to by multiplying numerator 4 and denominator 9 each by 4.
9 36
4 4𝑥4 16
= = .
9 9𝑥4 36
28 4
 We can convert to by dividing numerator 28 and denominator 63 each by 7.
63 9
𝒚𝒊𝒆𝒍𝒅𝒔 𝟐𝟖⁄ 𝟒
𝟕
→ 𝟔𝟑⁄ = .
𝟕 𝟗
Reducing Equivalent Fractions to their lowest forms
The lowest term of a vulgar fraction is obtained when there is no other number (factor) that can
uniformly divide or reduce its numerator and its denominator furthermore. For example, among the
4 12 48 96 4
equivalent fractions 5 = 15 = 60 = 120 , the lowest term or lowest form is 5 . It is also called
the simplest form.
Example:
64 2
To reduce to its lowest term which is , we may go through five steps by dividing the numerator
96 3
2
and denominator (each time) successively by 2 in each step, until we arrive at 3 .
Alternatively, the numerator and the denominator can just be divided through once by 32 to arrive at
2
straight away.
3
CLASS ACTIVITY
7 13
1. Show that 21 𝑎𝑛𝑑 39 are equivalent fractions.
99
2. Reduce to its simplest / lowest form.
264
3 6
3. Copy and complete the following: (a). 7 = 56 . (b). 15 = 180 .
Using equivalent fractions to share commodities (Word Problems).
Worked Examples:
6
1. A woman shares 30 apples between her two daughters. The first child got 10 of all the apples.
How
many apples did she get? and how many did the other daughter get?
Solution :
3
Total number of apples = 30. Fraction of apples to the first child = 5 .
3
Number of apples = 5 × 30 = 18 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠. The first daughter shares 18 apples.
4 2
The second child gets of the total number of apples. This is equivalent to .
10 5
2
The second child gets 5 × 30 = 12 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑠.
The first child gets 18 apples while the second gets 12 apples.
2. Three quarters of the eggs in a basket are good. If the total number of eggs in the basket is 60,
how many eggs in the basket are bad?
Solution :
Total number of eggs = 60.
3
Number of good eggs = 4 × 60 = 45 𝑒𝑔𝑔𝑠.
Hence, number of bad eggs = Total number of eggs – Number of good eggs.
= 60 – 45 = 15 eggs.
CLASS ACTIVITY
1
1. There are 420 students in a school. 3 of the population is made up of girls.
(a). How many boys are in the school ?
(b). How many girls are in the school?
(c). Express the number of boys as a fraction of all the students.
(d). Express the number of girls as a fraction of all the students.
2. Three water tanks with volumes 81 liters, 243 liters and 405 liters were filled with 27 liters, 81
liters and 135 liters respectively. Express their water contents as fractions of their capacity.
Ordering of fractions.
Ordering of fractions simply means arranging the fractions either from the least to the greatest or
greatest to least. In other words, we arrange the fractions in ascending or descending order. To do
this, we find the L.C.M (Least Common Multiple) of the denominators of the fractions we intend to
order. In other words we find the equivalent fraction of each of the given fractions so that each
equivalent fraction is having its denominator equal to the common L.C.M.
Examples:
3 2 1 1
1. Arrange the following fractions in ascending order 4 , 3 , 6 , 2 .
Solution:
Since the L.C.M = 12 , we write:
3 3×3 9
 as = .
4 4×3 12

2 2×4 8
 as = .
3 3×4 12

1 1×2 2
 as = .
6 6×2 12

1 1×6 6
 2 as 2 × 6 = 12 .
We now compare the four results and order them accordingly. Ascending order we have the array as:
2 6 8 9 1 1 2 3
, , , . ∴ the required ordering is : , , , .
12 12 12 12 6 2 3 4
3 1 4 7
1. Arrange these fractions in descending order , , and .
4 2 5 10

ALITERNATIVE METHOD:
The L.C.M of 4 , 2 , 5 and 10 = 20.
3 1 4 7 5(3)+10(1)+4(4)+2(7) 15+10+16+14
Add the four fractions as follows: + + + = = .
4 2 5 10 20 20
15 10 16 14 3 15 1 10 4 16 7 14
This is same as + 20 + 20 + 20 . This shows that = 20 , = 20 , = 20 , and 10 = 20 .
20 4 2 5
3 1 4 7 16 15 14 10
Hence the ordering of , , and in descending order is , , , 20 ; which are
4 2 5 10 20 20 20
4 3 7 1
, 4 , 10 , 2 respectively. +
5
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Arrange the following fractions in descending order:
𝟏 𝟐 𝟑 𝟑 𝟐 𝟏 𝟑 𝟕 𝟓 𝟕 𝟓 𝟏 𝟒 𝟏 𝟕 𝟐𝟑
(i). 𝟒 , 𝟓 , 𝟏𝟎 , 𝟓 . (ii). 𝟑 , 𝟒 , 𝟗 , 𝟏𝟐 . (iii). 𝟔 , 𝟏𝟐 , 𝟏𝟖 , 𝟐 . (iv). 𝟓 , 𝟑 , 𝟏𝟓 , 𝟑𝟎 .
2. Arrange the above sets of fractions (I - IV) in ascending order.
QUANTITATIVE REASONING
1 2 3 4
SAMPLE: 2 = 4 = 6 = 8
Try these
1. ¾ = x/12 2. y/5 = 30/50 3. 4/k = 16/24
4. 27/36 = 3/m 5. 2/3 = 8/12 = 4/z
PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. Arrange the following fractions in ascending order of magnitude
a) ⅓, ⅚, ⅖ b) 14/3, 3/5, 15/16, 7/2, 7/8
2. Four students are to receive prizes based on their performances in a quiz marked as follows: 3/7,
4/5, 2/3, and 2/5. Determine the first, second, third and fourth positions.
3. Determine the fraction that is greater between these pairs of fractions.
a) 3/5 and 15/16 b) 14/3 and 7/2
4. Which of the following fractions are equivalent to 3/5? 10/50, 30/50, 12/30, 205/380, 15/25.
5. Find three fractions that are equivalent to each of the following fractions
a) ¾ b) 7/12 c) 8/9.
ASSIGNMENT
1. In each of the following, put the appropriate sign among > (greater than), < (less than) or = (equals
to). a) 3/8 □ 6/15 b) 3/8 □ ½ c) 3/5 □ 12/20.
2. Copy and complete the following
a) 3/7 = x/56 b) 3/11 = y/187
3. Arrange in descending order 4/5, 2/3, ¾
4. Find three fractions that are equivalent to 3/7
5. Arrange in ascending order 1/5, 4/7, 2,7, ¾.
KEYWORDS: 1. Equivalent; 2. Ordering; 3. Ascending and descending.
WEEK 9
TOPIC: Fractions
CONTENTS
 Addition and subtraction
 Multiplication and division
Addition of fractions.
Examples:
2 4
1: Add the fractions 3 𝑎𝑛𝑑 5 .
Solution:
2 4 5×2 +3×4 10+12 22 7
+ 5 = = 15 = 15 = 115 .
3 15
3 1
2: Add the fractions 4 11 , 7 3 .
3 1 47 22 47(3)+11(22) 141+242 383 20
Solution: 4 11 + 7 3 = 11 + 3 = = = 33 = 1133 ( in mixed fraction).
33 33
(Note: In this method, we first change the mixed fractions to Improper fractions before adding ).
3: What is the sum of 21.52, 42.68, 146.5 and 12.27 ?
146.50
Solution: {021.52} + The brackets may not be necessary.
042.68
012.27
222.97

(ii). Subtraction of fractions.


Example:
3 3
1: Subtract 2 4 from 5 5 .
3 3 28 11 4(28)−5(11) 112−55 57 17
Solution: 5 5 − 2 4 = 5 − 4 = = 20 = = 2 20 .
20 20
2: Find the positive difference between 128 and 69.126
Solution:
128.000
{ }−
069.126
58.874

CLASS ACTIVITY
2 3
1: Add the fractions 𝑎𝑛𝑑 .
13 5
1 1
2: Subtract 4 4 from 7 3 .
2 1 1
3: Obtain the sum of 1 5 𝑎𝑛𝑑 3 4 , 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡 2 3 .
11 1
4: A man spent of his salary on transport, feeding and health. He then saves of the salary.
15 5
What fraction of his salary remains?
Multiplication of fraction
To multiply a fraction by fraction:
(i) Multiply the numerators to make the numerator of the product
(ii) Multiply the denominators to make to make the denominator of the product
(iii) Always change mixed numbers to improper fraction before multiplying.
Example 1:
3 2
Simplify 5 × 3
Solution
3 2 3 ×2
× 3 = 5×3
5
6
= 15
Example 2:
3 4
Simplify 2 4 × 5
Solution
3 4 11 4
24 × 5 = 4 × 5
11 ×4
= 4 ×5
44
= 20
4
= 220
Division of fraction
To divide by a fraction, simply multiply by its reciprocal.
The reciprocal of a fraction is the same fraction turned upside down.
Example:
1 3
Simplify 24 × 4
Solution:
1
Reduce 24 to simply fraction
9 3
÷
4 4
9 3
Multiply 4 by the reciprocal of 4
9 4
×
4 3
9×4
=
4×3
36
=
12
=3
2 1
2 ×1
3 2
2. Simplify 4
4
5
Solution:
Reduce to simple fraction
8 3
3×2
24
5
Simplify the numerator

8×3 24
=
3×2 6
24
Divide through by 5
4 4×5 20 5
= 25 = = 24 = 6
24
5
CLASS ACTIVITY
1. Simplify the following:
3 4
(i) 24 × 5

2 9
(ii) 9 7 ÷ 3 10
9 2
2. A farmer uses 16 of a field for growing cassava. He uses 7 of the remainder for growing corn.
What fraction of the field is used for growing corn?
3 1
3. It takes 1 4 𝑚 of cloth to make a skirt. How many skirts can be made from 10 2 of cloth?
PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. Obtain the sum of 0.00914 , 72.013 and 681.08
2. Subtract 67.09 from 85.921
2 1
3. What number is 9 5 𝑚𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑛 7 2 ?
12 1
4. 𝑜𝑓 (1 4)
25
1 4
5 ÷2
4 5
5. 3
3
4
ASSIGNMENT
1. A boy has N1,856.80. He likes and wants to buy a shirt costing N 2,100.00. What amount does he
need before he can buy the shirt of his choice?
2. A trader went to market with N 5680.00. She bought articles worth N 4, 325.78. How much has
she left to buy other things?
3. Simplify 3⅟7 X 4⅟2 X 1⅝
4. Evaluate 1/3 + 5/12 – 1/3 of 1/6
5. 2 X (3⅓ + 1⅙)

END OF FIRST TERM