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International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC 2017)

Plant And Taste to Reap with Internet Of Things

Implementation of IoT in Agriculture to make it a parallel Industry

Suraj Pandharinath Takekar

Sanket Mobile Applications and Robotic Technologies:

Proprietor Mumbai, India surajtakekar@gmail.com

AbstractIndia is an agricultural country but no one wants to become a farmer. It’s high time that we make agriculture a parallel industry in India [1]. Our project PATRIOT focuses on the same. It is rightly termed as patriot as anyone involved with the project will serve the country and feel proud and patriotic.

Right from detection of crop diseases [2] to automating the things like water pump [3], a lot of work has been done on implementation of IoT in Agriculture. But they do not cater to the real problems of the farmers. The farmers can do without a crop disease detection app or automations but raise in income is the major challenge which is overlooked. The implementation of IoT should be such that it should increase the income of the farmer and at the same time help consumers to get organic fruits and vegetables at competitive prices. Also, IoT should itself raise funds for realistic implementation of IoT

PATRIOT stands for plant and taste to reap with Internet of Things.It depicts a gradual and feasible implementation of IoT in agriculture. It realizes the fact that implementation of IoT cannot be hurried upon and would require a huge investment. So, it focuses on raising the finance required for implementation of IoT in Agriculture with the help of IoT itself.

PATRIOT has a foolproof plan to help anyone to become a farmer without sacrificing on the present luxurious life style and high salary job. It introduces the concept of agriculture “Anywhere-Anytime” using IoT.

PATRIOT will make the farmer dynamic and richer. It will make the consumer pay less for the food and food products. It will generate the huge amount of money for the realistic implementation of IoT. It will give each of us an opportunity to plant and look after the plantation using IOT.It will give each of us a satisfaction of tasting the vegetables, fruits that we have grown. It will make us reap the benefits of farming without ever disturbing our busy schedule. It will make us , above all, a true PATRIOT because we will get immense satisfaction in helping our country in a way in which it actually should be.

Keywords IoT; Agriculture; Farmer; esp8266;Crops; patriot;



The 30-100 Syndrome: Let us consider a Crop whose cycle is of 100 days.The steps in yielding the crop are generally plowing, sowing, monitoring and harvesting. Out of these plowing, sowing and harvesting counts for around 30 days. The monitoring period is the longest during which the

Sanket Pandharinath Takekar

Sanket Study Centre: Proprietor Mumbai, India


farmer is very much idle as compared to other three steps. Moreover, the income that he earns is considered for the period of 100 days but technically speaking the income is of 30 working days. In all income earned stands too low. Now introduction of IoT in agriculture will help him during his monitoring period a lot and may be in other three steps too. But this will alarmingly raise the input cost of agriculture and negligible increase in the yield of crop. More over a farmer has a lot of idle time in which he wouldn’t mind monitoring the field himself rather then spending heavily on IoT. The farmlands are divided. Each farmer decides of what crops are to be grown. There is no organized planning of usage of the resources. Every Industry has a HR (Human Resource) department. But Agriculture in many developing and underdeveloped countries has no HR management. Also most of the IoT devices and futuristic gadgets would never fit the budgets of the farmers with small portion of lands.


Implementation of IoT in Agriculture is not feasible for a developing country or an Average Farmer. Agriculture is not looked upon as an Industry, So no investors to have a realistic implementation of IoT. Lack of Resource Management.


A. Trying to automate the things with IoT Automation is essential but not at this stage. Farmer has ample of time to do certain work in the field. So, the automations should be with purpose. The yield with the help of IoT is not substantial to nullify the IoT investment initially. Farms are divided and distributed which are quiet a hindrance in IoT implementation. IoT cannot help to increase the Crop productivity in these conditions.

B. IoT implementation itself

IoT implementation is not feasible until there is a lot of money flowing in to agriculture. You require investors and there are seldom. There has been a lot of work on how to monitor the plant for various parameters and diseases [3] but there are no plans to make every one around the corner to

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International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC 2017)

invest in agriculture and make it a parallel industry. The current approach of IoT implementation would never work.


Currently the approach more or less is to use core IoT technologies into farming [4] but it can cater only to a certain segment of farmers. Our approach is different, feasible and innovative in the sense that we are using basic IoT patterns (The IoT modules discussed in this paper) in Agriculture to make it as a brand, to roll money into it, manage the resources and make it a new Industry Not only make every single farmer proud and happy but making the nation truly an agricultural country in a way that every one from all the different societies would think as a farmer and would feel proud to be associated with farming. Let the farmer do what he can do better and let others act as virtual farmers by investing and remaining connected to the adopted farming land with the help of IoT.

Fig. 1.


A. The Big Idea


Agriculture and farmer have a soft corner in India. people feel for them, discuss and have their opinions and even come up with charities. So, its not that there

are no emotions. The only thing is that this pitied feeling must be changed into proudness. People are ready to invest, and also understand the responsibility towards their country. A proper plan and correct execution will roll money in to Agriculture. This can be easily achieved by making Agriculture a new brand. IoT has all the features that can help in building this new brand.

B. Branding

Introduction of IoT Modules such as Scare-Crow,

Monitoring stick, that make agriculture IOT enabled in the first place, depict their necessity but does not replace the farmer and bring a brand value [5] to the Concept. Use of Virtual Dashboards [6] that can display the

sensor readings of various parameters in the field like temperature, humidity, moisture, etc and also control them remotely. Agriculture is an Industry and the investors are the

patriots. A patriot is an investor who invests for a certain

period According to the investment, he gets an honor to be

called as Nano Farmer, Micro Farmer, Mega Farmer, etc A patriot then get points against the investment he

has made. A patriot can exchange the points for vegetables and

fruits which are of good quality and at a low price than the market The pre-investment in food and food products and

ordering them as when required is branded as PlantAnd Taste in PATRIOT A patriot has the luxury to exchange the points for

cash at the end of the period so that the investment has a good ROI. An investor is a patriot who is been branded as a

virtual farmer and monitors the crop with the help of IoT So, a good return of investment by becoming a virtual farmer is termed as Reap with Internet Of Things in - PATRIOT.

C. Advertisement

The initial stage is packaging the idea of farming with the help of IoT. The name of the project says it all “PATRIOT” Plant & Taste, Reap with Internet Of Things! The tag lines such as “PROUD TO BE A FARMER”


will touch the cord of every individual and create some curiosity about the project.

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International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC 2017)

The idea to make the investor a virtual farmer with the help of IoT will be explained through the advertisements.

This followed by a brilliant investment plan will roll in money in to agriculture.

D. Registration

Once done with proper execution of promotional campaigning, people would definitely reciprocate in order to be a part of revolutionary change and authenticate their patriotism by taking an initiative to help the farmers.


Ultimate Plan to become a Patriot To be a part of this plan, an individual has to adopt a part of land (a fixed minimum area or its multiple) which is pre-owned by a farmer.

This person is termed as a patriot who invests for a certain period and does virtual farming with the help of IoT.




M.O.U (Memorandum Of

Understanding) the land is taken on rent by the Patriot

from the farmer, but by every means remains the Farmers property.

As per the area (size) selected, the patriot is classified into different categories such as Pico- Farmer, Nano- Farmer, Mega-Farmer.

Practically the Farmer works in the field and the ‘patriot’ is just a virtual farmer.

He receives every detailed information regarding the cultivation of the crops grown in his adopted land with the help of IoT. The same information is also saved for future analysis.

Patriot is able to monitor the various parameters in the crop field live on the dashboard and hence remains connected and informed.He gets the notifications on his mobile.

The most emotional and touchy part of the above plan is that the plants grown in the field communicate with their respective patriot.

The plants can inform the patriot about various aspects using social network and mobile apps. For e.g. the crop field can post on Facebook or tweet on twitter about the weather, temperature, humidity, water level, attack of insects, pests and their medication, etc.

It is similar to like having pets at home. Thus IoT can play an important role in The Caring and Showing concern for the crop plants.

From sowing to reaping, the virtual farmer will experience every bit of farming, from any part of the world with the help of IoT.

F. Reap with IoT

Finally during the vegetation period, the reap (vegetables) are sent to the consumer at decided intervals. The patriot definitely gets more than what he pays the farmer for the whole year. Moreover the surplus is sold in the local outlets and the amount collected is credited in patriots account.


Patriot plan has two aspects Plant And Taste (Agriculture) and Reap with Internet Of Things (IoT). So both the aspects are checked for feasibility.

A. Plant and Taste - PATRIOT

The above plan seemed very difficult to be prototyped so we took up a live prototype over Outdoor farming.This type of patriot can be termed as a Nano-Farmer. The process is as follows :

Rectangular and circular pots were taken and filled with organic soil (sterilized soil). It was then wetted and seeds of different crops were sown. Maintaining proper temperature, humidity and sunlight the plants grew as normal as they used to in open fields. Green leafy vegetable took around 50 days to grow and be ready for harvesting. Planting density was altered to examine the growth differences (in other crop : okra) if any. Watering was done on alternate days.

B. Reap with Internet Of Things - PATRIOT

We introduced some IoT products that implement IoT in real sense and at the same time are affordable. Also we planned the products in such a manner so they act as the brand ambassadors of the PATRIOT project. Two IoT products, innovative and serving the cause are mentioned as follows:

Scare Crow Module Scare Crow is now smart enough as it does what it is for but also checks various parameters in the field Scare Crow module has a motor with a relay It has esp8266 as the microcontroller [7] It has DHT11 temperature and Humidity sensor[7] It also has a light sensor It can have a camera module to have a birds eye view Scare crow rotates about itself with the help of the motor The sensors sense the values for light, temperature and humidity and sends to the server via the microcontroller The values are also recorded on Google spreadsheets and Drop-Box using IFTTT [8] / Temboo services [9] The values from the Dweet.io server are also displayed on Freeboard with the help of beautiful widgets [6] Besides scaring the Bird, It collects lot of information of the field which is displayed and stored for predictive and prescriptive analysis in future A camera module can keep a strict vigil on the work being carried out in the field

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International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC 2017)

It also has Led Strips on the body. At Night time, the glowing Led Strips keep the wild animals at bay. So, This IoT enabled module - Scare Crow, has all the potential to represent Agriculture as a brand ambassador. It has all the potential to find a place in comic series, become a true hero fighting and scaring the various insects and birds.

Monitoring Stick Soil moisture sensor is mounted on a stick and connected to the esp8266

esp8266 and the server are connected through the

internet as the chip is Wi-fi enabled The stick is inserted in the soil

The soil moisture sensor senses the value











The values are then displayed on the dashboard











dashboard No doubt IoT can help but its introduction should be gradual Monitoring stick is a fitting example Farmer has enough time to monitor. So instead of having sensors every where in the field he can monitor the field with a stick and send the data over for further predictive and prescriptive analytics[13] Also the complexity of having large number of sensors in the field and protecting them is avoided The cost is reduced in a huge way. IoT is introduced as the necessity and not luxury


A. Plant and Taste PATRIOT

Watering on alternate days and using tray helped in “conserving water” to a huge extent. Due to use of organic soil, there were no issues of weeds, no suffocation of roots, no extra adding of manure and no soil causing diseases. Less density plants per area grew better than more dense ones. Taste was the most special factor. Home grown vegetables, using organic soil, were more tastier than those purchased from the market. Even with not much sunlight, the growth was perfect due to addition of plant food and artificial white light. Kitchen or balcony or open terrace (25sq.ft) is more than sufficient to grow a single crop at home. The highest of all a self satisfaction of “to live like a farmer”.

For Indoor farming, we planted some varieties that could be possibly grown e.g. Okra[12]. The yield showed that the ‘Planting’ part was a complete success.

B. Reap with Internet Of Things PATRIOT

i. Since IoT is used to connect the virtual farmer to the original farmer. So we conducted experiment on various dashboards. Finally we used Freeboard.

ii. We experimented on Arduino [10] with Ethernet shield, Arduino Uno and esp8266. But we finalized on esp8266. It is microcontroller which is Wi-Fi enabled and most important part is that it is affordable

iii. We used IFTTT, Temboo services, to automate the processes such as sending notifications when the moisture content is low or posting the parameter values on social network such as Facebook.

iv. We used Google spreadsheets to log the data such as temperature, humidity, moisture, etc.


A hypothetical



can almost

match the

calculations real time (Market survey)[11]

If Vegetable ‘A’ costs Rs 20 Per kg to the farmer then in the market it is sold at an average price of Rs 40 per kg. The PATRIOT plan is simple. Farmer should be given Rs 25 per Kg and the patriots should get it at the price of Rs 35 per kg. Remaining amount of Rs 10 per kg can be used to execute the “PATRIOT” dream. A fractional amount can be invested into IoT infrastructure for the future. If “PATRIOT” plan is executed we can actually grow organic fruits,vegetables almost under the same price.


The PATRIOTS who adopt the land for Agriculture would practically be in their comfort zones but really caring and looking after the Crops. The PATRIOTS who adopt the land for farming would pay money and that money would be used partially for IoT development and they will get the grown vegetables, fruits in return. PLANT & TASTE: So by Investing they help in Plantation and they get Fresh vegetables and Fruits in return. REAP with IOT: Part of their investment would be used for development of IoT (Display Dashboard, Mobile applications, server space, sensors etc.). Part of their investment would be used for the

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International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC 2017)

advertisement and awareness campaign of becoming a “PATRIOT” Here’s the Catch ----If the invested money is spent in this manner, this type of patriotism won’t survive. But, Patriots get to taste fresh Vegetables worth more than what they have invested, that’s the beauty of the model. Not only this, the farmers would get a share more than what they get today. And most importantly they would get it for sure and not depend upon the weather conditions. Helping agriculture, farmers and at the same time that immense satisfaction of becoming a virtual farmer and helping the nation to become self reliant sums the user benefits.


Agriculture would require a certain action plan to become an Industry [12]. The PATRIOT action plan is as follows:

Farmers would sign the M.O.U and the farmlands would grow in size. A central body would take the decisions of the crops to be grown and resources would be then used to their optimum. Agriculture being an Industry would have a Human Resource Department which would immensely boost the agrarian economy [13]. No Farmer would face the problem of the 30-100 Syndrome. The farmers would be then skilled workers and would specialize in different processes of agriculture. They would get an assured income irrespective of weather conditions and crop yields.

income irrespective of weather conditions and crop yields. Fig. 2. Patriot Business Plan IX. C ONCLUSION

Fig. 2.

Patriot Business Plan


The implementation of IoT should be gradual and in

three phases so as to bring in the finance required for each step In the first phase, PATRIOT will make every individual in our country passionate about farming. Everyone willing to will become a farmer using IoT.


Virtual farmer will bring in the glamour and the

finance which would lay a foundation of a new Industry Agriculture. In the second phase, PATRIOT will reap on the huge

implemented. [Not to worry about the finance as the first

database generated. Analytics will play a major role and help in increasing the productivity [14]. It will make each of us an expert in farming as precise information will be at our fingertips. In the third phase, PATRIOT will actually give us a

realistic and expensive implementation of IoT. Various modern devices, gadgets, tools, automated Tractors, Drones operating on IoT will take agriculture to the next level. New agriculture methods like Hydroponics, Aquaponics will be easily

two phases will create the same]



The dashboard can be made more creative. Thing

worx is one platform were in you can have specially designed dashboards not just with beautiful widgets but a background. So, we can have a virtual field on the dashboard. We can separate tabs on the dashboard


display, virtual field, sensor reading, graph, other

information. “A Virtual field” will aesthetically improve it Once the agriculture fields are connected. In few

years huge amount of data will be connected through







foundation for










analytics [15] would then play an important role.









Mobile apps having photo, chat features would have a big say in this project. Some more Innovative IoT modules that can enhance the Branding of Agriculture and facilitate the PATRIOT plan execution .



Aggarwal, R. (2014) Business of agriculture. Available at:



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Karan Kansara, Vishal Zaveri, Shreyans Shah, Sandip Delwadkar, and



Kaushal Jani, "Sensor based Automated Irrigation System with IOT: A Technical Review," in (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 2015, vol. Vol. 6. V. Tan, "‘Farming 4.0’ at the farm gates," EurActiv.com, 2016.

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[10] Arduino,





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http://www.agrifarming.in/ladies-finger-farming/ Accessed: Aug. 26,


[12] [Online].Available:http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/



[13] [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/business-and- economics/business-management/pubs/interactive_e1.pdf . Accessed:

Sep. 22, 2016.

[14] "Precision agriculture: Almost 20% increase in income possible from smart farming," 2015. [Online]. Available:


income-possible-smart-farming. Accessed: Sep. 15, 2016.

[15] R. Nida, "Big data and analytics: Which type of analytics does your business need?," 2015. [Online]. Available:


analytics-does-your-business-need . Accessed: Sep. 27, 2016.

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