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Patriarchy exists is a predominant practice which exists in our society since the ancient times.

It is
starts from within the family. Even though the human civilization has moved on from the stone
age to the technological age, the existence of patriarchy is still visible in both rural and urban India.
While there is a bit of dilution in Patriarchy in the Urban India due to women empowerment and
feminism, it still prevails in large in the Rural India. Patriarchy today is a well known term as it
possesses an everyday resonance, when used in casual conversations or a descriptive sense or in
any of the several languages spoken in the Indian sub-continent. The feminist analysis links family
and economy to demonstrate how the power of men and their domination of production in the
family is crucially linked to the organization of family.

Patriarchy in Rural India

In rural India, the women face discrimination in terms of employment, access to social and
productive resources, health status and family decisions amongst many others. However, a few
states in India, women play an important role in agriculture.

Patriarchy is a culture of invisibility which is forced upon women since their birth. The cycle of
invisibility for women in rural India begins from their home. This culture trains women to deny
their body and sexuality. It also discourages them from having a voice and an identity.

The Urban class women reject Patriarchy and make their stories of everyday sexual harassment
and abuse while it is still questionable that this trend will ever reach the women in rural India.

Most of the young girls are forced to marry before the legal age of 18 years. According to 2015-
16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 44.5% of women (aged 20-24 years at the time of
the survey) report being child brides (compared to 39.1 % in Bihar and 26.8% in India).
Percentage of 20-24 Year Old Women Married Before
18 Years by District (NFHS-4, 2015-16)

Patriarchy in Urban India

 Dowry Tradition
India’s dowry culture is one of the leading causes foe discrimination against women in
India. Dowry was made illegal in India in 1961, but it is almost impossible to enforce it.
Sadly this culture still prevails in the Urban societies of India. The model used in dowry
calculation takes the bridegroom’s education and future earning potential into account
while the bride’s education and earning potential are only relevant in the role of being a
better wife or mother.
 Women as liability
The Constitution of India states equal rights to both men and women but the strong
patriarchal traditions which exists in many different societal parts regard daughters as
liabilities. They are conditioned to believe that women are inferior and subordinate to men
whereas sons are idolized and celebrated.
 Discrimination against women
A woman faces discrimination and lack of autonomy throughout her life. As an infant, her
autonomy is given to her father, after marriage, to her husband and to her son when she is
widowed. These discriminations vary across the various cultural backgrounds and religions
in India.