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 Measurement is the process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, persons, states, or

Measurement is the process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, persons, states,

or events in accordance with specific rules to

represent quantities or qualities of attributes.

We do not measure specific objects, persons, etc., we measure attributes or features that define them. Ex., What defines the person Mr. Aniket? What is a student’s level of education? How customer oriented is our company?

Overriding

Goal:

To

provide

valid

and

a

reliable description or enumeration of the

person, objects, issue, etc.

 Overriding Goal: To provide valid and a reliable description or enumeration of the person, objects,
 Overriding Goal: To provide valid and a reliable description or enumeration of the person, objects,
 Overriding Goal: To provide valid and a reliable description or enumeration of the person, objects,
 Overriding Goal: To provide valid and a reliable description or enumeration of the person, objects,
 Why do scores on a measurement scale differ? ◦ A true difference in the

Why do scores on a measurement scale differ?

A true difference in the characteristic being

measured.

Short-term personal factors (e.g., moods, time constraints)

Situational factors (e.g., surroundings)

Variations in method of administering survey.

the

Sampling

of

items

included

in

questionnaire.

Lack of clarity in the measurement instrument.

Mechanical

instrument

factors

or

causing

completion errors.

◦ Lack of clarity in the measurement instrument. ◦ Mechanical instrument factors or causing completion errors.
◦ Lack of clarity in the measurement instrument. ◦ Mechanical instrument factors or causing completion errors.
◦ Lack of clarity in the measurement instrument. ◦ Mechanical instrument factors or causing completion errors.
◦ Lack of clarity in the measurement instrument. ◦ Mechanical instrument factors or causing completion errors.
1. Define concepts to be measured 2. Define attributes of the concepts 3. Select scale

1. Define concepts to be measured

2. Define attributes of the concepts

3. Select scale of measurement (data type)

4. Generate Items/Questions

Wording

Response format

5. Layout and design questionnaire

6. Pretest and refine

Items/Questions ◦ Wording ◦ Response format 5. Layout and design questionnaire 6. Pretest and refine
Items/Questions ◦ Wording ◦ Response format 5. Layout and design questionnaire 6. Pretest and refine
Items/Questions ◦ Wording ◦ Response format 5. Layout and design questionnaire 6. Pretest and refine
Items/Questions ◦ Wording ◦ Response format 5. Layout and design questionnaire 6. Pretest and refine
 Concept or Construct ◦ A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences,

Concept or Construct

A generalized idea about a class of objects,

attributes, occurrences, or processes

Concrete demographics, traffic patterns, purchase quantity

Abstract loyalty, personality, satisfaction, leadership

Attribute

A single characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue

Often measure multiple attributes

characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue ◦ Often measure multiple attributes
characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue ◦ Often measure multiple attributes
characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue ◦ Often measure multiple attributes
characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue ◦ Often measure multiple attributes
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales
Ordinal Scales
Interval Scales
Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales
•Nominal scales focus on only requiring a respondent to provide some type of descriptor as
•Nominal scales focus on only requiring a respondent to provide some type of descriptor as
•Nominal scales focus on only requiring a
respondent to provide some type of
descriptor as the raw response
•It is a system of assigning numbers
symbols to events in order to label them

Example. Please indicate your current martial status.

Married

Single

Single, never married

in order to label them Example. Please indicate your current martial status. Married Single Single, never
in order to label them Example. Please indicate your current martial status. Married Single Single, never
in order to label them Example. Please indicate your current martial status. Married Single Single, never
in order to label them Example. Please indicate your current martial status. Married Single Single, never

Widowed

•Ordinal scales allow the respondent to express “relative magnitude” between the raw responses to a
•Ordinal scales allow the respondent to express “relative magnitude” between the raw responses to a
•Ordinal scales allow the respondent to
express “relative magnitude” between the raw
responses to a question.
•The Ordinal Scale Places events or objects in
order.
•Rank order represents ordinal scale.

Example.

Which one statement best describes your opinion of an Intel PC processor? Higher than AMD’s PC processor About the same as AMD’s PC processor Lower than AMD’s PC processor

PC processor? Higher than AMD’s PC processor About the same as AMD’s PC processor Lower than
PC processor? Higher than AMD’s PC processor About the same as AMD’s PC processor Lower than
PC processor? Higher than AMD’s PC processor About the same as AMD’s PC processor Lower than
PC processor? Higher than AMD’s PC processor About the same as AMD’s PC processor Lower than
•Interval scales demonstrate the absolute differences between each scale point. •This is Rating Scale Example.
•Interval scales demonstrate the absolute differences between each scale point. •This is Rating Scale
•Interval scales demonstrate the absolute
differences between each scale point.
•This is Rating Scale

Example.

How likely are you to recommend the Seminar to a friend? Definitely will not

1

2

3

4

5

Scale Example. How likely are you to recommend the Seminar to a friend? Definitely will not
Scale Example. How likely are you to recommend the Seminar to a friend? Definitely will not
Scale Example. How likely are you to recommend the Seminar to a friend? Definitely will not
Scale Example. How likely are you to recommend the Seminar to a friend? Definitely will not

Definitely will

6

7

Ratio scales allow for the identification of absolute differences between each scale point, and absolute
Ratio scales allow for the identification of absolute differences between each scale point, and absolute
Ratio scales allow for the identification of
absolute differences between each scale point,
and absolute comparisons between raw
responses

Example 1.

Please circle the number of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

(if more than 7, please specify

)

of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household. 0 1 2 3
of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household. 0 1 2 3
of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household. 0 1 2 3
of children under 18 years of age currently living in your household. 0 1 2 3
 Understanding of the questions  Discriminatory power of scale descriptors  Balanced versus unbalanced

Understanding of the questions Discriminatory power of scale descriptors

Balanced versus unbalanced scales

Forced or nonforced choice scales

Desired measure of central tendency and

dispersion

versus unbalanced scales  Forced or nonforced choice scales  Desired measure of central tendency and
versus unbalanced scales  Forced or nonforced choice scales  Desired measure of central tendency and
versus unbalanced scales  Forced or nonforced choice scales  Desired measure of central tendency and
versus unbalanced scales  Forced or nonforced choice scales  Desired measure of central tendency and
 If a nominal scale is used, analysis of raw data can only distributions be

If a nominal scale is used, analysis of raw data can

only

distributions

be

done

using

modes

and

frequency

If ordinal scales are used, analysis of raw data can be done using medians and ranges (plus modes and

frequency distributions)

If interval or ratio scales are used, analysis of raw data can be done through the use of sample means and estimated standard deviations as the sample

statistic (plus the above)

can be done through the use of sample means and estimated standard deviations as the sample
can be done through the use of sample means and estimated standard deviations as the sample
can be done through the use of sample means and estimated standard deviations as the sample
can be done through the use of sample means and estimated standard deviations as the sample
 Items are basically questions  Need to ensure that enough questions are asked to

Items are basically questions

Need to ensure that enough questions are asked to generate information necessary to address research problems.

Likely

question types

and scales of measurement Multi-item, Composite or Index Measures

will

have a

mix of

A

measurement

scale

questions

attribute

addressing

containing

multiple

same

construct

or

Measures will have a mix of ◦ A measurement scale questions attribute addressing containing multiple same
Measures will have a mix of ◦ A measurement scale questions attribute addressing containing multiple same
Measures will have a mix of ◦ A measurement scale questions attribute addressing containing multiple same
Measures will have a mix of ◦ A measurement scale questions attribute addressing containing multiple same
 Likert Scale  Likert-Type Scale  Semantic Differential Scale  Behavioral Intention Scale 

Likert Scale Likert-Type Scale

Semantic Differential Scale

Behavioral Intention Scale

Noncomparative Scales

Comparative Scales

Scale  Semantic Differential Scale  Behavioral Intention Scale  Noncomparative Scales  Comparative Scales
Scale  Semantic Differential Scale  Behavioral Intention Scale  Noncomparative Scales  Comparative Scales
Scale  Semantic Differential Scale  Behavioral Intention Scale  Noncomparative Scales  Comparative Scales
Scale  Semantic Differential Scale  Behavioral Intention Scale  Noncomparative Scales  Comparative Scales
A likert scale is an ordinal scale format that asks respondents to indicate the extent

A likert scale is

an ordinal scale format

that asks respondents to indicate the extent to which

they agree or disagree with a series of

mental or behavioral belief statements about a given object

the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental or behavioral belief
the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental or behavioral belief
the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental or behavioral belief
the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental or behavioral belief
A semantic differential scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes

A semantic differential scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes

and/or feelings about a given object

scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes and/or feelings about a
scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes and/or feelings about a
scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes and/or feelings about a
scale is unique bipolar ordinal scale format that captures a person’s attitudes and/or feelings about a
A behavioral intention scale is a special type of rating scale designed to capture the

A behavioral intention scale is

a special type of rating scale designed to capture the likelihood that people will demonstrate some type of

predictable behavior intent

toward purchasing an object or service in a future time frame

will demonstrate some type of predictable behavior intent toward purchasing an object or service in a
will demonstrate some type of predictable behavior intent toward purchasing an object or service in a
will demonstrate some type of predictable behavior intent toward purchasing an object or service in a
will demonstrate some type of predictable behavior intent toward purchasing an object or service in a
 Noncomparative Rating Scales ◦ format that requires a judgment without reference to another object,

Noncomparative Rating Scales

format that requires a judgment without reference to another object, person, or concept

Comparative Rating Scales

format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another on the scale

Rating Scales ◦ format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another
Rating Scales ◦ format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another
Rating Scales ◦ format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another
Rating Scales ◦ format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against another