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The CTI Journal

(ISSN: 0273-3250)
Copyright 2006 by The Cooling
Technology Institute, PO Box 73383,
Houston, TX 77273. Periodicals
postage paid at FORT WORTH, Texas.

It is CTI’s objective to: 1) Maintain and
expand a broad base membership of
Feature Articles
individuals and organizations 8 Pressure Recovery Effects in Air-Cooled Installations
interested in Evaporative Heat
Transfer Systems (EHTS), 2) Identify Henk Van Der Spek
and address emerging and evolving
issues concerning EHTS, 3) Encour- 16 Lightning Protection For Cooling Towers
age and support educational
programs in various formats to James F. Blake, Jr. and Bill Howard
enhance the capabilities and
competence of the industry to realize 24 Evaluation to the Use of Mine Drainage To Supplement
the maximum benefit of EHTS, 4)
Encourge and support cooperative
Cooling Water
research to improve EHTS Technology Dr. A. Harriram and J.G. Nieuwenhuis
and efficiency for the long-term
benefit of the environment, 5) Assure
acceptable minimum quality levels
30 Finally, an Alternative to Azoles
and performance of EHTS and their Eric C. Ward, Al L. Foster, and Dane E. Glaser
components by establishing standard
specifications, guidelines, and 46 Bacterial Resistance To Biocides In Recirculating Cooling
certification programs, 6) Establish
standard testing and performance Water Systems
analysis systems and prcedures for
EHTS, 7) Communicate with and Dr. Chris L. Wiatr
influence governmental entities
regarding the environmentally 60 Atmospheric Emissions From Evaporative Cooling
responsible technologies, benefits,
and issues associated with EHTS, and
8) Encourage and support forums and Wayne Micheletti
methods for exchanging technical
information on EHTS.

Letters to the editor and manuscripts
for publication should be sent to: The
Cooling Technology Institute, PO Box
Special Sections
73383, Houston, TX 77273.

70 CTI Licensed Testing Agencies
The CTI Journal is published in
January and June. Complimentary
72 CTI ToolKit
subscriptions mailed to individuals in
the USA. Library subscriptions $20/yr. 74 Cooling Towers Certified by CTI Under STD-201
Subscriptions mailed to individuals

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Request must be received at
subscription office eight weeks before
effective date. Send both old and new 02 Meeting Calendar
addresses for the change. You may
fax your change to 281.537.1721 or 04 View From the Tower
email: vmanser@cti.org.


CTI has compiled this publication
with care, but CTI has not Investi-
gated, and CTI expressly disclaims
any duty to investigate, any product,
service process, procedure, design,
or the like that may be described See page 10
herein. The appearance of any
technical data, editorial material, or
advertisement in this publication
does not constitute endorsement,
warranty, or guarantee by CTI of any
product, service process, procedure,
design, or the like. CTI does not
warranty that the information in this
publication is free of errors, and CTI
does not necessarily agree with any
statement or opinion in this
publication. The entire risk of the use
of any information in this publication
is assumed by the user. Copyright
See page 21 See page 54
2006 by Journal,
CTI the CTI Journal.
Vol. 27,AllNo.
1 1
CTI Journal
The Official Publication of The Cooling Technology Institute
Vol. 27 No.1 Winter 2006
Journal Committee Committee Annual
Paul Lindahl, Editor-in-Chief
Art Brunn, Sr. Editor Workshop Conference
Virginia Manser, Managing Editor/Adv. Manager
Donna Jones, Administrative Assistant
Graphics by Sarita Graphics July 9-12, 2006 February 5-8, 2006
Board of Directors Sheraton Sand Key Resort Wyndham Greenspoint
James (Jim) L. Baker, President Clearwater, FL Houston, TX
Steve Chaloupka, President Elect
Bill Howard, Vice President
Rich Altice, Secretary July 8-11, 2007 February 4-7, 2007
Dennis (Denny) P. Shea, Treasurer The Westin La Cantera Omni Corpus Christi Hotel
Tom Bugler, Director San Antonio, TX Corpus Christi, TX
Raul Castillo, Director
James Kanuth, Director
Ken Kozelski, Director
Terry Ogburn, Director
Glenn Rees, Director
Address all communications to:
Virginia A. Manser, CTI Administrator
Cooling Technology Institute
PO Box 73383
Houston, Texas 77273
281.537.1721 (Fax)
Internet Address: http://www.cti.org
E-mail: vmanser@cti.org

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2 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 3
View From The Tower
It is hard to believe that my two years as President of formance and technology, and Water Treatment and
CTI is coming to an end. When I undertook this re- also three separate types of members; Owner/Opera-
sponsibility, I was a bit apprehensive as exactly what tors, Suppliers, and Manufacturers. With a matrix
we most needed to accomplish in the next two years. such as this, the task at hand appears almost impos-
Well, I can assure you that help came from every direc- sible. Through much hard work with the CTI Staff
tion in making those decisions. With much counsel and the Program Committee, two drastic changes have
from my old colleagues and friends, I established some been implemented. First, we now provide concur-
goals and set out to accomplish them. As has been rent technical papers so that everyone can find some-
mentioned many times, change is inevitable and will thing of interest. And second, you will see for the
occur. Let’s reflect on some of the changes and ac- first time this coming meeting table top displays in
complishments that have taken place. Jim Baker the Hospitality Suite. This request did come from
President the Owner/Operator Council. Glenn Reese has taken
Coming from an old Owner/Operator background, I
wanted very badly to get this group more involved. With the help the lead on these changes and has also done a wonderful job.
of numerous Owners and Board Members, the Owner/Operator The Certification Program, since it’s present implementation in the
Council was formed. The council now provides an avenue for early 1990’s, has been one of the true backbones of the CTI. Tom
education, exchange of information, electronic communication, and Weast has been the Administrator and Test Engineer since that
most importantly a voice to the Committee Chairs and Board of implementation. Just in case Tom does actually retire some day, we
Directors on their actual interests. Jennifer Cunningham leads have felt a need to find a potential replacement. Those wheels are
that Council and is doing an excellent job. in motion and we should have an alternate plan in the near future.
We have forever attempted to put together the perfect Annual We certainly want Tom to stay in his present role as long as pos-
Conference format. Our goal was to provide a program that was sible, but it is our responsibility to make sure that the Certification
educational for all cooling tower related disciplines continuously Program is never interrupted. We will accomplish that goal.
for three days. This may sound easy except you are dealing with Anytime you start a new job or position; wise counsel is of the
three committees; Engineering Standards and Maintenance, Per- utmost importance. One group that I have found to always provide
me with sound advise is the Past President’s Coun-
sel. I believe that this Counsel has so many years of
experience that the Board of Directors as well as the
President should seek their view on any important
issues. We have expanded the Counsel to include
seven past presidents, four standing members and
three most recent past presidents that rotate on and
off. Our hope is that all areas of CTI lean on them for
Last but not least I would like to brag a bit on the CTI
Staff. The staff keeps this organization running
smoothly, which I did not really appreciate until I
had seen it first hand. We have implemented a Per-
formance Evaluation Program for the staff. The ob-
vious problem we had was that most people do not
even know what it takes to run the CTI Office. This
program will allow the CTI employees to share their
accomplishments and help the Board of Directors
have a better understanding of the organization. It
should work for the overall good of the organization.
These are a few of the milestone’s we have reached
over the past two years. What is great about this
organization, is that people from all facets of the in-
dustry work together. There is much more to be ac-
complished. Your next President, Mr. Steve
Chaloupka, is up for the task. Please support him as
you have supported me. Thank you so much for
allowing me to serve you. We will look forward to
seeing all of you in Houston this coming February.

Jim Baker,
CTI President

4 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 5
Editor’s Corner
Dear Journal Readers,

Some changes are happening at CTI in response show” format will help to attract more attendance at
to feedback from the Owner/Operator Council, the Annual Conference by Owner/Operators. The
chaired by Jennifer Cunningham of Air Liquide. CTI Board of Directors has made the policy and
One of the changes is the inclusion of a table- bylaws changes to enable this “mini” trade show.
top display session during one of the evening I would like to encourage Owner/Operators, whether
receptions at the upcoming Annual Conference CTI members or not, to attend the upcoming An-
in Houston. As the long time attendees of CTI nual Meeting, and participate in the table top dis-
will know, the policy against advertising during play session as well as the technical papers, educa-
CTI meetings has prevented this sort of com- tion seminars and technical committee activities that
pany information sharing in the past. While this Paul Lindahl are a part of the Cooling Technology Institute’s
policy has been a positive thing for creating an Editor-In-Chief Annual Conference format.
atmosphere of technical progress for the industry, it has left The Annual Conference program is available on
owner/operators without access to information about what the www.cti.org, please take a look and sign up today!
various vendors in our industry have to offer during the meet-
The Owner/Operator Council specifically asked for this type of
venue to enable easy access for these members of CTI to ven- Paul Lindahl
dor information. It is hoped that inclusion of this type of “trade CTI Journal Editor

6 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 7
Pressure Recovery Effects in
Air-Cooled Installations
Henk Van Der Spek, Howden Cooling Fans the conversion from velocity to pres-
sure occurs partially, or not. In that
Introduction case, the energy is wasted into heat.
Pressure recovery is an effect that occurs in gas and liquid flows. It Generally, the velocity will always fol-
concerns the conversion from the velocity of the fluid into pres- low the principle of continuity. It
sure under ideal, frictionless conditions. This also happens in the means that every change of flow sec-
inverse direction; pressure is converted into velocity in a fluid tion will mean an inverse proportional
flow. All these phenomena are based on ideal conditions. In fact, change of velocity.
they are the consequence of one of the most fundamental physical However, what the pressure does, de-
laws; the law for the conservation of energy. In an air-cooled instal- pends on the situation. An increasing
lation, the velocity of the air varies many times. This means there is velocity due to a smaller flow section
high potential for these conversion effects. However, they have means decreasing pressure at ideal
hardly been recognized until now. This study aims to discuss the levels, and more pressure reduction
Henk Van Der Spek
conversion effects in air-cooled installations and its influence on for less than ideal conditions. A de-
the performance of such installations with axial flow fans. Finally, a creasing velocity due to a bigger flow section means an increasing
remarkable relationship between pressure recovery and the design pressure for ideal conditions and less or even nothing for non-ideal
of an axial flow fan is presented. conditions. Therefore for every pressure and velocity level, the
ideal conversion potential exists. If it occurs, it depends on the
Law of Bernoulli conditions.
The Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), was first to ob-
serve and define the law of the conservation of energy for a flowing
fluid. Daniel Bernoulli was born in Groningen, The Netherlands,
and later he became a professor at the University of Basel, Switzer-
land. His famous work, Hydrodynamica, was published in 1738 in
Latin and included this principle. Daniel Bernoulli is the nephew of
Jacob Bernoulli who became famous because of his contribution to
the mathematics of statistics.
The beauty of Daniel Bernoulli’s definition is its simplicity. He has
limited his expression to frictionless fluid flows and to fluid flows
without compression; so-called ideal flows. In that situation, en-
ergy can only convert from pressure into velocity and the inverse.
It is like the exchange from the potential energy of a body when it
falls down due to gravity and the inverse; its deceleration when it Figure1: Fluid flow through various cross sections
goes vertically up, like for instance, a ball. The mathematical ex-
pression of the law of Bernoulli is: Pressure recovery device: Diffuser
Although pressure recovery is a principle that has been known for
Ideal conditions: [1] centuries, up until now it has had a limited recognition and applica-
tion in air-cooled installations. The best-known application is the
diffuser or fan stack above an induced draft-cooling fan. The effect
Where: pst = static pressure of the diffuser is that it is able to generate a part of the required
ρ = air density pressure drop from the kinetic energy in the airflow out of the fan.
D. Bernouilli
v = air velocity 1700-1782 Otherwise, this energy would be lost.
C = constant value
The design of the diffuser is based on model studies as shown in
Consequently, for non ideal conditions it becomes: [1]. This has resulted in a tight definition of the so-called diffuser
angle and length. Generally, an efficiency of 75% is supposed. In
For a practical example, the effects are illustrated in figure 1 where a practice, this efficiency is realized in an installation by the use of a
fluid flows through a ducting with a varying cross-section. diffuser, or fan stack, with a cone angle of 6°-8.5° (Figure 2). The
As one goes from cross-section 2 to section 3 in Figure 1, a part of pressure recovery ∆pdiff is then calculated as follows:
the pressure recovery is missed due to the instantaneous transmis- ∆pdiff = 0.75*0.5*ρ(v12-v02)
sion, which generates swirls. Now the conditions are not ideal, and

8 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 9
Figure 15, is the most adequate for application (See Figure 4). Figure
15 of AMCA 210 is also found in the new ISO 5801, figure 75d.

Figure 2: Principle of a diffuser (fan stack)

Outside the application with a diffuser, the pressure recovery ef-

fects are largely ignored in all other performance definitions be- Figure 4: Principle of test set-up according to AMCA 210 figure
cause they are experienced to be “vague”. This is due to the fact 15 (comparable to ISO 5801 fig 75d)
that the pressure recovery effects depend strongly on various
flow conditions. The strategy followed, is that for different com- Impact on air-cooled installation
ponents under conditions without recovery effects, the perfor- In the air-cooled heat exchanger installation (ACHE), both the pipe
mance has been measured and defined. Then, during the design of bundle and the fan are built in together. The most logical way to
the complete installation, the influence of the individual compo- describe the performance of the system seems to link the ideally
nents is added. measured flow resistance of the bundle with the ideal measured
Performance definition of components performance curves of the axial flow fan by the mathematical match-
The approach as previously explained is applied, in particular, to ing of those figures.
air-cooled heat exchangers. Fortunes are spent to determine as
exactly as possible the pure flow resistance over the pipe bundle
of the air-cooled heat exchanger. The models of the bundles are
positioned in a wind tunnel that is conditioned in such a way that
pure axial flows are passing through the pipe bundle. Theoreti-
cally, this is also the best way to determine the flow resistance of
the bundle. See Figure 3.

Figure 5: Different flow patterns through a bundle of an ACHE

in reference conditions and in air cooling installation

That is exactly the way it always has been done. However, the prin-
cipal point is that due to the rotating component of the air velocity,
the velocity into the bundle is higher than the axial velocity alone.
When the air has passed the bundle, the rotating component has
been eliminated. What has happened? The situation is illustrated
Figure 3: Measuring concept for air-cooled heat exchanger
by Figure 5.
bundles as has been applied by HTRI and HTFS
The difference between the reference conditions in the wind tunnel
The same approach has also been used for the axial flow fans. The and the air-cooled installation is that in the reference installation
performance measurements have been done in special measuring there is no change of the air velocity, and in the air-cooled installa-
facilities and according to very detail defined procedures like AMCA tion there are a few significant ones:
210 or BS 848. The very detailed and extensive procedures must 1. Due to the change in cross section between the fan ring and
guarantee that the fans are charged by only a “real” flow resis- the plenum, there is a 3 to 6 time reduction of the axial veloc-
tance and that pressure recovery effects and other flow distur- ity, depending on the section ratio.
bances do not affect the readings. For cooling fans, AMCA 210,

10 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 11
2. The fan is adding a rotational component to the air velocity. due to the incremental flow resistance by the rotation of the flow
3. The bundle eliminates the rotating component out of the air and the restricted flow area. (Figure 6).
velocity. Consequences for the design of an ACHE
This means that there are a few real velocity changes. It must be As a rule of thumb, for a correctly designed ACHE, the pressure
said, these are under less ideal conditions like those in a diffuser. recovery effect will dominate the negative aspects as previously
Therefore, ignoring any pressure recovery effect is not a realistic explained. This means that for a forced draft installation, the match-
approach. These effects are definitely present and it will be obvi- ing of the axial flow fan to the required duty point allows a reduc-
ous by the value of the pressure drop (∆ρ12) over the bundle. To tion of 10 to even 30 percent of the pressure drop over the bundle,
make it more complicated, the rotating component of the air will depending on the plenum configuration. This is true if the value of
generate an additional flow resistance for the air that moves through that pressure drop is derived from an “ideal” wind tunnel reading. It
the bundle. For the reference condition in the wind tunnel, the cannot be emphasized enough that this is only allowed if the per-
value of ∆ρ12 corresponds with the “real” flow resistance of the formance characteristics of the fan are really determined according
bundle. However, in the air-cooled installation with an axial flow to a qualified standard like AMCA 210.
fan, ∆ρ12 is the integral result of the following effects of on one
side: Pressure recovery potential dependents on
· the “real” flow resistance of the bundle like in the reference fan design
installation In addition to the system configuration influence, intensive re-
and on the other side: search has demonstrated that the fan design itself is also an impor-
tant influence factor on the recovery potential of an installation.
· the pressure drop increase by the rotational velocity compo-
This is observed for two comparable fan types: A and B. The fans
are technically comparable since both fans have an equal diameter,
· the pressure drop reduction due to a decelerating air flow in an equal number of blades, and the same blade width. However,
the plenum and the bundle their designs differ in tip design, in aerofoil, in twist, and in other
The value ∆ρ12 indicates which of these effects dominates.(Figure tapering. For both fans, the performance curves have been estab-
5) If the design of the plenum is adequate and the measured pres- lished in an installation that is built according to AMCA 210. One
sure drop ∆ρstB is less than the “isolated” pressure drop ∆ρstA then intersection point of the flow/pressure curves of the two fans has
the pressure recovery dominates. Alternatively, if the plenum size been analyzed in further detail. The curves are for identical blade
is inadequate and the measured ∆ρstB is greater than the pressure pitch angles (See Figure 8, monitoring point).
drop ∆ρ stA , then the flow resistance effect dominates.

Figure 8: Dimensionless pressure (CP) flow (Cf) curve of Fan

Figure 6: There is hardly a pressure recovery effect when the A and Fan B. O = monitoring point (Cp = Drst/(0.5 x r x vt2)
plenum is ruled out in an ACHE and Cf = Q/(0.25 x p x Df2 x vt))
The interference point of the two curves implies that at that point
It is important that “these effects” are acknowledged in the design the average fan axial velocity and the average static pressure ac-
of air-cooled installations in order to reap their benefits. Due to the cording to the AMCA definitions are equal. However, it turns out
sensitivity or balance of these effects, it is easy to overlook them. that, in spite of this similarity, the velocity profiles of the two fans
But also “hidden “ applications of the recovery effect have been differ. This results in a different power balance between the two
done. This means fan selections have been made that exceed the fans. The power balance results from:
AMCA performance of the fan. In an installation with a plenum, a
conical shape and a minimum height of one third of the fan diam- 1. the input shaft power
eter, the balance for ∆ρst will be positive. In the extreme, opposite 2. the effective AMCA power
situation, by elongating the fan ring towards the bundle, the pres- 3. the kinetic power output
sure recovery effect of the plenum is totally lost. In this case, when 4. the power loss
the airflow must be the same, there will be a multiple pressure rise (See Figure 9)

12 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 13
Nkin-rad = kinetic power level [W]
Qrad = air flow in radial section [m3/s]
ρdyn = dynamic pressure [Pa]

The total kinetic power level Nkin-tot is calculated then from the
addition of the contribution of the radial sections. It was found that
in spite of the comparative geometric features of the fans, and the
equal duty point, there is a difference of almost 20 percent in kinetic
power output level (down stream) between fan A and fan B. This is
in spite of a difference in fan efficiency of only 3 percent. This
evidence is found to be the explanation for the 10 percent lower
power consumption of fan A in an air-cooled heat exchanger. It is a
direct benefit of the better pressure recovery.
Figure 9. Power balance of two different fan designs Conclusions
The shaft power and the effective AMCA power are standard pa- 1. The conversion of air speed into pressure and the inverse is
rameters of the fan performance test. The kinetic output power is an ongoing process in an aircooled installation.
derived by measuring the dynamic pressures, downstream of the 2. This can no longer be ignored in performance definitions of
fan, with a pitot tube at regular radial stations. From that data, the air-cooled installations .For instance, one needs to avoid
kinetic power level of the air flow has been calculated for every that confusing fan selections are made that exceed the AMCA
radial station as follows: performance of the fan.
Nkin-rad = Qrad × ρdyn [2] 3. The level of conversion depends on the construction of the
air-cooled installation. An adequate plenum enhances the
favorable effects of the pressure recovery.
4. An optimal conversion results directly into power consump-
tion savings.
5. The design of the axial flow fan in an air-
cooled installation is an important param-
eter also with respect to pressure recovery
6. Fans with the highest kinetic output power
have the best recovery potential and that
can result in power savings.
[1] Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 3rd
Edition, I.E. Idelchik, Begell House
[2] ANSI/AMCA 210,
[3] ANSI/ASHRAE 51-1985
[4] British Standard 848

14 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 15
Lightning Protection For Cooling
James F. Blake, Jr., American Lightning Protection
Systems, Inc. contribute to the deg-
Bill Howard, Cooling Tower Depot radation of a system
over time, with varying
Introduction degrees. It should be
Since the invention of the lightning rod by Benjamin Franklin in the noted that the majority
1700’s, lightning protection has been installed on practically every of lightning protection
conceivable structure known to man. From homes to high rises, systems installed on
sailing ships and space shuttle launch sites, cathedrals to start-of- cooling towers utilize
the-art sports stadiums, these systems have proven beneficial in James F. Blake Bill Howard copper and bronze com-
protecting life and property from the destructive effects of light- ponents. Although they are extremely durable they are, nonethe-
ning. So, too, have these systems been effective in protecting less, semi-soft because they are annealed during manufacturing.
cooling towers. Vibration is, by and large, the greatest contributor to the break-
Although there are other types of lightning protection “systems” down of a lightning protection system. Most lightning protection
manufactured and installed around the world, for the purpose of fittings have threads and utilize threaded hardware and fasteners,
simplification, this paper will be limited to the discussion of sys- and the constant vibration will loosen these connections. Further,
tems installed under the National Fire Protection Association’s as time passes, vibration increases when fan blades come out of
“Standard for Installation of Lightning Protection Systems” 780 pitch or when drive shafts and gear boxes become unbalanced.
and components manufactured under Underwriters Laboratories Ergo, the lightning protection system will fall further into disrepair.
“Lightning Protection Components” UL96 standard. Harmonics is a problematical by-product of the rotational appara-
While the lightning protection industry has kept abreast of emerg- tus on the tower. One example of damage from harmonics is the
ing construction materials and methods for the most part, applica- breaking of air terminals at the hubs of their bases, which are in-
tion of this technology specific to cooling towers has not. The stalled at (or near) the tops of fan stacks. Base hubs themselves
recently completed build out of combined cycle/co-generation en- suffer this problem as well (although to a lesser extent), and occa-
ergy plants also included the construction of many cooling towers, sionally fasteners break or unscrew from the stack wall.
a fair amount of which had lightning protection systems installed Lightning protection systems on cooling towers are, for the most
on them. The last three years of this activity showed a marked part, installed in an exposed manner. Generally, conductors and
increase in the number of warranty and service calls for these sys- components are attached to handrails and stacks, with conductors
tems. coursed in plenums and down exterior structural columns.
After a number of inspections by, and inquiries to this author, it As stated earlier, lightning protection components are extremely
became apparent that a number of problems existed. Many sys- durable. They are manufactured to be such due to their use in a
tems were falling into disrepair at a rate far above what is consid- typical outdoor environment, and case last for decades. Obvi-
ered the industry norm, some were incomplete, a number were in- ously, a cooling tower is not a typical environment as there are
stalled incorrectly, or a combination thereof. The most common areas that stay wet almost constantly. This constant moisture ac-
issues were: air terminals (lightning rods) and other associated celerates oxidation and corrosion on conductors and fittings, ulti-
components were coming loose structures or themselves; oxida- mately increasing the systems’ resistance, and resulting in higher
tion and corrosion was taking place at an accelerated rate; appurte- impedance of current flow for transferring lightning energy to
nances were added to the structure but not incorporated into the ground. And when mixed with airborne contaminates or pollutants
lightning protection system; and installation techniques of equip- such as those present around petrochemical plants or refineries,
ment did not comply with the national standards. the problem is exacerbated.
The cause of these issues fall into three basic categories. Appendant to the moisture issue are chemicals associated with
1. Environment. water treatment. As with any unprotected metal, acids or alkalines
will accelerate oxidation and corrosion, ultimately breaking down
2. Post-Construction Appurtenances.
the metal over time. These chemicals normally adhere to lightning
3. Improper/Incomplete Installation. components while in a soluble state, but in a dry state they may
Environment also have detrimental effects.
The physical dynamics associated with cooling towers present A few of the examples of oxidation and corrosion due to wet and/or
issues not typically addressed in the design or component selec- chemical environments are: greening and/or blackening of conduc-
tion of lightning protection systems. Constant vibration, harmo- tors or components; the appearance of melting of conductors; ac-
nies, wet environment and water treating chemical additives all cumulation of white, powdery substance on fittings and hardware.

16 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 17
Solutions to the aforementioned issues are many, but basically are NFPA states surge suppressions (lightning arresters) shall be installed on
composed of: incoming electrical or telecommunications service entrances and on radio
1. Selecting the proper components at the time of system de- and television (and other antenna lead-ins). Given the proper information,
sign. the lightning protection contractor can provide them. However, the electri-
cal and telecom systems are normally furnished under a contract separate
2. Adding additional supports for strength.
from the cooling tower provider. Therefore the lightning protection supplier
3. Installing special fasteners in areas subject to vibration or specifically notes (or should note) that they are required but are excluded
harmonics. from their scope work.
4. Upgrading and/or changing components the fastener hard-
Most Owner/Operators become aware of lightning issue after motor wind-
ing burn, bearings seize or control panel wiring melts, usually occurring up
5. Protecting components through the use of special platings, on top of the tower. And while there may be surge devices installed, they are
coatings, and/or coverings. (per NFPA) located at the incoming entrances which are usually below and/
6. Semi-annual inspection of the lightning protection system. or far away from the tower itself, and protect only the line (incoming) side of
the equipment. Since the motors and control boxes are high up on the tower
and on the load side of the equipment, they are subject to induced and/or
Post-Constructive Appurtenances conducted current and are left unprotected. Therefore, the addition of surge
As with fire protection, davits (hoists) and the like, lightning pro- suppression/arresting devices at these locations will assure that the poten-
tection is normally part of the contract awarded to the tower erec- tial for damage is reduced, if not eliminated.
tor. Typically, the system supplied covers the tower structure from
The overall solution to these issues is for better communication between all
top down to the basin wall. However, there are some items not
responsible parties by sharing information beforehand and coordinating
contracted to the erector which are installed after the tower is com-
overlapping tasks as the project develops. Simply put, project managers
should gather as much information possible prior to design. On-site inspec-
Items such as lighting (rail or structural mounted), cable trays, CCTV tion authorities should be informed as to what the system requires, advised
cameras and antennas are atypical of post-erection appurtenances of any potential issues concerning the impact of power construction trades,
and, depending on their location, could be subject to direct strike and lastly, performs a final review/audit of the lightning protection system
from lightning or a side flash during current discharge. Many of upon completion.
these items are not addressed after their installation. These items
can have significant impact on the effectiveness of the lightning Improper/Incomplete Installation
protection system’s performance, and if not addressed, could lead Lightning protection is a specialized field, both in design and installation,
to damage of equipment or destruction of the tower itself. and it is possible to purchase a design and materials for a structure Al-
Oftentimes the Owner or their duly appointed representative will though it may seem that installing a system appears to be relatively simple,
provide a grounding system (also known as ground “loop”, “grid” nothing could be farther from the truth.
or “ring”). This system is installed around the basin of the tower, Over the years, erectors, electricians, even general contractors, have at-
and the lightning protection system is required to be intercon- tempted to install these systems, and the results have been less than ad-
nected to it. Historically, this grounding system is not installed by equate at best.
the time the lightning protection system has been completed, so The list of installation code violations are too numerous to mention here, but
the installer is directed to leave a length of cable, a “pigtail”, for the most common issues are: missing and improperly spaced air terminals;
interconnection by others to said grounding system at a later time. illegal cable bends; lack of bonding; and the use of non Underwriters Labo-
Although a logical approach to an apparently simple matter, this ratories approved components.
situation has proven more often than not to be impractical. When It should be understood that installing a lightning protection system is not
making the interconnections the responsible party uses electrical for the novice, especially considering the potential consequences when it is
industry components, which (except for exothermic welding) do installed incorrectly. The solution, then, is that the installation of lightning
not comply with the lightning protection standards. Also, conduc- protection should be accomplished by qualified craftsmen who possess the
tors are coursed incorrectly and are not fitted with protection from necessary knowledge, experience, and skill to install them. It should also be
mechanical hazards. inspected by an independent third-party to assure compliance with the na-
In some instances the grounding system provider will stub up pig- tional codes governing them.
tails beforehand. But because the lightning protection design was
not sent to the provider, they are located incorrectly. When this
occurs, they should be abandoned with new pigtails installed ac- Lightning protection systems for cooling towers are necessary to protect
cordingly. In practice, however, the improperly located pigtails are the structure, equipment and personnel from the destructive effects of light-
spliced with more cable and coursed over long distances that con- ning. Many of these systems, past and present, suffer from environmental,
tain improper and/or multiple bends to the lightning pigtail. This design, and/or installation issues that need to be corrected. If left unre-
resulting increase in lead length and bends will increase impedance solved, these issues could lead to further damage, loss of equipment, loss of
of the lightning protection system. revenue, or even worse, loss of human life.

18 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 19
Figure 3 - Conductor bends less than 8-inch radius.
Figure 1- Conductor Issues: Loose, upward
path, & unsupported.

Figure 4 - Conductor exhibiting extreme corrosion

due to chemical entrained water.

Figure 2 - Chemically entrained, constantly wet

environment corroding conductor.

20 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

Figure 5 - Fan stack flange vibrating against Figure 7 - Stairway lacks protection.
air terminal, elongating hole.

Figure 6 - Air terminal (through flange) missing Figure 8 - Stanchions: Near air terminal vibrating loose,
due to vibration. far air terminal missing.

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 21

Figure 9 - Both conductor and fastener loop are cut
due to vibration. Figure 11 - Fastener cut, cable repaired using
unapproved fitting.

Figure 12 - Air terminal less than the required 24 inches

above handrail.

Figure 10 - Conductor cut at toe board due to vibration.

22 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 23
Evaluation to the Use of Mine Drainage
To Supplement Cooling Water
Dr. A. Harriram
J.G. Nieuwenhuis
Sasol technology
The Sasol mining and petrochemical complex located in Secunda,
South Africa operates the world’s largest coal to synthesis gas
conversion process. Since the start-up of the mining operations a
net accumulation of water was experienced in the mines as surface
water seeped through the broken strata.
The quality of the accumulated mine-drainage is characterised by Operating conditions for the pilot
elevated levels of sulphate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, manga-
cooling towers were controlled to
nese and iron. The excess mine drainage at Sasol is currently ad-
simulate the current commercial
dressed with an Electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) plant, followed by a
Reverse Osmosis plant1 and an Evaporator-crystalliser (concen- PCW towers. A summary of these
trate treatment). However, mine-drainage is expected to increase as conditions are presented in table 1.
the operations grow. Concurrently, future expansion projects in the Dr. A. Harriram
complex will require additional process cooling water (PCW). In an
effort to balance supply and demand within the complex, an inves- Table 1: Operating parameters for the pilot cooling towers.
tigation was initiated into the use of mine drainage to supplement
the process cooling water.
Considering the quality of the mine-drainage, the addition of this
poor quality water to the PCW would render a blend that could be
highly conducive to fouling, scaling and corrosion. This paper will
focus on pilot studies done to evaluate the efficiency of a chemical
treatment program in the control of fouling, scaling and corrosion
in a cooling system employing a blend of mine-drainage and PCW.
Two identical cooling towers each with a capacity of 200 litres/day
were utilized for the tests (hereafter referred to as “glass cooling
towers”). One cooling tower was designated as the control using
process cooling water only and in the second, a blend of PCW and
mine-drainage (12%), employing a new chemical treatment program, * There were coupon racks placed on the hot and cold lines i.e. one at a
was evaluated. A schematic flow diagram of one of the pilot scale temperature of 28 °C and one at 40 °C
glass cooling towers is presented in Figure 1.
Various limitations were identified with the coupon racks;
a) The coupon holder has a 16 mm ID compared to the stan-
dard requirement of 25 mm ID. The Reynold’s number calcu-
lated for this set-up indicated areas of low turbulence.
b)The flow velocity to the coupons was limited to 0.50 m/s due
to the design of the cooling towers. The commercial sys-
tems are approximately 1m/s.
The results obtained will therefore reflect worse case scenarios. A
full chemical analysis was performed weekly on the make-up and
recycle. Microbiological analysis performed three times a week in-
cluded the total plate counts, spore analysis and Pseudomonas. To
determine changes in the planktonic microbial communities Biolog
counts were performed every two weeks.
The treatment chemicals were dosed continuously into the cooling
towers sumps. The dosing program consisted of a combined scale
and corrosion inhibitor (35 mg/litre) and a bio-dispersant (60 mg/
litre). Dosing rates as prescribed by the chemical treatment supplier
were followed. After 7 weeks of operation, the supplier was allowed
Figure 1: Schematic representation of glass cooling towers.

24 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 25
to optimize the program for a further eight weeks.
The major concerns to a cooling system with poor quality water are
chemically induced corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer
efficiencies due to scaling and/or fouling. These parameters were
closely monitored with the coupons, tubes, and Corraters. The
comparative results are presented.
Results and Discussion
The operating parameters were maintained within specifications
and the pilot plants were stable during the test period. The quality
of the CW (no mine water) and blend used during this study is
presented in table 2. The calculated (theoretical) values provide an
indication of the chemistry expected after 4 cycles.
Table 2: Water quality data

Figure 3: Corrosion rates recorded by in-line Corraters.

Figure 4: Imbalance recorded on the Corraters.

The new dosing program proved effective in maintaining low cor-

rosion rates even with the high concentrations of chlorides,
i) Corrosion sulphates and dissolved solids in the mine-drainage system. These
The corrosion rates determined from the coupons and Corraters are species are reported to sustain corrosion by preventing the forma-
presented in Figures 2 to 4. Sasol standards for corrosion on the tion of the passivation layer which normally forms on clean metal
coupons are classified as <0.25 mmY: optimum, 0.25-0.5 mmY: ac- surfaces2. The corrosion rate from the in-line Corraters showed
ceptable and > 0.5 mmY: unacceptable. The Corrater limit is < 0.15 similar trends to the coupon results with the blend system perform-
mmY for corrosion and <0.5 for imbalance. ing better than the control. The imbalance readings3 (also recorded
on the Corraters) indicated that the control tower had pitting on the
The pits were visible with a stereo light microscope. The image is
shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: Pits present on the coupon from the hot side of the
Figure 2: A comparison of corrosion on the coupons. pilot plant operating with the control program

26 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 27
Further investigations conducted revealed the presence of acid In both figures the pilot scale test results were within the unaccept-
producing bacteria. These bacteria dissolve the passive oxide film able limits as per the Sasol standards. However some improvement
from the metal surface and accelerate the cathodic reaction in a was noted towards the end as the trends decreased. The limitations
corrosion cell. Although the mine-drainage system had conditions in the design of the coupon racks may have significantly contrib-
conducive to pitting (e.g. high sulphate and sufficient nutrients), uted to the results since there were low flows and areas of low
no pitting was observed. In addition the Larson-Skold index ap- turbulence.
plied to the system also predicted severe corrosion. It was there- A more representative indication of scaling and fouling can be
fore evident that the proposed corrosion inhibitor was effective in attained from the heat exchanger tubes. The results in Table 3 were
maintaining low corrosion rates in the blend towers. more promising since the rates were within the optimum range as
ii) Fouling/Scaling prescribed by the Sasol standards.
The coupon fouling and scaling rates presented in Figures 6 and 7 Table 3: A comparison of the tube fouling and scaling rates.
respectively showed poor correlation to the commercial units.

iii) Characterization of Heat Exchanger Tube deposits

Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of deposits (Table
4) from the heat exchanger tubes showed that the primary constitu-
ent was calcium. Trace amounts of iron, oxygen, fluoride, magne-
sium, aluminium, and silicon were detected. After optimisation the
elemental compositions were reduced on all the systems.

Table 4: EDS Analysis of deposits in tubes before

Figure 6: A comparison of fouling on the coupons: optimisation was compared to deposits from tubes that
The Sasol standards for fouling are were in the system for the entire test period
<20 mg/dm2.d: Optimum (i.e. before and after optimisation).
20-40 mg/dm2.d: Acceptable
>40 mg/dm2.d: Unacceptable

The composition of the coupon deposits did not vary from that of
the tubes but significant amounts of iron were detected on the
control deposit. The source of iron was probably from oxidation
by-products such as iron oxides or hydroxides. In addition iron is
Figure 7: A comparison of scaling on the coupons. known to complex with organics and deposit in low flow areas.
The Sasol standards are The morphology of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) im-
<2 mg/dm2.d: Optimum
ages showed the presence of an amorphous, non-crystalline scale
2-4 mg/dm2.d: Acceptable
>4 mg/dm2.d: Unacceptable in the blend system (Figure 8).

28 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

proved to be a viable option with the new chemical dosing pro-
gram. Scaling, fouling and corrosion on heat transfer surfaces were
maintained within Sasol’s required specifications. In addition the
preliminary cost estimations indicated that the new program may
also be more cost effective than the current dosing program utilised
on the commercial scale units. However the high concentration of
sulphate and chloride in the recirculation water may contribute to
concrete corrosion on the commercial systems. This may be
minimised if the commercial systems are coated with specialised
products designed for concrete protection. However it is not a
practical solution due to the losses in production that will be in-
curred during a shut-down of this magnitude.
The mine water drainage volumes still remain a threat for the future.
Therefore test work will now be conducted to incorporate a pre-
treatment option which will remove sulphates, chlorides, calcium
and magnesium. The removal of these problematic components
will expand the scope of use for mine water as is (not in blends) in
Figure 8: SEM Image of deposit from blend system. the cooling systems. In addition, based on the effluent quality after
pre-treatment, the water could be utilized in other areas in the com-
In both systems the crystal structure was probably distorted and
plex which will consequently reduce the water requirements from
therefore the scale did not adhere to the tube walls. In addition to
scale distortion, ions of a similar size to calcium, such as magne- South Africa’s scarce resources.
sium and manganese, compete for attachment to the carbonates References
(common ion effect). This hindered scale initiation and subsequent
1. Nieuwenhuis J.G et al, Sasol’s Experience in the Desalina-
formation. Sulphate is also known to compete with carbonate for
tion and Re-use of Acid mine drainage and Ash water, Mem-
attachment to calcium.4 In addition the organics in the system may
brane Technology in Water & Wastewater Treatment, Royal
also act as nucleating sites for precipitation. The Langlier, Ryznar
Society of Chemistry, 2000, p211
and Puckorius saturation indices only predicted a calcium carbon-
ate scale dissolving environment. However the formation of cal- 2. Lowenthal R.E., Morrison I. and Wentzel M.C, Water Sci-
cium sulphates, silicates and calcium fluorides could not be deter- ence & Tech. “ Control of Corrosion and Aggression in Drink-
mined. ing Water Systems”, Vol. 49, No 2, 2004.
3. Corrater Operation Manual, Rohrback Cosasco Systems.
Conclusion 4. Drew Principles of Water Treatment, Drew Industrial Divi-
The utilization of mine water to supplement the cooling water sion, New Jersey, 1994.

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 29

Finally, an Alternative to Azoles
Eric C. Ward, Al L. Foster, and Dane E. Glaser group as their binding site to the metal,
Alco Chemical resulting in a protective film on the cop-
per surface. Spectroscopic analyses
have shown that the film formed is a 1:1
molar complex of Cu(I) and triazole. This
ABSTRACT complex is thought to stabilize Cu(I),
Benzotriazole and its derivatives have been the dominant yellow preventing the copper from oxidizing
metal corrosion inhibitors used in industrial cooling water for the further, and thus, preventing the anodic
last thirty years. By far, the most popular of these derivatives has reaction. The retardation of the ca-
been 4-5 methyl benzotriazole, or tolyltriazole. Despite the triazoles thodic reaction is believed to be accom-
dominance, however, they do have weaknesses. Previous studies plished by the hydrophobic backbone
have shown that the thin tolyltriazole film can be easily penetrated Eric C. Ward of the formed film, which inhibits the
by oxidizing biocides, such as chlorine. These tests found that, transport of hydrated, electronically active species to the metal
while the tolyltriazole film can be very resistant to breakdown in surface.1 The film formed by TTA is widely considered to be more
aqueous environments, the thinness of the film does not result in a resistant to breakdown in aqueous environments, due to its thin,
forgiving barrier when breakdown occurs. The user must assure more hydrophobic backbone. In contrast, the BTA backbone is
that there is residual azole inhibitor present to repair the damage. less hydrophobic and more easily penetrated. However, the multi-
More recent tests have demonstrated that this need to maintain a layered BTA film has been found to act as a buffer against complete
residual amount of azole may be much more critical than previously breakdown, while the thin TTA film is not nearly as forgiving when
suggested. These tests found that both benzotriazole’s and breakdown occurs.1
tolyltriazole’s films are surprisingly weak, even when not in the
presence of oxidizing biocides. Their formed films break down One of the most frequently claimed weaknesses of the triazoles has
immediately when no residual inhibitor is present. These findings been their susceptibility to degradation from halogenated biocides.
demonstrated that the success of the azoles’ corrosion protection This degradation is believed to affect both the formed triazole film
relies solely on the immediate repair of damaged film by free inhibi- and the residual inhibitor in solution, which has the potential to
tor in the water, not in the formation of a tenacious, hydrophobic consume all of the added biocide. However, studies have differed
film. on the degree of this degradation, ranging from severely detrimen-
tal2,3 to mildly insignificant.1,4 Some studies have found the TTA
This paper presents studies that explore a new breed of yellow film to be more resistant to attack from low levels of free chlorine
metal corrosion inhibitor that offers revolutionary improvements than the BTA film.1,6 Longer exposure times and higher concentra-
over the triazoles in a number of areas. This new inhibitor forms a tions of free chlorine were found to damage the film when no re-
protective film on the metal surface that is unequaled in its resis- sidual inhibitor was present.6,7 To overcome this weakness, most
tance to breakdown. The film is so durable that it is capable of water treatment experts recommend keeping a residual amount of
maintaining corrosion protection for weeks without the presence triazole present in the water to repair any damaged areas of the film.
of any residual inhibitor in solution - a feat that azoles are incapable It has also been advised to use a scheduled intermittent feed of
of achieving. Detailed studies will be presented that compare the inhibitor that occurs just prior to and also during any halogen
new inhibitor to triazoles, demonstrating how the advantages of addition.7. For some, these practices have been successful. Still,
the new inhibitor will provide cost, environmental, and application others feel there is some room for improvement. Many of the more
benefits to the user. recent attempts made at developing viable alternatives to TTA have
Keywords: benzotriazole, tolyltriazole, copper corrosion inhibi- focused solely on this weakness to attack from halogenated bio-
tors, electrochemical testing, linear polarization resistance, Tafel cides. These alternatives have consisted primarily of other triazole
polarizations, cyclic polarizations. derivatives, with larger substituents that offer a more hydrophobic
backbone and better resistance to halogenated biocide attack. Most
INTRODUCTION of these studies have primarily focused on the degradation of the
Copper corrosion inhibitors are widely considered a staple ingredi- residual inhibitor in solution, with very little discussion of the ac-
ent in most water treatment formulations. These inhibitors are de- tual film’s susceptibility.
signed to protect against corrosion of the copper alloy surfaces It has become common practice in most traditional cooling water
found within industrial cooling systems. In addition, these inhibi- treatment programs to always maintain a constant residual of triazole
tors can protect against the galvanic corrosion of ferrous metal in the cooling water of around 2.5 mg/L active product. This prac-
surfaces, by preventing the deposition of copper onto the ferrous tice has been utilized for many years, with much success. However,
metal. The accelerated corrosion of these surfaces can have detri- the most common reason for keeping a residual in the water, whether
mental effects on the structural integrity and operation of the cool- in combination with halogenated biocides or not, has been to offer
ing system. The most common copper corrosion inhibitors used and additional level of security, in case of possible film breakdown.
today are benzotriazole (BTA) and tolyltriazole (TTA), with TTA Many studies have concluded that the triazoles form a tenacious,
being the overwhelming industry favorite. hydrophobic film that offers corrosion protection for the metal,
Both BTA and TTA are believed to utilize their triazole functional suggesting that a residual amount of triazole in the water is not

30 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

critical to success. However, most past evaluations were still con- the current is divided by the electrode surface area (Amps/cm2), it
ducted with the presence of residual inhibitor, where the differ- can be converted to a standard corrosion rate in mpy. For the
ences between true film durability and film reparability were not evaluations presented in this paper, three primary types of electro-
clear. chemical tests were utilized.
More recent studies, which focused on corrosion evaluations of Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR). Linear polarizations provide
the film without residual inhibitor, have found that simply maintain- quick estimations of general corrosion rates. Because of their small
ing a residual level of triazole as an added security measure may be overpotential range of -20mV to +20mV from OCP, the test method
somewhat of a misconception. The need to maintain a residual does not damage the metal surface. This allows for unlimited moni-
amount of triazole in the cooling water may be much more critical toring of corrosion rates within a system over time. As a result, this
than previously suggested. These studies indicated that both method is most useful as a screening method in the corrosion cells
benzotriazole’s and tolyltriazole’s films are surprisingly weak, even and as the primary corrosion monitor in longer term pilot tests,
when not in the presence of oxidizing biocides. Their formed films where non-destructive test are required.
break down immediately when no residual inhibitor is present. The Tafel Polarizations. Tafel polarizations provide the most detailed
need to maintain a residual amount of triazole in the cooling water is information on general corrosion. The cathodic and anodic branches
absolutely critical to the triazole’s success at corrosion inhibition. are generated by applying a potential that is approximately –250mV
Without the residual inhibitor, the films offer very little sustained from OCP and then increased, step wise, until the potential is ap-
protection from corrosion. These findings suggest that the suc- proximately +250mV from OCP. The potential-current data are plot-
cess of the azoles’ corrosion protection actually relies on the mol- ted as applied potential versus log values of current density. The
ecules ability to immediately and continuously repair itself, as dam- corrosion rates are determined from Tafel plots by extrapolating
age occurs, using free inhibitor in solution. They do not appear to lines from where the anodic and cathodic branches become linear
owe much of their success to the formation of any extremely tena- to where they would intersect at OCP. Tafel extrapolation is a means
cious, impermeable film. 8 of estimating the actual corrosion rate of the metal, at its open
This paper presents studies that explore a new breed of yellow circuit potential. This corrosion rate cannot be measured directly
metal corrosion inhibitor that may offer significant improvements because the non-polarized metal will measure a current density of
over TTA in many of its weak areas. The new copper corrosion zero, even though metal may be being lost. The point on the x-axis
inhibitor (CCI) molecule offers a new functional moiety as its pri- at which this intersection occurs gives the current density (icorr) for
mary binding site to the metal, instead of the common triazole func- the metal in question. This current density can then be converted
tional group. This new “hook” to the metal surface offers an attrac- into a corrosion rate in mils per year.
tion that is unmatched by any of the molecules in the triazole family. In addition to general corrosion rates, the Tafel method can provide
During the development of this proposed CCI, it was found that information on the mechanistic inhibition properties of inhibitors
varying the molecule’s aliphatic or aromatic substituents had a by observing the slopes of the cathodic and anodic lines, along
significant impact on the performance of the inhibitor’s filming abili- with the overall suppressions. Increased slopes indicate that the
ties. By carefully optimizing the balance between the hydropho- current density undergoes less change per overpotential dosage.
bicity and steric properties of these substituent “shields”, a supe- The ability to resist this change is an indication of the effective-
rior corrosion inhibitor was developed. This combination of a stron- ness of the inhibitor to impede corrosion as conditions worsen.
ger “hook” and optimized “shield” have resulted in a new inhibitor Overall suppression is defined as an overall shift to smaller current
that forms a protective film on the metal surface that is unequaled in densities in the anodic and cathodic lines. When plotted with the
its resistance to breakdown. The film is so durable that it is capable potential on the y-axis and current density on the x-axis, this means
of maintaining corrosion protection for weeks without the pres- a shift to the left, along the x-axis.
ence of any residual inhibitor in solution. Detailed studies will be
presented that compare the new inhibitor to azoles, under identical Cyclic Polarizations. Cyclic Polarizations provide the most infor-
conditions in common corrosion testing systems, using both elec- mation about the properties of an inhibitive film. The cathodic and
trochemical corrosion cells and pilot cooling rigs. The electro- anodic branches are generated by applying a potential that is ap-
chemical studies include linear polarization resistance, open circuit proximately –250mV from OCP and then increased, step wise, until
potential versus time, Tafel and cyclic polarization. These studies the potential is approximately +1000mV from OCP or current den-
will demonstrate how the advantages of the new inhibitor will pro- sity reaches a pre-set magnitude. At this point, the potential is
vide cost, application, and possibly environmental benefits to the reversed and decreased back to a current density of zero. Key
user. points on a cyclic polarization curve are the primary passivation
potential (Epp), breakdown potential (Ebd), re-passivation potential
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (Erp), and pitting current density (Ipit). Through the location of these
key points on the graph, detailed information can be gained about
Electrochemical Testing Overview the film’s durability, reparability, and pitting tendency.
Electrochemical testing offers a means for determining the corro-
sion rate of a metal before any weight loss can be detected. For Corrosion Cell Testing
copper, where corrosion rates are usually less than 2.0 mils per year All Tafel and cyclic polarizations were performed in 1L corrosion
(mpy), electrochemical testing is even more valuable, since weight flasks. Each flask was filled with electrolyte test water and im-
loss would take significant time to detect. When evaluating corro- mersed in a stirring water bath at a temperature of 50°C. All testing
sion inhibitors, this feature allows for quick assessment of inhibitor was performed using CDA110 or CDA122 copper working elec-
performance, including general corrosion rate and film durability. trodes, graphite counter electrodes, and saturated calomel refer-
The tests are performed by applying a potential to an electrode in ence electrodes. Working electrodes were rinsed in acetone and DI
an electrolyte and measuring the electrical current produced. The water prior to immersion in the test water and then allowed to sit
degree of potential applied to an electrode is centered around the undisturbed until a stable OCP was obtained (usually 30 to 60 min-
open circuit potential (OCP) and is referred to as the overpotential, utes). At this time, a 5.0 mg/L active dose of the inhibitor was
whether it is a decrease or increase in potential from OCP. When

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 31

added to the electrolyte test water. Electrochemical measurements tions were computed using DMol, a high quality quantum mechan-
were made using a Princeton Applied Research Model 263A ics computer program (available from Accelrys, San Diego, CA).
Potentiostat/Galvanostat. These calculations employed an ab initio, local density functional
The electrolyte test water chosen was one that resembled typical (LDF) method with a double numeric polarization (DNP) basis set
cooling water conditions. The water contained 400 mg/L Ca and and a Becke-Perdew (BP) functional. The two families of modeled
160 mg/L Mg (both as CaCO3), 396 mg/L chloride, 400 mg/L M species, CCI and triazole, differed only in hydrophobic substitu-
Alkalinity, 400 mg/L sulfate (as CaCO3), and 383 mg/L Na. A typical ents remote from their binding functionalities. Based on both com-
water treatment formulation was added to achieve 3 mg/L PBTC, 10 putational and experimental results, we hoped to draw conclusions
mg/L calcium carbonate control polymer, 7.5 mg/L orthophosphate, about the electronic and steric nature of copper surface binding
and 10 mg/L calcium phosphate control polymer. The pH of the and corrosion inhibition.
water was 8.95-9.05. Air was bubbled into the system to saturate The series of studies modeled the approach of selected inhibitors
the water with oxygen. to a two-layer copper atom cluster of sixteen atoms. Three poten-
tial binding sites on the copper were selected: 1) over a top layer
Pilot System Testing copper atom, 2) over a bottom layer copper atom, and 3) over a
The pilot systems provided for a more realistic system for evalua- copper interstitial site. These three sites are illustrated in Figure 1.
tion of inhibitors. Each unit is a 25L non-evaporatory cooling sys- Three angles of approach, or configuration types, for the inhibitor
tem, with heat exchange rack, corrosion rack, and chilled condenser. were also selected: Flat, where the plane of the molecule is parallel
The supplied heat flux to the heat exchangers can be adjusted via to the copper surface; Up, where the molecule is perpendicular to
supplied wattage. The system contains a treatment, hardness, and the copper surface with the primary binding functionalities point-
alkalinity feed, along with blow-down capabilities, that allows for ing down; and S, where the molecule is perpendicular to the copper
increasing cycles of concentration. The operating parameters cho- surface with only one of the binding functionalities pointing down
sen for this testing were a flow velocity of 1.0 m/sec, bulk water toward the surface. The angles of approach relative to the copper
temperature of 40°C, and heat flux of 16,000 BTU/ft2/hr. Heat ex- surface are illustrated in Figure 2. The UP-2 configuration of BTA
change rods were constructed of CDA122 and admiralty brass cop- and TTA refer to a perpendicular orientation with two nitrogen
per alloys. These heat exchange surfaces were closely monitored, atoms pointing down. Within each molecular configuration type,
visibly, throughout all testing for signs of both general and local- multiple variations were possible due to the skewing and twisting
ized corrosion. A linear polarization resistance probe, with CDA110 of the non-binding substituent groups. However, the modeling
copper electrodes, was used as the method for estimating general program was able to determine the lowest energy configuration
corrosion rates on inhibitors throughout all pilot testing. Once a within each of the three types of approach and predict the orienta-
stable corrosion rate was obtained for each untreated solution, the tion of interaction with the copper surface. Table I summarizes the
inhibitor was then dosed into the system. The same cooling water results of the configuration modeling study of BTA, TTA, di-me-
matrix used in the electrochemical testing was chosen for pilot sys- thyl-CCI, and di-propyl-CCI. Three key conclusions can be drawn
tem testing. from the molecular modeling studies.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. BTA, TTA, and the new CCI species all exhibited reasonably
In the following sections, evidence will be presented that will help strong binding energies in generally UP configurations. This
demonstrate how the new CCI molecule may offer a new applica- spatial orientation allowed the binding functionalities of each
tion option that is not typically possible with the triazole molecules. molecule best access to the copper surface atoms. At the
This new option is the ability of the user to periodically slug dose same time, the UP configurations point the relatively hydro-
the inhibitor into the cooling water, without the need to maintain a phobic portions of these molecules toward water.
residual level of inhibitor in the water for film repair. Slug dosing 2. All molecules showed very weak binding energies in the
may offer numerous advantages to the user that could be preferred FLAT configuration.
over the typical approach currently used with triazoles. The series 3. Remote substitution had very little effect on binding ener-
of steps taken to identify the CCI molecule’s potential for this alter- gies. Hence BTA and TTA showed very similar binding
native application method will be discussed. energies. The same is true for di-methyl CCI and di-propyl
CCI. This was perhaps the most significant finding from the
Molecular Modeling Studies – Indications of a modeling studies. If the electronic aspects of binding are
Strong Molecular Attraction to the Metal relatively equivalent for molecules within a structural series,
To better understand the performance mechanism for our new in- then one may reasonably attribute performance differences
hibitor molecule, we enlisted the aid of molecular modeling. Based to steric effects. For instance, it is well accepted that the
on our initial screening studies, we believed that the contributions enhanced performance of TTA over BTA is due to the greater
to inhibition from steric factors were significant. The modeling steric shielding afforded by the methyl group.
studies were designed to examine this theory by predicting the Using the lowest energy configurations and optimized coverage
inhibitor-surface interactions that lead to optimal molecular bind- determined from the configuration studies, another molecular mod-
ing at the copper surface. The studies would seek to compare the eling study was performed that would closely evaluate the lateral
energy-minimized binding configurations for our new inhibitor and interaction between the inhibitor molecules as they approach the
the triazole inhibitors, by considering the binding sites, geometry, metal surface. Based on this interaction, a total adsorption energy
and distance of interaction. These configurations would then be would then be calculated for each molecule onto the metal surface.
used to study the lateral interaction between the inhibitor mol- Table 2 summarizes the results of the calculated adsorption ener-
ecules as they approach the metal surface. Using the lowest en- gies, in kJ/mole, for BTA, TTA, t-butyl benzotriazole, di-methyl-
ergy configurations and optimized coverage, a total adsorption CCI, and di-propyl-CCI. The more negative the number, then the
energy would then be calculated for each molecule on the metal stronger the attraction. Several key conclusions can be drawn from
surface. The copper surface binding energies of these configura- the molecular modeling studies.

32 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 33
1. The adsorption energies for the CCI inhibitors are tremen- The resulting cyclic polarization graphs, with residual inhibitor
dously stronger than those of the triazole family. This in- present, can be seen in Figure 3. All three inhibitors clearly show
creased attraction indicates that the CCI functionality may more suppression in current density than the untreated solution,
offer a much better “hook” for attaching to the metal surface which indicates a much more noticeable Ebd around 200mV. The
than the triazole functionality. cyclic polarization plot of the CCI treated electrode indicated a film
2. The slight improvement in adsorption strength of TTA over stability comparable to the triazoles, falling somewhere between
BTA may indicate that electron donating groups can en- the performance of BTA and TTA. The CCI film maintained lower
hance adsorption. anodic current densities than BTA in its passive region, along with
3. The much larger, bulky substituents weaken the adsorption a comparable passive range (between OCP and the breakdown po-
energies by slowing the rate of molecular packing onto the tential (Ebd)), to both triazoles. These results are an indication that
metal surface. This weakening is most noticeable for di- the CCI molecule may provide a film whose protection is compa-
propyl CCI and t-butyl benzotriazole. The t-butyl rable to the triazole molecules, when both have residual inhibitor
benzotriazole is widely claimed to form a more durable film present to repair damaged film. However, when no residual inhibi-
than TTA, due to its more hydrophobic backbone. How- tor is present, the CCI molecule’s film clearly differentiates itself as
ever, it is also known that t-butyl benzotriazole takes a longer a superior barrier to protect against corrosion, when compared to
amount of time to form its film on the metal surface than TTA the triazole films.
or BTA. It appears that the weaker adsorbances calculated The resulting cyclic polarization graphs, without residual inhibitor
for the inhibitors with larger substituents may be a better present, can be seen in Figure 4. A much more noticeable shift to
indicator of the time needed for film formation than the ac- higher current densities can be seen with the TTA and BTA curves,
tual ability of the film to eventually prevent corrosion. along with a much more noticeable Ebd around 200mV. In fact, both
4. The calculations only accounted for the steric hindrance of the triazoles’ curves mirror the curve of the untreated solution,
initial adsorption onto the metal. The benefit from a more indicating that neither film was able to offer any measurable protec-
hydrophobic backbone on the formed films, from the larger tion against corrosion. In contrast, di-benzyl CCI displayed much
substituents, could not be considered in the calculations. lower current densities throughout its anodic scan, with no notice-
able decrease in its Ebd. These findings indicate that the CCI mol-
The molecular modeling studies served as a useful prelude to fur-
ecule forms a much more durable film than the triazoles and may not
ther testing and provided a better understanding of the electronic
and steric mechanisms controlling each molecule’s interaction with need residual inhibitor continuously present to protect against both
general and localized corrosion.
the metal surface. The studies indicated that the CCI functionality
may offer a drastic improvement over triazoles by providing a bet- Tafel Polarizations without Residual Inhibitor. To more accurately
ter “hook” to attach the molecule to the metal surface. It was highly determine the general corrosion rates of the filmed electrodes, with
possible that even larger, more hydrophobic substituents would no residual inhibitor present, Tafel polarizations and extrapolations
offer more efficient corrosion inhibitors, if this group did not be- were performed. The electrodes were pre-filmed and tested in the
come so large as to sterically prevent the film from forming or the exact same manner as the cyclic polarization graphs made in Figure
inhibitor from remaining water-soluble. It appeared that by finding 4, without residual inhibitor. Figure 5 shows the Tafel plots of the
the right balance between hydrophobicity and steric hindrance, leading inhibitors, along with Tolyltriazole (TTA) and an untreated
the “shield” of the inhibitor could be modified to provide the best solution. Note that the plots indicate a similar suppression of the
yellow metal corrosion inhibitor possible. anodic current, between three inhibitors: Di-benzyl, Di-isobutyl,
and Di-propyl CCI. However, there was a more significant separa-
Inhibitor Performance – Demonstrations of Film tion between the cathodic curves, with di-isobutyl CCI displaying
Durability and Resistance slightly better suppression of the cathodic reaction, followed by
Cyclic Polarizations with and without Residual Inhibitor. The di-benzyl CCI and finally di-propyl CCI. The differences in the
purpose of these evaluations was to indicate any noticeable differ- suppression of the cathodic reactions are believed to primarily be
ences in film durability between the formed films of the CCI and the result of the variations in hydrophobicity of the shielding sub-
triazole molecules. Here, the di-benzyl CCI molecule was compared stituents, i.e. the more hydrophobic the backbone of the film, the
to both TTA and BTA, along with an untreated solution. By testing more that film can resist penetration and attack from electrochemi-
both with and without the presence of any residual inhibitor for cally active species in the cooling water. Note that all three sub-
repair, we were able to truly evaluate the formed existing films abil- stituents suppressed both the reactions better than TTA, which
ity to protect against corrosion. The working copper electrodes was shifted much more to the right, similar to the untreated solu-
were first placed into the corrosion cell, filled with the cooling tower tion. To determine the actual corrosion rates, Tafel extrapolation
matrix, and allowed to sit undisturbed for approximately one hour. was performed by the computer software on each graph. The re-
At that time, a 5.0 mg/L dosage of active inhibitor was added to the sulting calculated corrosion rates, in mpy, are listed in Table 3.
water. The electrodes then sat, undisturbed, overnight to allow for Note that without residual inhibitor present to repair damage, the
complete formation of the protective films and electrode stabiliza- performance of TTA declined dramatically, while the CCI films con-
tion. For the tests with inhibitor present, the electrodes were sim- tinue to successfully impede both the anodic and cathodic corro-
ply polarized in their existing corrosion cell on the following day. sion reactions.
For the test without residual inhibitor present, the electrodes were Pilot Testing via Slug Dosing, without Maintained Residual In-
removed from their existing corrosion cells the following day, rinsed hibitor. These evaluations were conducted to determine if the
with DI water, and placed in a separate corrosion cell that was filled indications of film durability found with electrochemical testing
with the cooling tower water matrix, without residual inhibitor. The could be translated to the more realistic pilot testing systems. The
filmed electrodes were then allowed to sit one hour, to allow the di-benzyl CCI and TTA films were evaluated for four weeks with no
OCP to stabilize, before polarizations were performed residual inhibitor present in the cooling water to repair damaged
film. An untreated system was also evaluated for comparison.

34 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 35
Copper alloy CDA-122 rods and admiralty brass CDA-443 heat from these findings, the new CCI molecule is likely not a viable
exchange tubes were added to the pilot systems for visual observa- alternative for common mild steel corrosion prevention programs.
tions throughout the duration of the test. LPR probes, with copper However, the moderate protection of mild steel afforded by the CCI
alloy CDA-110 electrodes, were used to continuously monitor the molecule will provide an added benefit gained, when treating cop-
general corrosion rates. By testing the inhibitors’ films directly on per alloy surfaces with the inhibitor.
heat exchange surfaces over time, with an actual flow of cooling Performance in the Presence of Halogenated Biocides. Recall
water across the surface, we hoped to better demonstrate the supe- from previous pilot studies8 that the free CCI molecule in solution
riority of the CCI film, along with the inability of the TTA film to was found to be unstable in the presence of high concentrations of
continue to protect in the absence of residual inhibitor. oxidizing biocides. When a five mg/L feed of either sodium hy-
All testing was performed in the complex cooling water, with an pochlorite or 1, 3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin was added to the
initial slug dose of 5.0 mg/L residual inhibitor. The systems were cooling water, both the biocide and CCI molecule were consumed
then flushed to remove the residual inhibitor. To make the water due to their reaction with each other. In addition, the CCI molecule’s
more aggressive to the films, a 0.20 mg/L free chlorine feed was formed film was not able to maintain corrosion protection at these
started on the twelfth day of testing. A plot of free chlorine concen- accelerated levels of biocide. This attack is explained by the fact
trations throughout the test is shown in Figure 6. The free chlorine that the CCI molecule is a strong reducing agent, which is not
concentrations were carried up to approximately 0.15 mg/L within stable in the presence of most oxidizing agents. As a result, the CCI
four days and then slowly increased to 0.20 mg/L by the end of the molecule is not recommended for treatment programs utilizing ac-
test. The LPR probes were unable to detect corrosion rates until celerated feeds of oxidizing biocide. The triazole inhibitors appear
the free chlorine feed was started. At this time, the corrosion rates to still be the best option for these conditions, as long as a residual
began to increase for both the untreated and TTA treated systems. level of inhibitor is maintained at all times. However, many water
These rates throughout testing can be seen in Figure 7. Note that treatment programs do not maintain such accelerated levels of oxi-
the TTA treated system reached a higher corrosion rate of 0.30 mpy dizing biocide, mainly due to mild steel corrosion and phosphonate
more quickly than the untreated system. The di-benzyl CCI treated instability concerns. For these programs, the chosen biocide appli-
system maintained lower corrosion rates throughout testing, never cation is usually either a constant, low-level feed of oxidizing bio-
reaching higher than 0.10 mpy. The differences in corrosion rates cide or a non-oxidizing biocide feed. For either of these two appli-
were further supported by ICP analysis of the cooling water for cations, the new CCI molecule appears to be a viable option as a
soluble copper concentrations. These concentrations can be seen triazole replacement. This claim was demonstrated in the previous
in Figure 8. Note that the di-benzyl CCI treated system maintained section, where the CCI film was successful at maintaining perfor-
lower soluble copper concentrations throughout testing; indicat- mance in the presence of a constant, 0.20 mg/L feed of free chlorine.
ing that its more impeded copper corrosion reactions were result- To further explore the ability of the CCI film to resist breakdown in
ing in less soluble copper in the cooling water. the presence of low concentrations of oxidizing biocides, a pilot
The visual observations made of the heat exchange tubes through- test was conducted to determine the maximum level of free chlorine
out testing were even more dramatic than the measured corrosion allowed, before the CCI film indicated signs of breakdown. These
rates. Both the untreated and TTA treated systems began to show tests were conducted with the simple cooling tower water, using
visible signs of corrosion on both the admiralty brass and CDA- linear polarization resistance corrosion measurements. In these
122 heat exchangers as soon as the free chlorine concentrations tests, the inhibitors were allowed to form their protective films with
reached 0.10 mg/L. These signs of corrosion began as spotty dis- a 5mg/L active dosage for 16 hours. After that time, the inhibitor
coloration of the metal surfaces, which gradually became more wide- was flushed from the system and a 0.5 mg/L free chlorine feed was
spread, resulting in a complete discoloration of the metal surface started. The resulting corrosion rates were plotted versus the mea-
from the original copper metal surface to a completely grey surface. sured free chlorine in Figure 11. The results indicated that the TTA
Photographs of the three heat exchange tubes were taken after the film failed as an inhibitor once free chlorine levels reached around
test. These pictures can be seen in Figure 9. The di-benzyl CCI 0.1 mg/L, allowing corrosion rates to reach 0.5 mpy or higher. The
treated system never developed any corrosion deposition or dis- di-benzyl CCI film maintained much lower corrosion rates with higher
coloration on the metal surface. The heat exchangers continued to levels of free chlorine. The corrosion rates for the di-benzyl CCI
look as good as the day they were installed into the system. films did not begin to increase until free chlorine concentrations
Performance at Protecting Against Mild Steel Corrosion. During reached 0.2-0.3 mg/L. Even at this point, the rate of increase was
a repeat of the described test above, C1010 electrodes were added much slower than with the TTA film. Corrosion rates did not reach
to monitor the general corrosion rates of mild steel for two pilot unacceptable levels until the free chlorine concentrations climbed
systems treated with di-benzyl and di-propyl CCI, along with an above 0.3-0.4 mg/L.
untreated pilot system. The results indicated that the new CCI Once the free chlorine levels reached over 0.5 mg/L, the hypochlo-
molecule may also offer some protection of mild steel. These re- rite feeds were stopped to allow free chlorine levels to degrade to
sults can be seen in Figure 10. Note that while the corrosion rates less than 0.1 mg/L. The purpose of this was to determine if corro-
of the untreated solution climbed to above 11.0 mpy, both the CCI sion rates would drop back to the levels prior to hypochlorite addi-
molecules were able to maintain much lower corrosion rates of tion, which would indicate the remaining intactness of the protec-
around 3.1 mpy. This performance is an indication that the new CCI tive film. The TTA film continued to maintain an unacceptable
molecule may offer further protection of the mild steel surfaces corrosion rate of 0.4 mpy with less than 0.1 mg/L free chlorine. This
within the cooling system. However, many of the commercially indicated potential breakdown of the film instead of penetration
available mild steel corrosion inhibitors available today exhibit much attack. The CCI film’s corrosion rates dropped to 0.1 mpy with less
better performances toward mild steel, easily maintaining corrosion than 0.1 mg/L free chlorine, indicating that the film may have re-
rates at less than 2.0 mpy. There was also an indication that the CCI mained more intact. These results indicate that the select CCI mol-
films formed on the mild steel surfaces may not be as resistant to ecules may offer more corrosion protection in systems where a
breakdown as the films formed on copper alloy surfaces. Judging continuous chlorine feed is in operation, since these levels are
generally around 0.2 mg/L free chlorine.

36 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 37
A New, Simpler Application in the Field contrast, the TTA film was found to easily break down, re-
The majority of water treatment programs using triazoles are carried sulting in unacceptable corrosion rates and emphasizing the
out by formulating the inhibitor, along with many of the other treat- crucial need to maintain residual in order to maintain perfor-
ment additives, into one formulation. This practice can cause some mance.
concern when using triazole inhibitors, due to the formulation in- 3. The strength of the CCI film offers the user the ability to slug
stability of the product, coupled with the need to constantly main- dose the inhibitor into the cooling water every few weeks,
tain a residual amount of inhibitor in the water. Additionally, test- without needing to maintain a residual supply of inhibitor to
ing for triazole in the water is a cumbersome task; therefore most repair damaged film. This type of treatment program may
experts rely on a tracer added to the formulation as an indicator of offer the user several advantages over traditional treatments,
how much residual inhibitor is present in the cooling water. Much including a more convenient, more secure, less expensive,
faith is placed in the belief that the triazole has remained stable in and more environmentally friendly yellow metal corrosion
the formulation and is therefore present in the cooling water at the inhibitor.
concentrations expected from the tracer concentration. As a result 4. When tested with residual inhibitor present, the residual
of these concerns, some water treatment experts recommend feed- CCI molecules were susceptible to degradation by high con-
ing triazoles separately. This practice offers more control of re- centrations of oxidizing biocides. For systems utilizing ac-
sidual concentrations and inhibitor stability; although the majority celerated oxidizing biocide feeds, the CCI molecule is not
still chooses to feed triazole as part of their formulation. recommended.
The new CCI molecule offers much more freedom in water treat- 5. In the presence of low levels of oxidizing biocide (0.2-0.4 mg/
ment, with a new, reliable application choice. CCI has the unique L), the CCI films displayed a greater resistance to attack than
ability to be slug dosed into the water every two, three, or even four the TTA film, when tested without residual inhibitor. If the
weeks. There is no need for additional sophisticated feeding equip- biocide feed is paused to allow the CCI molecule to form its
ment. The formed CCI protective film on the metal surface has the protective film, then the film has the tenacity to resist attack
ability to protect the metal from corrosion for weeks, without the from the low level biocide feed for several weeks. In addi-
presence of a residual inhibitor. This remarkable achievement can tion, the CCI molecule is an ideal inhibitor for programs uti-
offer an enormous level of comfort to the user, by knowing the film lizing a non-oxidizing biocide treatment.
alone will protect the metal, without the concern of whether there is 6. The overall evaluations of the new inhibitors show very
enough residual inhibitor present to maintain corrosion control. promising results; however, further testing of user applica-
Other benefits of slug dosing and not keeping a residual level of bility and field trials is needed to confirm the potential of the
inhibitor in the cooling water include… CCI molecule as a viable replacement for triazole inhibitors.
Formulate at Neutral pH Values. The ability to slug dose the CCI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
molecule and remove the yellow metal inhibitor from the formula-
tion will allow many formulations to be prepared at neutral pH val- The authors would like to thank Dr. Solomon H. Jacobson, Steve
ues. Due to the triazole’s traditional formulation instability, current Rogers, and Luis Barbosa for their advanced molecular modeling
water treatment formulations must be maintained at either very low studies.
or very high values. This restriction not only can create an incon- REFERENCES
venient hassle to the formulator, it can also pose a serious safety
concern, as it requires the handling of concentrated acids or bases. 1. O. Hollander, R.C. May, “The Chemistry of Azole Copper
In addition, there are generally additional shipping costs and regu- Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water,” Corrosion: p. 39-44,
lations for the transport of substances considered to be corrosive. January, 1985.
Most common water treatment formulations meet this corrosive 2. T.C. Breske, “The Destruction of Tolyltriazole Inhibitor by
designation because of the pH needed to keep triazole in solution. Chlorination of Cooling Water,” Corrosion: p. 51-52, August,
Polymer Detection without Interference. For many polymer de-
tection methods, the triazole molecule positively interferes with 3. G.D. Hansen, J.N. Biber, “The Effect of Chlorine on the Ab-
concentration measurements. The ability to operate without re- sorption on and the Inhibition of the Triazoles on Copper,”
sidual inhibitor will allow for the most accurate polymer detection, Corrosion 83: No. 282, April 1983.
ensuring that all treatment feeds are accurate and failure is pre- 4. R.P. Carr, M.J. Holden, “The Performance of Tolyltriazole in
vented. the Presence of Sodium Hypochlorite under Simulated Field
Conditions,” Corrosion 83: No. 283, April 1983.
Lessened Environmental Impact. Over time, as the cycle of blow-
down repeats, the ability to not maintain residual inhibitor will re- 5. D. Vanderpool, M. Killoran, R. Sergent, “Improving the Cor-
sult in the discharge of less inhibitor to the environment. rosion Inhibitor Efficiency of Tolyltriazole in the Presence of
Chlorine and Bromine,” Corrosion 87: No. 157, March 1987.
CONCLUSIONS 6. R. Holm, D. Berg, F. Lu, D. Johnson, J. Eickmans, D. Holtkamp,
From the tests conducted so far, the following conclusions may be A. Benninghoven, “The Impact of Chlorine on Tolyltriazole
drawn about the potential of the new CCI molecule as a replace- and Butylbenzotriazole Corrosion Inhibitor Films on Cop-
ment for the triazole inhibitors: per,” International Water Conference: No. IWC-92-40, 1992.
1. For general corrosion inhibition, with residual inhibitor 7. F. Lu, N. M. Rao, B. Yang, J.E. Hoots, R.S. Budrys, “Effect of
present, the new CCI molecules gave comparable perfor- Halogenation on Yellow Metal Corrosion: Inhibition by
mances to the triazole molecules. Triazoles,” Corrosion: p. 430, June 1994.
2. When the inhibitive films were evaluated in the absence of 8. E.C. Ward, A.L. Foster, I.C. Weidner, D.E. Glaser, “Looking
inhibitor, the CCI films were extremely durable and did not for an Alternative Yellow Metal Corrosion Inhibitor,” Corro-
indicate the need to maintain a residual concentration. In sion 2004: No. 04079, April 2004.

38 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 39
Figure 1. Molecular modeling Study - Potential Copper Figure 3. Cyclic Polarization Plots of Inhibitors with 5mg/L
Binding Sites Residual Inhibitor

Figure 2. Molecular Modeling Study – Molecular

Configuration Types

Figure 4. Cyclic Polarization Plots of Inhibitors without

Residual Inhibitor

Table I. Lowest Energy Configurations and

Binding Energies for
Figure 5. Tafel Plots of Inhibitors without Residual Inhibitor

Table 2. Total Adsorption Energies for Corrosion Inhibitors


40 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 41
42 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1
CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 43
Table 3. Tafel Extrapolated Corrosion Rates from Figure 3
Figure 9. Copper CDA-122 Heat Exchange Tube after

Figure 6. Free Chlorine Concentrations

throughout Testing

Figure 10. General Mild Steel Corrosion Rates

throughout Testing

Figure 7. General Corrosion Rates throughout Testing

Figure 11. General Copper (CDA-110) Corrosion Rates per

Free Chlorine Concentration

Figure 8. Soluble Copper Concentrations

throughout Testing

44 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 45
Bacterial Resistance To Biocides In
Recirculating Cooling Water Systems
by: infection.
BUCKMAN LABORATORIES, INC Pseudomonas aeruginosa is
the species which is quite re-
sistant to antimicrobials. For
ABSTRACT example Diagram 1, entitled
Bacteria are everywhere in the cooling water system environment. Resistance Levels, lists the
Controlling bacterial populations in the bulk water and on cooling types of microorganisms
system surfaces is necessary to maintain and operate the cooling found in water systems that are
system properly. Control of microorganisms in the field depends on naturally resistant to antimi-
the successful application of antimicrobial agents. However, bacte- crobials, and it includes
rial resistance to biocides is inevitable and irreversible, a natural Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At
consequence of bacterial adaptation to exposure to antimicrobials. the top of the list are microor-
This paper presents mechanisms of bacterial resistance to biocides, ganisms that are the most re-
strategies of overcoming resistant cell populations, and a support- sistant to biocides in cooling
ive case history using biocides successfully against resistant bac- DR. CHRIS L. WIATR water systems. Their resis-
tance is due to their bacterial structures, such as bacterial spores
INTRODUCTION that are impenetrable to nonoxidizing biocides because of the na-
A variety of detrimental and sometime injurious microorganisms ture of the thick protective spore coats. Filamentous bacteria, con-
can be found in industrial water systems such as cooling towers, taminants that enter a system typically via incoming freshwater, are
airwashers, and HVAC systems. In these systems it is not unusual also difficult to eradicate due to the protective sheath that sur-
to find in the bulk water large populations of aerobic bacteria such rounds the entire cell. The sheaths make the filamentous bacteria
as Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, recalcitrant to biocidal treatments. Among the vegetative bacteria,
Acinetobacter, and Bacillus species. Occasionally Legionella is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in particular, is one of the most resis-
detected in the bulk water of cooling towers and airwashers. In tant gram-negative microorganisms. It can become resistant by a
some cases Pseudomonas species is mistaken for Legionella variety of mechanisms. These are discussed below.
pneumophila in the laboratory [11]. Of 77.5% of the misidentified Since Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are nutritionally quite ver-
species, 60% are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10% are Pseudomo- satile, they are found frequently in cooling water systems. In fact,
nas fluorescens, and 7.5% are Pseudomonas putida, leading to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is usually found in almost all cooling
false conclusions [12], errors in judgment in application treatments water systems. Pseudomonas sp., have been detected also in
of the causative agent of biofilm build-ups, lack of proper treat- airwasher, reverse osmosis [8], and drinking water systems [18].
ments of reseeding of biofilms after postchlorination treatment pe- They are also found in swimming pools and spas.
riods, and errors in treatment choices of recirculating water sys-
P. aeruginosa is also important in terms of infections. In fact, it is
tems. Moreover, in some cases plant personnel become ill with
the most important human pathogen in the genus Pseudomonas
symptoms resembling those of legionellosis but are not due to
with respect to the numbers and the types of infections caused and
Legionella pneumophila. Rather, the symptoms may be induced
to their associated morbidity and mortality [23]. Pseudomonas
by a different bacterium, exposure to which is not documented well
aeruginosa is a major cause of opportunistic infections currently
in the literature [26,27]. One microorganism that contributes to dis-
accounting for up to 20% of these infections [1,13,21,24]. It is re-
ease is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This pathogen has been identi-
sponsible for otitis externa and is frequently observed among
fied as the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infections [5,16],
healthy people as “swimmers’ ear.” In addition, P. aeruginosa causes
and antibiotic therapy of P. aeruginosa infections has been diffi-
corneal ulcers, keratitis, meningitis, urinary tract infections, en-
cult because of the intrinsic resistance of the bacterium to most
docarditis, periodontitis, chronic prostatitis, and osteomyelitis.
families of antimicrobial agents [10]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pro-
duces a repertoire of virulence factors such as alginate, extracellu- Pseudomonads can be involved in pathogenesis, especially in in-
lar proteases including various alkaline protease, elastases, pilases, dividuals who are either suffering from a primary infection or are
a rhamnolipid surfactant, and an assortment of siderophores in- immunocompromised. It is well known that Pseudomonas
cluding pyoverdin [17,20]. These factors play a role in bacterial aeruginosa establishes pathogenic biofilms in lungs of patients
metabolism and growth, as well as complex virulence factors such with cystic fibrosis. Generally, hospital-acquired infections in pa-
as adherence to host cells and tissues, biofilm formation, twitching, tients using venous or urinary catheters are preceded by the forma-
swarming, and swimming motilities. Presumably all the virulence tion of the biofilm on the interior wall of the catheter. Organisms
factors contribute to bacterial fitness and adaptation during an within these biofilms are more resistant to antibiotics than indi-
vidual (planktonic) bacteria. The case is similar in heat exchange

46 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

tubes in cooling water systems. Obviously, then, biofilms consist- sequent spreading by lysis and reinfection have not yet been proven.
ing of P. aeruginosa in cooling towers can present challenges to Another mechanism can be due to membrane changes in which the
environmental microbiologists, hygienists, engineers, and opera- efflux pump may change. Efflux pumps can be redundant in a single
tors. This paper covers P. aeruginosa in recirculating cooling wa- organism and can lead to resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents.
ter systems and its resistance to biocides commonly used in treat- Table 1: RESISTANCE of PSEUDOMONAS to
ing cooling towers. ANTIMICROBIALS
P. aeruginosa, in particular, can become resistant to a number of
antibiotics and biocides by mechanisms pointed out in Table 1. For
example, an enzyme may be modified; thus, upon expression the
biocide may allow the cell to be resistant to an antimicrobial by
hydrolyzing the enzyme, or a cell membrane enzyme may be modi-
fied so that it will not attract an antimicrobial or can provide a
barrier to entry to the cell. In some cases, a biochemical change to
the porin in the cell membrane may disallow entry of an antimicro-
bial to the cell, or the target may be changed so that a substituent
group is no longer available for a reaction, making the membrane
appear insensitive. In these cases the uptake of the antimicrobial is
reduced versus a control. The opposite may be true as well, as in If genetic mutations occur, they take place as either an all or none
the case where the antimicrobial is pumped out of the cell through event with respect to the decrease in susceptibility to antimicrobi-
an efflux system. This mechanism is very complicated physiologi- als. In the case of gene transfers, the gene is typically perfect and
cally. may be hardy, but it may not necessarily be transferred well. How-
ever, when a gene for antimicrobial resistance is transferred from
one cell to another, it can enter a population after having achieved
a high level of resistance elsewhere in natural or artificial ecosys-
tems. This transfer of resistance can lead to major trouble as the
bacterium reproduces into a large population of cells. The resis-
tance can be, for example, to a chlorinated compound, to a single
antimicrobial, or to several biocides, and can lead to multiple infec-
tions in plant personnel [26, 27].
Pseudomonas sp. are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae
and have been known to undergo transformation, transduction by
viruses, and build up biofilm. They are aerobic, non-sporeforming,
gram-negative rods that are straight or slightly curved [14]. They
are 2.5-3.0 um long and 1.0 um wide. Although these cells possess
strictly respiratory metabolism, some isolates are capable of grow-
ing anaerobically using nitrate or arginine as terminal electron ac-

Diagram 1: This is a list of the types of microorganisms that are

most resistant to antimicrobials, ranking the most resistant
microorganisms at the top of the chart, i.e. bacteria spores
produced by Bacillus and Clostridium species, and progressing
downward to the Vegetative Bacteria.

Bacteria can become resistant to antimicrobials by a variety of

mechanisms as shown in Table 2. Besides heredity and mutation
obviously, the mechanisms most commonly found in industrial water
microbiology are transformation, biofilm development, and combina-
tions of several of the mechanisms. For example, a mutation can be
transferred by transformation to progeny which can then grow up
into a population of strong slime exopolymer-forming cells. Activ-
ity of viruses lysing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a cooling sys- Biofilm Bacteria
tem has been observed in clear plaques (Wiatr, unpublished data) One of the most important microbiological factors of concern in
but resulting changes in resistance due to viral infection and sub- cooling systems is microbial deposition on surfaces. When bacte-
ria such as Pseudomonas sp. attach to surfaces, they assemble

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 47

into communities called biofilm. Some cells express genes which system surfaces is necessary to maintain and operate the cooling
direct the synthesis of slime exopolymer. This process results in a system properly. Control of microorganisms in the field depends on
phenotype which one observes as mucoid colonies in a Petri dish the successful application of antimicrobial agents. Without proper
or slime masses on cooling tower, airwasher, or drinking water sur- selection and application of the antimicrobials to a recirculating
faces. The growth of biofilms is determined by nutritional and envi- cooling water system, bacteria and microbial slime masses build up
ronmental conditions in the system as well as other factors men- and reduce heat transfer, retard fluid flow, collect further deposi-
tioned below. Of the biofilms we have observed in cooling systems, tion of inorganic and organic materials, as well as encourage
the slime exopolymer consists of approximately 70-80% carbohy- underdeposit corrosion.
drate and 20-30% protein (Wiatr, unpublished data). Problems of biofilms were observed in the mill of the case study,
The genus of a bacterium which can grow very well into a biofilm is such as decreased fluid flow, loss of heat transfer, and increased
Pseudomonas. In biofilms this bacterium is an opportunistic patho- microbially influenced corrosion. The mill attempted to control the
gen which can, in the right circumstances, lead to human health problem by increasing the chlorine, but that failed. Then they used
problems. In terms of cooling water treatment, both can also indi- a nonoxidizing biocide, with the hope that the problem would go
rectly lead to corrosion problems by metabolizing nitrogen-based away. This did not happen. The nonoxidizing biocide was slug
corrosion inhibitors and releasing gaseous compounds. In cooling dosed at 50 ppm product (1.50% combination of isothiazolones
systems Pseudomonas can reduce nitrite to N2, resulting in loss of twice per week), and was later increased to 80-100 ppm with little or
corrosion inhibitor(s). Wild type Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells no observable decrease in the planktonic population, based on
typically start growing in a monolayer of cells, then over time grow both dipslides and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] testing. The mill
up in stacks. Both bacterial slime exopolysacharide and flagella are did not understand what was occurring and asked for assistance in
involved in the initial attachment. Once attached firmly to the sur- solving the problem.
face (substratum), the cells secrete extracellular mucopolysaccha- This paper describes what was uncovered during the investigation
ride, which can form a tenacious three-dimensional matrix. As de- of the cooling system, includes the identification of the bacterial
velopment of the cells continue and type IV pili grow out, the cells cells involved in the actual problem, and shows the results of labo-
stack up within 8 h. Nonmotile mutants essentially cannot do this ratory and field studies used to solve the problem. The paper also
[22]. Growth continues over several days, but on the practical scale describes laboratory work covering the determination of bacterial
the biofilm is evident as a fine or thin layer in 48 h, and as a fluffier resistance as the cause of the failure for the biocides to perform and
film starting in 72 h, and growing thick in 96 h. outlines several mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicro-
Growth of bacteria in biofilm is favored over growth in the plank- bial. Finally, strategies of overcoming resistant cell populations are
tonic stage, resulting in the development of layers of bacterial cells provided based on a supportive case history wherein the biocides
in deposits. This process is positively regulated by compounds were tested and then successfully applied against resistant bacte-
such as homoserine lactone and other cell-signaling compounds ria.
that induce the bacteria to grow up in abbreviated “towers,” and in
older scale-up cultures or in field problems mushroom shapes can MATERIALS AND METHODS
be observed. At this stage the biofilms are mature communities and Microorganisms. Standard pure cultures were made from single
are very difficult to remove. Fluid transport through these biofilm colony isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 as well
structures facilitates contact with microbial enzymes and promotes as Pseudomonas sp. isolated from biofilm sampled from the cooling
rapid chemical turnover and loss of corrosion protection. The en- tower surfaces.
zymes Pseudomonas sp. produces can be involved in rapid turn- Media and Chemicals. Bacteria were propagated in dilute tryptic
over of several chemical compounds. Thus, the presence of these soy broth (TSB) and were enumerated on tryptone glucose beef
bacteria growing in a biofilm community can lead to a loss of chemi- extract agar (TGE) supplied by Difco (Detroit, MI). Additional in-
cal protection and result in corrosion problems. On occasion, growth gredients such as salts and anhydrous dextrose used to supple-
of Pseudomonas sp. in the field can result in the incidence of dis- ment TSB were from J.T. Baker (Phillipsburg, NJ). Antibiotics were
ease [26, 29]. from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). Heterotrophic plate count
Field Site data obtained in the challenge study represent triplicate measure-
ments of two independent experiments.
The field test site was a steel mill in the midwestern United States.
The mill brought in iron sections, which they melted down, and For field studies, 1 liter samples of cooling water were drawn and
used the molten iron to cast steel products. The cooling tower the microorganisms were cultured based on 0.5, 1.0 or 10 ml
referred to as Cooling Tower 4, for this study, was a mechanical- subsamples. 2.0 x 0.5 ml of the sample was inoculated onto Levine
draft crossflow tower. This cooling tower cooled water for heat eosine methylene blue medium and MacConkey medium, which
exchangers and air compressors. The makeup water was mill water, were used for the enumeration of gram negative enteric bacteria.
which originated in the Ohio River. The fill was polyvinylchloride, Pseudomonas isolation agar (PIA) supplemented with carbenicillin
but some wood was in the tower. Characteristics of Cooling Tower (200 ug/ml) was used to enumerate pseudomonads. Additional an-
4 included exposure to sunlight and to warm, oxygenated waters. tibiotics were used at the following concentrations (ug/ml as indi-
The plant did not chemically clean the cooling tower surfaces. Cool- cated in parentheses): for Pseudomonas aeruginosa carbenicillin
ing water was sampled from Cooling Tower 4 and biofilm samples (250), gentamycin (10), and/or HgCl2 (10); for Pseudomonas
were collected from a heat exchanger. Treatment consisted of bleach fluorescens gentamycin (10). The media were incubated at 35 + 1 C,
that was fed until a free residual halogen (typically 0.2 ppm as free for 48 h., except for PIA which was incubated at 30 + 1C. for 48 h.
Cl2) was reached. Total coliform testing was conducted by filtering 25 ml of cooling
water through a 0.45 um membrane filter. The membrane filter was
Controlling bacterial populations in the bulk water and on cooling incubated on a pad containing MF coliform medium for 24 h. Fecal

48 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

coliforms were determined similarly on a membrane filter incubated Under the phase-contrast microscope neither Gallionella nor
on a pad soaked with 1.8 ml Millipore fecal coliform medium, for 24 Sphaerotilus was found. A few protozoa in Tower 4 bulk water
h at 44.5 C. Blue colonies were counted as fecal coliforms. All other subsamples were found and a few nonfilamentous algae were also
tests for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria involved incu- observed, but not in quantities which would indicate a problem.
bation for 48 h. at 35 C, then 24 h at 24 C. Sulfate-reducing bacteria
were grown in modified Postgate’s medium as described in refer-
ence [28]. Clostridium, yeast, and mold were determined as previ- Table 3: COMPOSITION OF MICROBES FOUND IN
ously described [28]. COOLING TOWER 4a
Isolation and Biochemical Testing. The dominant gram negative
bacteria isolated from MacConkey medium were transferred to
trypticase soy agar (TSA). Fifteen colonies were suspended in
0.85% sterile saline and identified by the API 20E method. This
method involves the determination of the biochemical profiles based
on an inoculation of miniature cupules containing dehydrated sub-
strates in a plasticized strip. The inoculum (McFarland 0.5 ml) and
incubation were standard, and color changes were read visually.
Reagents were added to some of the cupules prior to reading. Be-
sides the API 20E method, predominant colonies were tested for 2-
ketogluconate production from glucose by using filter sterilized
Haynes broth containing 4% potassium gluconate. At various
points in incubation time, 1 ml samples were drawn and tested with
equal volumes of Benedict’s solution as in reference 25. In addi-
tion, the organisms were restreaked on TSA and were allowed to
grow for 24-48 h at 28 C for identification by gas chromatography.
Gas Chromatography. Pseudomonas species was identified by gas
chromatography using Microbial Identification System (MIS) soft- Since the total aerobic plate counts of Cooling Tower 4 were 2 X
ware. Approximately 40 mg of grown microbial cells was harvested 10E8 initially, we examined the cooling system and aseptically
and the fatty acid methyl esters from these cells were extracted by sampled biofilm from the cold well, tower fill, and deck surfaces
organic solvents. The final extract was transferred to a vial for GC using a 3.5 cm X 10 cm template. In some sections of the deck
analysis. The resulting chromatogram of each fatty acid methyl surface the biofilm had considerable cyanobacteria (blue-green al-
ester profile was compared with a reference library in the MIS, gae), making an accurate count of heterotrophic bacteria impracti-
yielding a printout of the most probable identification of the organ- cal. However, the bacteria from the tower fill of Cooling Tower 4
ism. The software has a dendrogram function that further allowed gave us a healthy community of cells to work with, based on a total
comparison of the isolates in the database to each other. aerobic bacterial count of 3 X 10E9, and the cold well had an aerobic
Biocides. The oxidizing biocide was NaOCl, which was introduced bacterial count of 5 X 10E8 CFU/ml. Moreover, the bacteria from the
from a 12.5% concentration. The nonoxidizing biocides consisted biofilm samples in Tower 4 were isolated on antibiotic-containing
of 50% 1,5-pentanedial, 20% 2,2-dibromoproprionamide, 1.15% 5- blood agar plates and MacConkey agar. The Pseudomonas species
chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one+0.35% 2-methyl-4- were enumerated on PIA supplemented with carbenicillin (200 ug/
isothiazolin-3-one, 60% polyquat or poly[oxy- ml) and selected off Petri dishes containing carbenicillin and
ethylene(dimethyleneiminio)ethyl-ene(dimethyliminio)ethylene gentamycin. Gentamycin alone was used in PIA to select Pseudomo-
dichloride], and a combination of the isothiazolones above and nas fluorescens, but only three colonies grew on this medium at the
polyquat. The concentrations of actives used in the study are given 10E-2 dilution, representing only 300 CFU/ml. The tower fill surface
in the figures in the Results section below. had Pseudomonas species that were 5.48 log10 higher than the
counts in the cooling water, and the yellow pigmented bacterial
RESULTS counts there were approximately 1.37 log10 higher than those in the
The types of microbes that were found in the planktonic phase in cooling water.
Cooling Tower 4 are listed in Table 3 below. The aerobic bacteria in
From the cooling tower biofilm the Pseudomonas sp. were isolated
the cooling water of Tower 4 were approximately 2 X 10E8 CFU/ml.
and were stained as typical gram-negative cells, were measured as
The Enterobacter count was 600 organisms/ml, and the Escheri-
3.0 um long, 1.0 um wide, and were found motile due to polar fla-
chia coli averaged at 10 CFU/ml. The Pseudomonas sp. were
gella. Standard lab testing also found that these cells grew aerobi-
enumerated at 3.3 X 10E3 CFU/ml. The levels of Pseudomonas sp.
cally in standard broths. The pseudomonads grew well on glucose
and pigmented bacteria in Tower 4 were approximately 2 log10
oxidatively and converted nitrate to nitrogen gas. They were oxi-
greater than in other cooling towers on site. Only a small number of
dase positive and catalase positive. They were nutritionally quite
sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found. No clostridia were de-
versatile; for example, they also grew on MacConkey agar, appear-
tected. Yeast did not grow on tartrate-acidified PDA, but a few
ing as lactose nonfermenters. Their growth was optimal between 31
molds did. [These were Penicillium species, which are henceforth
and 35 C. They grew at 41 C, but not at 4 C.
ignored in this report, but after the trial, were monitored for effec-
tive treatment with methylene bisthiocyanate (MTC) and 2- From the results of the initial standard microbiological testing, it
(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzothiazole (TCMTB) later (data not seemed that a high level of pseudomonads were present in the
shown).] culture taken from the bulk water and tower surfaces (described

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 49

below). These needed to be identified under controlled laboratory Table 4: MICROBIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL TESTING FOR
conditions. Cultures that yielded either blue-green or yellow colo- THE IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE a
nies that were oxidase positive were considered presumptive for
Pseudomonas species and were tested further. Bacterial colonies
were replated on MacConkey agar in duplicate. Identification was
made biochemically and analytically. The predominant colonies were
subjected to API20E biochemical testing for identification and for
more information on the physiology and biochemistry of the bacte-
ria isolated, the results of which are given in Table 4. Fifteen colo-
nies were selected from MacConkey’s agar and were tested, and
each colony gave the pattern characteristic of and were, therefore,
confirmed biochemically as Pseudomonas. All 15 colonies were
also confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by replating on TSA
and conducting MIS-gas chromatography. Five of these were mu-
coids. In addition to these results, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolates were found positive for pyocyanin, positive for lipase, and
produced 2-ketogluconate in Haynes broth and potassium glucon-
ate. Therefore, the results are quite clear that the major slime-form-
ing bacterium was Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Samples from the cold well were analyzed also for numerous bacte-
ria and fungi after the tower was treated chemically. The samples
were collected 4 h after the Cooling Tower 4 bleach treatment (NaOCl)
ended, and the free residual was measured as 0.2 ppm (as Cl2). As
the data indicate in Table 5, the heterotrophic bacterial count or
aerobic bacterial count was measured at almost a million, or 930,000
CFU, and a pseudomonad count of 89,000 CFU/ml in a sample drawn
24 h. post treatment with 70 ppm nonoxidizing biocide (1.05 ppm Table 4: The results of the microbiological and biochemical tests on
active isothiazolones). These results represent a log10 increase in 15 colonies originally selected off MacConkey agar are listed above
pseudomonads and an aerobic bacteria count which was observed as either positive or negative. The pattern of the results found from
to remain virtually unchanged. The aerobic plate counts of the the colonies indicated identification as Pseudomonas.
planktonic bacteria in the bulk water (Table 3) typically were run-
ning in the millions. The decrease to 930,000 CFU represented only Table 5: COMPOSITION OF MICROBES FOUND IN BULK WATER
a 0.333 log10 decrease, which is not significant. (The change from
two million to one million approximately is taken as no change.) In
addition, the Pseudomonas count data did not indicate a signifi-
cant log10 decrease, but rather an increase which was also < 1 log
change. Neither the mucoids nor Enterobacter changed signifi-
cantly, but the Escherichia coli level dropped > 1 log10. The yellow
pigmented bacteria population was decreased >2 log10 (from 4.2 X
10E3 to less than 4.0 X E1). No anaerobic bacteria were detected
after dosing with a combination of chlorine and isothiazolones.
Fungi were not detected and thus were of no concern. The promi-
nent gram-negative bacterium was found to be Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (Table 5). In addition, other gram negative bacteria
were found but were not listed in the table because they were not
found as prominent colonies in the water samples. These were
Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas sp. Gram positive
aerobic bacterial species were primarily Bacillus sp. and Strepto-
coccus sp., neither of which in this case formed slime exopolymer.
Five mucoids were selected off MacConkey medium, plated on
TSA and identified by MIS-GC. All were found to be Pseudomonas

Based on the results, the treatment approach used did not decrease
or control P. aeruginosa, which had the capability to grow a slime
exopolymer. In some cases the slime polymer was overproduced, as

50 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 51
indicated by the mucoid phenotype on several types of media. To which would perform well both in the laboratory and in the field.
discover the best approach for predicting performance of antimi-
First, the dose of the nonoxidizing biocide treatment in place was
crobials against these microorganisms, several nonoxidizing bio-
cides were tested against a laboratory strain of Pseudomonas increased to determine whether the biocide would cause a bacterial
aeruginosa, then a wild type Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the kill. This treatment was actually a blend of isothiazolones that was
biofilm, and finally the best program was tested in the mill cooling raised to 200 ppm dosage (as product; 3.00 ppm total active
system. In cases of strong exopolymer producers, key approaches isothiazolones). Based on data of several nonoxidizing biocides,
would be to try several of the well known biocides that are recog- this dose was known to decrease the level of the laboratory grown
nized for their capability to kill microbes and to remove biofilm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in 3 h. (See Figure 2a, Nonoxidiz-
such as DBNPA, glutaraldehyde, polyquat, isothiazolones; and to ing Biocide C.). However, the 200 ppm dose was ineffective in the
try the use of synergistic biocides. cooling water of Tower 4. A significant effect was not observed
An explanation of the effects of a synergistic combination of bio- over time. The reason for failure of the nonoxidizing biocides in the
cides is given in Figure 1. This figure illustrates a comparison of the field can be understood from the laboratory studies conducted
kill rate of single treatments of methylene bisthiocyanate (MTC) (Figures 2a-2d).
and 2-(thiocyanomethylthiocyanobenzylthiazole) (TCMTB) and a
combination of the two, called MECT, versus a mixed culture of The results in Figures 2a and 2b indicate that the nonoxidizing
bacteria. The results in Figure 1 indicate that when 4.5 ppm active of biocides A, D, and E performed well against the laboratory strain
TCMTB is applied to a laboratory culture of bacteria, only 18% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In fact biocides B and C at higher dos-
the population is killed in 2 h., 60% in 5 h., and 80% at 8 h., not ages performed well at 3 h. At 7 h., biocides A and E killed the best
improving beyond that percent kill. When 1.5 ppm of MTC active at all concentrations while biocides B, C, and D at their higher
ingredient is used, 78% of the population is killed in 2 h., and 8 h. is dosages killed well versus growth in the negative control (Figure
required to achieve a 98% kill. However, when these two biocides 2b). By the 7 h. sampling time point, some growback was starting to
are combined at only 1.0 ppm total active (which is far less than the occur for biocide D, which does happen with this biocide due to its
6.0 ppm total active of the combination or 3.0 ppm, which would be lack of persistence. Overall, the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa
half of the combination total), 100% kill is observed in 2 h., and that was not resistant to any of these nonoxidizing biocides. All of the
kill was sustained throughout the 12 h. timecourse.
biocides killed the laboratory strain, as expected. The results in
The combination of MTC and TCMTB was much more effective Figure 2c and 2d, however, indicate that most biocides tested did
because these biocides are synergistic, meaning the combination not kill the wild type Pseudomonas sp. At 3 h. only nonoxidizing-
at a low dose was much more effective than the addition of the two biocide E at the highest dose provided a significant kill, which was
biocides at a higher dose. Synergism is the interaction in which the
slightly greater than a one log10 kill. Figure 2d indicates that all
total effect is greater than the sum of the individual effects. Some
combinations of biocides have a greater synergism than others. In dosages of nonoxidizing biocide E gave a kill at 7 h. That is, the
this paper the MECT shown in Figure 1 and the effect of combina- lowest dose gave nearly a 1 log kill, the second and third dosages
tions shown particularly in Figures 2c and 2d and 3 are the results gave >2 log kill, while the highest dose provided a 4 log kill. None
of strong synergistic combinations. of the other nonoxidizing biocides affected the wild type
The following experiments were done using biocides that are com- pseudomonad. Additional work was done to rule out tolerance to
mon in heavy industry to control bacteria and biofilm as well as a the biocides. For example, the concentration of isothiazolones was
synergistic blend of biocides. The purposes of the experiments increased 5 and 10 times the dosages shown in Figure 2, but these
were (a) to test the biocide currently used in the mill cooling towers high levels had no effect on the cells. If the cells adapted to the
for its effects, increasing the dose to determine whether there was isothiazolone concentration typically used and tolerated the
bacterial resistance or only tolerance, (b) test other biocides to isothiazolone chemistries, the higher dosages would have killed
identify a single nonoxidizing biocide which would be the best the bacterial cells from the field isolates. This did not occur. The
antimicrobial agent in killing the problematic bacteria in the cooling high dosages were resisted by the bacterial cells, and these bacte-
water, and if a single biocide could not be found to control the ria were truly resistant to this antimicrobial.
microbial problem, then (c) to discover the synergistic combination
The results in Figures 2a-2d were used to test whether Biocide E
would solve the problem of the slime forming bacterium, namely
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in the field. This was done in the cool-
ing tower at the steel mill, the parameters of which are given in
Table 6. The recirculating cooling tower description was also given
in the introduction above.

Figure 1: The kill rate of single treatments of methylene

bisthiocyanate (MTC) at 1.5 ppm, 2-
(thiocyanomethylthiocyanobenzylthiazole (TCMTB) at 4.5
ppm, and a combination called MECT at 1.0 ppm active
ingredient(s) versus a mixed culture of bacteria

52 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 53
Figure 3 indicates the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and the
Pseudomonas sp. count from samples obtained from Cooling Tower
4 at the mill during a field trial. These are data collected subsequent
to the testing done for Table 5. The counts were determined on
samples taken approximately 24 h. after the addition of the bio-
cides. The results indicate the effects of the isothiazolones and the
combination of the polyquat plus isothiazolones on the bacterial
population of Cooling Tower 4. Normally, treatments using 1.05
ppm isothiazolone slug doses were done every three days with 0.2
ppm free residual chlorine already in the water. At day 1 the HPC
was 2.9E6 CFU and the Pseudomonas counts were 3.1E5 CFU/ml.
At day 3 the same treatment was added (data not shown). After the
concentration of the active isothiazolones was increased to 3.00
Figures 2a-2b are the bacterial counts of Pseudomonas ppm at day 6, the total bacterial population was still not reduced
aeruginosa ATCC 15442 laboratory strain challenged by various significantly (2.9 X 10E6/day 1 to 6.7 X 10E6/day 6). Likewise, the
nonoxidizing biocides for 3 h. and 7 h. and plated on TGE. Pseudomonas sp. population remained almost the same; that is, the
Likewise, Figure 2c-2d consists of data of bacterial counts of a actual log numbers were 3.1 X 10E5 to 2.6 X 10E5, which are the
Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type strain which was isolated same log and are not significantly different. Thus, this treatment
from the recycled water in the cold well of the cooling tower did not have any effect. Evidently, using isothiazolones and chlo-
containing biofilm. In each graph, the negative (untreated) rine, the bacterial counts were found not to decrease with treat-
controls are given first for each set of experiments; A represents ment; in fact, the total count increased approximately 0.33 log10,
counts obtained following treatment with 50% glutaraldehyde while the pseudomonad count remained essentially unchanged. At
at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm active concentration; B with 1.50% day 9, a synergistic combination of polyquat and isothiazolones
isothiazolone combination used at 0.75, 1.13, 1.5, 3.0 ppm active; was introduced and in 24 h., the total aerobic count dropped over a
C with the polyquat used at 0.6, 2.0, 6.0 and 12.0 ppm active; D
full log to 3.33 X 10E5 and the Pseudomonas count decreased to
involved treatment with 20% DBNPA at 4, 8, 10, and 20 ppm
3.26 X 10E4. Additional treatment at day 15 resulted in almost a log
active; E is the combination of isothiazolones plus the polyquat
decrease in HPC and half-log in Pseudomonas count.
used at the respective concentrations of 0.07+0.6, 0.35+3.0,
0.7+6.0, and 1.4+12.0. While the 3.00 ppm active isothiazolone dose was effective against
the laboratory strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Figure 2a and
Figure 2b), this concentration did not have a strong effect against
the field bacterial population in Cooling Tower 4 (Figure 3, Figure
2c and 2d). Clearly, the dose of isothiazolones alone was inad-
equate against the wild type bacteria. Nevertheless, biocide E gave
a strong kill in the laboratory (Figures 2a-2d). Consequently, bio-
cide E, the combination of polyquat and isothiazolones, was intro-
duced to the cooling water at days 9 and 15, and samples again
were drawn for analyses approximately 24 h. later. The results in
Figure 3 indicate that the combination of 1.4 ppm active
isothiazolones and 12.0 ppm active polyquat caused a 2 log reduc-
tion approximately in both HPC and pseudomonads by day 16 and
an overall >4 log reduction in HPC by the end of the trial.


Figure 3 illustrates the bacterial kill of the heterotrophic plate

count (HPC) and Pseudomonas counts over time. The
treatments were given approximately 24 h. prior to sampling of
the cooling water for microbiological analysis. At day 1, the
result is for the treatment using 1.05 ppm active isothiazolones
the day before. The result at day 7 is for the dosage of 3.0 ppm
isothiazolones used on the previous day. On days 9 and 15, the
combination of 12 ppm polyquat and 1.40 ppm isothiazolones

54 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 55
was applied. At days 23, and 26.5, the mill returned to the cooling system and the species was Pseudomonas sp. which ex-
treatment using 3.00 isothiazolones, and the result is given as pressed the mucoid phenotype (Table 3 and Table 5). Pseudomo-
the data point at 27 days. At day 29, the combination of 12 ppm nas sp. in the biofilm would have to be controlled with a nonoxidiz-
polyquat and 1.4 ppm isothiazolones was dosed. No ing biocide and the oxidizer would be used to help knock down the
nonoxidizing biocide treatment was dosed at day 30. planktonic bacteria in the bulk water.
After the combination polyquat+isothiazolones was fed, the treat- Unfortunately, single nonoxidizers that were normally effective
ment resulted in a 2 log drop in HPC and approximately one log against Pseudomonas (Figure 2a and 2b) were not effective against
decrease in Pseudomonas counts. Note that we performed the clas- the field isolate that caused the slime problem in the cooling system
sical experiment for the mill by returning to their previous program, (Figure 2c and Figure 2d). In the case study, the isothiazolones
using 3.00 ppm active isothiazolones on two separate days (days were ineffective, most likely because they were added at a low
23 and 26.5). As a result, the total bacterial count rose almost a log, concentration, enabling the bacteria to become resistant over time.
while the Pseudomonas count increased nearly the same (Figure 3, Then increasing doses of isothiazolones were also ineffective (Fig-
day 27). The return to isothiazolone chemistry as the sole nonoxi- ure 2c and 2d). It is also interesting that in the laboratory study
dizing biocide failed even though chlorine was present at 0.25 ppm single doses of both isothiazolones and glutaraldehyde were effec-
(as free residual Cl2) at this time point. After seeing those results, tive against laboratory strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC
the mill personnel wanted to return to the combination of polyquat 15442, but were not effective against the wild type Pseudomonas
plus isothiazolones. The combination resulted in a 2 log drop in strain found in Cooling Tower 4. In the writer’s laboratory twelve
HPC and approximately one log decrease in Pseudomonas counts. strains of Pseudomonas and closely related Burkholderia sp. in a
[ATP] test results (data not shown) gave the same pattern of in- culture collection are resistant to isothiazolones, and three are also
creases and decreases with treatment over time. The ATP results resistant to glutaraldehyde. The resistance occurs at the outer mem-
allowed the mill to react more quickly to the challenges presented brane level where both isothiazolones and glutaraldehyde attack.
by their cooling system in later months. Isothiazolones at low levels are actively transported [6]. It is well
known that glutaraldehyde attacks the outer membrane of the cell
DISCUSSION and reacts with the amino groups within the membrane proteins.
In this study several biocides as well as a synergistic biocide com- One of the mechanisms of reaction of isothiazolone chemistry with
bination were examined versus P. aeruginosa in the laboratory and the bacterial cell is also membrane transport dependent. A mutation
then applied to a problem case in the field. There, the mill felt that in a transport protein could account for lack of transport across the
chlorine and isothiazolone would solve their problem; however, the membrane.
data in Table 3 clearly indicate that the bacteria in Cooling Tower 4 The synergistic biocide employed in this study performs by a dif-
were not under control using the steel mill’s standard program of ferent set of reactions. This biocide consists of a combination of
chlorine and isothiazolone. After chlorine was increased, more slime- nonoxidizing biocides in a proprietary water soluble formulation.
forming bacteria grew. When the isothiazolone concentration was One of the actives is a polyionene which acts as a cationic surface-
increased in the laboratory (Figure 2c and 2d) and in the field (Fig- active detergent. The polyionene dissociates in water to give a
ure 3), the product allowed increases in Pseudomonas counts. Sev- positively charged polyquat cation and a negatively charged chlo-
eral single biocides failed, and only the polyquat+isothiazolones ride ion; then the polyquat activity makes the cell membranes and
synergistic combination succeeded both in the laboratory (Figure the cell wall of a bacterium positively charged. The cations neutral-
2 c and 2d) and in the field (Figure 3). In the field the classical ize the negative surface charges of the bacterial cell, and the sur-
experiment was done by shutting off the combination biocide and face becomes positively charged because of the absorption of the
restarting the isothiazolone chemistry alone; subsequently the cations. One of the other ingredients consists of two isothiazolin-
isothiazolone-resistant bacteria again began to flourish. Afterwards, 3-ones, which in combination with the polyionene serve as a syner-
when the polyquat and isothiazolone combination was returned to gistic biocidal product [26]. With the polyquat attacking and neu-
the cooling water, the synergistic combination demonstrated suc- tralizing the translocation proteins within the cell membrane, the
cess; success in dropping the counts to only 3.99E4 and 2.76E3 isothiazolones can penetrate the cell and perform an electrophilic
quickly demonstrated proof of the successful program. Since the attack on accessible, critical sulfhydryl groups, forming an
total heterotrophic bacteria were at a level lower than the initial isothiazolone-protein disulfide bond. Other reactions cause forma-
level, the combination, being a successful and appropriate biocidal tion of free radicals that cause further damage [3,7]. Eventually the
product for this system, easily reduced the HPC and Pseudomonas cells accumulate more damage than they can repair and die.
populations quickly. In previous studies, [26,27,29] the combination of polyquat and
It is worth discussing the original problem where the mill supervi- isothiazolones was found synergistic versus other bacteria. The
sion believed that they could gain control of the bacteria and bac- biocide combination is formulated in a proprietary composition.
terial slime development by accelerating the chlorine dosage, but
chlorination alone did not solve the problem. This practice was not CONCLUSIONS
successful. In fact, it was demonstrated almost 30 years ago that
1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to grow up in the cooling
low level chlorination does not prevent attachment of the surviv- tower with Pseudomonas fluorescens and other Pseudomonas
ing viable cells and subsequent biofilm accumulation [2]. Increas- species.
ing the chlorine level makes the biofilm rougher, thereby increasing
2. An appropriate biocide program was required to maintain in
the roughness on the tube surface [4]. Chlorination preferentially
check the biocide resistant bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas
removes the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), not the biofilm
cells. (HOBr and other halogenated oxidizers do the same.) The
survivors are effective EPS producers [19]. Thus, increasing chlori- 3. Chlorinating alone was insufficient, and increases in chlorina-
nation leads to an increase in EPS. In the field study, based on tion led to an increase in slime-forming bacterial development.
standard microbiological and biochemical testing, the microorgan- 4. A nonoxidizing biocide, such as isothiazolones at sublethal
isms were found to be the cause of the problem of slime in the dosage, even in the presence of free residual chlorine, was
proven to be inadequate at controlling wild type bacteria in the

56 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 57
cooling system over time. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 109-110, 127
5. A combination of nonoxidizing biocides (WSKT-10) proved to 12. Harrison, T.G. and A.G. Taylor (1988) Diagnosis of legionnaires’
provide the best control of the wild type microorganisms, in- disease by antibody levels. In A Laboratory Manual for
cluding Pseudomonas, in the cooling tower vs. bleach alone or Legionella. Ed. by T.G. Harrison and A.G. Taylor, New York:
bleach plus one nonoxidizing biocide. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 127-128, 133, 135
6. Reduction in planktonic bacterial count does not necessarily 13. Homma, J. Y. and M. Matsuura (1991) Enhancement of nonspe-
indicate reduction in bacteria at surfaces in a cooling system. cific resistance against microbial infections with special refer-
Bacterial resistance levels are often >3 orders of magnitude ence to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by chemically syn-
than those displayed by planktonic bacteria of the same strain. thesized lipid A-subunit analogs. Antibiot. Chemother. 44: 203-
7. Problematic microorganisms may reside in biofilms on system 208
surfaces. 14. Holt, J. G., N. R. Kreig, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, and S. T.
The presence of EPS on cooling tower surfaces, the appearance of Williams (1994) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology,
atypical color surfaces, or pigmented bacteria, and atypical differ- 9th ed., pp. 93-94, 151-168. The Williams * Wilkins Co., Balti-
ences between past and present performance of a cooling system more, MD
may indicate problems caused by microbial deposition. During 15. Jacoby, G.A. and G. L. Archer (1991) New mechanisms of bacte-
weekly inspections it is important to observe the appearance of the rial resistance to antimicrobial agents. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:601-
deposition, since bacteria can grow up into biofilms in a short time. 612
If found early and treated with an appropriate and effective biocide 16. Jarvis, W.R. and W.J. Martone (1992) Predominant pathogens
program, the microbial deposits are more easily controlled, and in hospital infections. J. Antimicrob. Chermother. 29:S19-S24
problems caused by them can be reduced or eliminated. When 17. Lamont, I. L., P. A. Beare, U. Ochsner, A.I. Vasil, and M. L. Vasil
there is less control of the situation, one finds that the biofilm (2002) Siderophore-mediated signaling regulates virulence fac-
populations will grow more uncontrolled, leading to major prob- tor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc. Natl. Acad.
lems with the cooling systems and possibly even the health of the Sci. USA 99: 7072-8088
workers [20,24,26,27,29]. The frequency of Pseudomonas, in par- 18. Makerness, C. W., J. S. Colbroune, P. L. J. Dennis, T. Rachwal,
ticular, in causing these problems is a subject of a different study. and C. W. Keevil (1999) Formation and control of coliform
REFERENCES biofilms in drinking water distribution systems, in Microbial
Biofilms: Formation and Control. ed. by S. P. Denyer, S. P.
1. Bodey, G.P., R. Bolivar, V. Fainstein, and L. Jadeja (1983) Infec- Gorman, and M. Susman, London, UK, 225
tion caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rev. Infect. Dis.
19. McFeters, G.A. and A. K. Camper (1985) Enumeration of indica-
tor bacteria exposed to chlorine. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 177-
2. Bongers, L. H. and D.T. Burton (1977) Bromine chloride—an 193
alternative to chlorine for fouling control in condenser cooling
20. Meyer, J. M., A. Neely, A. Stintzi, C. Georges, I.A. Holder (1996)
systems. Final Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Pyoverdin is essential for virulence of Pseudomonas
EPA-600/7-77-053, Washington
aeruginosa. Infect. Immun. 64: 518-523
3. Chapman, J. S. and M. A. Diehl (1995)
21. Neu, H. C. (1983) The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in-
Methylchloroisothiazolone-induced growth inhibition and le-
fections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2(suppl B):1-13
thality in Escherichia coli. J. Appl. Microbiol. 78: 134-141
22. O’Toole, G. and R. Kolter (1998) Flagellar and twitching motility
4. Characklis, W.G (1990) Microbial biofouling control in Biofilms,
are necessary for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm develop-
ed. by W.G. Characklis and K.C. Marshall. New York: John Wiley
ment. Molecular Microbiology. 30:295-304
& Sons.
23. Pollack, M (2000) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, p. 1980-2003. In
5. Daniels, C., C. Griffiths, B. Cowles, and J. Lam (2002) Pseudomo-
G. L. Mandell, J. E. Bennett, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and
nas aeruginosa O-antigen chain length is determined before
Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed. Churchill Livingstone,
ligation to lipid A core. Environ. Microbiol. 4: 883-897
Inc. New York, NY
6. Diehl, M. A. and J. S. Chapman (1995) Biocide transport/asso-
24. Rhame, F.S (1980) The ecology and epidemiology of Pseudomo-
ciation in Pseudomonas species. In Abstracts of the Annual
nas aeruginosa. In L.D. Sabath, ed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa:
Meeting of the Amer. Soc. for Microbiology. (Washington, DC),
The organism, diseases it causes, and their treatment. (Hans
Huber, Bern, Switzerland)
7. Dimonte, D., G. Bellomo, H. Thor, P. Nicotera, and S. Orrhenius
25. Smibert, R. M. and N. R. Krieg (1981) General Characterization,
(1984) Menadione-induced cytotoxicity is associated with pro-
in P. Gerharhardt (ed.) Manual of Methods for General Bacteri-
tein thiol oxidation and alteration in intracellular calcium ho-
ology. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology.
meostasis. Archives of Biochem. and Biophys. 235: 343-350
p. 419
8. Dudley, L. Y. and N. S. J. Christopher (1999) Practical experi-
26. Wiatr, C. L. (2002) Detection and eradication of a non-legionellal
ences of biofouling in reverse osmosis systems, in Biofilms in
pathogen in a recirculating water system. In Abstracts of the
the Aquatic Environment, ed. by C. W. Keevil, A. Godfree, D.
Amer. Soc. for Microbiology Annual Meeting, (Salt Lake City,
Holt, and C. Dow. Cambridge, UK, 103
UT), Q-132
9. Haker, J and James Kaper (2000) Pathogenicity islands and the
27. Wiatr, C. L. (2002) Detection and eradication of a non-legionellal
evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54. Annual Re-
pathogen in a cooling water system. The Analyst. Association
views, Palo Alto, CA., 653
of Water Technologies, IX: 38-48
10. Hancock, R. E. W. (1988) Resistance mechanisms in Pseudomo-
28. Wiatr, C. L. and O. X. Fedyniak (1991) Development of an obli-
nas aeruginosa and other nonfermentative gram-negative bac-
gate anaerobe specific biocide. J. Industrial Microbiol. 7:7-14
teria. Clin. Infec. Dis. 1: S93-S99
29. Wiatr, C. L. (2004) Bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in a
11. Harrison, T.G. and A.G. Taylor (1988) Demonstration of
recirculating water system. In Abstracts of the Industrial Mi-
legionellae in clinical specimens. In A Laboratory Manual for
crobiology & Biotechnology Conference, (Anaheim, CA), P-5,
Legionella. Ed. By T.G. Harrison and A.G. Taylor, New York:
58 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1
CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 59
Atmospheric Emissions From
Evaporative Cooling Towers
Wayne Micheletti ria pollutants that can be emitted
Wayne C. Micheletti, Inc. by a point source. State or local air
regulatory agencies often define a
point source based on the emission
Introduction of a threshold amount of a given
pollutant, as shown in Table 2.
Evaporative cooling systems are common elements in many indus- These agency definitions can vary
trial processes, ranging from manufacturing to power production (e.g., many states have lower emis-
to refining. They are also important components in most of the sion thresholds), but point sources
HVAC systems used by large commercial, institutional and residen- are typically large manufacturing or
tial buildings. In all of these applications, the cooling tower acts as production plants and will most
a heat rejection device primarily by evaporating a portion of the likely include all three types of emis-
recirculated cooling water to the surrounding atmosphere. Promot- sions (process, fugitive and fugi-
ing evaporation by maximizing the air-water interface and maintain- tive process). Within a given point
ing clean heat transfer surfaces through proper water treatment are Wayne Micheletti
source, there may be multiple emis-
major objectives in the design and operation of these systems.
And since evaporative cooling towers can use large amounts of sion points. This term should not be confused with point source,
water, discussions of potential environmental issues usually focus which is a regulatory distinction from area and mobile sources.
on water intake or wastewater discharge concerns. Emission point refers to a single stack, vent or other discrete loca-
tion of pollutant release (such as a cooling tower). Even though
However, atmospheric emissions can also be important consider- emissions limits are established for a point source, some state or
ations that influence evaporative cooling tower design and opera- local air regulatory agencies may require permit holders to inven-
tion. But because cooling towers are not typically thought of as tory and report emissions from individual emission points as part
“air pollution sources”, many people may not fully understand of a point source permit.
which environmental regulations are relevant, which substances
potentially may be identified as “pollutants”, how emission rates Emission standards can be set in several different ways. The most
are determined, and what control measures may be required. This straightforward emission standard is a simple limitation on the mass
paper discusses each of these issues in a general, but comprehen- of a pollutant per unit time (e.g., pounds of pollutant per hour).
sive manner so that cooling tower designers, owners and operators Emission concentration standards limit the mass emissions of a
are better informed when making site-specific environmental evalu- pollutant per volume of air (e.g., grams per standard dry cubic meter).
ations and decisions. And, emission reduction standards limit the amount of current emis-
sions relative to the amount of emissions before application of a
Relevant Environmental Regulations pollution control measure (e.g., 50% reduction).
In the United States, atmospheric emissions from all stationary For two of the criteria pollutants (ozone and particulate matter),
sources are generally regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and setting emission limits involves some special considerations.
the umbrella of subsequent Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Ozone’s critical role in the severity of photochemical smog has
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has the au- been recognized for years, placing it among the original six criteria
thority for developing, implementing and enforcing these regula- pollutants. However, very little ozone is directly produced or re-
tions. In many instances, the USEPA has delegated the responsi- leased by human activities. For the most part, ozone is generated
bility for day-to-day implementation and enforcement of the regu- by the reaction of nitrogen oxides with hydrocarbons in the sun-
lations to corresponding state, regional and tribal agencies. light. Therefore, the NAAQS for ozone are usually translated into
When the CAA was initially signed into law, the USEPA concen- emission limits for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds
trated on improving or maintaining air quality by establishing ambi- (VOCs), two other pollutants that are directly influenced by human
ent air standards for six criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, activities. With certain exceptions, VOCs include any carbon com-
nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. In pound that participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions.
doing so, the Agency created two types of National Ambient Air Some of the exceptions include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
Quality Standards (NAAQS). Primary standards set limits to pro- methane, ethane and other organic compounds that have negli-
tect public health, including the health of sensitive populations, gible photochemical reactivity. Hence, VOCs should not be con-
such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards fused with a broader class of chemicals referred to as Total Organic
set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against Compounds (TOCs) that do include methane, ethane, and several
decreased visibility and damage to animals, crops, vegetation and other less photochemically-reactive substances and particulates.
buildings. The current primary and secondary NAAQS are summa- The NAAQS for particulate matter have evolved with time, mean-
rized in Table 1. ing that corresponding emissions limits have as well. According to
While NAAQS are not emissions limitations on sources, they usu- the USEPA, particulate matter is the generic term for a broad class
ally result in such limits being placed on source operations as part of chemically and physically diverse substances that exist as dis-
of a control strategy to achieve or maintain an ambient standard. crete particles (liquid droplets or solids over a wide range of sizes).
Emissions standards are essentially limits on the amounts of crite- Particles may be emitted directly or formed in the atmosphere. The

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CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 61
original NAAQS focused on particles with a nominal size of 25 to 45 Conditioning Engineers, the Association of Water Technologies,
micrometers (¼m), referred to as Total Suspended Particles (TSP). and the Cooling Technology Institute) have provided guidance on
In 1987, the NAAQS were revised to focus on particles with a mean the design, location and operation of cooling towers to reduce the
aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 ¼m (PM10). In 1997, potential atmospheric emission of Legionella bacteria.
the USEPA further revised the revised NAAQS by: a) retaining the The increasing use of treated municipal effluent (often referred to
PM10 values for the purpose of regulating emissions of coarse- as reclaimed water) as makeup to cooling towers may also intro-
fraction particles, and b) developing new standards for fine-frac- duce pathogens that might be emitted in the drift. But regulations
tion particles with a mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal on this type of use for reclaimed water have been slow in develop-
to 2.5 ¼m (PM2.5). By definition, then, any particulate matter with a ing even though regulations for other reclaimed water uses (espe-
mean aerodynamic diameter greater than 10 ¼m would not be clas- cially agricultural and recreational irrigation) are more widely es-
sified as either PM10 or PM2.5, so that the emission of such particu- tablished. In general, the USEPA has allowed water reclamation for
late matter would not be subject to either the PM10 or PM2.5 NAAQS. nonpotable water use to proceed without proposing any regula-
In addition to the original six criteria pollutants, Section 112(b) of tory standards. Similarly, few states have set any emission stan-
the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments listed 189 hazardous air pollut- dards or limits. In 1992, five states regulated the general industrial
ants (HAPs) of concern. These pollutants are generally emitted in use of reclaimed water: Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, Texas and Utah;
smaller quantities than criteria pollutants, but may be reasonably only one of these states (Hawaii) specifically regulated reclaimed
anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive water use in cooling towers.4 Twelve years later, in 2004, nine
dysfunctions, neurological disorders, inheritable gene mutations states regulated the industrial use of reclaimed water: California,
or other chronically or acutely toxic effects in humans. HAPs in- Florida, Hawaii, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, Utah
clude some relatively common substances (such as asbestos and and Washington. With the exception of New Jersey, each of these
chlorine), as well as numerous less common substances (such as states had specific regulations for reclaimed water use in cooling
1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane). towers.5 However, most of these state regulations focus primarily
Unlike the criteria pollutants, HAPs have no ambient air quality on the quality of reclaimed water used for cooling system makeup
standards. Instead, the USEPA has established two different sets rather than on emissions from the cooling tower. But some state
of limits known collectively as the National Emissions Standards regulations have established setback requirements that limit the
for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). The first set consists of minimum distance from the cooling tower to the property line, pre-
twenty-two emissions standards promulgated prior to the 1990 sumably to address concerns from drift deposition.
CAAA. These standards may be pollutant specific (e.g., vinyl Another relevant environmental regulation is the Emergency Plan-
chloride), source-category specific (e.g., benzene waste operations) ning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). Under Section
or both pollutant and source-category specific (e.g., inorganic ar- 113 of EPCRA, the USEPA has compiled the Toxics Release Inven-
senic emissions from glass manufacturing plants). The second set tory (TRI), a publicly available database that contains information
(promulgated under Section 112(d) of the 1990 CAAA) is known as on specific toxic chemical releases and other waste management
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards and activities obtained from facilities that meet established thresholds
is based on the best demonstrated control technologies or prac- for manufacturing, processing or “otherwise use” of any of more
tices in similar sources. MACT Standards are source category than 600 chemicals and chemical categories. Since 1987, the TRI
specific and each standard covers all the HAPs emitted by that database has been updated annually by the USEPA using informa-
category. NESHAP was the regulatory authority used by the USEPA tion submitted by manufacturing facilities.
to ban the use of chromium as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling water Although EPCRA does not establish pollutant emission limits, it
systems. does require that emissions be measured or estimated each year.
Aside from the Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments, which Even when the total annual release (including atmospheric emis-
directly limit atmospheric emissions from stationary sources, other sions) of a specific toxic chemical does not exceed the threshold
statutes or regulatory guidance may “indirectly influence” the need that would require reporting for the TRI database, EPCRA does
for improved emissions control or estimation. In the case of cool- require a manufacturing facility to archive measurement data and
ing towers, this type of indirect influence can be related to safety estimation calculations to demonstrate that reporting was unnec-
and health concerns (due to the possible presence of pathogens) essary. Consequently, atmospheric emissions from cooling towers
or to potential toxics releases. that are not regulated by permits may still need to be evaluated for
The pathogenic microorganisms that might be emitted from a cool- TRI reporting purposes.Potential Pollutants
ing tower can be categorized into three broad groups: bacteria, Cooling towers can have three types of atmospheric emissions:
parasites and viruses. In the case of cooling towers, undoubtedly water vapor (produced by the evaporation of cooling water in con-
the most well known pathogens are the multiple species of bacteria tact with air passing through the tower), drift (liquid droplets en-
collectively known as Legionella. These bacteria tend to thrive at trained in the exit plume from the tower) and volatile compounds
the range of water temperatures frequently found in many cooling (substances stripped from the cooling water by the air passing
systems. Hence, workers or other persons in the vicinity of a cool- through the tower). Since water vapor is simply the gaseous form
ing tower may be exposed to drift, may inhale aerosols containing of H2O, this emission is not considered objectionable from a poten-
the Legionella bacteria, and may become infected with the illness. tial pollutant perspective. However, depending upon atmospheric
Unfortunately, the ubiquitous nature of Legionella makes it diffi- conditions and prevailing winds, the water vapor in a cooling tower
cult to control entirely. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), plume can produce undesirable fogging or icing on nearby road-
the USEPA has established a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal ways or structures that may be problematic.
(MCLG) of zero in potable water to reduce public exposure in show- On the other hand, drift is not pure water, but is assumed to have
ers, whirlpools and spas.3 However, specific Legionella control in the same composition as the cooling water passing through the
either industrial or HVAC cooling towers is not presently regulated tower. As such, drift will contain any impurities that may be present
by federal or state agencies. Nonetheless, many organizations in the cooling water, making it a potential source of at least one
(including the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air criteria pollutant – particulate matter. In the case of cooling tower

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CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 63
drift, environmental regulators have not been concerned so much 3. Third, the method cannot confirm the presence (or absence) of
with the number or actual size of the liquid droplets as with the potential pollutants that do not precipitate or are not trapped
salts that might precipitate from the dissolved solids in the droplets in the collection apparatus when the liquid phase of the drift
if the water evaporates. Depending upon site-specific industrial droplet evaporates (notably volatile and semi-volatile com-
operations, the drift may also contain one or more of the Section pounds such as hydrocarbons). However, at least one state
113 EPCRA compounds that must be considered when reporting or (Texas) has suggested that a technique proposed in 1981 may
documenting annual emissions for the TRI database. have merit for determining VOC emissions from cooling tow-
Certain VOCs (a precursor to ozone, which is a criteria pollutant) or ers.7, 8
HAPs (defined under NESHAP) may be stripped from the cooling Even so, CTI ATC-140 provides extremely valuable data on the
water and exhausted in the cooling tower plume. For example, the total amount of cooling tower drift, which is important for calculat-
USEPA has identified cooling towers in petroleum refineries as a ing meaningful estimates of atmospheric emissions.
potential source of VOCs (primarily hydrocarbons); blast furnace In the absence of direct measurement of a specific pollutant, an
wastewater cooling towers in integrated iron and steel plants as a emission rate can be estimated by completing a material balance
potential source of hydrogen cyanide (HCN); and cooling towers around a cooling tower or by applying emission factors derived
in coke production and byproduct processing as a potential source from measurements and calculations made for similar cooling tow-
of benzene. Site-specific process operations will determine the ers. Of these two approaches, a site-specific material balance is
introduction of these pollutants into the cooling water, as well as usually preferable because it will more closely reflect the actual
the potential emissions from the cooling tower. design and operating conditions of a given tower and should pro-
vide a more accurate emission estimate. However, cooling towers
Determining Emissions Rates may not be adequately instrumented and owner/operators may
Atmospheric emissions from cooling towers can be either mea- not have the resources for the sample collection and analyses
sured directly or calculated by material balance and/or an emission necessary to obtain the data for a comprehensive material balance.
factor. When measured directly, the actual pollutant of concern is Therefore, pollutant emission rates are most frequently estimated
measured at or near the point of emission, usually the top of the fan by using the simpler and more generic approach of emission fac-
stack for mechanical-draft towers. To account for variations across tors.
the exit plume and obtain meaningful results, multiple samples are
Emission factors are numeric values that relate the release of given
typically collected at representative locations in the cross-section
pollutant (such as particulate matter) from a given emission point
of the plume. Consequently, accurate field measurements of emis-
(such as a cooling tower) to a given operating parameter (such as
sions in cooling tower plumes are complex, time-consuming and
the recirculating water flow). As such, they provide a single com-
posite value derived by correlating multiple source data obtained
Several methods for directly measuring cooling tower drift have from emission points that are categorically the same, but may be
been used over the past twenty years. An isokinetic method codi- designed or operated in widely different ways. The concept of
fied by the Cooling Technology Institute as CTI ACT-140 is fre- emission factors was conceived by the California Air Resources
quently used in estimating particulate emissions and seems to have Board and, subsequently, was accepted and promoted by the
found some acceptance with regulatory authorities. The technique USEPA. To date, a number of emission factors have been devel-
draws a portion of the cooling tower outlet air at the fan stack exit oped for cooling towers, as shown in Table 3.
plane into a collection apparatus (glass bead pack followed by a
Although emission factors are intended to be representative, their
backup filter) at the same speed and direction as the local velocity
reliability is inherently influenced by: a) the quantity and quality
in the cooling tower. The tube holding the glass beads is heated so
of the underlying database, and b) any associated assumptions.
that drift striking the beads will evaporate and deposit any dis-
As one indication of reliability, the USEPA will often assign a rat-
solved solids. After a given test period, the solids collected on the
ing to a published emission factor, ranging from A (Excellent) to E
glass beads and the backup filter are recovered by an acid wash
(Poor). Use of emission factors that have been assigned lower
and ultra-pure water rinses. The recovered solids are then ana-
ratings can produce emission estimates that are unreasonably high,
lyzed for certain tracer elements (such as calcium, magnesium or
causing a cooling tower owner/operator to make unnecessary
sodium) that are likely to be present in the cooling water at concen-
changes in order to comply with emission limits. Using the current
trations high enough to enable a reliable calculation of the amount
USEPA emission factor to estimate particulate matter emission rates
of liquid drift passed through the collection apparatus. An excel-
is a good example.
lent summary of this drift measurement technique and the associ-
ated calculations can be found in the technical literature.6 The USEPA emission factor for total liquid drift from a mechanical-
draft cooling tower is 1.7 lb/103 gal of recirculating flow. This
Keeping in mind that CTI ATC-140 was originally developed as a
emission factor assumes a drift rate of 0.02 percent of the recircu-
means of assessing compliance with cooling tower manufacturers’
lating flow. Typical designs for new cooling towers specify drift
drift guarantees, it’s application as a tool for estimating potential
rates between 0.0005 and 0.002 percent of the recirculating flow
pollutant emissions or determining compliance with environmental
(one to two orders of magnitude lower than assumed by the USEPA).
permits has certain limitations.
Even though the drift rate will vary from tower to tower due to drift
1. First, the method does not determine the size distribution of the eliminator installation and condition, and will tend to increase over
drift droplets (which, in the case of particulate matter, can be the lifetime of a tower due to drift eliminator deterioration, the as-
important). sumption inherent in the USEPA emission factor is still likely to
2. Second, the method cannot determine the size distribution of overstate the actual amount of cooling tower drift.
the particulate matter that is formed when the liquid phase of The USEPA emission factor for particulate matter (PM10) is also
the drift droplet evaporates. This is critical because particulate likely to overstate actual emissions because it is based, in part, on
emissions are regulated according to mean aerodynamic diam- an overstated drift emission factor, as well as two other assump-
eter and emissions limits only apply to particles with diameters tions. The first assumption is that the recirculating water has a
less than or equal to 10 ¼m.

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CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 65
total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of 11,500 ppm. The though the percentage amount of small particulate matter
second assumption is that all of the total dissolved solids con- formed in cooling systems with low TDS recirculating water
tained in the drift droplets will precipitate to form particulate matter is greater than in cooling systems with high TDS recirculat-
having a mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 ¼m ing water, the total amount of dissolved solids available in
(PM10). the drift is so much less that the overall amount of small
The first assumption will automatically overstate total particulate particulate matter produced and the associated emission fac-
matter emissions for cooling systems in which the recirculating tor are lower.
water TDS concentration is less than 11,500 ppm because a lower · Most importantly, the calculated PM10 and PM2.5 emission
TDS means less salt to precipitate in the drift droplet. But this bias factors shown in Tables 4 and 5 are at least an order of
can be corrected by making an adjustment based on the ratio of the magnitude less than the small particulate emissions that
actual TDS concentration and the assumed TDS concentration. would be calculated using the USEPA’s conservatively high
For instance, if the actual TDS concentration is 8,000 ppm, then the method. And even when the current USEPA particulate emis-
particulate matter emission factor should be reduced to 0.014 lb/103 sion factor is adjusted for changes in drift rate and recircu-
gal of recirculating flow. If this revised emission factor is further lating water TDS concentration, the calculated PM10 and
adjusted in a similar manner to reflect the actual drift rate (as guar- PM2.5 emission factors shown in Tables 4 and 5 are still no-
anteed by the tower manufacturer or as demonstrated with a field ticeably less (see Figure 2). The fatal flaw in the USEPA’s
test) relative to the assumed drift rate, it should be possible to method is the assumption that all of the total dissolved sol-
reduce the value even more. For the lower TDS recirculating water ids in the drift become PM10 (or PM2.5) particulate matter.
just described, if the actual drift rate is 0.002 percent of the recircu- Environmental regulators continue to rely on the USEPA’s method
lating flow, a more meaningful particulate matter emission factor for estimating PM10 and PM2.5 emissions, and cooling tower suppli-
would be 0.0014 lb/103 gal of recirculating flow. Hence, a cooling ers and owner/operators continue to accept the results when mak-
tower with these design and operating characteristics would have ing design and operating decisions, even though there are techni-
an estimated particulate matter emission rate almost fourteen times cally sound reasons to believe this approach grossly overstates
lower than predicted by the current USEPA emission factor. the actual small particulate matter emissions. In many ways, this
The second assumption has an equally profound effect in over- illustrates one of the greatest dangers in using any generic emis-
stating particulate matter emissions. In the absence of field data to sion factor – the quality of the underlying data and assumptions
indicate otherwise, the USEPA has stated: used to generate the emission factor are rarely understood or ad-
justed to more accurately represent actual site-specific conditions.
“a conservatively high [Agency’s italics] PM10 emission factor can
be obtained by (a) multiplying the total liquid drift factor by the Emissions Control Measures
total dissolved solids (TDS) fraction in the circulating water, and Atmospheric emissions from cooling towers can be controlled in
(b) assuming that, once the water evaporates, all remaining par- two ways: 1) reduce the amount of drift (thereby reducing the
ticles are within the PM10 range.” amounts of any potential pollutants that may be present in the
Even though the USEPA describes this method for estimating par- liquid drift droplets), and 2) reduce the concentrations of any po-
ticulate matter emissions as conservatively high, it has still become tential pollutants in the recirculating water (consequently reducing
the de facto means for establishing PM10 (and, more recently, PM2.5) the amounts of these components that might be discharged with
permit limits. But calculations based on drift droplet size distribu- the drift or volatilized in the cooling tower).
tion data suggest that most of the particulate matter formed by the Drift reduction can be accomplished by properly installing and
precipitation of total dissolved solids when the drift liquid evapo- maintaining high-efficiency drift eliminators. Although the USEPA
rates will have a mean aerodynamic diameter larger than or equal to particulate matter emission factor is based on a drift rate of 0.02%
10 ¼m.6, 13 As such, this particulate matter would not be regulated of the recirculating water flow, much lower drift rates on the order
according to current PM10 or PM2.5 NAAQS. of 0.0005% – 0.002% can be achieved. Care should also be taken to
Using the drift droplet size spectrum shown in Figure 1 and assum- avoid overloading drift eliminators. Overloading can occur when
ing a particulate matter density of 2.36 gm/cm3, the variations in the drift eliminators are installed too close to the water distribution
particulate matter diameter for different recirculating water TDS system or when leaks in the distribution lines or a broken nozzle
concentrations can be calculated. The total amount of particulate introduce too much water in a given region.
matter that would have diameters less than 10 ¼m or 2.5 ¼m can Quality control of the recirculating cooling water is essentially a
also be calculated, as well as a corresponding emission factor. The matter of operations and good housekeeping. By operating at low
results of these calculations are shown in Tables 4 and 5. cycles of concentration, constituents present in the makeup water
These results, clearly demonstrate the following: or blown into the cooling tower will be purged from the system
· As the recirculating water TDS concentration increases, the more readily. Aside from switching to a higher-quality (lower TDS)
maximum size (diameter) of a drift droplet capable of produc- makeup water, this offers the best means for limiting the concentra-
ing small particulate matter will decrease. Essentially, higher tion of total dissolved solids in the drift and the particulate matter
amounts of dissolved solids in the recirculating water will emissions from the tower. In situations with limited water resources,
produce larger salt precipitates, so at greater TDS levels operation at higher cycles of concentration with makeup and/or
smaller drift droplets will create larger particles. sidestream water treatment has been suggested.14 But the increased
· As the recirculating water TDS concentration increases, the capital and operating expenses of these options would require care-
amount of small particulate matter formed as a percentage of ful technical and economic analyses to fully evaluate the site-spe-
the total particulate matter formed will decrease. Again, cific suitability.
higher amounts of dissolved solids in the recirculating wa- Good housekeeping involves consistent and proper treatment of
ter will produce larger salt precipitates. the recirculating water (such as biocide addition to control microor-
· As the recirculating water TDS concentration decreases, ganisms), as well as regular and adequate monitoring to detect and
the small particulate matter emission factor decreases. Even repair process equipment leaks that might introduce potential pol-

66 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 67
lutants (such as hydrocarbons). Unfortunately, good housekeep- actual existing emission rate and the anticipated emission rate re-
ing is rarely appreciated as an emissions control measure until a duction. Otherwise, an owner/operator may agree to environmen-
permit violation is identified and is frequently postponed in the tal permit limits or undertake cooling tower design or operating
pursuit of production targets. changes that could be unnecessary and expensive.
Conclusions References
Atmospheric emissions from cooling towers are becoming an in- 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency web page http://
creasingly important factor in the design and operation of indus- www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html.
trial and commercial cooling systems. A number of environmental 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Handbook for Criteria
regulations may limit the emission of a variety of constituents, Pollutant Inventory Development: A Beginner’s Guide for Point
including particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and haz- and Area Sources, EPA-454/R-99-037, Office of Air Quality Plan-
ardous air pollutants. Directly measuring these atmospheric emis- ning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC (September
sions is complex, time-consuming and costly. Therefore, generic 1999).
emission factors based on certain cooling system characteristics or 3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Legionella: Drinking
process operating conditions are commonly used to determine com- Water Fact Sheet, Office of Water (September 2002).
pliance with emission limits. However, estimates made using emis- 4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Agency for
sion factors may not accurately predict actual emissions if the un- International Development. Guidelines for Water Reuse, EPA/
derlying data are limited or poor quality, or if the basic assumptions 625/R-92/004, Office of Water, Washington, DC (September
do not reflect site-specific conditions. The current USEPA emis- 1992).
sion factor for determining small particulate matter emissions from 5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Agency for
cooling towers is a good example of a “conservatively high” method International Development. Guidelines for Water Reuse, EPA/
that will generate overstated results. The most common measures 625/R-04/108, Office of Water, Washington, DC (September
for controlling atmospheric emissions from cooling towers include 2004).
the proper installation and maintenance of high-efficiency drift elimi- 6. Hennon, K.W., and D.E. Wheeler. “Cooling Tower Emissions
nators and good control of the recirculating water quality. How- Testing Using the Cooling Technology Institute Test Code –
ever, implementing any measure to reduce the emission of a spe- CTI ATC-140”, CTI Journal, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 22-28.
cific pollutant should be based on a reliable determination of the 7. Vernon, W.D., et.al. “A Device for Measuring Volatile Organic-
Carbon Emissions from Cooling-Tower Wa-
ter”, Journal of the Air Pollution Control
Association, Vol. 31, No. 12 (December 1981),
pp. 1280-1282.
8. Texas Natural Resource Conservation Com-
mittee. Air Quality Permit Technical Guidance
for Chemical Sources: Cooling Towers, Draft
RG-108, Air Permits Division, Austin, TX (Feb-
ruary 2001).
9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Com-
pilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-
42, 5th Edition, Vol. 1), Section 13.4 – Wet Cool-
ing Towers (January 1995).
10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Com-
pilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-
42, 5th Edition, Vol. 1), Section 5.1 – Petroleum
Refining (January 1995).
11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Na-
tional Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAP) for Integrated Iron and
Steel Plants – Background Information for Pro-
posed Standards, Final Report, EPA-453/R-01-
005, Section 3 (January 2001).
12. Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. Back-
ground Report for AP-42 Section 12.2 – Coke
Production, prepared for the U.S. Environmen-
tal Protection Agency OAQPS/TSD/EIB, Re-
search Triangle Park, NC.
13. Reisman, J. and G. Frisbie. “Calculating Real-
istic PM10 Emissions from Cooling Towers”,
Environmental Progress, Vol. 21, No. 2 (July
2002), pp. 127-130.
14. Baines, S. “How A Power Plant Air Permit Can
Impact the Cooling Tower Circulating Water
Treatment System Design”, Presented at the
63rd Annual International Water Conference,
Pittsburgh, PA (October 20-24, 2002).

68 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

Table 1 – Current National Ambient Air Quality Standards Table 4 – Calculated PM10 Emission Factors as a Function of
(NAAQS)1 Recirculating Water TDS

Note: Assumes spherical particulate matter having a density of 2.36 gm/cm3 and 0.002% drift rate.

Table 5 – Calculated PM2.5 Emission Factors as a Function of

Recirculating Water TDS
A - Averaging times may be subject to special requirements.

Table 2 – Emissions Thresholds for Defining Point Sources2

Note: Assumes spherical particulate matter having a density of 2.36 gm/cm3 and 0.002% drift rate.

A - Emission threshold as stated in 40 CFR 51; Subpart Q 51.322.

B - Emission threshold as stated in 40 CFR 51; Subpart 51.025.
C - VOCs are not criteria pollutants, but are precursors of the criteria pollutant ozone.

Table 3 – Emission Factors for Cooling Towers9-12

Note: Emission factor ratings range from A (Excellent) to E (Poor).

Figure 2 – Comparison of Particulate Matter Emission Factors

Figure 1 – Drift Droplet Size Spectrum6

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 69

70 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1
CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 71
72 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1
CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 73
Cooling Towers Certified by CTI Under STD-201
As stated in its open- Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
ing paragraph, CTI FXV Closed Circuit Cooling Tower Line of
Standard 201... “sets CTI Certified Cooling Towers
forth a program CTI Certification Validation Number 98-11-09
whereby the Cooling Models with One Air Inlet Side and One Coil
Technology Institute
will certify that all
models of a line of FXV-L421 FXV-L432 FXV-L443 FXV-L641 FXV-LQ640 FXV-L663

water cooling towers FXV-421 FXV-432 FXV-443 FXV-641MM FXV-Q640MM FXV-663MM

offered for sale by a FXV-421KM FXV-432LM FXV-443MM FXV-641 FXV-Q640 FXV-663
specific Manufac- FXV-641OM FXV-Q640OM FXV-663OM
turer will perform FXV-L422GM FXV-L433HM FXV-L444JM
thermally in accor- FXV-L422 FXV-L433 FXV-L444KM FXV-L642KM FXV-LQ641KM FXV-L664KM
dance with the
FXV-422 FXV-433 FXV-L444 FXV-L642 FXV-LQ641LM FXV-L664LM
Manufacturer’s published ratings...” By the purchase of a “certified” model,
FXV-422KM FXV-433-LM FXV-444 FXV-642MM FXV-LQ641 FXV-L664
the User has assurance that the tower will perform as specified, provided that
FXV-642 FXV-Q641-NM FXV-664NM
its circulating water is no more than acceptably contaminated-and that its air
supply is ample and unobstructed. Either that model, or one of its close FXV-L423GM FXV-L434HM FXV-LQ440JM FXV-642OM FXV-Q641 FXV-664
design family members, will have been thoroughly tested by the single CTI- FXV-L423 FXV-L434JM FXV-LQ440
licensed testing agency for Certification and found to perform as claimed by FXV-423 FXV-L434 FXV-Q440 FXV-L643KM FXV-L661KM FXV-LQ660KM
the Manufacturer. FXV-423KM FXV-434 FXV-Q440MM FXV-L643 FXV-L661 FXV-LQ660
CTI Certification under STD-201 is limited to thermal operating conditions FXV-643MM FXV-661MM FXV-Q660MM
with entering wet bulb temperatures between 12.8°C and 32.2°C (55°F to FXV-L424GM FXV-L441JM FXV-LQ441JM FXV-643 FXV-661 FXV-Q660
90°F), a maximum process fluid temperature of 51.7°C (125°F), a cooling FXV-L424HM FXV-L441 FXV-LQ441KM FXV-643OM FXV-661OM FXV-Q660OM
range of 2.2°C (4°F) or greater, and a cooling approach of 2.8°C (5°F) or FXV-L424 FXV-441 FXV-LQ441
greater. The manufacturer may set more restrictive limits if desired or FXV-424 FXV-441MM FXV-Q441 FXV-L644KM FXV-L662KM FXV-LQ661KM
publish less restrictive limits if the CTI limits are clearly defined and noted
in the publication.
Following is a list of cooling tower models currently certified under STD- FXV-L431 FXV-L442 FXV-644NM FXV-662 FXV-Q661NM
201. They are part of product lines offered by Baltimore Aircoil Company,
FXV-431 FXV-442 FXV-644 FXV-662OM FXV-Q661
Inc.; Delta Cooling Towers, Inc.; Evapco, Inc.; Fabrica Mexicana De Torres,
S.A.; GEA Polacel; Imeco, div of York International; Ltd; Kyung In Machin-
ery Company, Ltd.; Liang Chi Industry Company, Ltd.; Mesan Cooling Tower, Models with Two Air Inlet Sides and Two Coils
Ltd; Ryowo (Holding) Company, Ltd; SPX Cooling Technologies; Tower FXV-288-31M FXV-288-41M FXV-288-1QM FXV-364-31N FXV-364-41N FXV-364-1QN
Tech, Inc; The Trane Company and Zhejiang Jinling Refrigeration Engi- FXV-288-31N FXV-288-41N FXV-288-1QN FXV-364-31O FXV-364-41O FXV-364-1QO
neering Company who are committed to the manufacture and installation of FXV-288-31O FXV-288-41O FXV-288-1QO FXV-364-31P FXV-364-41P FXV-364-1QP
full-performance towers. In competition with each other, these manufac-
FXV-288-31P FXV-288-41P FXV-288-1QP FXV-364-31Q FXV-364-41Q FXV-364-1QQ
turers benefit from knowing that they each achieve their published perfor-
FXV-288-31Q FXV-288-41Q FXV-288-1QQ FXV-364-31R FXV-364-41R FXV-364-1QR
mance capability. They are, therefore, free to distinguish themselves through
design excellence and concern for the User’s operational safety and conve- FXV-288-31R FXV-288-41R FXV-288-1QR FXV-364-31S FXV-364-41S FXV-364-1QS

Those Manufacturers who have not yet chosen to certify their product lines FXV Closed Circuit Cooling Towers
are invited to do so at the earliest opportunity. Contact Virginia A. Manser, Optional Accessories and Constructions – Certification Status
Cooling Technology Institute, PO Box 73383, Houston, TX 77273 for Construction Options Suffix CTICertified Capacity Adjustment
further information. (Note 1) Required
Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc. Cleanable Tube Coil A Yes Note 2
FXT Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers Heavy Duty Coil S Yes Note 2
CTI Certification Validation Number 92-11-01
Low Sound Fan Q Yes Note 3
FXT-6 FXT-26-CM FXT-58-EM FXT-160-HM Internal Access Package none Yes Note 4
FXT-7.5 FXT-26 FXT-58-FM FXT-160
Not CTI Certified X No Note 5
FXT-7.5-CM FXT-30 FXT-58 FXT-175
FXT-33 FXT-68 FXT-200 Note:
FXT-11 1. Typically no suffix is used for an accessory or modification that does not affect
FXT-11-CM FXT-38 FXT-74-FM FXT-216-JM capacity.
FXT-11-DM FXT-42 FXT-74 FXT-216 2. Construction does not affect thermal capacity, but does increase Process Fluid
FXT-47 FXT-87 FXT-250 Pressure Drop as noted in BAC Selection Software.
FXT-16 FXT-47-HM FXT-99 FXT-268 3. Low Sound fans on models with Two Air Inlet Side and Two coils incur a capac-
FXT-16-CM ity reduction of 2% relative to the same model with a standard fan.
FXT-20 FXT-115-GM 4. Internal Access Package on the models with One Air Inlet Side and One Coil
FXT-20-EM FXT-115 incur a capacity reduction of 1.8%, depending on the model and operating con-
FXT-130 ditions. Refer to BAC Selection Software to determine the effect on a specific
FXT-142 model at a specific operating condition.
1. Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not 5. This suffix is affixed to model numbers of units that are not CTI Certified, due
listed. either to application or product accessories or modifications to the tower.
2. Towers which include the suffix “X” added to the models above (e.g. FXT-11X) 6. The CTI thermal performance certification applies only to units with water as the
are not CTI Certified, due either to application, product accessories or modifica- process fluid.

74 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc. Note:
Series V Closed Circuit Cooling Tower 1. Typically no suffix is used for an accessory or modification that does not affect
Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers capacity.
VF1 Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 00-11-10 2. Construction does not affect thermal capacity, but does increase Process Fluid
VF1-009-12E VF1-036-21J VF1-096-12N VF1-192-12N VF1-144-12P VF1-288-11P Pressure Drop as noted in Selection Software.
VF1-009-12F VF1-036-21K VF1-096-12O VF1-192-12O VF1-144-12Q VF1-288-11Q 3. ASME Code construction per se does not affect capacity or pressure drop, but
VF1-009-12G VF1-036-21L VF1-096-12P VF1-192-12P VF1-144-12R VF1-288-11R often Heavy Duty Coil construction is specified as well which does affect
VF1-009-22E VF1-036-22J VF1-096-21O VF1-192-21O VF1-144-21P VF1-288-12P pressure drop.
VF1-009-22F VF1-036-22K VF1-096-21P VF1-192-21P VF1-144-21Q VF1-288-12Q 4. This suffix is affixed to model numbers of units that are not CTI Certified, due
VF1-009-22G VF1-036-22L VF1-096-21Q VF1-192-21Q VF1-144-21R VF1-288-12R either to application or product accessories or modifications.
VF1-009-32E VF1-036-31J VF1-096-22O VF1-192-22O VF1-144-22P VF1-288-21P 5. The CTI thermal performance certification applies only to units with water as
VF1-009-32F VF1-036-31K VF1-096-22P VF1-192-22P VF1-144-22Q VF1-288-21Q
the process fluid.
VF1-009-32G VF1-036-31L VF1-096-22Q VF1-192-22Q VF1-144-22R VF1-288-21R
VF1-009-42E VF1-036-32J VF1-096-31O VF1-192-31O VF1-144-31P VF1-288-22P
VF1-009-42F VF1-036-32K VF1-096-31P VF1-192-31P VF1-144-31Q VF1-288-22Q Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
VF1-009-42G VF1-036-32L VF1-096-31Q VF1-192-31Q VF1-144-31R VF1-288-22R Series V Closed Circuit Cooling Tower
VF1-036-41J VF1-096-32O VF1-192-32O VF1-144-32P VF1-288-31P Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
VF1-018-02G VF1-036-41K VF1-096-32P VF1-192-32P VF1-144-32Q VF1-288-31Q
VFL Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 00-11-10
VF1-018-02H VF1-036-41L VF1-096-32Q VF1-192-32Q VF1-144-32R VF1-288-31R
VF1-018-12F VF1-036-42J VF1-096-41O VF1-192-41O VF1-144-41P VF1-288-32P
VF1-018-12G VF1-036-42K VF1-096-41P VF1-192-41P VF1-144-41Q VF1-288-32Q VFL-012-02F VFL-036-12K VFL-048-12K VFL-072-21M VFL-096-21N
VF1-018-12H VF1-036-42L VF1-096-41Q VF1-192-41Q VF1-144-41R VF1-288-32R VFL-012-02G VFL-036-12L VFL-048-12L VFL-072-21N VFL-096-21O
VF1-018-22G VF1-036-51J VF1-096-42O VF1-192-42O VF1-144-42P VF1-288-41P VFL-012-02H VFL-036-12M VFL-048-12M VFL-072-21O VFL-096-21P
VF1-018-22H VF1-036-51K VF1-096-42P VF1-192-42P VF1-144-42Q VF1-288-41Q VFL-012-12F VFL-036-21J VFL-048-21K VFL-072-21P VFL-096-22N
VF1-018-22J VF1-036-51L VF1-096-42Q VF1-192-42Q VF1-144-42R VF1-288-41R VFL-012-12G VFL-036-21K VFL-048-21L VFL-072-22M VFL-096-22O
VF1-018-32G VF1-096-51P VF1-192-51P VF1-144-51P VF1-288-42P
VFL-012-12H VFL-036-21L VFL-048-21M VFL-072-22N VFL-096-22P
VF1-018-32H VF1-048-21L VF1-096-51Q VF1-192-51Q VF1-144-51Q VF1-288-42Q
VFL-012-22F VFL-036-21M VFL-048-22K VFL-072-22O VFL-096-31N
VF1-018-32J VF1-048-21M VF1-144-51R VF1-288-42R
VF1-018-42G VF1-048-22L VF1-144N-21P VF1-288N-21P VF1-288-51P VFL-012-22G VFL-036-22J VFL-048-22L VFL-072-22P VFL-096-31O
VF1-018-42H VF1-048-22M VF1-144N-21Q VF1-288N-21Q VF1-216-21N VF1-288-51Q VFL-012-22H VFL-036-22K VFL-048-22M VFL-072-31N VFL-096-31P
VF1-018-42J VF1-048-31M VF1-144N-21R VF1-288N-21R VF1-216-21O VF1-288-51R VFL-012-32F VFL-036-22L VFL-048-31K VFL-072-31O VFL-096-32N
VF1-048-31N VF1-144N-22P VF1-288N-22P VF1-216-21P VFL-012-32G VFL-036-22M VFL-048-31L VFL-072-31P VFL-096-32O
VF1-027-21H VF1-048-32M VF1-144N-22Q VF1-288N-22Q VF1-216-22N VF1-432-21N VFL-012-32H VFL-036-31K VFL-048-31M VFL-072-32N VFL-096-32P
VF1-027-21J VF1-048-32N VF1-144N-22R VF1-288N-22R VF1-216-22O VF1-432-21O
VFL-036-31L VFL-048-32K VFL-072-32O VFL-096-41N
VF1-027-21K VF1-048-41M VF1-144N-31P VF1-288N-31P VF1-216-22P VF1-432-21P
VFL-024-12H VFL-036-31M VFL-048-32L VFL-072-32P VFL-096-41O
VF1-027-22H VF1-048-41N VF1-144N-31Q VF1-288N-31Q VF1-216-31N VF1-432-22N
VF1-027-22J VF1-048-42M VF1-144N-31R VF1-288N-31R VF1-216-31O VF1-432-22O
VFL-024-22H VFL-036-32K VFL-048-32M VFL-072-41N VFL-096-41P
VF1-027-22K VF1-048-42N VF1-144N-32P VF1-288N-32P VF1-216-31P VF1-432-22P VFL-024-22J VFL-036-32L VFL-048-41L VFL-072-41O VFL-096-42N
VF1-027-31H VF1-048-51M VF1-144N-32Q VF1-288N-32Q VF1-216-41O VF1-432-31N VFL-024-32H VFL-036-32M VFL-048-41M VFL-072-41P VFL-096-42O
VF1-027-31J VF1-048-51N VF1-144N-32R VF1-288N-32R VF1-216-41P VF1-432-31O VFL-024-32J VFL-036-41K VFL-048-42L VFL-072-42N VFL-096-42P
VF1-027-31K VF1-144N-41P VF1-288N-41P VF1-216-41Q VF1-432-31P VFL-036-41M VFL-048-42M VFL-072-42O VFL-096-51N
VF1-027-32H VF1-072-21M VF1-144N-41Q VF1-288N-41Q VF1-216-51O VF1-432-41O VFL-036-42K VFL-072-42P VFL-096-51O
VF1-027-32J VF1-072-21N VF1-144N-41R VF1-288N-41R VF1-216-51P VF1-432-41P
VFL-036-42L VFL-096-51P
VF1-027-32K VF1-072-21O VF1-144N-51P VF1-288N-51P VF1-216-51Q VF1-432-41Q
VF1-027-41H VF1-072-22M VF1-144N-51Q VF1-288N-51Q VF1-432-51O
VFL-036-42M VFL-096-52N
VF1-027-41J VF1-072-22N VF1-144N-51R VF1-288N-51R VF1-432-51P VFL-096-52O
VF1-027-41K VF1-072-22O VF1-432-51Q VFL-096-52P
VF1-027-42H VF1-072-31M
VF1-027-42J VF1-072-31N Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
VF1-027-42K VF1-072-31O Series V Closed Circuit Cooling Tower Line of
VF1-027-51H VF1-072-32M CTI Certified Cooling Towers
VF1-027-51J VF1-072-32N
VFL Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 00-11-10
VF1-027-51K VF1-072-32O
VF1-027-52H VF1-072-41M Option Suffix CTI Capacity Adjustment
VF1-027-52J VF1-072-41N (Note 1) Certified Required
VF1-027-52K VF1-072-41O
VF1-072-51N Capacity Control Dampers D Yes Yes
VF1-072-51O Tapered Discharge Hood R Yes Yes
Positive Closure Damper Hood -Tapered H Yes Yes
Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc. Positive Closure Damper Hood - Straight W Yes No
Series V Closed Circuit Cooling Tower Discharge Sound Attenuation Z Yes Yes
Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers Cleanable Tube Coil A Yes See Note 2
VF1 Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 00-11-10 Cleanable Header Coil none Yes No
Revised November 2002 Heavy Duty Coil S Yes See Note 2
ASME Code Coil none Yes See Note 3
Option Suffix CTI Capacity Adjustment Unit not CTI Certified (Note 4 & 5) X No
(Note 1) Certified Required
Capacity Control Dampers D Yes Yes Note:
Tapered Discharge Hood R Yes Yes 1. Typically no suffix is used for an accessory or modification that does not affect
Positive Closure Damper Hood -Tapered H Yes Yes capacity.
2. Construction does not affect thermal capacity, but does increase Process Fluid
Positive Closure Damper Hood - Straight W Yes No
Pressure Drop as noted in Selection Software.
Discharge Sound Attenuation Z Yes Yes 3. ASME Code construction per se does not affect capacity or pressure drop, but
Cleanable Tube Coil A Yes See Note 2 often Heavy Duty Coil construction is specified as well which does affect pres-
Cleanable Header Coil none Yes No sure drop.
Heavy Duty Coil S Yes See Note 2 4. This suffix is affixed to model numbers of units that are not CTI Certified, due
ASME Code Coil none Yes See Note 3 either to application or product accessories or modifications.
Unit not CTI Certified (Note 4 & 5) X No 5. The CTI thermal performance certification applies only to units with water as the
process fluid.

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 75

Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc. VT1-N240-P VT1-N346-RM VT1-340-QM VT1-560-LM
Series V Open Cooling Tower Line of VT1-N240-QM VT1-N346-SM VT1-340-RM VT1-560-MM
CTI Certified Cooling Towers VT1-560-NM
VT1-N255-KM VT1-N370-MM VT1-375-LM VT1-560-O
VTL Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 92-11-03
VT1-N255-LM VT1-N370-NM VT1-375-MM VT1-600-P
VTL-016-DM VTL-051-G VTL-103-JM VTL-227-LM VT1-N255-MM VT1-N370-OM VT1-375-NM VT1-600-QM
VTL-016-E VTL-059-H VTL-103-K VTL-227-MM VT1-N255-NM VT1-N370-PM VT1-375-OM
VTL-021-F VTL-066-J VTL-116-L VTL-227-NM VT1-N255-OM VT1-N370-Q VT1-375-P
VTL-021-GM VTL-072-K VTL-126-M VTL-227-O VT1-N255-P VT1-N395-R VT1-400-Q
VT1-N395-SM VT1-415-R
VTL-027-EM VTL-079-GM VTL-137-JM VTL-245-MM VT1-415-SM
VTL-027-F VTL-079-HM VTL-137-KM VTL-245-NM Footnotes:
VTL-030-G VTL-079-JM VTL-137-LM VTL-245-OM 1. Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not
VTL-034-H VTL-079-K VTL-137-M VTL-245-P listed.
2. Towers which include the suffix “D” added to the models above (e.g. VT1-307-
VTL-039-EM VTL-082-HM VTL-152-LM VTL-272-MM OD) are furnished with capacity control dampers and the certified capacity is
VTL-039-FM VTL-082-JM VTL-152-M VTL-272-NM 98.5% of the published value.
VTL-039-GM VTL-082-K VTL-152-NM VTL-272-OM 3. Towers which include the suffix “X” added to the models above (e.g. VT1-N301-
VTL-039-H VTL-092-L VTL-152-OM VTL-272-P QX) are not CTI certified due either to application, product accessories or modi-
VTL-045-FM VTL-095-HM VTL-171-L
VTL-045-GM VTL-095-JM VTL-185-M
VTL-045-H VTL-095-K VTL-198-N Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
VTL-045-JM VTL-095-LM VTL-209-O Series 1500 Line of
VTL-095-MM CTI Certified Cooling Towers
Footnotes: CTI Certification Validation Number 98-11-08
1. Towers which include the suffix “D” added to the models above (e.g. VTL-126-
MD) are furnished with capacity control dampers and the certified capacity is 15146-HM 15162-HM 15200-JM 15214-JM 15296-KM 15310-KM
98.5% of the published value. 15146 15162 15200 15214 15296 15310
2. Towers which include the suffix “X” added to the models above (e.g. VTL-079- 15160 15177 15277 15245 15325 15340
GMX) are not CTI certified due either to application, product accessories or
15176 15201 15250 15270 15350 15365
modification. 15219 15282 15368 15385
Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
Series V Open Cooling Tower Line of Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
CTI Certified Cooling Towers
VT0 Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 92-11-02 Series 1500 Optional Accessories and Constructions- Certification Status
VT0-12-E VT0-32-H VT0-78-JM VT0-132-L Option CTI Suffix Certified Capacity Adjustment
VT0-14-F VT0-41-J VT0-78-K VT0-145-M
VT0-19-G VT0-41-KM VT0-88-L VT0-155-N
VT0-19-HM VT0-155-OM Low sound fan Q Yes Yes, Note 1
VT0-52-HM VT0-102-KM Non-Standard Motor Size M Note 2 Yes, Note 2
VT0-24-EM VT0-52-J VT0-102-L VT0-166-LM Non-CTI Certified X No No, Note 3
VT0-24-FM VT0-57-K VT0-102-MM VT0-166-MM
VT0-24-G VT0-166-N Footnotes:
VT0-28-H VT0-65-J VT0-107-KM VT0-176-O
1. Low sound fans on Series 1500 Cooling Towers incur a capacity reduction of 3%
VT0-75-K VT0-107-L relative to the same unit with a standard fan.
VT0-75-LM VT0-116-M
2. Units with non-standard motor sizes are certified only if they are listed in the
Data of Record.
1. Towers which include the suffix “D” added to the models above (e.g. VT0-12-
3. This suffix is affixed to model numbers of units that are not CTI Certified, due
ED) are furnished with capacity control dampers and the certified capacity is
either to application, product accessories or modifications.
98.5% of the published value.
2. Towers which include the suffix “X” added to the models above (e.g. VT0-19GX)
are not CTI certified due either to application, product accessories or modifica- Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
tion. Series 3000A Series Line of
CTI Certified Cooling Towers
Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc. CTI Certification Validation Number 92-11-06
Series V Open Cooling Tower Line of
CTI Certified Cooling Towers 3240A-JM 3455A-KM 3552A-LM 3728A-NM 3583A-MM
3240A 3455A-LM 3552A-MM 3728A-OM 3583A
VT1 Models, CTI Certification Validation Number 92-11-04
3272A 3455A-MM 3552A-NM 3728A 3618A
3299A 3455A 3552A 3781A 3676A
VT1-N209-KM VT1-N301-MM VT1-275-LM VT1-416-LM
3482A 3604A 3828A 3725A
VT1-N209-LM VT1-N301-NM VT1-275-MM VT1-416-MM
3333A-JM 3527A 3648A 3752A
VT1-N209-MM VT1-N301-OM VT1-275-NM VT1-416-NM
3333A-KM 3672A 3872A-OM
VT1-N209-NM VT1-N301-PM VT1-275-OM VT1-416-O
3333A-LM 3473A-KM 3872A-PM 31132A-PM
VT1-N209-OM VT1-N301-Q VT1-275-P VT1-416-PM
3333A 3473A-LM 3872A 31132A-QM
VT1-N209-P VT1-N301-RM VT1-275-QM
3358A 3473A-MM 3923A 31132A-RM
VT1-N209-QM VT1-N301-SM VT1-275-RM VT1-478-LM
3379A 3473A 3970A 31132A
3501A 3990A
VT1-N220-KM VT1-N325-MM VT1-307-LM VT1-478-N
3412A-JM 31213A-QM
VT1-N220-LM VT1-N325-NM VT1-307-MM VT1-507-O
3412A-KM 3985A-PM 31213A-RM
VT1-N220-MM VT1-N325-OM VT1-307-NM VT1-507-PM
3412A-LM 3985A-QM 31213A
VT1-N220-NM VT1-N325-P VT1-307-O VT1-507-QM
3412A-MM 3985A 31301A
VT1-N220-O VT1-N346-Q VT1-340-P
3412A 31056A 31328A

76 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

Series 3000A Optional Accessories and Constructions - Certification Status 18-414 19-56 19-714 39-636 112-920 312-242 217-111
18-514 19-66 19-814 39-736 312-342 424-024 214-0148 217-211
Option CTI Suffix Certified Capacity Adjustment 18-614 19-76 19-914 39-836 212-024 312-442 424-124 214-0248 217-311
18-714 19-86 39-936 212-124 312-542 424-224 214-0348 217-411
18-814 19-96 29-318 212-224 312-642 424-324 214-0448 217-511
Additional Drift Eliminator Set E Yes Yes, Note 1 18-914 29-418 39-242 212-324 312-742 424-424 214-0548 217-611
19-28 29-518 39-342 212-424 312-842 424-524 214-0648 217-711
Low Sound Fan Q Yes Yes, Note 2 28-518 19-38 29-618 39-442 212-524 312-942 424-624 214-0748 217-811
28-618 19-48 29-718 39-542 212-624 424-724 214-0848 217-911
Non-Standard Motor Size M Note 3 Yes, Note 3
28-718 19-58 29-818 39-642 212-724 312-054 424-824 214-0948
Velocity Recovery Stack V Yes Yes, Note 4 28-818 19-68 29-918 39-742 212-824 312-154 424-924 214-1048 217-412
28-918 19-78 39-842 212-924 312-254 214-1148 217-512
Not-CTI Certified X No No, Note 5
19-88 29-121 39-942 312-354 424-028 217-612
Note: 28-521 19-98 29-221 212-128 312-454 424-128 314-0172 217-712
1. Adding an additional drift eliminator set beyond what is included in the stan- 28-621 29-321 112-012 212-228 312-554 424-228 314-0272 217-812
dard model design incurs a 2% capacity reduction relative to the standard unit. 28-721 19-59 29-421 112-112 212-328 312-654 424-328 314-0372 217-912
28-821 19-69 29-521 112-212 212-428 312-754 424-428 314-0472
2. Low sound fans on Series 3000A Cooling Towers incur a capacity reduction of 28-921 19-79 29-621 112-312 212-528 312-854 424-528 314-0572 217-214
3% relative to the same model with a standard fan. 19-89 29-721 112-412 212-628 312-954 424-628 314-0672 217-314
3. Units with non-standard motor sizes are certified only if they are listed in the 28-524 19-99 29-831 112-512 212-728 424-728 314-0772 217-414
Data of Record. 28-624 29-921 112-612 212-828 424-828 314-0872 217-514
28-724 112-712 212-928 424-928 314-0972 217-614
4. Velocity recovery fan stacks increase the capacity of a tower by 3 to 6%, depend-
28-824 112-812 314-1072 217-714
ing upon the model and operating conditions. Refer to BAC Selection Software 28-924 112-912 314-1172 217-814
to determine the effect on a specific model at a specific operating condition.
314-1272 217-914
5. This suffix is affixed to model numbers of units that are not CTI Certified, due
either to application, product accessories or modifications to the tower. Footnotes:
1. AT, USS, UT and REP are prefixes to be added to the basic numeric model
designations listed above to indicate the tower construction materials,
Delta Cooling Towers, Inc.
generic configuration or options.
TM Series of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 02-24-01 · AT is used for units with standard galvanized materials and fabrication

TM105319 TM205319 TM305319 TM405319 TM505319 TM605319 · USS is used to indicate units with stainless steel materials for corrosion
TM175319 TM275319 TM375319 TM475319 TM575319 TM675319 resistance.
TM110319 TM210319 TM310319 TM410319 TM510319 TM610319 · UT is used to indicate units with super low sound fans.
TM115319 TM215319 TM315319 TM415319 TM515319 TM615319 · REP is used to indicate units with water inlet on the end rather than the
TM105419 TM205419 TM305419 TM405419 TM505419 TM605419
2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt
TM175419 TM275419 TM375419 TM475419 TM575419 TM675419 drive.
TM110419 TM210419 TM310419 TM410419 TM510419 TM610419 3. Certification includes use of side, end, or bottom water inlet configuration.
TM115419 TM215419 TM315419 TM415419 TM515419 TM615419 4. Certification includes use of optional water silencers.
5. Certification includes use of optional external platforms/ladders for access.
TM105312 TM205312 TM305312 TM405312 TM505312 TM605312 6. Certification includes an optional supplier for fans on standard models or
TM175312 TM275312 TM375312 TM475312 TM575312 TM675312 optional super low sound fans.
TM110312 TM210312 TM310312 TM410312 TM510312 TM610312
TM115312 TM215312 TM315312 TM415312 TM515312 TM615312
Evapco, Inc.
AT Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
TM105412 TM205412 TM305412 TM405412 TM505412 TM605412
CTI Certification Validation Number 99-13-01
TM175412 TM275412 TM375412 TM475412 TM575412 TM675412
TM110412 TM210412 TM310412 TM410412 TM510412 TM610412 AT Series Models
TM115412 TM215412 TM315412 TM415412 TM515412 TM615412 UBT

Evapco, Inc. 8-56B 8-012B 8-318B 8-324B 12-212B 12-324B 12-236B3 24-218B 24-524B
8-66B 8-112B 8-418B 8-424B 12-312B 12-424B 12-336B3 24-318B 24-624B
AT Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
8-76B 8-212B 8-518B 8-524B 12-412B 12-524B 12-436B3 24-418B 24-724B
CTI Certification Validation Number 99-13-01 8-86B 8-312B 8-618B 8-624B 12-512B 12-624B 12-536B3 24-518B 24-824B
8-96B 8-412B 8-718B 8-724B 12-612B 12-724B 12-636B3 24-618B 24-924B
AT Series
8-512B 8-818B 8-824B 12-712B 12-824B 12-736B3 24-718B
AT, USS, REP, UT 8-29B 8-612B 8-918B 8-924B 12-812B 12-924B 12-836B3 24-818B 24-336B
8-39B 8-712B 12-912B 12-936B3 24-918B 24-436B
18-49 28-428 19-111 29-024 112-314 212-036 312-260 424-036 228-0124 8-49B 8-812B 8-536B 12-136B 24-536B
18-59 28-528 19-211 29-124 112-414 212-136 312-360 424-136 228-0224 8-59B 8-912B 8-636B 12-218B 12-236B 12-454B 24-636B
18-69 28-628 19-311 29-224 112-514 212-236 312-460 424-236 228-0324 8-69B 8-736B 12-318B 12-336B 12-554B 24-736B
18-79 28-728 19-411 29-324 112-614 212-436 312-560 424-336 228-0424 8-79B 8-836B 12-418B 12-436B 12-654B 24-836B
18-89 28-828 19-511 29-424 112-714 212-536 312-660 424-436 228-0524 8-89B 8-936B 12-518B 12-536B 12-754B 24-936B
18-99 28-928 19-611 29-524 112-814 212-636 312-760 424-536 228-0624 8-99B 12-618B 12-636B 12-854B
19-711 29-624 112-914 212-736 312-860 424-636 228-0724 12-718B 12-736B 12-954B
18-511 38-236 19-811 29-724 212-836 312-960 424-736 228-0824 12-818B 12-836B
18-611 38-336 19-911 29-824 112-018 212-936 424-836 228-0924 12-918B 12-936B
18-711 38-436 29-924 112-118 224-018 424-936 Footnotes:
18-811 38-536 19-412 112-218 312-036 224-118 428-0148
1. UBT is the prefix to be added to the basic numeric model designations listed
18-911 38-636 19-512 29-228 112-318 312-136 224-218 114-0124 428-0248
above to indicate units with alternate fabrication methods for seismic resistance.
38-736 19-612 29-328 112-418 312-236 224-318 114-0224 428-0348
18-312 38-836 19-712 29-428 112-518 312-336 224-418 114-0324 428-0448 2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt
18-412 38-936 19-812 29-528 112-618 312-436 224-518 114-0424 428-0548 drive.
18-512 19-912 29-628 112-718 312-536 224-618 114-0524 428-0648 3. Certification includes use of side, end, or bottom water inlet configuration.
18-612 38-442 29-728 112-818 312-636 224-718 114-0624 428-0748
18-712 38-542 19-114 29-828 112-918 312-736 224-818 114-0724 428-0848
4. Certification includes use of optional water silencers.
18-812 38-642 19-214 29-928 312-836 224-918 114-0824 428-0948 5. Certification includes use of optional external platforms/ladders for access.
18-912 38-742 19-314 112-520 312-936 114-0924 428-1048 6. Certification includes an optional supplier for fans on standard models or op-
38-842 19-414 39-336 112-620 224-720 114-1024 428-1148 tional super low sound fans.
18-214 38-942 19-514 39-436 112-720 312-042 224-820 114-1124 428-1248
18-314 19-614 39-536 112-820 312-142 224-920 114-1224

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 77

Evapco, Inc. · I = Intake sound attenuation
ESW Line of CTI Certified Closed Circuit Coolers
· D = Discharge sound attenuation
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-13-05
ESW Series Models · H = Tapered Discharge Hood
· F = Full sound attenuation
ESW 72-23H

ESW 72-23I
ESW 96-23H

ESW 96-23I
ESW 142-23H

ESW 142-23I
ESW 77-23H

ESW 77-23I
ESW 102-23H

ESW 102-23I
ESW 153-23H

ESW 153-23I
ESW 144-23I

ESW 144-23J
ESW 216-23J

ESW 216-23K
· L = One motor size smaller
ESW 72-23J ESW 96-24H ESW 142-23J ESW 77-23J ESW 102-24H ESW 153-23J ESW 144-23K ESW 216-23L · U = Two motor sizes smaller
ESW 72-24H ESW 96-24I ESW 142-24H ESW 77-24H ESW 102-24I ESW 153-24H ESW 144-24I ESW 216-23M · LI = Intake sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
ESW 72-24I

ESW 72-24J
ESW 96-24H

ESW 96-25I
ESW 142-24I

ESW 142-24J
ESW 77-24I

ESW 77-24J
ESW 102-25H

ESW 102-25I
ESW 153-24I

ESW 153-24J
ESW 144-24J

ESW 144-24K
ESW 216-24J

ESW 216-24K
· LD= Discharge sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
ESW 72-25H ESW 96-26H ESW 142-25H ESW 77-25H ESW 102-26H ESW 153-25H ESW 144-25I ESW 216-24L · LH = Tapered Discharge Hood + One motor size smaller
ESW 72-25I ESW 96-26I ESW 142-25I ESW 77-25I ESW 1-2-26I ESW 153-25I ESW 144-25J ESW 216-24M · LF =Full sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
ESW 72-25J ESW 142-25J ESW 77-25J ESW 153-25J ESW 144-25K ESW 216-25J
2. The optional tower configurations are unique in capacity. Selection software
ESW 72-26H ESW 96-33H ESW 142-26H ESW 77-26H ESW 102-33H ESW 153-26H ESW 144-26I ESW 216-25K
should be consulted for appropriate ratings of the tower configuration.
ESW 72-26I ESW 96-33I ESW 142-26I ESW 77-26I ESW 102-33I ESW 153-26I ESW 144-26J ESW 216-25L

ESW 72-26J ESW 96-33J ESW 142-26J ESW 77-26J ESW 102-33J ESW 153-26J ESW 144-26K ESW 216-25M

ESW 96-34H ESW 102-34H ESW 216-26J Evapco, Inc.

ESW 72-33H ESW 96-34I ESW 142-33H ESW 77-33H ESW 102-34I ESW 153-33H ESW 144-33I ESW 216-26K LSTB Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
ESW 72-33I ESW 96-34J ESW 142-33I ESW 77-33I ESW 102-34J ESW 153-33I ESW 144-33J ESW 216-26L CTI Certification Validation Number 05-13-04
ESW 72-33J ESW 96-35H ESW 142-eeJ ESW 77-33J ESW 102-35H ESW 153-33J ESW 144-33K ESW 216-26M LSTB Series Basic Models
ESW 72-34H ESW 96-35I ESW 142-34H ESW 77-34H ESW 102-35I ESW 153-34H ESW 144-33L

ESW 72-34I ESW 96-35J ESW 142-34I ESW 77-34I ESW 102-35J ESW 153-34I ESW 144-34I ESW 216-33K
LSTB 5112 LSTB 8P112 LSTB 8P124 LSTB 10112 LSTB 10124
ESW 72-34J ESW 96-36H ESW 142-34J ESW 77-34J ESW 102-36H ESW 153-34J ESW 144-34J ESW 216-33L
LSTB 5212 LSTB 8P212 LSTB 8P224 LSTB 10212 LSTB 10224
ESW 72-35H ESW 96-36I ESW 142-35H ESW 77-35H ESW 102-36I ESW 153-35H ESW 144-34K ESW 216-33M
LSTB 5312 LSTB 8P312 LSTB 8P324 LSTB 10312 LSTB 10324
ESW 72-35I ESW 96-36J ESW 142-35I ESW 77-35I ESW 102-36J ESW 153-35I ESW 144-34L ESW 216-34K

ESW 72-35J ESW 142-35J ESW 77-35J ESW 153-35J ESW 144-35I ESW 216-34L
LSTB 5412 LSTB 8P412 LSTB 8P424 LSTB 10412 LSTB 10424
ESW 72-36H ESW 96-43I ESW 142-36H ESW 77-36H ESW 102-43I ESW 153-36H ESW 144-35J ESW 216-34M LSTB5512 LSTB 8P512 LSTB 8P524 LSTB 10512 LSTB 10524
ESW 96-43J ESW 142-36I ESW 77-36I ESW 102-43J ESW 153-36I ESW 144-35K ESW 216-35K LSTB 10612
ESW 72-36I ESW 96-44I ESW 142-36J ESW 77-36J ESW 102-44I ESW 153-36J ESW 144-35L ESW 216-35L

ESW 72-36J ESW 96-44J ESW 102-44J ESW 144-36I ESW 216-35M LSTB 5118 LSTB 8P118 LSTB 8P136 LSTB 10118 LSTB 10136
ESW 72-43I ESW 96-45I ESW 142-43I ESW 77-43I ESW 102-45I ESW 153-43I ESW 144-36J ESW 216-36K LSTB 5218 LSTB 8P218 LSTB 8P236 LSTB 10218 LSTB 10236
ESW 72-43J ESW 96-45J ESW 142-43J ESW 77-43J ESW 102-45J ESW 153-43J ESW 144-36K ESW 216-36L
LSTB 5318 LSTB 8P318 LSTB 8P336 LSTB 10318 LSTB 10336
ESW 72-44I ESW 96-46I ESW 142-43K ESW 77-44I ESW 102-46I ESW 153-43K ESW 144-36L ESW 216-36M
LSTB 5418 LSTB 8P418 LSTB 8P436 LSTB 10418 LSTB 10436
ESW 72-44J ESW 96-46J ESW 142-44I ESW 77-44J ESW 102-46J ESW 153-44I
LSTB 5518 LSTB 8P518 LSTB 8P536 LSTB 10518 LSTB 10536
ESW 72-45I ESW 142-44J ESW 77-45I ESW 153-44J ESW 144-43J ESW 216-43K
LSTB 5618 LSTB 8P618 LSTB 10618 LSTB 10636
ESW 72-45J ESW 142-44K ESW 77-45J ESW 153-44K ESW 144-43K ESW 216-43L

ESW 72-46I ESW 142-45I ESW 77-46I ESW 153-45I ESW 144-43L ESW 216-43M
LSTB 5718 LSTB 10718
ESW 72-46J ESW 142-45J ESW 77-46J ESW 153-45J ESW 144-44J ESW 216-43N

ESW 142-45K ESW 153-45K ESW 144-44K ESW 216-44K Footnotes:

ESW 142-26I ESW 153-46I ESW 144-44L ESW 216-44L 1. The following suffixes ( I, D, H, F, L, U, LI, LD, LH and LF ) are to be added to
ESW 142-46J ESW 153-46J ESW 144-45J ESW 216-44M the basic numeric model designations listed above to indicate the tower
ESW 142-46K ESW 153-46K ESW 144-45K ESW 215-44N configuration options that are also included in the CTI Certification.
ESW 144-45L ESW 216-45K · I = Intake sound attenuation
ESW 144-46J ESW 216-45L
· D = Discharge sound attenuation
ESW 144-46K ESW 216-45M
· H = Tapered Discharge Hood
ESW 144-46L ESW 216-45N

ESW 216-46K
· F = Full sound attenuation

ESW 216-46L
· L = One motor size smaller
ESW 216-46M · U = Two motor sizes smaller
ESW 216-46N · LI = Intake sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
· LD = Discharge sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
1. Certification includes units with optional High Flow Header Connections for better
process fluid distribution at higher flows. · LH = Tapered Discharge Hood + One motor size smaller
2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt drive · LF = Full sound attenuation + One motor size smaller
3. Certification includes use of optional external platforms/ladders for access.
2. The optional tower configurations are unique in capacity. Selection software
4. Certification includes an optional supplier for fans on standard models or optional super low should be consulted for appropriate ratings of the tower configuration.
sound fans.

Fabrica Mexicana De Torres, S.A.

Evapco, Inc. Reymsa Cooling Towers
LPT Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers GHR Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-13-04 CTI Certification Validation Number 00-22-02
LPT Series Basic Models
GHRFG Series GHRFG Series GHRFG Series GHRFG Series
(Molded Fiberglass (Galvanized Steel (Stainless Steel (Galvanized Steel
LPT 316 LPT 516 LPT 519 LPT 5112 LPT 819 LPT 8112 Structure/Casing) (Structure & Casing) Structure & Casing) Structure &
LPT 326 LPT 526 LPT 529 LPT 5212 LPT 829 LPT 8212 Fiberglass Casing)
LPT 336 LPT 536 LPT 539 LPT 5312 LPT 839 LPT 8312
LPT 346 LPT 546 LPT 549 LPT 5412 LPT 849 LPT 8412 GHRFG-303115 GHRGS-303115 GHRSS-303115 GHRFS-303115
LPT 356 LPT 556 LPT 559 LPT 5512 LPT 859 LPT 8512 GHRFG-303102 GHRGS-303102 GHRSS-303102 GHRFS-303102
LPT 366 LPT 566 LPT 569 LPT 5612 LPT 869 LPT 8612 GHRFG-404103 GHRGS-404103 GHRSS-404103 GHRFS-404103
LPT 576 LPT 5712 LPT 879 LPT 8712 GHRFG-404105 GHRGS-404105 GHRSS-404105 GHRFS-404105
LPT 586 LPT 8812 GHRFG-505103 GHRGS-505103 GHRSS-505103 GHRFS-505103
LPT 596 GHRFG-505105 GHRGS-505105 GHRSS-505105 GHRFS-505105
GHRFG-5555105 GHRGS-5555105 GHRSS-5555105 GHRFS-5555105
GHRFG-5555175 GHRGS-5555175 GHRSS-5555175 GHRFS-5555175
1. The following suffixes ( I, D, H, F, L, U, LI, LD, LH and LF ) are to be added to the GHRFG-606105 GHRGS-606105 GHRSS-606105 GHRFS-606105
basic numeric model designations listed above to indicate the tower configura- GHRFG-606175 GHRGS-606175 GHRSS-606175 GHRFS-606175
tion options that are also included in the CTI Certification. GHRFG-707175 GHRGS-707175 GHRSS-707175 GHRFS-707175

78 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

GHRFG-707110 GHRGS-707110 GHRSS-707110 GHRFS-707115 CMDR12 210-DL-60 CMDR12 540-DL-60 CMDR19 210-DL-90 CMDR19 540-DL-90
GHRFG-708175 GHRGS-708175 GHRSS-708175 GHRFS-708175 CMDR12 210-DM-60 CMDR12 540-DM-60 CMDR19 210-DM-90 CMDR19 540-DM-90
GHRFG-708110 GHRGS-708110 GHRSS-708110 GHRFS-708110 CMDR12 210-DH-60 CMDR12 540-DH-60 CMDR19 210-DH-90 CMDR19 540-DH-90
CMDR12 210-DL-90 CMDR12 540-DL-90 CMDR19 210-DH-120 CMDR19 540-DL-120
GHRFG-708115 GHRGS-708115 GHRSS-708115 GHRFS-708115 CMDR12 210-DM-90 CMDR12 540-DM-90 CMDR19 210-DM-120 CMDR19 540-DM-120
GHRFG-709175 GHRGS-709175 GHRSS-709175 GHRFS-709175 CMDR12 210-DH-90 CMDR12 540-DH-90 CMDR19 210-DH-120 CMDR19 540-DH-120
GHRFG-709110 GHRGS-709110 GHRSS-709110 GHRFS-709110 CMDR12 210-DL-120 CMDR12 540-DL-120 CMDR19 210-DL-150 CMDR19 540-DL-150
GHRFG-709115 GHRGS-709115 GHRSS-709115 GHRFS-709115 CMDR12 210-DM-120 CMDR12 540-DM-120 CMDR19 210-DM-150 CMDR19 540-DM-150
GHRFG-808175 GHRGS-808175 GHRSS-808175 GHRFS-808175 CMDR12 210-DH-120 CMDR12 540-DH-120 CMDR19 210-DH-150 CMDR19 540-DH-150
GHRFG-808110 GHRGS-808110 GHRSS-808110 GHRFS-808110 CMDR12 240-DL-60 CMDR12 630-DL-60 CMDR19 240-DL-90 CMDR19 630-DL-90
GHRFG-808115 GHRGS-808115 GHRSS-808115 GHRFS-808115 CMDR12 240-DM-60 CMDR12 630-DM-60 CMDR19 240-DM-90 CMDR19 630-DM-90
GHRFG-809175 GHRGS-809175 GHRSS-809175 GHRFS-809175 CMDR12 240-DH-60 CMDR12 630-DH-60 CMDR19 240-DH-90 CMDR19 630-DH-90
GHRFG-809110 GHRGS-809110 GHRSS-809110 GHRFS-809110 CMDR12 240-DL-90 CMDR12 630-DL-90 CMDR19 240-DH-120 CMDR19 630-DL-120
GHRFG-809115 GHRGS-809115 GHRSS-809115 GHRFS-809115 CMDR12 240-DM-90 CMDR12 630-DM-90 CMDR19 240-DM-120 CMDR19 630-DM-120
GHRFG-810110 GHRGS-810110 GHRSS-810110 GHRFS-810110 CMDR12 240-DH-90 CMDR12 630-DH-90 CMDR19 240-DH-120 CMDR19 630-DH-120
CMDR12 240-DL-120 CMDR12 630-DL-120 CMDR19 240-DL-150 CMDR19 630-DL-150
GHRFG-810115 GHRGS-810115 GHRSS-810115 GHRFS-810115 CMDR12 240-DM-120 CMDR12 630-DM-120 CMDR19 240-DM-150 CMDR19 630-DM-150
GHRFG-810120 GHRGS-810120 GHRSS-810120 GHRFS-810120 CMDR12 240-DH-120 CMDR12 630-DH-120 CMDR19 240-DH-150 CMDR19 630-DH-150
GHRFG-811115 GHRGS-811115 GHRSS-811115 GHRFS-811115
GHRFG-811120 GHRGS-811120 GHRSS-811120 GHRFS-811120 Footnotes:
GHRFG-812115 GHRGS-812115 GHRSS-812115 GHRFS-812115 1. The basic model numbers above are for 50 hz fan motors and the suffix U is added
GHRFG-812120 GHRGS-812120 GHRSS-812120 GHRFS-812120 for 60 hz fan motor applications. For example, CMDR19 630-DH-150 is for 50
GHRFG-812125 GHRGS-812125 GHRSS-812125 GHRFS-812125 hz and CMDR19 630-DH-150U is for 60 hz.
GHRFG-714275 GHRGS-714275 GHRSS-714275 GHRFS-714275 2. The suffix –PS1 through –PS10 is added to the basic model numbers to indicate
GHRFG-714210 GHRGS-714210 GHRSS-714210 GHRFS-714210 the nozzle size required for the application flow rate.
GHRFG-816275 GHRGS-816275 GHRSS-816275 GHRFS-816275 3. The cold water basin configuration is indicated by either suffix /2 for no cold
GHRFG-816210 GHRGS-816210 GHRSS-816210 GHRFS-816210 water basin, the suffix /3 for a GRP basin with HDGS sub-frame, or the suffix /4
GHRFG-816215 GHRGS-816215 GHRSS-816215 GHRFS-816215 for a GRP basin only.
GHRFG-1414475 GHRGS-1414475 GHRSS-1414475 GHRFS-1414475
GHRFG-1414410 GHRGS-1414410 GHRSS-1414410 GHRFS-1414410 GEA Polacel CR Series Line
GHRFG-1616475 GHRGS-1616475 GHRSS-1616475 GHRFS-1616475 CMC Models of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
GHRFG-1616410 GHRGS-1616410 GHRSS-1616410 GHRFS-1616410 CTI Certification Validation Number 04-25-01
GHRFG-1616415 GHRGS-1616415 GHRSS-1616415 GHRFS-1616415
CMC1-DL-60 CMC9-DL-60 CMC2.9-DL-60 CMC3.9-DL-60
Fabrica Mexicana De Torres, S.A. CMC1-DL-90 CMC9-DL-90 CMC2.9-DL-90 CMC3.9-DL-90
CMC1-DM-60 CMC9-DM-60 CMC2.9-DM-60 CMC3.9-DM-60
Reymsa Cooling Towers CMC1-DM-90 CMC9-DM-90 CMC2.9-DM-90 CMC3.9-DM-90
HR Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers CMC1-DH-60 CMC9-DH-60 CMC2.9-DH-60 CMC3.9-DH-60
CTI Certification Validation Number 04-22-03 CMC1-DH-90 CMC9-DH-90 CMC2.9-DH-90 CMC3.9-DH-90

HRFG-303115 HRFG-707175 HRFG-808175 HRFG-714275 HRFG-1414475 CMC2-DL-60 CMC12-DL-60 CMC2.12-DL-60 CMC3.12-DL-60

HRFG-303102 HRFG-707110 HRFG-808110 HRFG-714210 HRFG-1414410 CMC2-DL-90 CMC12-DL-90 CMC2.12-DL-90 CMC3.12-DL-90
CMC2-DM-60 CMC12-DM-60 CMC2.12-DM-60 CMC3.12-DM-60
CMC2-DM-90 CMC12-DM-90 CMC2.12-DM-90 CMC3.12-DM-90
HRFG-404103 HRFG-708175 HRFG-816275 HRFG-1616475 CMC2-DH-60 CMC12-DH-60 CMC2.12-DH-60 CMC3.12-DH-60
HRFG-404105 HRFG-708110 HRFG-809175 HRFG-816210 HRFG-1616410 CMC2-DH-90 CMC12-DH-90 CMC2.12-DH-90 CMC3.12-DH-90
HRFG-708116 HRFG-809110 HRFG-816215 HRFG-1616415
HRFG-505103 HRFG-809115 CMC4-DL-60 CMC16-DL-60 CMC2.16-DL-60 CMC3.16-DL-60
HRFG-505105 HRFG-709175 CMC4-DL-90 CMC16-DL-90 CMC2.16-DL-90 CMC3.16-DL-90
HRFG-709110 HRFG-810110 CMC4-DM-60 CMC16-DM-60 CMC2.16-DM-60 CMC3.16-DM-60
HRFG-606105 HRFG-709115 HRFG-810115 CMC4-DM-90 CMC16-DM-90 CMC2.16-DM-90 CMC3.16-DM-90
HRFG-606175 HRFG-810120 CMC4-DH-60 CMC16-DH-60 CMC2.16-DH-60 CMC3.16-DH-60
CMC4-DH-90 CMC16-DH-90 CMC2.16-DH-90 CMC3.16-DH-90
HRFG-811115 CMC6-DL-60
HRFG-811120 CMC6-DL-90
HRFG-812115 CMC6-DM-90
HRFG-812120 CMC6-DH-60
HRFG-812125 CMC6-DH-90
GEA Polacel CR Series Line 1. The basic model numbers above are for 50 hz fan motors and the suffix U is added
CMDR Models of CTI Certified Cooling Towers for 60 hz fan motor applications. For example, CMDR19 630-DH-150 is for 50
CTI Certification Validation Number 04-25-01 hz and CMDR19 630-DH-150U is for 60 hz.
CMDR12 135-DL-60 CMDR12 300-DL-60 CMDR19 135-DL-90 CMDR19 300-DL-90 2. The suffix –PS1 through –PS10 is added to the basic model numbers to indicate
CMDR12 135-DM-60 CMDR12 300-DM-60 CMDR19 135-DM-90 CMDR19 300-DM-90 the nozzle size required for the application flow rate.
CMDR12 135-DH-60 CMDR12 300-DH-60 CMDR19 135-DH-90 CMDR19 300-DH-90
CMDR12 135-DL-90 CMDR12 300-DL-90 CMDR19 135-DH-120 CMDR19 300-DL-120 3. The cold water basin configuration is indicated by either suffix /2 for no cold
CMDR12 135-DM-90 CMDR12 300-DM-90 CMDR19 135-DM-120 CMDR19 300-DM-120 water basin, the suffix /3 for a GRP basin with HDGS sub-frame, or the suffix /4
CMDR12 135-DH-90 CMDR12 300-DH-90 CMDR19 135-DH-120 CMDR19 300-DH-120 for a GRP basin only.
CMDR12 135-DL-120 CMDR12 300-DL-120 CMDR19 135-DL-150 CMDR19 300-DL-150
CMDR12 135-DM-120 CMDR12 300-DM-120 CMDR19 135-DM-150 CMDR19 300-DM-150
CMDR12 135-DH-120 CMDR12 300-DH-120 CMDR19 135-DH-150 CMDR19 300-DH-150 GEA Polacel XR Series Line
XE/XL/XT Models of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CMDR12 160-DL-60 CMDR12 380-DL-60 CMDR19 160-DL-90 CMDR19 380-DL-90 CTI Certification Validation Number 04-25-02
CMDR12 160-DM-60 CMDR12 380-DM-60 CMDR19 160-DM-90 CMDR19 380-DM-90
CMDR12 160-DH-60 CMDR12 380-DH-60 CMDR19 160-DH-90 CMDR19 380-DH-90
CMDR12 160-DL-90 CMDR12 380-DL-90 CMDR19 160-DH-120 CMDR19 380-DL-120 XE2.120-VL XL2.320-VVL-235_60 XT2.240-VL-135 XT2.480-VL-135 XT2.720-VL-135
CMDR12 160-DM-90 CMDR12 380-DM-90 CMDR19 160-DM-120 CMDR19 380-DM-120 XE2.120-L XL2.320-VL-235_60 XT2.240-L-135 XT2.480-L-135 XT2.720-L-135
CMDR12 160-DH-90 CMDR12 380-DH-90 CMDR19 160-DH-120 CMDR19 380-DH-120 XE2.120-M XL2.320-L-235_60 XT2.240-M-135 XT2-480-M-135 XT2.720-M-135
CMDR12 160-DL-120 CMDR12 380-DL-120 CMDR19 160-DL-150 CMDR19 380-DL-150 XE2.120-H XL2.320-M-235_60
CMDR12 160-DM-120 CMDR12 380-DM-120 CMDR19 160-DM-150 CMDR19 380-DM-150
CMDR12 160-DH-120 CMDR12 380-DH-120 CMDR19 160-DH-150 CMDR19 380-DH-150
XL2.320-VVL-235_90 XT2.240-VL-185 XT2.480-VL-185 XT2.720-VL-185
CMDR12 180-DL-60 CMDR12 460-DL-60 CMDR19 180-DL-90 CMDR19 460-DL-90 XL2.320-VL-235_90 XT2.240-L-185 XT2.480-L-185 XT2.720-L-185
CMDR12 180-DM-60 CMDR12 460-DM-60 CMDR19 180-DM-90 CMDR19 460-DM-90 XL2.320-L-235_90 XT2.240-M-185 XT2-480-M-185 XT2.720-M-185
CMDR12 180-DH-60 CMDR12 460-DH-60 CMDR19 180-DH-90 CMDR19 460-DH-90 XL2.320-M-235_90
CMDR12 180-DL-90 CMDR12 460-DL-90 CMDR19 180-DH-120 CMDR19 460-DL-120
CMDR12 180-DM-90 CMDR12 460-DM-90 CMDR19 180-DM-120 CMDR19 460-DM-120
CMDR12 180-DH-90 CMDR12 460-DH-90 CMDR19 180-DH-120 CMDR19 460-DH-120 XL4.440-VVL-235_90 XT2.240-VL-235 XT2.480-VL-235 XT2.720-VL-235
CMDR12 180-DL-120 CMDR12 460-DL-120 CMDR19 180-DL-150 CMDR19 460-DL-150 XL4.440-VL-235_90 XT2.240-L-235 XT2.480-L-235 XT2.720-L-235
CMDR12 180-DM-120 CMDR12 460-DM-120 CMDR19 180-DM-150 CMDR19 460-DM-150 XL4.440-L-235_90 XT2.240-M-235 XT2-480-M-235 XT2.720-M-235
CMDR12 180-DH-120 CMDR12 460-DH-120 CMDR19 180-DH-150 CMDR19 460-DH-150 XL4.440-M-235_90

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 79

XL4.520-VVL-235_90 KIMCO (Kyung In Machinery Company, Ltd.)
XL4.520-VL-235_90 CKL Line of CTI Certified Closed Circuit Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-18-02
Footnotes: CKL-60 CKL-125 CKL-200
1. The basic model numbers above are for 50 hz fan motors and the suffix U is added CKL-80 CKL-150 CKL-250
for 60 hz fan motor applications. For example, XE2.120-VL is for 50 hz and CKL-100 CKL-175 CKL-300
XE2.120-VLU is for 60 hz.
2. The cold water basin configuration is indicated by either suffix /2 for no cold
water basin, the suffix /3 for a GRP basin with HDGS sub-frame, or the suffix /4 Liang Chi Industry Company, Ltd.
for a GRP basin only. LC Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 96-20-01
Imeco, div of York International
LC-125 LC-200
IMC Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
LC-150 LC-225
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-21-01
LC-175 LC-250

IMC 806-080-1-3 IMC 812-205-1-15 IMC 1212-265-1-15 IMC 1218-840-2-20 Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
IMC 806-100-1-5 IMC 812.200-1-10 IMC 1212-290-1-20 IMC 1218-910-2-25
IMC 806-110-1-7.5 IMC 812-245-1-20 IMC 1212-305-1-25 IMC 1218-960-2-30 Mesan Cooling Tower, Ltd
IMC 806-112-1-5 IMC 812-246-1-15 IMC 1212-325-1-30 IMC 1218-1085-2-25 MXR Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
IMC 806-125-1-10 IMC 812-260-1-20 IMC 1212-345-1-20 IMC 1218-1150-2-30 CTI Certification Validation Number 04-26-01(RI)
IMC 806-115-1-5 IMC 812-247-1-10 IMC 1212-360-1-25 IMC 1218-1255-2-40
IMC 806-130-1-7.5 IMC 812.273.1-15 IMC 1212-438-1-25 IMC 1218-1250-2-30 MXR-L Series MXRI-L Series MXR-SL Series MXRI-SL Series
IMC 806-136-1-7.5 IMC 812.280.1-15 IMC 1212-457-1-30 IMC 1218-1342-2-40 Standard Low Noise Standard Low Noise Super Low Noise Super Low Noise
IMC 806-145-1-10 IMC 812-297-1-20 IMC 1218-1427-2-50 (FRP casing & (FRP casing & (FRP casing & (FRP casing &
IMC 806-155-1-15 IMC 812-317-1-25 IMC 1212-580-2-20 HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure)
IMC 1212-610-2-25 IMC 1218-1370-3-25
IMC 809-140-1-7.5 IMC 809-310-2-10 IMC 1212-685-2-20 IMC 1218-1445-3-30 MXR-80L MXRI-80L MXR-80SL MXRI-80SL
IMC 809-156-1-10 IMC 809-300-2-7.5 IMC 1212-720-2-25 IMC 1218-1730-3-30 MXR-100L MXRI-100L MXR-100SL MXRI-100SL
IMC 809-170-1-10 IMC 809-340-2-10 IMC 1212-760-2-30 IMC 1218-1885-3-40 MXR-125L MXRI-125L MXR-125SL MXRI-125SL
IMC 809-190-1-15 IMC 809-380-2-15 IMC 1212-870-2-25 IMC 1218-2000-3-40 MXR-150L MXRI-150L MXR-150SL MXRI-150SL
IMC 809-180-1-10 IMC 809-360-2-10 IMC 1212-927-2-30 IMC 1218-2127-3-50 MXR-175L MXRI-175L MXR-175SL MXRI-175SL
IMC 809-206-1-15 IMC 809-447-2-20 MXR-200L MXRI-200L MXR-200SL MXRI-200SL
IMC 809-217-1-15 IMC 809-467-2-20 IMC 1218-460-1-25 IMC 1218-1750-4-25 MXR-225L MXRI-225L MXR-225SL MXRI-225SL
IMC 809-234-1-20 IMC 1218-485-1-30 IMC 1218-1955-4-20 MXR-250L MXRI-250L MXR-250SL MXRI-250SL
IMC 812-440-2-20 IMC 1218-545-1-25 IMC 1218-2100-4-25 MXR-300L MXRI-300L MXR-300SL MXRI-300SL
IMC 812-405-2-10 IMC 1218-580-1-30 IMC 1218-2215-4-30 MXR-350L MXRI-350L MXR-350SL MXRI-350SL
IMC 812-430-2-10 IMC 1218-630-1-40 IMC 1218-2410-4-40 MXR-400L MXRI-400L MXR-400SL MXRI-400SL
IMC 812-520-2-20 IMC 1218-627-1-30 IMC 1218-2587-4-40 MXR-500L MXRI-500L MXR-500SL MXRI-500SL
IMC 812-590-2-20 IMC 1218-677-1-40 IMC 1218-2750-4-50 MXR-600L MXRI-600L MXR-600SL MXRI-600SL
IMC 812-600-2-20 IMC 1218-717-1-50 MXR-700L MXRI-700L MXR-700SL MXRI-700SL
IMC 812-632-2-25
1. Model numbers listed above are for standard construction of FRP (Fiberglass
KIMCO (Kyung In Machinery Company, Ltd.) Reinforced Plastic) casing and HDG (Hot Dipped Galvanized) steel structure.
Certified models with optional SS (Stainless Steel) casing and structure are also
EnduraCool Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers available but not listed.
CTI Certification Validation Number 93-18-01
· For FRP casing with SS structure add the suffix –S, for example MXR-80L-S.
EX Seriesa EC Seriesa EX Seriesa EC Seriesa
(SI – Metric Units) (IP – English Units) (SI – Metric Units) (IP – English Units) · For SS casing with SS structure add the suffix –SC, for example MXRI-700SL-
Standard Fans Standard Fans Low Noise Fans Low Noise Fans SC.
2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt
EX-80KLb EC-65 EX-80KLSb EC-65L
EX-100KLb EC-80 EX-100KLSb EC-80L
EX-125KLb EC-100 EX-112.5KLSb EC-90L 3. Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not
EX-125KLSb EC-100L listed.
EX-150KLb EC-120
EX-175KLb EC-140 EX-150KLSb EC-120L Mesan Cooling Tower, Ltd
EX-175KLSb EC-140L MCR Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
EX-200KLb EC-160 CTI Certification Validation Number 05-26-02
EX-200KLSb EC-160L
EX-225KLb EC-180 MCR Series MCRI-L Series MCR-SL Series MCRI-SL Series
EX-250KLb EC-200 MEX-250KLS EC-200L Standard Low Noise Standard Low Noise Super Low Noise Super Low Noise
MEX-300KLS EC-240L (FRP casing & (FRP casing & (FRP casing & (FRP casing &
MEX-300 EC-240 HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure) HDG steel structure)
MEX-350 EC-280 MEX-350KLS EC-280L
MEX-400 EC-320 MEX-400KLS EC-320L
MEX-500 EC-400
a EX Series models are manufactured and distributed by KIMCO. MCR-175L MCRI-175L MCR-175SL MCRI-175SL
b EC Series models are manufactured by KIMCO and distributed in North America MCR-200L MCRI-200L MCR-200SL MCRI-200SL
by Great Lakes Fluid/Air, Inc. (GLFA) with equivalent dimensions and thermal MCR-225L MCRI-225L MCR-225SL MCRI-225SL
ratings. MCR-250L MCRI-250L MCR-250SL MCRI-250SL
Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed. MCR-350L MCRI-350L MCR-350SL MCRI-350SL

80 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

Footnotes: SPX Cooling Technologies
1. Model numbers listed above are for standard construction of FRP (Fiberglass Product Branding: Marley
Reinforced Plastic) casing and HDG (Hot Dipped Galvanized) steel structure. Aquatower Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
Certified models with optional SS (Stainless Steel) casing and structure are also
CTI Certification Validation Number 01-14-05
available but not listed.
· For FRP casing with SS structure add the suffix –S, for example MCR-80L-S.
· For SS casing with SS structure add the suffix –SC, for example MCRI-700SL- Series 4900
SC. (Metal Structure)
2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt
drive. 490A 492A 493A 494A 495A 496A
490B 492B 493B 494B 495B 496B
Ryowo (Holding) Company, Ltd 494C
FWS Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 04-27-01 SPX Cooling Technologies
Product Branding: Marley
FWS-94-3.7 FWS-127-5.5 FWS-169-7.5 NC Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
FWS-94-5.5 FWS-127-7.5 FWS-169-11
CTI Certification Validation Number 92-14-01
FWS-94-7.5 FWS-127-11 FWS-169-15
Footnotes: Standard Models (NC Class 8300 Series)
1. Suffixes -GI, -SS, -AS, -AG are added to the basic model numbers listed above to
indicate the tower construction materials or options : NC8301C NC8303E NC8305D NC8307E NC8310C NC8312C
-GI for FRP casing, FRP basin and HDG structural members and hardware. NC8301D NC8303F NC8305E NC8307F NC8310D NC8312D
-SS for FRP casing, FRP basin and stainless steel structural members and hard- NC8301E NC8303G MC8305F MC8307G NC8310E NC8312E
ware. NC8301F NC8303H NC8305G NC8307H NC8310F NC8312F
-AS for stainless steel casing, basin, structural members and hardware. NC8305H NC8307J NC8310G NC8312G
-AG for HDG casing, basin, structural members and hardware. NC8305J NC8307K NC8310H NC8312H
2. Suffixes /E and /L are added to the basic model numbers to indicate optional NC8305K NC8307M NC8310J NC8312J
parts :
NC8310K NC8312K
/E is for additional drift eliminator installed to the basic models (reduces capac-
ity ~2%).
/L is for additional louver installed in front of air inlet face. NC8312R
3. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt NC8302D NC8304D NC8306D NC8309C NC8311C
drive. NC8302E NC8304E NC8306E NC8309D NC8311D
4. Certification includes use of optional handrail and/or optional caged ladders. NC8302F NC8304F NC8306F NC8309E NC8311E
5. Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not NC8302G NC8304G NC8306G NC8309F NC8311F
listed. NC8304H NC8306H NC8309G NC8311G
NC8306J NC8309H NC8311H
Ryowo (Holding) Company, Ltd NC8306K NC8309J NC8311J
FRS Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers NC8309K NC8311K
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-27-03 NC8311N
Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
FRS-80-2.2 FRS-100-4 FRS-150-5.5 FRS250-11 FRS350-15 Low Noise Models (NC Class 8300 Series)
FRS-80-4 FRS-100-5.5 FRS-150-7.5 FRS-250-15 FRS-350-18.5
FRS-80-5.5 FRS-100-7.5 FRS-150-11 FRS-250-18.5 FRS-350-22 NC8301AL NC8303AL NC8305AL NC8307AL NC8310AL NC8312AL
NC8301BL NC8303BL NC8305BL NC8307BL NC8310BL NC8312BL
Footnotes: NC8301CL NC8303CL NC8305CL NC8307CL NC8310CL NC8312CL
1. Suffixes -GI, -SS, -AS, -AG are added to the basic model numbers listed above to NC8301DL NC8303DL NC8305DL NC8307DL NC8310DL NC8312DL
indicate the tower construction materials or options : NC8301EL NC8303EL NC8305EL NC8307EL NC8310EL NC8312EL
-GI for FRP casing, FRP basin and HDG Structural members and hardware. NC8303FL NC8305FL NC8307FL NC8310FL NC8312FL
-SS for FRP casing, FRP basin and stainless steel structural members and hard- NC8305GL NC8307GL NC8310GL NC8312GL
ware. NC8305HL NC8307HL NC8310HL NC8312HL
-AS for stainless steel casing, basin, structural members and hardware. NC8305JL NC8307JL NC8310JL NC8312JL
-AG for HDG casing, basin, structural members and hardware. NC8305KL NC8310KL NC8312KL
2. Suffix /E is added to the basic model numbers to indicate optional parts :
/E is for additional drift eliminator installed to the basic models (reduces capac- NC8302AL NC8304AL NC8306AL NC8309AL NC8311AL
ity ~20%). NC8302BL NC8304BL NC8306BL NC8309BL NC8311BL
3. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt NC8302CL NC8304CL NC8306CL NC8309CL NC8311CL
drive. NC8302DL NC8304DL NC8306DL NC8309DL NC8311DL
4. Certification includes use of optional handrail and/or optional caged ladders. NC8302EL NC8304EL NC8306EL NC8309EL NC8311EL
NC8302FL NC8304FL NC8306FL NC8309FL NC8311FL
Ryowo (Holding) Company, Ltd NC8304GL NC8306GL NC8309GL NC8311GL
FXS Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers NC8304HL NC8306HL NC8309HL NC8311HL
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-27-02 NC8306JL NC8309JL NC8311JL
NC8309KL NC8311KL
FXS-200 FXS-300 FXS-400 FXS-500 Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
FXS-250 FXS-350 FXS-450 FXS-550

1. Suffixes -GI, -SS, -AS, -AG are added to the basic model numbers listed above to
indicate the tower construction materials or options :
-GI for FRP casing, FRP basin and HDG structural members and hardware.
-SS for FRP casing, FRP basin and stainless steel structural members and hard-
-AS for stainless steel casing, basin, structural members and hardware.
-AG for HDG casing, basin, structural members and hardware.
2. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in place of standard belt
3. Certification includes use of optional handrail and/or optional caged ladders.

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 81

SPX Cooling Technologies SPX Cooling Technologies
Product Branding: Marley Product Branding: Marley
MHF Series of CTI Certified Closed-Circuit Fluid Coolers AV Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 04-14-07 CTI Certification Validation Number 98-14-04

MHF702B061 MHF703C061 MHF704D061 MHF705F061 MHF706E061 MHF707H061 AV61001 AV63001 AV65001 AV67001
MHF702B062 MHF703C062 MHF704D062 MHF705F062 MHF706E062 MHF707H062
AV61011 AV63011 AV65011 AV67011
MHF702B081 MHF703C081 MHF704D081 MHF705F081 MHF706E081 MHF707H081
AV61021 AV63021 AV65021 AV67021
MHF702B082 MHF703C082 MHF704D082 MHF705F082 MHF706E082 MHF707H082 AV61031 AV63031 AV65031 AV67031
MHF702B101 MHF703C084 MHF704D084 MHF705F084 MHF706E084 MHF707H084 AV61041 AV63041 AV65041 AV67041
MHF702B102 MHF703C101 MHF704D101 MHF705F101 MHF706E101 MHF707H101 AV65051
MHF702B121 MHF703C102 MHF704D102 MHF705F102 MHF706E102 MHF707H102
AV62001 AV64001
MHF702B122 MHF703C121 MHF704D121 MHF705F121 MHF706E121 MHF707H121
MHF703C122 MHF704D122 MHF705F122 MHF706E122 MHF707H122 AV62011 AV64011 AV66001
MHF702C061 MHF703C124 MHF704D124 MHF705F124 MHF706E124 MHF707H124 AV62021 AV64021 AV66011
MHF702C062 AV62031 AV64031 AV66021
MHF702C081 MHF703D061 MHF704E061 MHF705H061 MHF706H061 MHF707J061 AV62041 AV64041 AV66031
MHF702C082 MHF703D062 MHF704E062 MHF705H062 MHF706H062 MHF707J062
AV62051 AV64051 AV66041
MHF702C101 MHF703D081 MHF704E081 MHF705H081 MHF706H081 MHF707J081
MHF702C102 MHF703D082 MHF704E082 MHF705H082 MHF706H082 MHF707J082 Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
MHF702C121 MHF703D084 MHF704E084 MHF705H084 MHF706H084 MHF707J084
MHF702C122 MHF703D101 MHF704E101 MHF705H101 MHF706H101 MHF707J101 Tower Tech, Inc
MHF703D102 MHF704E102 MHF705H102 MHF706H102 MHF707J102
TTXE Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
MHF702D061 MHF703D121 MHF704E121 MHF705H121 MHF706H121 MHF707J121
MHF702D062 MHF703D122 MHF704E122 MHF705H122 MHF706H122 MHF707J122 CTI Certification Validation Number 04-17-04
MHF702D081 MHF703D124 MHF704E124 MHF705H124 MHF706H124 MHF707J124
MHF702D082 3.0 hp/fan Models 5.0 hp/fan Models 7.5 hp/fan Models
MHF702D101 MHF703E061 MHF704G061 MHF705J061 MHF706J061 MHF707L061
MHF702D102 MHF703E062 MHF704G062 MHF705J062 MHF706J062 MHF707L062
TTXE-021930 TTXE-021950 TTXE-021975
MHF702D121 MHF703E081 MHF704G081 MHF705J081 MHF706J081 MHF707L081
MHF702D122 MHF703E082 MHF704G082 MHF705J082 MHF706J082 MHF707L082 TTXE-031930 TTXE-031950 TTXE-031975
MHF703E084 MHF704G084 MHF705J084 MHF706J084 MHF707L084 TTXE-041930 TTXE-041950 TTXE-041975
MHF703E101 MHF704G101 MHF705J101 MHF706J101 MHF707L101 TTXE-061930 TTXE-061950 TTXE-061975
MHF703E102 MHF704G102 MHF705J102 MHF706J102 MHF707L102
MHF703E121 MFH704G121 MHF705J121 MHF706J121 MHF707L121
TTXE-081930 TTXE-081950 TTXE-081975
MHF703E122 MFH704G122 MHF705J122 MHF706J122 MHF707L122 TTXE-101930 TTXE-101950 TTXE-101975
MHF703E124 MFH704G124 MHF705J124 MHF706J124 MHF707L124
Models listed above are for single cells with a base inlet height of 6-ft.
MFH704H061 MHF705K061 MHF706L061 MHF707M061
Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
MFH704H062 MHF705K062 MHF706L062 MHF707M062
MHF704H081 MHF705K081 MHF706L081 MHF707M081 Models with inlet heights more or less than 6-ft are also available but not listed.
MHF704H082 MHF705K082 MHF706L082 MHF707M082 Multiple cell models of the single cell models and/or models with air inlet heights more
MHF704H084 MHF705K084 MHF706L084 MHF707M084 or less than 6-ft require capacity correction per the TTGE correction table submitted with
MHF704H101 MHF705K101 MHF706L101 MHF707M101 the CTI Certification application.
MHF704H102 MHF705K102 MHF706L102 MHF707M102
MHF704H121 MHF705K121 MHF706L121 MHF707M121 The Trane Company
MFH704H122 MHF705K122 MHF706L122 MHF707M122 Series Quiet Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
MFH704H124 MHF705K124 MHF706L124 MHF707M124 CTI Certification Validation Number 92-14-01
Standard Models
MHF706M061 MHF707N061
MHF706M062 MHF707N062
MHF706M081 MHF707N081 TQ8301C TQ 8303E TQ 8305D TQ 8307E TQ 8310C TQ 8312C
MHF706M082 MHF707N082 TQ8301D TQ 8303F TQ 8305E TQ 8307F TQ 8310D TQ 8312D
MHF706M084 MHF707N084 TQ 8301E TQ 8303G TQ 8305F TQ 8307G TQ 8310E TQ 8312E
MHF706M101 MHF707N101 TQ 8301F TQ 8303H TQ 8305G TQ 8307H TQ 8310F TQ 8312F
MHF706M102 MHF707N102 TQ 8305H TQ 8307J TQ 8310G TQ 8312G
MHF706M121 MHF707N121 TQ 8305J TQ 8307K TQ 8310H TQ 8312H
MHF706M122 MHF707N122
TQ 8305K TQ 8307M TQ 8310J TQ 8312J
MHF706M124 MHF707N124
TQ 8310K TQ 8312K
MHF706N061 TQ 8312N
MHF706N062 TQ 8312R
MHF706N081 TQ 8302D TQ 8304D TQ 8306D TQ 8309C TQ 8311C
MHF706N082 TQ 8302E TQ 8304E TQ 8306E TQ 8309D TQ 8311D
MHF706N084 TQ 8302F TQ 8304F TQ 8306F TQ 8309E TQ 8311E
MHF706N101 TQ 8302G TQ 8304G TQ 8306G TQ 8309F TQ 8311F
MHF706N102 TQ 8304H TQ 8306H TQ 8309G TQ 8311G
MHF706N121 TQ 8306J TQ 8309H TQ 8311H
TQ 8306K TQ 8309J TQ 8311J
TQ 8309K TQ 8311K
TQ 8311N
SPX Cooling Technologies Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed.
Product Branding: Marley
Quadraflow Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers Low Noise Models
CTI Certification Validation Number 92-14-02
TQ 8301AL TQ 8303AL TQ 8305AL TQ 8307AL TQ 8310AL TQ 8312AL
21121 22121 23121 24121 TQ 8301BL TQ 8303BL TQ 8305BL TQ 8307BL TQ 8310BL TQ 8312BL
21122 22122 23122 24122 TQ 8301CL TQ 8303CL TQ 8305CL TQ 8307CL TQ 8310CL TQ 8312CL
21123 22123 23123 24123
21124 23124 24124 TQ 8301DL TQ 8303DL TQ 8305DL TQ 8307DL TQ 8310DL TQ 8312DL
22221 24125 TQ 8301EL TQ 8303EL TQ 8305EL TQ 8307EL TQ 8310EL TQ 8312EL
21221 22222 23221 24126 TQ 8303FL TQ 8305FL TQ 8307FL TQ 8310FL TQ 8312FL
21222 22223 23222 24127 TQ 8305GL TQ 8307GL TQ 8310GL TQ 8312GL
22224 23223 TQ 8305HL TQ 8307HL TQ 8310HL TQ 8312HL
21321 22225 23224 24221 TQ 8305JL TQ 8307JL TQ 8310JL TQ 8312JL
21322 23225 24222 TQ 8305KL TQ 8310KL TQ 8312KL
21323 24223

82 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1

TQ 8302AL TQ 8304AL TQ 8306AL TQ 8309AL TQ 8311AL
TQ 8302BL TQ 8304BL TQ 8306BL TQ 8309BL TQ 8311BL
TQ 8302CL TQ 8304CL TQ 8306CL TQ 8309CL TQ 8311CL
TQ 8302DL TQ 8304DL TQ 8306DL TQ 8309DL TQ 8311DL
TQ 8302EL TQ 8304EL TQ 8306EL TQ 8309EL TQ 8311EL
TQ 8302FL TQ 8304FL TQ 8306FL TQ 8309FL TQ 8311FL
TQ 8304GL TQ 8306GL TQ 8309GL TQ 8311GL
TQ 8304HL TQ 8306HL TQ 8309HL TQ 8311HL
TQ 8306JL TQ 8309JL TQ 8311JL
TQ 8309KL TQ 8311KL
Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are also available but not listed

Zhejiang Jinling Refrigeration Engineering Company, Ltd

JNT Series Line of CTI Certified Cooling Towers
CTI Certification Validation Number 05-28-01

Standard Fan Standard Fan Low Noise Fan

Standard Stack Extended Stack Standard Stack


JNT-100 JNT-100S JNT-80UL

JNT-125 JNT-125S JNT-100UL

JNT-150 JNT-150S JNT-125UL

JNT-175 JNT-175S JNT-150UL

JNT-200 JNT-200S JNT-175UL

JNT-225 JNT-225S JNT-200UL

JNT-250 JNT-250S JNT-225UL
1. Certification includes tower construction materials
indicated by the suffixes –B, -E, and –S which are added to
basic model numbers above.
· B is for FRP casing, FRP basin and HDG Mainframe and
· E is for FRP casing, FRP basin and Stainless steel
mainframe and hardware.
· S is for stainless steel casing, basin, mainframe and
2. The basic model numbers above are for 50hz fanmotor and
the suffix/F is added for 60hz motor applications. For
example, JNT-100S-B is for 50hz motor, JNT-100S-B/F is
for 60hz motor.
3. Certification includes use of side, end, or bottom water
inlet configuration.
4. Certification includes units with optional gear drive in
place of standard belt drive.
5. Certification includes use of optional handrail and/or
ladder cage.
6. Multiple cell models of the single cell models above are
also available but not listed.

CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1 83

Index of Advertisers

Albemarle 9
Aggreko Cooling Tower Services 42, 43
AHR Expo 71
Amarillo Chittom AirFlo 3
Amarillo Gear Company IBC
Amcot Cooling Tower Corporation 15
American Cooling Tower, Inc. 23, 37
AMSA, Inc. 13, 33
Bailsco Blades & Castings, Inc. 29
Baltimore Aircoil OBC
Bedford Reinforced Plastics 39
Bettle Plastics, LLC 25
Brentwood Industries, Inc. 17
ChemTreat, Inc. 11
Cooling Tower Resources, Inc. 65
CTI Certified Towers under STD-201 74 - 83
CTI License Test Agencies 70
CTI ToolKit 72, 73
Dynamic Fabricators, LLC 7
Gaiennie Lumber Company 2
Goodway 83
Hewitech 6
Howden Cooling Fans 5
Hudson Products Corporation 45
Industrial Cooling Tower 68,IFC
Mid-South Chemical Company, Inc. 19
Midwest Towers, Inc. 51
Multi-Wing America, Inc. 61
Myron L Company 4
Neri srl 67
Paharpur Cooling Towers Ltd. 57
C.E. Shepherd Company, L.P. 59
Spraying Services, Inc. 53
SPX Cooling Technologies 27
Strongwell 55
Swan Secure Products, Inc. 14
Towe Engineering, Inc. 41
Tower Performance, Inc. 84
Water Quality Association 35

84 CTI Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1