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THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF MUSIC

THE EFFECT OF TIME IN COMPUTERIZED VERSUS CLASSROOM

INSTRUCTION ON THE ABILITY TO CORRECTLY PRONOUNCE

ENGLISH WORDS PHONETICALLY TRANSCRIBED INTO THE

INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET

By

ELISA MACEDO DEKANEY

A Dissertation submitted to the


School of Music
in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

Degree Awarded
Summer Semester, 2001

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UMI Number: 3014346

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UMI
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The Members o f the Committee approve the dissertation of Elisa Macedo Dekaney

defended on June 14,2001

Clifford K. Madsen
Professor Directing Dissertation

iqt^ biL
Pamela L. Perrewe
Outside Committee Member

Jjufy K. Severs
tmittee Member

Amy L| Brown
Committee Member

Andre J. Thomas
Committee Member

Approved

Jon R. Piersol, School of

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

List o f T ables................................................................................................ v
A bstract............................................................................................................ vi

1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................. 1

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................................................ 7
Repertoire ........................................................................................ 8
Original or Translation ................................................................... 11
Diction and Training ...................................................................... 14
The International Phonetic Alphabet ........................................... 19
Research and the International Phonetic Alphabet ..................... 22
Linguistics ..................................................................................... 25
Technology and Distance Learning ............................................. 29
Technology Applied to Phonetics ............................................... 33
Need for the Study ........................................................................ 34
Pilot Study ...................................................................................... 36
Statement o f the Problem ............................................................. 39
Limitations of the Study ................................................................ 40

3. METHOD ............................................................................................ 41
Subjects ........................................................................................... 41
Selection of Pretest/Posttest and Classroom Material ................. 41
Computer Program Sounds o f English .......................................... 42
Design o f the Study ....................................................................... 44
Pretest/Posttest .............................................................................. 45
Testing Procedures ........................................................................ 46
Class Lessons .................................................................................. 47
Computer Procedure ...................................................................... 48
Post-Treatment Evaluation Procedure .......................................... 49
Collection of Data .......................................................................... 50

4. RESULTS ........................................................................................... 51
Pretest ............................................................................................ 51

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Posttest .......................................................................................... 52
Pre/Posttest Difference ................................................................ 53
Total Time Spent ......................................................................... 54
Perception o f Test Difficulty ...................................................... 55
Questionnaire Responses ............................................................ 57
Class Only Group ..................................................................... 58
Computer Only Group ............................................................. 58
Class and Computer Group ...................................................... 60

5. DISCUSSION ................................................................................... 62

APPENDIX A: HUMAN SUBJECTS COMMITTEE APPROVAL .. 69

APPENDIX B. COPYRIGHT PERMISSION ..................................... 72

APPENDIX C: PRETEST AND POSTTEST ...................................... 74

APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE ...................................................... 77

APPENDIX E: QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES AND SCORES ... 79

REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 101

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................................................. 112

iv

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LIST OF TABLES
1. Pretest - Analysis o f Variance ........................................................... 52

2. Posttest-Analysis of V ariance........................................................... 52

3. /-test ....................................................................................................... 53

4. Pre/Posttest Difference -A nalysis of Variance ................................. 54

5. Total Time Spent - Analysis of Variance ......................................... 55

6. Test Difficulty-Analysis o f Variance ............................................... 56

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time in

computerized versus classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce

English words phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Sixty-three (N=63) instrumental musicians enrolled in the School o f Music at

the Florida State University volunteered as subjects. The study used a pre- and

posttest design. Students’ pre- and post-performance tests were audio recorded and

graded on the number o f words pronounced correctly. The pre- and posttests

consisted of two different phonetic transcriptions of colloquial British English, used

by the International Phonetic Association as sample passages for its standardized

proficiency exam. Each subject’s task was to read an English text that had been

previously transcribed into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Following pretest performances, subjects were randomly assigned to one of

three groups to receive phonetic instruction using the symbols of the International

Phonetic Alphabet for English. The three groups were divided according to type of

instruction: I) Class Only. 2) Computer Only, and 3) Class and Computer. Subjects

assigned to the Class Only group (n=21) received three forty-five minute lessons.

Subjects assigned to the Computer Only group received phonetic instruction using a

special software package Sounds O f English developed by Duanmu and Sergay

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(1998) at the University of Michigan, Ann-Arbor. Subjects assigned to the Class and

Computer group received three forty-five minute lessons and were encouraged to use

the Sounds O f English software as a phonetic training tool. After a seven-day period

of lessons or computer time subjects performed the posttest. The posttest consisted

o f a different version o f the pretest and followed the same procedures.

Results showed that there were no significant differences among groups

regarding pretest scores as would be expected. There were significant differences

among groups regarding posttest scores. Scores from the Class and Computer group

were highest, followed by the Class Only group. There were similar differences

among groups regarding pre/posttest difference scores.

Two additional measures consisted o f the total instruction time spent for each

subject and a self-assessment of test difficulty. Subjects in the Class Only and Class

and Computer groups had to attend classes, which totaled one hundred and thirty-

five minutes while subjects assigned to the Computer Only group were responsible

for scheduling their study time. Post hoc analysis of total time spent in the project

indicates that there were significant differences among the three groups. Regarding

subjects perception of the test difficulty again, there were significant differences

among groups; subjects in the Computer Only group perceived the testing tasks to be

more difficult when compared to the other two groups.

In addition, subjects filled out a questionnaire containing demographic

information including gender, major, principal instrument, how long they had played

their instruments, previous experience in choral singing, and whether they have

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taken diction classes prior to this study. Also, subjects using the Sounds O f English

software package were encouraged to give suggestions for future implementation.

Findings for this research suggest that choral conductors can teach the

symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet efficiently to inexperienced adult

singers within a short period o f time. Further studies in phonetics and diction applied

to choral music should include singing examples and investigate other age groups.

Furthermore, future research in this area should focus on students’ ability to transfer

the English symbols o f the International Phonetic Alphabet to other foreign

languages.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Choral music is one of the oldest genres of music literature. Established

almost a century earlier than opera, it reached its utmost development even before

the acknowledgement of chamber and symphonic music as independent genres

(Ulrich, 1973). The rich history, tradition, and performances of choral music have

been documented for almost six centuries. Across time, musicians have invested in

attaining excellence in choral music performance through intensive musical training

and scholarship. Choral directors devote many years studying conducting and

rehearsal techniques, historical performance practices, vocal production and diction,

the changing voice, concert programming, and management. They must serve their

students as scholars, administrators, and performers.

Effective text communication constitutes a primary and essential goal in

choral music performance. While instrumental musicians experience music apart

from words, choral musicians create a unique musical experience for the audience

as they communicate the text Consequently, this process must be clear and

intelligible. In fact, Garretson (1998) considers conductors’ primary function to be

the interpretation o f music, which should convey the composer’s intentions in a

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truthful way. From beginning to end, the communication process among choral

directors, choirs, and audience involves numerous details that choral directors must

consider. First among these is the selection o f repertoire with meticulous

consideration of text.

It seems that choral music composers have often chosen texts in order to

express specific musical ideas. It is not surprising therefore, that music is set to a

variety of literary forms such as sonnets, prose, and poetry, utilizing many

languages as well. Throughout history, this variety of forms and languages has been

set to music in many different musical styles.

The Western European choral tradition includes a variety of styles and

historical periods presented in languages such as liturgical Latin, German, French,

Italian, Spanish, and English. Conductors should be familiar with Western European

literature, incorporating the various songs and styles into their repertoire. The

teaching of foreign texts’ diction is indeed a challenge for all music educators.

However, Miller (1979) believes that with the aid of private teachers and diction

coaches, choral directors can learn to teach the diction of numerous languages

through phonetics. Such knowledge can easily transfer to most languages.

Since the 1970s, the Music Educators National Conference has promoted the

inclusion of traditional music o f many cultures in the curriculum (Anderson &

Campbell, 1989). The Tanglewood Symposium represents the first significant

movement of music educators toward multicultural education, and as a result,

understanding o f the music o f the world and of the United States’ multicultural

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nature has been increasing over the past decades; the great need to expand

educational curricula reflects this diversity (Anderson, 1991). Recently, Vision

2020: The Housewrieht Symposium on the Future of Music Education (Madsen,

2000) reiterated this need. Therefore, in addition to knowing Western European

music, teachers at all levels must also be familiar with the wide repertoire of world

music literature written in an array of languages and dialects.

Incorporating music from different parts of the world continues to challenge

all music educators, even though teaching resources for multicultural music have

increased considerably. There are numerous books available that provide classroom

materials and techniques for teaching multicultural music (Anderson & Campbell,

1989; Anderson, 1991; Campbell et al., 1994; Campbell & Perron, 1996; Adzenyah

et al., 1997; Anderson & Moore, 1998). Although these books contain songs from

several countries and cultures in various languages, there are no consistencies in the

way the authors present text phonetic transcriptions. Some authors adopt the English

phonetic alphabet for their phonetic transcriptions, and others prefer the IPA. Choral

music educators seem to be constantly searching for teaching techniques that will

optimize the learning o f foreign language diction in the choral setting, and it appears

that a standardized approach to diction may be one way of accomplishing it.

The International Phonetic Alphabet seems to be the most consistent and

universally used system o f phonetic transcription. It has been used across disciplines

such as linguistics, speech pathology, foreign language, and also music. Because

one symbol represents only one sound, it is possible to accurately transcribe texts in

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foreign languages using the symbols of the IPA. Phoneticians created the IPA in

1886, and it has undergone a series of revisions and improvements since its creation.

Although the system has its limitations, even subtleties of regional accents and

dialects can be phonetically transcribed accurately. Over the years voice teachers

have consistently used the IPA symbols to effectively teach the extensive repertoire

o f solo songs that are set in non-native languages. It is possible that choral music

educators could benefit from a more standardized approach to diction using the IPA

symbols.

It seems that in choral settings students have traditionally learned foreign

language diction by rote. If the conductor knows the foreign language well, she or

he might model the text and listen to students’ response. When a conductor is

unfamiliar with a specific foreign language, she or he might invite a native speaker

or even another faculty member to come and teach singers the correct

pronunciation. Although this appears to be a viable solution, both native speakers

and foreign language teachers may be unaware of subtle differences in sounds used

for singing; sometimes, the sounds used for singing are slightly different from the

ones used for speech. Consequently, it seems recommendable that choral conductors

master the basic rules o f diction and the IPA symbols so they can become

responsible for their choirs’ diction, encouraging singers to take ownership over

their diction learning. And if a more standardized approach to diction using the

symbols o f the IPA is recommended, choral conductors should investigate effective

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ways o f teaching them. Investigating traditional classroom settings as well as using

technological innovations could provide insight into best practice.

Attitudes toward technological innovations in the classroom have been

diverse. While some teachers have enthusiastically embraced new technological

advancements, others are still reluctant to accept the increasing changes. Although it

seems important for teachers to stay current and to incorporate innovative

technological tools into their classrooms, careful screening and selection of new

software is essential. Teachers should consider using technology to achieve specific

pedagogical objectives instead of using it only for its novelty.

Technology has already made learning appealing for students and teachers in

most areas of study including music. There are numerous computer programs that

tutor students in music theory, recorder, guitar, keyboard, and other areas. Linguists

and phoneticians have also developed computer software to teach phonetics

(Duanmu & Evans-Romaine, 1994; Duanmu & Sergay, 1998), and although

researchers have applied computerized phonetic tools in the voice studio setting

(Dechance, 1994), music educators should also investigate the effectiveness of these

programs on inexperienced singers.

Another area deserving further investigation is music and technology and

their applicability in distance education. Distance education programs have made

available numerous courses online in several areas of education, and whereas

traditional music teaching has mainly taken place in classrooms or studios, music is

already a part o f this educational system. It appears that music educators should

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investigate the impact o f technology upon music students’ learning and its

consequences for distance music education. Distance education is a complex topic

and involves successful implementation of several elements such as the quality,

effectiveness, and accessibility o f the programs being used. Also, students’ self-

motivation and discipline to leant by themselves is an indispensable element in

successful distance education.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time in

computerized versus class instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce English

words phonetically transcribed using the symbols of the International Phonetic

Alphabet. This study involves traditional classroom teaching as well as self-

instruction situations in which students leam using computerized phonetic training

tools.

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CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The main characteristic that distinguishes choral music from instrumental

music is the use of words as a vehicle to carry the tones of composition (Heffeman,

1982; Miller, 1988). Through text, choral music can deliver a message or statement

o f praise, fear, happiness, anguish, love, and so on. Roach (1989) states that the

major difference between instrumental and vocal music is the text, and that the text

must be projected musically. It would seem that text is an extremely significant

element in choral music.

Miller (1979) believes that choral musicians are frequently guilty o f paying

insignificant attention to the text, and while not denying the need to focus on the

music, insists upon careful selection o f text. He suggests that choral conductors

should read texts aloud several times before including them in the performing

repertoire, and advises singers to search the full text, paying meticulous attention to

the most complex sections.

Brinson (1996) submits that the text is among several issues the director

must consider when choosing repertoire, and she believes that composers choose the

text before writing the music. Text alone, she says, guides composers' choice of

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form, character, style, texture, harmonic language, and melodic structure. Hylton

(1995) states that the text is “almost always critically important to the expressive

content and basic musical structure of the piece” (p. 18). Diction provides for the

listeners’ understanding of the composer’s intention.

Choral conductors seek to understand the relationship between text and

music and its effect upon choral performance. Howard Swan believed that the

combination of text and music produces changes in tone color, mood, or level of

energy and makes the study of words mandatory. For Daniel Moe the text becomes

a primary integrating issue in choral music and is the reason for the existence of the

work (Decker & Herford, 1988). Consequently, the interpretation of foreign

language texts in relationship to the music becomes even more complex.

Repertoire

Krone (1945) maintains that while American choirs sing mostly in English,

music sung in foreign languages should be a part of the high school choir’s

repertoire, especially the liturgical music of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Lamb (1979) recommends choral repertoire that includes several songs in foreign

languages. In addition to Latin, he suggests a few selections in French, German, and

Spanish. Roach (1989) proposes that choral conductors should investigate whether a

foreign language text can be accurately performed with correct pronunciation, and if

not, conductors should choose translations that at least suit the music well.

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Although American society’s heritage is initially linked to the first European

settlers, Native Americans, and Africans, over the years people from other countries

and cultures have also joined this pluralistic society. Historically, most music

programs across the United States have been associated with traditional Western

European music, but Anderson and Campbell (1989) advocate that music educators

must seek to comprehend not only their own culture, but also the perspectives of

people from every region of the world. Campbell & Scott-Kassner (1995) also

emphasize the importance of music from different cultures and offer suggestions

concerning how teachers may incorporate a varied repertoire into their classroom.

The increasing scholarship on songs from various cultures and countries is

broadening the possibilities of performing songs in languages not so traditional in

Western civilizations. Kwasi (1980) compiled and analyzed selected Ghanaian

folktale songs for use in elementary general music class. He presents the songs in

the cultural context o f the Ghanaian people providing background information on

each song, transcriptions o f collected melodies, and a pronunciation guide on the

Ghanaian text that uses the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Aiming to increase knowledge of unfamiliar classical vocal repertoire,

scholars have insisted upon the need to incorporate as many languages as possible

into singer’s repertoire. They have provided numerous research documents designed

to expand singers’ repertoire. First, Mills Bello (1998) designed a performance

project on Russian vocal music from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

suggesting a means to more easily interpret it. The author provides texts line by line

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with original text, phonetic transliteration using the IPA symbols, word-by-word

translation as well as a poetic translation for each line. Explanation about Russian

diction is also provided. Another scholar, Louren<?o (1998), maintains that the native

repertoire o f Brazil and Portugal has only recently been heard outside those

countries. He believes that many classical singers avoid singing in Portuguese

primarily because o f unfamiliarity or uncertainty about its diction. As a result, the

author provides a descriptive study of diction, phonetics, and rules of Portuguese

pronunciation. Likewise, Castel (1994) hopes that singers will be encouraged to

explore the available obscure repertoire o f Spanish songs. And Park (1989),

focusing on the performance of Korean folksongs arranged by Kim Kyuwhan,

provides a guide to the correct pronunciation and performance practice of Korean

lyric songs.

Concerning choral music, Paine (1988) calls attention to the availability of a

large quantity of literature from various historical periods and geographical areas as

well as to the increasing interest in authentic stylistic execution o f choral music. He

contends that it is the conductor’s responsibility to introduce the extensive choral

repertoire to students. To this end, Robinson (1978) edited an anthology compiling

choral music from 1300 A.D. to the present consisting of songs in seven different

languages: forty-seven in Latin, twenty-eight in English, eighteen in German, ten in

French, five in Italian, two in Russian, and one in Hungarian. In order to perform

this repertoire in the original languages, the choral conductor must know how to

teach the foreign language texts.

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Original or Translation

Choral directors’ opinions regarding performance of music with original text

or English translation are not unified. Boyd (1977) contends that common practice

is to perform in Latin whatever was originally written in Latin and to translate other

languages into English with few exceptions, one being Brahms’ Ein deutsches

Requiem. Knapp (Jacobs, 1966) points out that sometimes a language barrier

prevents the appreciation o f the masterworks. It is seemingly difficult for English-

speaking audiences to appreciate the music o f a German master because of the

language barrier (as it is difficult for Brazilian audiences to fully appreciate Chinese

music). Heffeman (1982) advocates the performance of short works in the original

language and the performance of major works in language of the majority of

performers and listeners. Brinson (1996) suggests that if the original language is not

used, the director should study the translation and check for the preservation of

meaning, character, and similar word-stress o f the original in the translation. Holst

(1973) believes that on some occasions, choral directors may disregard an English

editor’s translation when inappropriate and provide their own translation. She

insists, however, that when working on their own translations, choral directors

should never allow a dramatic chord to coincide with an irrelevant word or place

uncomfortable vowels at the climax of a phrase (Holst, 1973).

Regarding texts in foreign languages, Collins (1999) advises directors to

study a precise translation in order to comprehend the specific meaning o f each

word. Jeffers (1988) maintains that singing in the original language is vital for

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making fine choral music; translations are often necessary, but only as a tool to

facilitate the intelligibility of the unique qualities o f the original language and

culture. Krone (1945) believes that songs should always be sung in their original

languages since parts o f the meaning may be lost in translations. Hylton (1995)

considers this particularly true when interpreting the intricately entwined texts of

“sophisticated” music.

Phillips (1992), when commenting upon vocal technique for children, insists

that students of all ages should leam to sing in foreign languages in order to broaden

their understanding of the world of music in general. But the conductor, he says,

must maintain the integrity of the original text even when working with children's

choirs.

Although songs in foreign languages are a challenge to teachers and

children, the outcome of this cultural experience can be extremely rewarding.

According to Campbell and Scott-Kassner (1995), “ There is an added dimension

when the original language of a song intermingles with the song’s rhythm and

melody, rather than singing an English translation”(p.314). The authors encourage

music teachers to be unafraid of foreign languages maintaining that musicians’ ears

can easily leam the phonemes of new languages.

Since foreign texts require added intensity during rehearsals, teachers should

strive to create high positive environments in which children expect to enjoy

successful experiences. Teachers should make sure classrooms are brightly lit and

carefully furnished. Page (1995) insists that whether teaching by rote or by music,

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teachers must ensure students’ comfort when repeating foreign words because

repetition is an important element of foreign language learning. When students

make mistakes, teachers might gently correct the pronunciation and review the

words once again. At the end o f a phrase, teachers should always compliment

students’ correct pronunciation, reinforcing a successful learning environment.

Page's approach is consistent with research findings in teacher preparation involving

sequential patterns o f direct instruction (Yarbrough & Madsen, 1998)

Voice teachers also have dealt with the question of original versus

vernacular text when training soloists. Henry Drinker (1945) seems convinced that

songs should be sung in the language of the singer and of the audience, and charges

singers to produce composers’ intended emotional and artistic feeling as accurately

as possible. Accomplishing this goal with a song in a foreign language requires both

an audience able to understand the language and a singer who can speak, think, and

feel in that foreign language. Drinker adds that translations in program notes cannot

substitute for the words that the listener can grasp instantly. It is already difficult for

listeners to understand words sung in their native language and becomes even harder

to understand words sung in a foreign tongue. Drinker also believes that singers

should prefer singing in the original language instead o f “words as awkward, banal

or unsingable as those frequently found in English editions.” (p.iii)

Although some authors have been criticizing singing English translations of

foreign texts, Christy (1961) condemns this “snobbish censure.” He agrees that most

art songs sound best when sung in their original language and acknowledges the

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existence of a great number of poor translations, but he also believes that intelligent

voice teachers quite often can suggest better translations. Christy points out the

growing number o f outstanding translations in which the original idea and feeling as

well as poetic intensity are retained entirely.

Heffeman (1982) also maintains that listening to the combination of music

and text, as composers intended, is always relevant. In major works, though, in

which neither performers nor audience understand the language, Heffeman believes

that the meaning will be unintelligible regardless of how perfect the diction. Grubb

(1979) insists that the sonority and the rhythm of the words are an integral part of

the vocal music itself because a literary text already has its individual music. Since

the music o f the poem is as relevant as the music set to the poem, singers should

always make an effort to sing each song in its original language.

Diction and Training

Gardiner (1968) insists that the study o f languages should be a pan of every

singer’s education whether one sings in English, Italian, or any other language.

Diction is important not only to singers, but also to choral directors; it is among the

seven elements o f choral performance upon which choral conductors focus.

Caldwell (1980) found out that effective choral directors devoted 13.2% of their

verbal behaviors to diction and text during rehearsal o f high school groups. Diction,

in this study, includes pronunciation, meaning, and poetic treatment of the text as

well as relationship between text and music. Also, Stutheit (1994) when establishing

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a hierarchy o f musical elements used in the preparation and evaluation of a high

school large choral ensemble, discovered that diction was ranked second of eight

important musical elements preceded only by balance and blend. In another study

(Tamte-Horan, 1989) diction was ranked second, as well, among five characteristics

identified as most frequently used in the evaluation of choral music performance.

Diction is indeed a relevant element to choral music performance regardless

of language. If music in foreign languages ought to be performed in the original

language, choral directors face the challenge of having to teach and perform a

variety o f songs with foreign texts. Following the path o f opera singers and concert

soloists, choral directors must receive intense diction instruction in order to

successfully teach and perform the wide range o f foreign language texts present in

the choral repertoire. Hines ( 197S) believes that choral conductors should take Latin

diction courses because liturgical Latin has become ‘'the” second language in choral

music. Gardiner (1968) further proposes the study of languages as a part of every

singer’s education, adding that singers should not perform in languages of which

they are ignorant.

Volk (1998) conducted a national survey of undergraduate vocal diction

requirements in music education degree programs. Results showed that respondents

agreed upon the value of vocal diction to choral directors and admitted that their

institutions are actually preparing music education/choral majors only moderately

well in this area. Volk’s data also revealed serious inconsistencies among vocal

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diction requirements in music education degree programs and the need to improve

the curricula for music programs leading to choral certification.

Choral directors not only must master diction in several languages, but also

they must understand the subtleties and nuances of dialects and performance

practice issues. Seigrist (1996) believes the integrity of the original language and

diction is also important to performance practice of the African-American spiritual.

It is necessary to understand early African-American diction and dialect in order to

achieve excellence in performance of spirituals. McGee, Klausner, and Rigg (1996)

believe knowledge of Old French, Italian Latin, Old English, and other early

languages is essential to appropriate performance practice of the music of Middle

Ages and Renaissance.

Voice teachers and choral directors have not always agreed upon the

meaning o f the word “diction.” Collins (1999) describes diction as the choir’s

ability to communicate the text. Conductors, he says, must ensure that the text (the

most important part of the listening experience to many audience members) is clear

and intelligible. For Christy & Paton (1997) diction concerns the production of clear

words and is related to vocal technique. Robinson and Winold (1992) believe choral

diction to be the lucid and precise articulation of the phonetic elements of a

composition’s text that conveys its meaning to the audience.

Armstrong and Hustad (1986) present three main points related to diction. 1)

listeners ought to be able to understand the words sung by the choir; 2)

pronunciation allows for communication through the expression of the meaning and

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the identity of the words; and 3) uniformity of the choral sound depends upon

whether or not the choir is producing the same vowel or consonant at exactly the

same time. Caldwell (1980) defines diction as the “clear and accurate sounding of

the prosody prescribed in choral composition and/or arrangements”^ . 7). Diction,

then, may comprise pronunciation, meaning, and poetic treatment of the text. Corbin

(1982) maintains that diction is the clear and precise delivery o f words and the

manner by which words are shaped through pronunciation, enunciation, and

articulation. Diction bears a direct influence on vocal technique and vocal

production. Since there is no vocal production without the identification of some

vowel or consonant, one must have an intellectual and kinesthetic understanding of

the elements necessary for proper vocal production (Robertson, 1993).

Other authors also insist upon the relevance of diction to choral music.

Garretson (1998) maintains that diction is an essential element for the effective

communication o f the central thought of the text. Pfautsch (1971) believes that

diction is important because vowels and consonants help to determine the varieties

o f sounds o f the human voice and suggests eight attitudes for choral directors: 1)

thorough knowledge of the rules of diction; 2) ability to teach proper diction; 3)

ability to demonstrate proper diction; 4) ability to demand discipline from singers

when applying the rules o f diction; 5) familiarity with text; 6) ability to help singers

to be aware o f correct diction; 7) ability to discriminate between good and mediocre

settings o f text; and 8) knowledge that style, form, dynamics, and tempo affect

diction.

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Davidson (1954) considers pronunciation the key to impressive choral

singing and points out that much of choral pronunciation is based upon methods of

solo singing that do not transfer to choral singing. Different from solo, in which one

person sings one word at a time, choral singing involves concurrent pronunciation

o f words by several singers. Kaplan (1985) disagrees with Davidson insisting that

most o f the advice given to solo singing in good diction literature can be transferred

to choral singing as well, although sometimes adjustments are necessary.

One important aspect of singing in any language is clear pronunciation of the

text. Pronunciation involves the correct sounding o f the individual syllable and the

proper syllabic accent based upon a thorough understanding of vowel and consonant

productions (Howerton, 1957). To achieve competence in correctly speaking a

foreign language, one must diagnose the difficulties regarding pronunciation

(Henrichsen & others, 1999). Hopkins (1992), in the belief that diagnosing text

articulation problems improves expressive singing, developed an expanded notation

system to teach choral singers text articulation. Such scholarship emphasizes the

necessity o f intensive training for choral conductors as well as singers.

Beyond this, conductors must work towards the establishment o f a

standardized approach to diction. Boyd (1977) believes that while pronunciation in

foreign languages may not be a problem, it certainly requires extra rehearsal time. A

standardized pronunciation guide for foreign languages, he suggests, would likely

optimize rehearsal time.

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The International Phonetic Alphabet

Garretson (1998) suggests that a standardized English approach to

pronunciation should be adopted using models from U.S. radio and television

announcers. However, Appelman (1967) preferred a phonetic system o f teaching

voice based upon the International Phonetic Alphabet. IPA, and published The

Science o f Vocal Pedagogy: Theory and Application, which was intended to serve

as a complete textbook for English diction. In addition to Appelman, several other

authors recommend the use o f the IPA as a solid system for teaching diction.

Among these are Armstrong and Hustad (1986), Christy & Paton (1997) and Kaplan

(1985). Choral directors, suggest Jeffers and Paine (2000), should learn the IPA as

well as purchase dictionaries that use the standard IPA to demonstrate the

pronunciation of every word.

Colomi (1970) points out the differences between the manner in which one

speaks a certain language and the way one sings that language. Although she

believes that children learn to speak through imitation and that adults learn foreign

languages in the same way, Corloni submits that the scientific study of the speech

sounds and their formation through phonetics is a more accurate and quicker way to

leam pronunciation.

Diction learning o f any language becomes complex because the spelling of a

word not always coincides with how it sounds. This problem can be greatly reduced

with the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet which may also enhance

students’ understanding o f the sounds o f each language because it constitutes a

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“more precise system of symbols than any o f the various older dictionary phonetic

systems”(Robertson, 1995, p. 2). Each IPA symbol represents exactly the same

sound regardless o f the language being transcribed. Robertson (1995) believes that

the learning o f each individual symbol increases the range o f the speech sounds.

The purpose o f the IPA is to provide a universally agreed upon system of

notation for the sounds o f language. The alphabet is a consistent way of representing

the sounds o f language in written form and has a set of symbols that are easy to use,

and comprehensive enough to encompass the wide variety o f sounds found in the

languages o f the world (International Phonetic Association, 1999). Although the

IPA is an excellent and comprehensive tool in terms of presenting only one symbol

for each sound, it has its limitations, because there are always minor phonetic

differences that cannot be recorded (MacKay, 1987).

Henry Sweet and Paul Passy are among the phoneticians who developed this

instrument and created the International Phonetic Association in 1886. The IPA

resulted firom the establishment of phonetics as a science dedicated to describing

and analyzing the “sound system” of languages (Celce-Murcia, Brinton, &

Goodwin, 1996). Phonetics allow for the study of speech sounds as they are

produced, heard or even as they travel in waves through the air (Nasr, 1997). With

the establishment o f phonetics and the IPA it was possible, for the first time, to

accurately represent the sounds of any language because there was a consistent one-

to-one relationship between a written symbol and the sound it represented.

Phoneticians involved in the International Phonetic Association influenced modem

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language teaching by advocating that the spoken form of a language is primary and,

therefore, should be taught first. Celce-Murcia et al. (1996) maintain that phonetics

should be incorporated into language teaching courses, and foreign language

teachers should have strong training in phonetics. Learners should also be trained in

phonetics to establish adequate speech habits.

Hylton (199S) believes that choral music educators and singers must master

the rules of diction in a variety o f languages in order to understand and

communicate the meaning of a song and uses the IPA to exemplify the sounds of

foreign texts. Robinson & Winold (1992) introduce choral diction in English, Latin,

Spanish, Italian, German, and French using the International Phonetic Alphabet as a

guide to pronunciation, and provide a chart that makes comparisons and transfers

from one language to another.

Phillips (1992) believes that the study o f diction becomes an easier task if

students learn and understand the IPA symbols at early ages. He also points out that

the IPA is the tool that determines proper pronunciation of foreign language diction

texts. Lewis (1972) insists upon the values of the phonetic symbols and encourages

everyone to become acquainted with the IPA.

Kenyon & Knott (1953) wrote a phonetic pronouncing dictionary of the

speech of the United States of America. Their goal was to record only what has been

vaguely called standard speech. They used the symbols of the IPA and provided

extensive and comprehensive information in phonetics. Decker (1970) also

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developed a method for mastering the IPA symbols and their sounds. In his method,

the IPA symbols are briefly introduced with several exercises.

Gordon (1977) gives several reasons why choral directors must study the

basic principles o f diction and should have the skill to at least accurately pronounce

commonly used languages. Among these are that choral conductors should have

proficient knowledge of the IPA symbols and be able to pronounce the sounds of the

IPA precisely. May & Tolin (1987) believe that understanding IPA symbols enables

the choral singer to pronounce any sound or word correctly in a song regardless of

language.

Voice instructors have already benefited from the advantages of the IPA. As

early as 19S3 Madeleine Marshall incorporated its symbols into a textbook designed

to teach diction, and Moriarty followed in 1975. He also believes that singers who

desire to pursue concert stage careers must master at least four or five languages

with refinement. Robertson (1995) developed a self-instructional course study in

solo singers’ English diction utilizing the IPA. And so did Wall (1989) who presents

English and foreign language diction for singers using the IPA.

Research and the International Phonetic Alphabet

Researchers have used experimental research models to explore the

International Phonetic Alphabet as a basis for teaching diction to choral singers.

Fisher (1989) designed, developed, implemented, and evaluated a standardized

method for teaching English diction for choral music performances. His method was

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based upon the development of kinesthetic consciousness and control of the speech

articulators through syllabic, word, word-pair, and word-phrase exercises. Results

showed the method to be significantly effective in the improvement o f both choral

tone and textual intelligibility among all groups.

Epp (1993) found that choral conductors who had taken a college diction

class, and whose applied concentration was voice, or who belonged to professional

choral-singing organizations used significantly more non-English texts with their

choirs, and were more comfortable with non-English texts, as well as more likely to

use the IPA.

Pan (1997) investigated the effectiveness of three types o f diction

instruction: 1) phonetic instruction using the IPA; 2) phonetic instruction using the

English Phonetic Alphabet (EPA); and 3) traditional rote instruction for

performance of liturgical Latin diction in selected choral pieces performed by

middle school mixed choirs. Findings revealed significant difference among

treatment groups in favor of the IPA experimental treatment for improving text

reading accuracy; significant difference among treatment groups in favor of the

EPA experimental treatment for developing ability in application of Latin diction

knowledge in reading unstudied Latin texts; and significant difference between

treatment groups in favor of the IPA experimental treatment for developing ability

in the application o f phonetic knowledge in phonetic translation of unstudied Latin

texts. Subjects also preferred phonetic instruction to traditional rote instruction.

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Pence (1993) investigated the effect of live versus videotape instruction

upon the accuracy o f French diction in a high school choral rehearsal. Results

showed no significant difference between the two groups. She concluded that even

though no significant difference was found in the efficacy o f the two techniques,

both types o f instruction were effective with significant gains found in both groups.

Peterson (1942) investigated the ability of pre-school children to produce the

sounds of the IPA, and studied the relationship of chronological age, intelligence,

and sex to subjects’ ability to produce the sounds o f the IPA. Her research was

based on the premise that vocal habits take precedence over articulate speech habits,

and that vowel sounds appear earlier than consonants. Results showed that even the

youngest children (31 to 36 months) were able to produce the vowels and

diphthongs. Age differences appeared in the mean number o f consonant blends and

consonant elements correctly produced. Most children in this study were able to

produce all the sounds included in the test by 57 months of age. Results also showed

no sex differences of any significance among the children participating in this study.

The differences in efficiency to articulate the sounds were more closely related to

chronological age and intelligence within each age group than sex.

Flower (1936) investigated the effectiveness of two methods of teaching

French pronunciation to young students. Subjects were divided into two groups and

learned French pronunciation through the “Imitation Method” and the “Phonetic

Method.” In the “Imitation Method” subjects attempted to imitate teacher’s

pronunciation or some recording machine’s utterance relying heavily on students’

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aural perception. The “Phonetic Method" consisted o f a teaching method based

upon the IPA symbols, conventional spellings of these symbols, as well as

physiological production. Results showed a smaller number of pronunciation errors

and a greater ability o f comprehension in favor o f the “Phonetic Method” group.

Linguistics

Findings in the field of linguistics have also contributed to the understanding

of foreign language acquisition. The goal of “strategies-based instruction” for

learners of a second language is to help students become more responsible in their

efforts to learn and use the foreign language (Cohen, 2000). Another goal is to help

students become more effective learners by allowing them to individualize the

language learning experience. Cohen (2000) states that teachers who have used this

approach report their students to be more efficient in completing classroom tasks,

take more responsibility for directing their own learning outside class, and become

more confident in their ability to learn. Anton (1999) investigated learner-centered

and teacher-centered discourse in interactions between teachers and learners in

second-language classrooms. Findings revealed that learner-centered discourse

provides opportunities for negotiation that creates an environment favorable to

foreign language learning. It also showed that when learners are engaged in

negotiation, language is used as the foundation for growth in interpersonal

relationships.

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The term “negotiation” in second language acquisition research refers to

exchanges in which communication breaks down and interpellators try to repair

deficiencies as they work toward mutual comprehension. Assis (1997) states that

negotiation is considered an important source o f language acquisition since it

provides for learners to understand foreign language input, to receive feedback on

their own comprehensibility, and to change their output toward greater

intelligibility.

Foreign languages seem to be best acquired through prolonged sequences of

study starting in elementary school and continuing into adulthood, especially if there

is an opportunity for the adult to use the language in a rewarding way. Research on

early language acquisition over the past two decades has shown an important

rationale for an early start toward cognitive benefits, academic achievement, and

also positive attitudes regarding cultural diversity (Donato & Terry, 1995). Earlier

studies on adults have demonstrated incidental foreign language acquisition by

watching subtitled television programs in a foreign language, therefore, D’Ydewalle

and Van de Poel (1999) expected incidental acquisition to be greater with children.

Results showed that children’s learning was not superior to adults’, and that unlike

adults, children tended to acquire more when the foreign language was in the sound

track than in the subtitles.

Bailey, Onwegbuzie, and Daley (2000) used a focused learning instrument to

identify a combination of learning styles that might be correlated with foreign

language achievement at the college level. Results showed that higher achievers in

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foreign language courses tend to favor informal classroom settings and prefer not to

receive information through the kinesthetic mode. Other research (Nugent, 2000)

points out that the presentation of foreign languages should be consistent and

regular, and that exposure to native speakers should be an ongoing part of the

curriculum.

Foreign language teaching must be engaging. Fiorito (2000) suggests that

language instruction will not be monotonous if teachers combine the foreign

languages with the fascinating discovery of another culture. Wallinger (2000)

proposes instruction strategies that encourage language learning and appeals to a

variety o f learning styles: Teachers should present the material in different ways,

restate, and review the material more than once. She believes that foreign language

instructors should teach for transfer and adjust material based upon student verbal

feedback and also non-verbal feedback. Adepoju and Elliot (1997), attempting to

solve the problem of “blocking” created by simultaneous presentation of the foreign

language words, tested several feedback models and found aural procedure to be the

most effective although all forms overcame the problem.

Everson (1998) investigated the relationship between speech and meaning

among beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Results showed a

91.4% mean probability that when participants knew the meaning of a word they

also knew how to pronounce i t Everson believes that a foreign language must be

presented in a consistent and efficient way so students can accomplish some spoken

proficiency at a reasonable time. Chen (1999) investigated potential aptitude by

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treatment interactions associated with the mnemonic keywords method on a foreign

vocabulary-learning task for adult learners. Results showed that individual

differences in verbal ability, learning style, and trait anxiety did not affect the

effectiveness of the keyword method.

Noels, Clement, and Pelletier (2001) examined the relations between

intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for language learning. They analyzed questionnaire

responses o f fifty-nine subjects enrolled in a summer immersion program at a

French-English bilingual university. Results showed that subjects reported high

levels of motivation. They expressed they had important reasons for learning

English such as knowing the community better, achieving personal goals, or even

rewards such as jobs or course credits. Some subjects even reported having fun

learning English.

Researchers have also studied vocabulary achievement in foreign language.

For example, Lawson and Hogben (1998) investigated the effectiveness of training

in the use of a “keyword” method for vocabulary acquisition in foreign language.

Results showed that the keyword trained students maintained a significant and

substantial advantage in recall of word definition over control students.

Healy and Bourne (1998) wanted to identify psychological principles that

would provide a foundation for foreign language courses. Through results from a

research project supported by the Army Research Institute between 1993 and 1996

they determined that the relationship between the learner’s native language and the

language being learned significantly affect foreign language acquisition.

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Cheung (1999) examined the effects of phonological skill training on

consonantal phoneme deletion and word reading of two groups of adolescent

Chinese readers who were also literate in English. Results suggested that improved

phonological skills led to better word reading in the later-learned writing system.

Comeau, Cormier, Grandmaison, and Lacroix (1999) also investigated the

phonological processing skills among children learning to read a second language.

Subjects participated in a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the

relationship between phonological awareness and reading achievement in both

languages. These findings support the transfer of phonological awareness skills

across alphabetical languages.

In another study Chun & Plass (1996) investigated the effects o f multimedia

annotations on vocabulary acquisition and found a higher than expected rate of

incidental learning. Significantly higher scores were found for words that were

annotated with pictures plus text, compared to those that utilized video plus text or

text only. There was also a relationship between searching a certain annotation type

and using this type as the retrieval cue for remembering words.

Technology and Distance Learning

Although some educators have embraced technology in its full potential,

Gardner (2000) points out that humanists fear technological advancements and that

society has been “dehumanized” by computers. Gardner, assuming more of a middle

position, believes that new technologies hold great promise but ought to be seen as

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means rather than ends. He explains that “a computer can deliver drill-and-drill

curricula or stimulating scientific puzzles; it can educate, enlighten, entertain, and

instruct, or it can dull perceptions, stimulate consumerism, and reinforce ethnic

stereotypes.” (p.39)

Madsen (2000) acknowledges that changes in technological developments

are inexorable and contends that technology is no longer an option; therefore,

everyone must be involved. He also believes that music can highly benefit from

technological advances. For example, through technological tools, world music

classes may provide listening and performance possibilities of music from various

cultures around the world to students with limited financial resources to go in

person to a foreign country.

Salaberry (2001) argues that although most technological devices such as

radio, television, VCR, and computers may have been “revolutionary in the overall

context o f human interaction, it is not clear that they have achieved equal degrees of

pedagogical benefit in the realm of second language teaching” (p. 39). He contends

that research on the effectiveness o f technological resources for pedagogical

purposes has been excessively focused on the technical capabilities of the tools. It

seems that computer programs, for example, are frequently developed from a

practical or technical perspective instead of educational planning. It is the teacher’s

responsibility to delineate specific pedagogical goals in selecting appropriate

technological tools.

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Advancements in technology have opened manifold opportunities for

teaching and learning, and one o f the greatest impacts has been upon distance

learning. Gabrielle (1997) reports that the Open University in Great Britain was

among the first educational facilities to use technology for distance learning offering

its first courses in 1971. The Open University changed the reputation of distance

learning by providing quality education to students using an assortment of media.

Perraton (2000) believes that distance education began in 1963 when the National

Extension College was established as a pilot for an open university. Also, in that

same year, UNICEF was planning to use distance education to train refugee

Palestinian teachers and the Ecoie Normale Superiure was beginning to experiment

with what was later called educational technology.

Recent statistics estimate that today between two and twelve percent o f

university students in developed countries are likely to be studying at a distance; in

developing countries, the number ranges between ten and twenty percent. These

countries are expanding open universities and distance learning programs

particularly due to the affordable economic cost, flexible hours, and ability to reach

scattered student bodies. (Perraton, 2000; Gabrielle, 1997).

Minoli (1996) charges the increasing availability of higher-speed, two-way

digital telecommunication with the progress o f distance learning programs: “The

growing availability of connectivity options is positively influencing educational

institutions' adoption of distance leaming”(p. 8). Technology-based education is

free from the limitations of distance, does not need to be synchronic, and should be

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interactive. McArthur and Lewis (1998) submit the most successful applications of

information technology simulate environments that enable students or trainees to

practice skills intensively instead of mimicking human tutors.

Gabrielle (1997) contends that people often see distance learning as the

solution to many educational problems in our society and proposes adequate

planning before making consequential decisions. She examined perceived

effectiveness and student satisfaction in higher education distance learning and

found technical quality to significantly predict instructional effectiveness and

student satisfaction as well as interaction between student and instructor. When

personal characteristics were used as predictors, younger students, males, and

students with higher levels of education in distance programs were more likely to

report higher levels o f both instructional effectiveness and o f student satisfaction.

When Gabrielle (1997) compared distance learning with on-site students, distance-

learning students indicated less perceived satisfaction than on-site students.

In distance-leaming systems all efforts should attempt to maximize outcome

through the self-learning process keeping the student as the central point. Unesco

(1988) presents strategies for self-learning materials, which suggests that learners

should be able to ascertain if they have the necessary pre-requisites for studying the

course and the required time to leam the subject matter. Students should also

develop their own plans o f study and try different ways to successfully leam the

course materials.

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Data provided by the National University of Continuing Education

Association (Peterson’s Guide, 1993) show that students who leam by distance

learning tend to be over twenty-five years of age, employed, generally people with

some previous college experience, and highly motivated as a group. More than half

o f distance-leaming students are female and the course completion rate o f these

students exceeds that of the ones enrolled in traditional on-campus courses.

Furthermore, distance-leaming students have discipline to establish a regular study

schedule and separate time for course work assignments.

Technology Applied to Phonetic Studies

The same technological advancements that have fostered rapid progress in

distance education have also been applied to phonetic studies. Some researchers

have used advanced technology to improve the teaching of diction. For example,

Dechance (1994) developed a computerized software program for use in teaching

French voice diction. The program consists o f tutorials, pronunciation guidelines,

transcription drills, sample song texts, recordings of spoken texts, and transcriptions

into the International Phonetic Alphabet. Dechance designed the software as a

teaching tool specifically intended for use by voice diction instructors and singers.

Dowd, Smith, and Wolfe (1998) used an acoustic impedance spectrometer to

measure the frequencies o f the first two resonances of the vocal tract in real time.

Each subject’s goal was to realize the vocal tract configuration required to

pronounce a target vowel. Subjects were French native speakers learning foreign

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languages. Subjects assigned to group one heard the vowel sounds and attempted to

imitate them. Subjects assigned to group two also heard the sounds, but received

vocal tract feedback when imitating the target sounds. Results showed acoustic

properties and identification o f vowels to be significantly superior when subjects

received vocal tract feedback.

Ferrier, Reid, and Chenausky (1999) examined whether beginning speakers

of English as a second language would improve phoneme production after training

with the Speech Words computer program under the direction o f a non-speech-

language pathologist (SPL) trainer. Results suggested that a non-speech-pathologist

trainer using this technology may help students improve correct phoneme

production and that computer monitoring of independent practice motivates

learning.

Need for the Study

Although empirical research into phonetic instruction is a growing field, it

becomes apparent upon surveying the available literature that there is a limited

amount of research relating to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet in

teaching subjects with no previous experience singing in foreign languages.

Previous research in this area consistently experimented with choral singers who

were exposed to diction instruction to some degree (Fisher, 1989; Pan, 1997; Pence,

1993; Dechance, 1994).

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Empirical research in the field of diction acquisition using the combination

o f technology and the IPA is growing (Dechance, 1994; Dowd et al., 1998; Ishii,

1989; Plass et al., 1998; Ferrier et al., 1999). It is also clear that choral music

educators consider foreign language diction acquisition indispensable to the music

education profession and it seems appropriate to further investigate the use of

computerized phonetic instruction in relationship to choral diction.

The value of technological instrumentation seems to generalize across

disciplines. Knowledge of computerized phonetic instruction can provide

information concerning the accomplishment of music education goals. It would

appear that the area of diction acquisition is an appropriate research area for this

device.

While the value of the IPA is clearly established, there appears to be no

study in the literature using computerized phonetic instruction to teach the IPA to

music students with no previous experience singing in foreign languages. Therefore,

based upon the need to establish a standardized diction approach (the International

Phonetic Alphabet) combined with computerized phonetic software, the present

study was designed to investigate the effect of time in computerized versus

classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce English words that were

phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

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Pilot Study

Participating subjects were undergraduate students (N=18) at the Florida

State University and were enrolled in one of university’s choral ensembles

Women’s Glee, Men’s Glee, Choral Union, or University Singers. All subjects had

previous experience singing foreign language texts.

All subjects took a pretest that consisted of a sample passage o f the IPA

examination given by the International Phonetic Association as part of a

standardized proficiency exam: a British English text phonetically transcribed into

the IPA. Subjects were scheduled at five-minute intervals for their pretest and prior

to the recording of each performance; each subject received a number, which was

spoken into the microphone. Subjects were asked to read the text and were audio

recorded for later evaluation. The total number of words was counted and subjects’

performances were graded according to the number of words correctly pronounced.

The reading task did not exceed five minutes.

After the pretest, subjects were assigned to one of three groups: 1) Class

Only (n=6), 2) Computer Only (n=6), and 3) Class and Computer (n=6). Subjects

assigned to the Class Only and Class and Computer groups received three forty-five

minute lessons (total of 135 minutes) over a week period on the IPA symbols for the

English language. Subjects in the Class Only group received class instruction only.

Subjects in the Class and Computer group received class instruction plus access to

the computer lab and were encouraged to supplement their classroom learning with

the phonetic training tool Sounds O f English developed by Duanmu and Sergay

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(1994) at the University of Michigan, Ann-Arbor. Subjects participating in the

Computer Only group received instruction on the IPA symbols for the English

language through the computer program (Sounds O f English) only. These subjects

spent time at the computer lab at their own convenience.

Following the last day of classes, all subjects in all three groups performed a

posttest, which consisted of another sample passage of the IPA examination given

by the International Phonetic Association as part o f a standardized proficiency

exam: a British English text phonetically transcribed into the IPA. Once again,

subjects were scheduled at five-minute intervals for their posttest, and prior to the

recording of each performance, each subject’s identification number was spoken

into the microphone. Subjects were then asked to read the text and were audio

recorded for later evaluation. The total number of words was counted and subjects’

performances were graded according to the number of words correctly pronounced.

The reading task did not exceed five minutes.

Three hypotheses were formulated for the pilot study:

1) There will be no significant statistical difference among groups in their

pretest scores.

2) There will be no significant statistical difference among groups in their

posttest scores.

3) There will be no significant statistical difference among groups regarding

their pre/posttest difference scores.

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Scores for the pre- and posttest were analyzed statistically using F-Test and

subsequent multiple range tests to demonstrate any significant differences between

groups.

1) There were no significant differences among groups regarding their pretest

scores, as it would be expected (Class Only M=62.12, SD=11.36; Computer

Only M=57.50, SD=24.96; Class and Computer M=63.00, SD=20.36).

2) There were significant differences between the Class Only and Computer

Only groups and between the Class Only and Class and Computer groups

regarding their posttest scores. Group scores always favored the Class Only

group. There were no significant differences between the Computer Only

and Class and Computer groups regarding their posttest scores.

3) There were significant differences between the Class Only and Computer

Only groups and between the Class Only and Class and Computer groups

regarding pre/posttest difference scores. There were no significant

differences between the Computer Only and Class and Computer groups

regarding their pre/posttest difference scores.

Among the three groups the Class Only had the highest posttest (M=86.00,

SD=6.35) and pre/posttest difference scores (M=22.3, SD=4.08). The Computer

Only group had the lowest posttest scores (M=73.00, SD=19.56) but the second

highest pre/posttest difference scores (M= 17.00, SD=11.38). The Class and

Computer group had the second highest posttest scores (M= 77.00, SD=20.34) but

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the lowest pre/posttest difference scores (M= 14.00, SD=12.99). Adjustments were

made on the basis o f the pilot study in structuring the final experimental design.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose o f this study was to examine the effect o f time in computerized

versus classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce English words

phonetically transcribed into the IPA. Three groups were tested: 1) Classroom

instruction only, 2) Computer instruction only, and 3) A combination of class and

computer instruction. The following hypotheses were tested.

(1) There will be no significant difference among the three groups regarding their

pretest scores.

(2) There will be no significant difference among the three groups regarding their

posttest scores.

(3) There will be no significant difference among the three groups regarding their

pre-posttest difference scores.

(4) There will be no significant difference among the three groups regarding time

spent to leam the IPA symbols.

(5) There will be no significant difference among the three groups regarding their

perceptions of test difficulty.

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Limitations of the Study

Because of the nature of the study, the following limitations were

established: Subjects will only learn the IPA symbols for the English sounds

because o f Sounds o f English (SOE) software limitations. This particular software

features only the IPA symbols for English. Also, in order to utilize a standardized

test, a sample passage from the International Phonetic Association standardized

proficiency exam was used. This is an English text phonetically transcribed in a

British accent and is pronounced somewhat differently from American English.

Thus, if the pre- and posttest are performed correctly, subjects should read the

English texts with a slight British accent.

In addition, in an attempt to investigate effective ways of teaching the IPA

symbols to inexperienced singers unfamiliar with singing text pronunciation, only

instrumental musicians were used. The pretest and posttest consisted of a reading

task only, which did not include singing.

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CHAPTER 3

METHOD

This study was designed to investigate the effect of time in computerized

versus classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce English words

phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Subjects

Participating subjects were sixty-three undergraduate and graduate students

(N=63) from the Florida State University School of Music. Subjects were selected

on the basis that their principal instrument was not voice. Students also had a

minimum o f three years o f study in their major instrument. Following a pretest,

subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to method of

instruction: 1) Classroom Only, 2) Computer Only, and 3) Class and Computer.

Selection of Pretest/Posttest and Classroom Material

The pre- and posttests consisted of sample passages o f the IPA examination

administered by the International Phonetic Association as part of a proficiency

exam. The tests consisted o f two different colloquial English texts that were

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phonetically transcribed using the symbols of the IPA. Although a few foreign

subjects participated, most subjects were from the United States and spoke English

as their primary language.

For the classroom instruction, the researcher selected lessons and exercises

based upon Joan Wall’s (1989) book International Phonetic Alphabet for Singers: A

manual for English and foreign language diction. Lessons were audio recorded for

control and replication.

Computer Program Sounds o f English

Two out o f the three groups in the study used a computer program developed

by Duanmu and Sergay (1998), Program in Linguistics at the University of

Michigan, Ann-Arbor. These researchers developed the software Sounds O f English

(SOE) as a tool for teaching linguistic classes at the University of Michigan. The

CD-Rom software is available for Macintosh and IBM compatibles. The program

features consonant, vowel, and diphthong symbol charts with their respective

sounds. The user is able to hear the sounds of each symbol as well as supplement

the aural experience with visual devices such as video clips.

Sounds o f English is divided into three main sections. The first is an IPA

TRAINER that teaches the English symbols and their sounds. It consists of vowel

and consonant charts in which each symbol is placed according to its physiological

production. When the user clicks a symbol on the chart, the program reproduces its

sound and opens another page. This new page presents specific information to a

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chosen symbol and it is divided into four parts. In the upper left comer there is a

detailed explanation o f how each sound is physiologically produced, e.g., mouth

shape, tongue, velum, lips, and palatal area’s position. There is an X-ray of the

mouth and a video clip, in the bottom left comer, that can be activated if double

clicked. In the upper right comer a video clip, featuring a close-up of a male’s

mouth, reproduces the symbol’s sound and clearly demonstrates the shape of the

mouth and lips while producing a specific sound. Unfortunately, sound and image

are not always synchronized. In the bottom right comer is an animated illustration of

the vocal tract with tongue and mouth movements; no sound is attached to this

feature. On the top o f the screen the user can select various options such as moving

forward and backward to the next symbol, play sound only, or go back to the main

chart. The vowel and diphthong symbols are displayed with English words.

Another section in the computer program is the IPA GAME, which consists

of empty vowel and consonant charts. Similarly to a crossword puzzle, the goal is to

place each symbol in the correct location according to its classification in the IPA

TRAINER. In order to achieve the right answer, the user must place the symbols

correctly on the first attempt. The IPA game was designed to assist students in

identifying each consonant and its classification, e.g., stop, unvoiced, labial.

The last section in the computer program is a VOCAL TRACT TRAINER.

It presents each individual symbol without the chart showing how each sound is

produced. For each symbol there are four presentations: play sound, mouth X-ray

video clips, movie featuring a male’s mouth, and animated mouth and vocal tract

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illustration without sound. The main purpose of this section is to show users how

sounds are physiologically produced with the aid o f animated visual devices.

Although Sounds O f English allows for limited communication between

users and computer, it teaches the basic phonetic symbols for the English language

in an interactive way. The charts are designed in accordance with the International

Phonetic Association’s example and their visual presentation is of high definition

and quality. The software is self-explanatory; it requires no previous training.

Design of the Study

The design of this study was a pretest/posttest to assess the effect of time in

computerized versus classroom instruction on the ability to successfully pronounce

English words that were phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic

Alphabet.

For the pretest subjects performed a reading task, which consisted of a

sample passage of the International Phonetic Association proficiency exam in the

IPA. When performed correctly, the subject will sound like a British speaker due to

the subtle nuances of the phonetic transcription between American and British

English.

After the pretest, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1)

Class Only, receiving phonetic instruction using the symbols of the International

Phonetic Alphabet through teacher imitation only; 2) Computer Only, receiving

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phonetic instruction through computer only; and 3) Class and Computer, receiving

phonetic instruction through a combination of class and computer.

After a seven-day period o f lessons or time spent in the computer lab,

students performed a second reading task, which consisted of another version of the

pretest, an English text phonetically transcribed into the IPA. Pretest and posttest

scores were graded on the basis o f number of words pronounced correctly.

Pretest/Posttest

A pretest and a posttest were used to assess subjects' phonetic training or

knowledge. These tests consisted o f two versions of a standardized sample passage

for dictation of colloquial English used by the International Phonetic Association for

their IPA proficiency exam. Both passages utilize the transcription system used in

Wells’s Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.

Although English was the primary language of most subjects, the pre- and

post-performance tests featured phonetic transcriptions of English texts with British

pronunciation. Support for using subjects' first language relies on the fact that

English spelling does not have one-to-one correspondence between sounds of the

spoken language and letter o f the Roman alphabet. In English, more than one

spelling often represents one sound and the same letter frequently represents several

different sounds (MacKay, 1987). Prior to the sixteenth century, written English

was, for the most part, phonetic, which means that the spelling o f a word constituted

more or less accurate reflection o f the way it was pronounced (McGee & et. al,

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1996). Modem English spelling seems almost illogical because the Roman alphabet

used does not resemble a word’s sound. Therefore, learning the symbols of the

International Phonetic Alphabet for the English language constitutes a challenge

even for those whose native tongue is English.

Lewis (1972) believes that English holds the place as the first international

language and in order to be effective communicators, those who speak English, as

first or second language, must conform to accepted pronunciation rules. The IPA is

an internationally accepted system, which is used to represent the sounds of a

language. English is currently the native language of four hundred million people

and the second language o f many others around the world (Cradler, 1989) and it

seems advisable to investigate the learning conditions of those whose primary

language is English.

Regarding singing, William (1981) suggested that English-speaking singers

should start their studies in phonetics using the English language due to familiarity

with the sounds, allowing them to concentrate on the IPA symbols. This familiarity

should enable more efficient acquisition of the IPA symbols. Following William’s

suggestion, this researcher used English, subjects' most familiar language, to

introduce the symbols of the IPA.

Testing Procedures

Audio recordings o f pre- and post-performance tests were accomplished

individually in the Music Education/Music Therapy Research Room at the Florida

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State University School of Music. The room is acoustically designed to minimize

any external sounds that could disturb subjects' performances. When subjects

entered the room they were instructed to read a short phonetic transcription of an

English text. Subjects had no time to practice the reading task; each subject was

individually audio-recorded on a Sony TCM-20DV cassette-recorder.

Class Lessons

The three lessons took place at the Florida State University School of Music.

Subjects attended a lesson on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 6:00 to 6:45

PM during the second week of February 2001. One extra class was given to subjects

who could not attend one of the three classes. The researcher assumed the role of

teacher and presented three forty-five minute lessons on the International Phonetic

Alphabet symbols for the English language. Lessons and exercises were based upon

Wall (1998), a diction text and workbook for singers.

The first lesson consisted of an introduction to the vowels chart and an

explanation o f each individual symbol. The teacher provided numerous English

words as examples for each one o f the symbols. Front vowels were introduced first,

then back and central vowels. Because diphthongs are combinations o f two vowels,

they were introduced immediately after the vowels. According to Wall (1998) there

are twenty symbols representing the English vowels and four symbols representing

the diphthongs. During the last ten minutes o f the class subjects worked individually

on the completion o f exercises sharing the answers with the entire class.

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The second lesson began with a review o f previously presented material.

Subjects were asked to provide English words featuring the vowels and diphthongs

learned during the first lesson. The teacher then introduced the consonants chart,

which has more symbols and is more complex than the vowels chart, as new

material. For each symbol taught the teacher supplied students with numerous

examples of English words that were appropriate for the specific sound. During the

last ten minutes of the class subjects worked individually on the completion of

exercises sharing their answers with the entire class.

The third and final lesson consisted of a review of all the IPA symbols for

English vowels, diphthongs, and consonants. The teacher emphasized the most

different symbols and students worked on more exercises; the teacher stressed the

need to correctly reproduce the words and pay close attention to all the distinct

phonetic symbols.

Computer Procedure

Subjects in the Class Only group received three forty-five minute lessons

over a seven-day time period using class instruction only. Subjects in the Computer

Only group received phonetic instruction solely through the computer using the

Sounds O f English software. The researcher did not stipulate any fixed time frame

o f study for this group because one o f the purposes of this research was to

investigate how subjects would be responsible for their own learning. A sign-in and

sign-out sheet was available and provided reliability for measure of implementation

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o f treatment. Subjects in the Class and Computer group received three forty-five

minute lessons through teacher instruction simultaneously with the Class Only

group and also had access to the Sounds o f English software in the computer lab.

The Class Only and Class and Computer groups learned the symbols of the

IPA in the traditional classroom setting in which teacher and students refer to the

chalkboard and chairs are arranged in rows. The Computer Only group used a

different setting in which students were solely responsible for their own learning.

The term self-instruction is appropriate to define how subjects in the Computer Only

group teamed the IPA symbols as it refers to situations in which a learner, alone or

with others, is working without the direct control of a teacher. It may be for a certain

period o f time or the entire learning process. Students involved in self-instruction

undertake full or partial responsibility for their own learning. Usually one is

responsible for choosing to be self-instructed. In this study, however, subjects were

randomly assigned to Computer Only group; therefore, the decision of self-

instruction was not theirs, but the researcher’s. Subjects in the Computer Only group

took full responsibility for their own learning and in determining how much time

they needed to master the IPA symbols.

Post-Treatment Evaluation Procedure

The posttest was administered immediately following the third lesson, two

weeks after the pretest Subjects were again tested individually and their

performances were audio recorded. Reliability for pre- and posttest was calculated

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over twenty percent o f all scores and averaged (number of agreements divided by

number o f agreements plus disagreements, Madsen, 1998).

Immediately following the posttest all subjects filled out a questionnaire

designed to collect demographic data. Subjects provided data regarding the number

o f years they had played their instruments, experiences in diction classes prior to

this study, previous participation in choirs, and languages spoken other than

English. Subjects were also asked to grade their perception of the IPA pretest and

posttest difficulty. Subjects in the Computer Only and Class and Computer groups,

who used the computer software, gave feedback regarding the program’s

accessibility as well as suggestions for future implementation.

Collection of Data

The researcher evaluated each subject’s performance by counting the

number o f English words pronounced correctly. The pretest and posttest scores of

each subject were audio recorded for detailed evaluation. Each subject was assigned

a number to facilitate comparisons between pretest and posttest scores. The results

of the pre- and post-performance tests, total time spent, and perceived pre- and

posttest difficulty were subject to statistical analysis.

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

The purpose o f this study was to investigate the effect of time in

computerized versus classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce

English words that were phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic

Alphabet. Subjects learned the IPA symbols under three instruction conditions: (1)

Class Only: (2) Computer Only; and (3) Class and Computer. At the completion of

the study, eight hours and thirty minutes of subjects’ pre- and post-performance tests

had been made Pretest and posttest scores were analyzed statistically.

Pretest

To determine differences among groups regarding their pretest scores (Class

Only M= 45.19, SEN 12.85: Computer Only M=42.14. SEN 14.47; Class and

Computer M= 48.09, SEN 10.99) a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was

used. Results show that there was no significant statistical difference (F=l. 12; df=2,

60; p< .05, Table 1) among groups as would be expected.

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TABLE I

PRETEST - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Source SS df MS F-Value

Between Groups 372.09 2 186.04 1.12*

Within Groups 9907.61 60 165.12

•Not significant

Posttest

To determine differences among groups regarding their oosttest scores (Class

Onlv M= 73.38. SD= 20.18: Computer Onlv M= 58.80. SD= 22.67; Class and

Computer M= 82.19. SD= 14.74) a One-Wav Analysis o f Variance (ANOVA) was

also used and results show that there were significant statistical differences among

the three conditions (F=7.70; df=2,60; P< .001, Table 2).

TABLE 2

POSTTEST - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Source SS df MS F-Value

Between Groups 5856.22 2 2928.11 7.70*

Within Groups 22807.42 60 380.12

*p< .001

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/-tests were used to determine significant differences among groups.

Results showed significant differences between pre- and post-performance scores

among the three conditions (Class Onlv SD= 2.71; Computer Onlv SD= 3.17; Class

and Computer. SD= 2.79; Table 3). These findings demonstrate that all subjects

within each condition showed a gain between their pretest and posttests.

TABLE 3

/-TESTS

Condition Pretest Posttest df /-Value

Class Only 45.19 73.38 40 10.37*

Computer Only 42.14 58.80 40 5.25*

Class and Computer 48.09 82.19 40 12.18*

*p< .05

Pre/Posttest Difference Scores

Although pre/posttest difference scores are not really representative scores, it

was also important to determine whether there were differences among groups

regarding these data. Because there were significant differences among groups on

posttest scores, it was determined that pre- and posttest gain scores would be

calculated. A One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the

differences among groups and results show that there were significant differences

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(Class Onlv M=28.24. SD= 12.45; Computer Only M=17.19. SD= 14.13; Class and

Computer M=34.14, SD= 12.87) among the three groups (F=9.36; df=2,60; p< .001;

Table 4).

TABLE 4

PRE/POSTTEST DIFFERENCE - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Source SS df MS F-Value

Between Groups 3319.2698 2 1659.6349 9.3632*

Within Groups 10635.0476 60 177.2508

* p< .001

Total Time Spent


Significant difference in the total time spent in the study among the three

conditions is apparent (F=125.42; df=2,60; p< .001; Table 5). Total time spent was

calculated in minutes and a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to

determine differences among groups. Subjects in the Class Onlv (M=122.86.SD=

19.34) and Class and Computer (M=148.86, SD=26.17) group invested more time in

the study than did subjects in Computer Onlv group (M=39.52, SD=24.08).

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TABLE 5

TOTAL TIME SPENT - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Source SS df MS F-Value

Between Groups 137019.55 2 68509.77 125.42*

Within Groups 32774.38 60 546.23

*p< .001

Perception of Test Difficulty

Additionally, this study examined subjects’ perception of pre/posttest

difficulty. Subjects were asked to rate pre/posttest difficulty by using a scale from

one to ten (one being easy and ten difficult). Subjects’ responses were submitted to

analysis using a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and results indicated that

there were significant differences among the three conditions (Class Onlv M=6.14,

SD=2.15; Computer Only M= 7.57, SD= 1.69; Class and Computer M= 5.71, SD=

2.19) regarding subjects’ perception of test difficulty (F=4.84; df=2,60; p< .001;

Table 6).

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TABLE 6

TEST DIFFICULTY - ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Source SS df MS F-Value

Between Groups 39.71 2 19.85 4.84*

Within Groups 246.00 60 4.10

*p< .001

Post hoc analyses such as the Newman-Keuls multiple comparison

procedures were used to test significant difference between means. Results for the

posttest revealed that the Computer Only (M=59.33) group was significantly

different from both the Class Onlv (M=73.38) and the Class and Computer

(M=82.19) groups but that the latter two groups were not significantly different from

each other (a= .05). Similar results were found regarding pre/posttest difference

scores. Regarding students’ perception of pre/posttest difficulty, results indicated

that the Computer Only group was significantly different from the Class Onlv and

Class and Computer but that there was no significant difference between the last two

groups (a= .05).

When total time spent was used as a covariate (ANCOVA), results showed

no significant differences among groups in any o f the variables (F= .349; df=2; p<

.05), but when pretest was used as a covariate, there were significant differences at

pc.001.

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Questionnaire Responses

Immediately following the posttest subjects filled out a questionnaire asking

for demographic information including age, gender, major, applied instrument,

choral singing experience, previous diction classes, and languages spoken other than

English. In addition, subjects expressed their perceptions of pre/posttest difficulty.

Subjects in Computer Onlv and Class and Computer groups were also asked to rate

the accessibility of the computer program Sounds O f English. A place for

suggestions and comments was provided at the end of the questionnaire and results

are discussed below.

Subjects were sixty-three instrumental musicians, graduate and

undergraduate students enrolled in one of the classes at Florida State University.

Demographic information revealed that thirty-six subjects were females (57%) and

twenty-seven males (43%); forty-seven subjects were undergraduate (75%) and

sixteen graduate (25%) students.

Regarding their principal instruments, subjects listed seventeen different

instruments: flute (11), piano (8), percussion (7), clarinet (6), trumpet (5), trombone

(5), violin (5), guitar (4), viola (3), horn (3), cello (1), harp (1), tuba (1), baritone (1),

saxophone (1) oboe (1), and bassoon (1). For the purpose of this study, only one

instrument was considered as major instrument, although a few subjects listed more

than one instrument.

Subjects were also asked whether they spoke any languages other than

English. Thirty-four subjects (54%) answered that they spoke no other languages;

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twenty-nine subjects (46%) answered that they did speak other languages. These

were: Spanish (17), French (3), Portuguese (3), German (2), Japanese (2), Mandarin

(1), and Arabic (1).

Previous experience with the symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet

was considered relevant, therefore, subjects were asked about diction or phonetic

courses taken prior to the present study. Six subjects (9.5%) had studied the IPA

symbols but reported that those classes had taken place at least five years ago.

Class Only Group

Subjects in the Class Onlv group reported excitement in learning the symbols

of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Positive feedback was constant among

participants in the Class Onlv group; besides having fun and finding the subject

interesting, they reported feeling challenged and motivated to learn this new subject.

A Japanese female student wrote that she learned visually what she usually perceives

aurally through daily conversations. In fact, subjects in the Class Onlv group

reported a positive attitude toward learning the IPA symbols and wrote they felt that

they were motivated to learn.

Computer Onlv Group

Subjects in the Computer Onlv group made interesting remarks regarding the

software program Sounds O f English and for the most part they reported a great deal

of frustration with the phonetic training tool. The most common remark was that the

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program never gave the learners a chance to try reading anything because it would

give individual sounds but no real words; therefore, subjects did not leam to put the

sounds together. One subject indicated that the software would have been much

more helpful accompanied by classroom or one-to-one instruction and more varied

exercises and drills. Perhaps, because o f this, subjects faced difficulty recognizing

each word in the posttest’s sentences and believed they would have performed better

given the opportunity to ask questions while learning the IPA symbols.

Although it seems clear that the software was highly accessible and easy to

manipulate, some subjects questioned its effectiveness in the learning of phonetics.

Out o f twenty-one subjects in the Computer Onlv group, only one believed the

software was extremely advanced, specific, and straightforward. Overall, subjects

felt there was not much o f a transfer between the computer program and the pre- and

posttests because the software teaches isolated sounds and symbols and not words. In

fact, one subject found the International Phonetic Alphabet more complex after using

the computer program and others were extremely critical, stating that “the mouth in

the software is gross” and “the x-rays pointless.” Some complained that the anatomy

parts were not really explained towards applying them to sound production. And

others said that “the game was dumb” and “the chart serves only to memorization.”

Suggestions for future software improvement included more drills for vowels

and consonants, varied exercises, sound feedback, and real words and sentences

putting the symbols together. Subjects also suggested that it would have been nice to

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receive computer feedback as they practiced the sounds following the models of

foreign language software that show voice and intonation graphs.

Class and Computer Group

Subjects in the Class and Computer group reported that the class was “fun,”

they “enjoyed it,” and had a “great time” adding that the study was challenging and

informative. One student wrote that she felt very successful after the posttest, but did

not like the software much. She said that the software was “OK for reviewing one

time, but 1 would have felt frustrated if I had only been in the computer group”

indicating that subjects obviously talked to each other across groups. Other

comments regarding the software included that it lacked applications that tested

knowledge o f the IPA symbols in the context o f words and not isolated sounds.

Another subject, however, found the software helpful and said he liked the computer

program because “it showed exactly how to produce the sound.” It appears that

subjects in the Class and Computer group felt motivated and had a better attitude

toward learning the symbols o f the IPA than the Computer Onlv group. They

believed that with a little more time for study they would be able to master the IPA

without much difficulty. “Although the computer software was a nice addition to the

class,” a female subject said she “learned much more by having a real live teacher

and students with whom to interact” These reports may have important implications

for distance education and its impact upon students’ social attitudes.

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Subjects gave insightful feedback regarding the study’s applicability to other

areas. A female student participating in the Class and Computer group expressed

how glad she was for being a part o f the study. She believed that learning the IPA

helped her understanding of how her foreign parents speak and she was hoping to

use this way of learning to help them leam words they cannot say. This subject also

made an important transfer when she wrote, “Also, as a violin player I hear my

pitches through these vowels sounds. When I practice, I can sing my part better

before 1 play if I know how to shape my mouth.” Another subject wrote that she

thought learning the IPA “would be helpful with all types o f music including

instrumental music, because the shape of your mouth while speaking can be

transferred to an instrument fairly well.” A male subject suggested that IPA

knowledge could be useful for a future music educator who plans on teaching ail

areas and that this information could well transfer to other areas such as brass

pedagogy.

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CHAPTERS

DISCUSSION

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time in

computerized versus classroom instruction on the ability to correctly pronounce

English words phonetically transcribed into the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Choral directors must teach a wide repertoire o f choral music in various

languages and demand for performing representative choral works of different

historical periods and styles requires that choral conductors and singers master the

basic rules o f diction and phonetics. Over the years choral conductors have used

different ways of approaching diction and foreign language teaching in the

rehearsals; however, it seems that a standardized approach to phonetics and diction

using the symbols o f the IPA would be recommended.

Sixty-three subjects, who were instrumental musicians and had no previous

experience with the IPA, volunteered to participate in this study. Each subject came

for an individual pretest performance o f an English text that was phonetically

transcribed into the IPA. Each pretest performance was audio recorded and graded

according to number of words correctly pronounced.

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Following the pretest, subjects were assigned to one of three groups

according to method o f instruction: 1) Class Onlv. 2) Computer Onlv. and 3) Class

and Computer. Subjects in the Class Only group received three forty-five minute

lessons on the IPA symbols for the English language. Subjects assigned to Computer

Only group had access to the computer program Sounds O f English (Duanmu &

Sergay, 1998) and had no interaction with instructor or other classmates. Subjects

assigned to the Class and Computer group received three forty-five minute lessons

on the IPA symbols for the English language and were also asked to use the

computer program Sounds o f English.

After a seven-day time period of lessons or individual time in the computer

lab subjects performed a posttest, which consisted of another version of the pretest.

Immediately following the posttest subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire

providing demographic information regarding gender, age, major, the number of

years they had played their instruments, experiences in diction classes prior to this

study, previous participation in choirs, and languages spoken other than English. For

complete and detailed information regarding subjects' answers, refer to appendix E.

It may be inferred that all subjects came to the study at the same level and

that there were gains between pre- and post-performance tests. Findings for this

study suggest that the IPA symbols can be taught effectively within a short period of

time. Choral directors should be encouraged to teach their singers to master the IPA

symbols because it can be accomplished efficiently and rapidly. Mastering the IPA

symbols will maximize rehearsal time especially when conductors introduce songs

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with foreign texts. In this study there were significant differences among and within

the three groups regarding posttest scores. Yet, when total time spent was used as

covariate, there were no significant differences among the three groups on any

variable.

There are other factors relevant to the results of this study. For example,

subjects took longer time to read the posttest than they did in the pretest and also

showed signs o f anxiety. Subjects lost the relaxed and informal atmosphere they

experienced in the pretest. Findings regarding the post-performance test anxiety are

consistent with previous research in which reading in a foreign language provoked

anxiety for some students. Students’ anxiety levels, when reading, increased with

their perceptions of the difficulty of reading in a foreign language, and their grades

decreased in relationship to their levels of reading anxiety and general foreign

language anxiety (Saito et al, 1999). Also, highly anxious students have shown more

off-task behavior than less anxious students when reading a foreign language text

(Sellers, 1999) and this appeared to be true across all three groups. Highly anxious

students would cough, play with their hair, and show other behaviors characteristic

o f anxious, off-task students.

Except for subjects in the Computer Onlv group, subjects in the other two

groups reported high levels o f enjoyment throughout the study and gave positive

feedback. Subjects reported that besides having fun and finding the subject

interesting, they felt challenged and motivated to leam this new subject. Some

subjects became really involved in the study and developed a participative behavior

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in the classroom asking and answering questions about the IPA symbols. These

subjects wanted to transcribe their names and other words into the IPA and

mastering the IPA symbols functioned like a game.

Unlike subjects in the Class Only and Class and Computer groups, almost

every subject in the Computer Only group reported frustration with the phonetic

training tool. The frustration seems to be generalized to the software because it does

have limitations regarding interaction with users. This particular software program

was selected only after an exhaustive review o f literature over a one-year period. It

appears that phonetics might be one subject that, when taught through distance

education, will need some type of tutorial assistance.

One of the most common complaints the subjects made was that the

computer program Sounds O f English failed to provide real words and sentences as

examples. Subjects found difficult to transfer what they learned in the phonetic

training tool to the posttest. It is recommended that distance education courses

should teach for transfer. When developing educational software, programmers

should maximize the use of examples and transfers because most suggestions

regarding software improvement included suggestion about more drills, real word

examples, and words and sentences that combined the symbols together.

Although the computer software was a pleasant addition to the class, subjects

indicated that they learned much more by having a real live teacher and students

with whom to interact. This has important implications for distance education and its

impact upon students’ social attitudes. Students’ need to interact with other human

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beings is a topic for examination. Subjects in the Computer Only group complained

that they could not ask questions or be coached while pronouncing the IPA symbols.

Although subjects in the Computer Only group considered the software

Sounds O f English to be the main reason why they did not succeed in the post-

performance test, other variables such as lack o f enough time to learn the symbols

could also be considered in this matter. Findings for this study regarding total time

spent show that subjects with the highest scores had spent the largest amount of time

learning the IPA symbols.

Subjects gave a great deal of feedback regarding the study’s applicability to

other areas. Some students were able to transfer the knowledge in phonetics to other

music learning situations. For example, subjects were able to transfer the individual

IPA sounds to specific techniques for playing clarinet, violin, and brass instruments;

they related the shape o f their mouths while speaking to playing situations.

Further studies using computer instruction only should investigate the effects

of assigned time on students' performance. It seems that the Computer Only group

did not perform as satisfactorily as the other two groups because subjects did not

spend enough time learning the IPA symbols on their own. As stated before, most

students enrolled in distance education are older than the average college student and

although there were graduate students participating in this study, the majority of

students were undergraduate. This might also be studied. Indeed, the students in the

Computer Only group who spent the largest amount of time in the computer lab were

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graduate students. It appears that maturity and age are important factors for

successful learning in distance education.

Since total time spent used as covariate showed no significant difference

among groups, replication of this study should stipulate the same time frame for each

group. In this study, subjects in Class and Computer group scored higher on the

posttest, but they also invested the largest amount of time. So, results showed that

posttest scores were proportional to total time spent learning the subject matter.

Further investigation on the effect o f time in computerized versus classroom

instruction on the ability to correctly read from phonetic transcriptions should

include different age groups. This study focused on college students, graduate and

undergraduates. Replication of this study should include older as well as younger

subjects such as middle and high school students.

Regarding distance education and self-instruction, future research should also

investigate videotaping a live teacher’s instruction and presenting it to subjects in the

Computer Only group along with the computer program. In this way, all instruction

for the three groups would be the same. It could be that the teacher’s instruction

presented in an Internet format would be as effective as live classroom instruction.

Individual as well as group singing performances should be further

considered. Because of the nature o f this study, subjects’ pre- and post-performance

tests were limited to reading. Further investigation should exam the effect of

phonetic instruction on students’ ability to sing with better diction and intonation.

Also, replication of this study should investigate a variety of languages. Since

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English was the native tongue of most subjects, future studies should exam students’

ability to transfer this knowledge to other languages. Transferring the IPA symbols

for English to other languages may represent a major step toward learning and

teaching music in foreign languages.

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APPENDIX A

HUMAN SUBJECTS COMMIITTEE APPROVAL

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Florida State
UNIVERSITY
Office of the Vice President
for Research
Tallahassee, Florida 32306-2763
(850) 644-5260 • FAX (850) 644-4392

APPROVAL MEMORANDUM
from the Human Subjects Committee

Date: November 6, 2000


From: David Quadagno, Chai jy$jph
To: Elisa Macedo Delaney
513 W. Seventh Avenue, #B
Tallahassee, FI 32303
Dept: Art Education
Re: Use of Human su b jects in Research
Project entitled: The Effect of Computerized Phonetic Instruction on
Students' Acquisition o f English Diction
The form s th a t you subm itted to th is office in regard to the use of hum an su b jec ts in th e proposal
referenced above have been review ed by th e Secretary, the Chair, and two m em bers of the Human
Subjects C om m ittee. Your pro ject is determ ined to be exem pt per 45 CFR § 4 6 .1 0 1 (b )2 and has
been approved by an accelerated review process.

The Human Subjects Committee has not evaluated your proposal for scientific merit,
except to weigh the risk to the human participants and the aspects of the proposal
related to potential risk and benefit. This approval does not replace any departmental or
other approvals which may be required.
If th e project h as not been com pleted by November 6, 2001 you m ust re q u e st renew ed approval
for continuation of th e project.

You are advised th a t any ch an g e in protocol in this project m ust be approved by resubm ission of
th e project to th e Com m ittee for approval. Also, the principal investigator m u st prom ptly report, in
writing, any u nexpected problem s causing risks to research subjects or o th e rs.

By copy of this m em orandum , th e chairm an of your departm ent a n d /o r your m ajor professor is
rem inded th a t h e /s h e is responsible for being informed concerning research projects involving
hum an sub jects in th e d e p a rtm e n t, and should review protocols of such investigations a s often as
needed to insure th a t th e pro ject is being conducted in compliance with o u r institution and with
DHHS regulations.

This institution has an A ssurance on file with th e Office for Protection from Research Risks. The
Assurance N um ber is M1339.

cc: C. Madsen
APPLICATION NO. 00.4X6

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INFORMED CONSENT FORM

I freely and voluntarily and without element of force or coercion, consent to be a


participant in the research project entitled “The Effect of Computerized Phonetic instruction on
English Diction Acquisition.’' I understand that I must be at least 18 years old to participate in this
project

Elisa Macedo Dekartey, who is a doctoral candidate at Florida State University, is


conducting this research. I understand the purpose of her research project is to better understand
how students learn English diction and how the International Phonetic Alphabet may become a
tool to teaching diction to choral singers, in addition to diction acquisition, this study is also
exploring the effects of computerized teaching tools, which may have impact on distance learning
programs.

I understand I will receive eight twenty-minute lessons (two lessons per week) on the
International Phonetic Alphabet over a period of four weeks. The total time cnrnmitment would
be about 160 minutes. 1 understand that if 1participate in the project I will he asked to record my
speaking voice on an audio recording device.

Lunderstand my participation, is totally voluntary and. Lmay stop participation at any


time. All my answers to the questions and alL my audio, recordings will be kept confidential and
identified by a subject code number. My number will not appear in any of the results. No
individual responses will be repotted. Only.group findings will be reported.

I understand there is no risk involved if I agree to participate in this study. The study’s
environment simulates a regular classroom and will take place at the School of Music, Florida
State University. I am also able to stop my participation at any time I wish.

I understand there are benefits for participating in this research project First, my own
knowledge o f English diction using the International Phonetic Alphabet will increase. Also, I will
be providing choral music educators with insightful information. This knowledge can assist them
in providing efficient teaching techniques that may help students learn faster, better, and at a
distance.

I understand that this consent may be withdrawn at any time without prejudice, penalty or
loss to which I am otherwise entitled. I have been given the right to ask and have answered any
inquiry concerning the study. Questions, if any, have been answered to my satisfaction.

I understand that I may contact Mrs. Elisa Macedo Dekaney, Florida State University,
School of Music, KMU 445-E, (850) 644-5084, for answers to questions about this research or
my rights. Group results will be sent to me upon my request

I understand that I will be tape recorded by the researcher. The researcher will keep these
tapes in a locked filing cabinet I understand that only the researcher will have access to these
tapes and that they will be destroyed by July 10,2004.

I have read and understand this consent form.

(Subject) (Date)

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APPENDIX B

COPYRIGHT PERMISSION

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COPYRIGHT PERMISSION FORM

Dear Prof. John H. Esling

I am completing a dissertation at Florida State University entitled "The Effect of


Computerized Phonetic Instruction on Students’ Acquisition o f English Diction.” I
would like your permission to reprint in my dissertation excerpts from the International
Phonetic Alphabet Examination posted on your website:

Sample passage for dictation o f colloquial English to be transcribed phonetically


Sample passage for reading from transcription.

The requested permission extends to any future revisions and editions of my


dissertation, including non-exclusive word rights in all languages. These rights will in no
way restrict republication o f the material in any other form by you or by others
authorized by you. This authorization is extended to University Microfilms International,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, for the purpose o f reproducing and distributing copies o f this
dissertation. Your signing letter will also confirm that you own or the International
Phonetic Association owns the copyright to the above-described material.

If these arrangements meet with your approval, please sign this letter where
indicated below and return it to me in the enclosed return envelope. Thank you very
much.

Sincerely

/E lisa Macedo Dekaney j]

PERMISSION GRANTED FOR THE


USE'REQUESTED ABOVE: >

Date:

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APPENDIX C

PRETEST AND POSTTEST

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PRETEST
IPA Examination

Sample passage for dictation of colloquial English to be transcribed


phonetically.

The exam iner first dictates the whole passage to fam iliarize th e candidates
with the con tents. S /h e then dictates it again, word group by word group,
repeating each word group perhaps ten times, with plenty o f tim e betw een
repetitions. Finally s /h e dictates the whole passage once more.

The passage is dictated in Received Pronunciation.

Students are instructed to produce a broad/phonemic transcription with


rhythmical stress marks. No particular symbol set is prescribed, providing it
uses the IPA alphabet. In practice most candidates use the notation found in
Jones’s English Pronouncing Dictionary (15th edition, ed. Roach & Hartman,
CUP 1997) and Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (Wells, Longman 1990) or
the very slightly different notation in Gimson's Pronunciation of English (5th
edition, ed. Cruttenden, Edward Arnold 1994).

'w ot abaut 'gau ig to 'rildjnts 'pa:k | and 'haevig a 'luk at da.'sprig

'flauaz | bifo: d ei 'o:l gep 'blaun a 'w ei | bai d is 'hDrabl 'w ind ||

d el 'sei da 'tjuilips a m aeg'nifisnt 'd ij j 3 : || a iv 'd3AS gDt ta 'tjeind5

m ai 'laibri b o k s | an ai 'wDnta 'gau ta da 'd elik a 'tesn j o p 'neks 'do:||

d e iv gDt 'ra:dar a 'nais 'tjiiz dea | 'kAvad ig 'greip pips || 'if ai g et a

'paskit a 'b isk its a z 'w e l | w i 'm aip phajps 'sit in da 'pa:k | m 'm eik

a litl 'p ik n ik 'd v it || a: w ud3u 'ra:da gau 'haum an 'sip bai da 'faia ||

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POSTTEST
IPA Examination

Sample passage for reading from transcription.

This passage is presented in two versions: in the transcription system used in


Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 5th edition, and in the system used in
Wells's Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. (Other versions can be made
available on request.)

Gimson 5th edition

ai 'haup 5 a ‘tu: 'le id iz frm da 'kAntri hu: av bin 'raitig ta da

'nju:speipaz ta 'nau wDt 'salts 6 e i 'a:t ta 'si: in 'l.\ndan djuarig dear

'i:sta 'holadi w il haev a 'nais 'taim . ai 'haup dei w il in 'd jai da 'tju:b

and haev 'fain 'w eda fa da 'm onjum ant, and 'w isp a tu: i:tj" Ada

sa k 'se sfa li in da 'w isp rig 'gaelari av sn t 'po:lz, an 'si: da 'dAnd5anz

at da 'taua an da 'si:ts av da 'm aiti at 'w e sm in sta , an ri't 3 :n 'haum

w id a 'ha:vist av 'd3aiful 'm em riz. bat ai kan 'prnm is ju: dar iz

'wAn 'sait d ei w il 'not 'si:, d e i w il 'not si: 'mi:, 'dear ai'dia av a

'h d a d i iz 'U n d an . 'm ain iz fa'getig dar 'iz satj 1 a 'pleis az 'L\ndan.

LPD
ai 'haup da 'tu: 'le id iz frm da 'kAntri hu av bin 'raitii]ta da

'nju :speipaz ta 'nau WDt 'salts d ei 'a:t ta 'si: in ‘U n dan djuarig dear

'i:sta 'holadi w il haev a 'nais 'taim . ai 'haup d ei w il in'd joi da 'tju:b

and haev 'fain 'w eda fa da ‘m on ju m an t, and 'w isp a tu i:tj Ada

s a k 'se s fa li in da 'w isp rig 'gaelari av sn t 'pa:lz, an 'si: da 'dAndjanz

at da 'taua an da 'si:ts av da 'm aiti at 'w e sm in sta , an ri't 3 :n 'haum

w id a 'ha:vist av 'd3aiful 'm em riz. bat ai kan 'prom is ju dar iz

'wAn 'sait d ei w il 'not 'si:, d e i w il 'nDt si: 'mi:, 'dear ai'dia av a

'h d a d i iz 'U n d an . 'm ain iz fa'getig dar 'iz s a tj a 'p leis az 'U ndan.

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APPENDIX D

QUESTIONNAIRE

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QUESTIONNAIRE

I- Your Gender

2- Your Age

3- Your major

4- What is your primary instrument?

5- How many years (including high school) have you played your instrument?

6* Have you ever sung in a choir? If yes, how many years have you sung in a choir?

7- Have you ever had a diction, voice pedagogy class, or learned the International Phonetic
Alphabet?

8- Besides English, how many other languages do you speak? Please, list them.

9- On a scale of 1 to 10 (with one being very easy and 10 being very difficult) rate the International
Phonetic Alphabet tests by circling a number below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(Easy) (Difficult)

10- Please, check which group were you in during the experiment (if known).
( ) Class only ( ) Computer only ( ) Class and Computer

11- Please, answer if you were involved in one o f the computer groups. On a scale of 1 to 10 (with
one being very easy and 10 being very difficult) rate the accessibility o f the phonetic training tools
software (Sounds o f English) by circling a number below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(Easy) (Difficult)

Please, write here your comments.

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APPENDIX E

QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES AND SCORES

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Subject 1
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Major: Music Performance/Music History & Lit.
Primary instrument: Guitar
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: None
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 58
Posttest: 82
Total Time Spent: 90’

Subject 2
Gender. Female
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Performance
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 12
Years singing in choir: I and 1/2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds of English: 8
Comments: “The program never gave the learner a chance to try to read anything- it just gave the
individual sounds making what I learned hard to apply in the end."
Pretest: 53
Posttest: 75
Total time spent: 35’

Subject 3
Gender: Female
Age: 29
Major: Master’s in Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: 25
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Japanese
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 5
Comments: “The computer program was interesting. It was good to know the basics but there was no
application to real usage. It was difficult to find each word in the sentences in the test.”
Pretest: 56
Posttest: 93
Total time spent: 90’

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Subject 4
Gender: Female
Age: 27
Major: Master’s Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: 20
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Yes
Languages spoken besides English: Japanese
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “It was very interesting because I learned lots o f English pronunciation visually that I
just learn aurally through daily conversations.”
Pretest: 48
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 5
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Major: Undergraduate in Music Therapy/Education
Primary instrument: Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 5
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: French and Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility of the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 10
Comments: “I had a great time in class and in the posttest feeling successful. I did not like the
software much; it was OK for reviewing one time, but I would have felt frustrated it I had only been
in the computer group.”
Pretest: 52
Posttest: 95
Total time spent: 155’

Subject 6
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Major: B. Music Business
Primary instrument: Piano
Years playing the instmment including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: A little French and Portuguese
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 2
Comments: “It was fun. If I had had a little more time to study the alphabet I don’t think it would be
too difficult to master it.”
Pretest: 46
Posttest: 86

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Total time spent: 165’

Subject 7
Gender: Male
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Viola
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 10
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 12
Posttest: 15
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 8
Gender: Male
Age: 39
Major: PhD. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trombone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 20
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Very Little Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 35
Posttest: 55
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 9
Gender: Male
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 7
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 5
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 3
Comments: “I liked the computer program because it showed exactly how to produce the sound.”
Pretest: 56
Posttest: 88
Total time spent: 150’

Subject 10
Gender: Female

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Age: 20
Major: B. Music Business
Primary instrument: Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Mandarin
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 28
Posttest: 48
Total time spent: 90’

Subject 11
Gender: Female
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study : Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds of English: 6
Pretest: 43
Posttest: 54
Total time spent: 50’

Subject 12
Gender: Female
Age: 23
Major: BA
Primary instrument: Violin
Years playing the instrument including high school: 7
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 1
Comments: "I am glad I took this experiment. I think teaming this alphabet helped me learn about
the way my parents speak. They are from another country and I hope I can use this way o f learning to
help them with words they can’t say. Also, as a violin player I hear my pitches through these vowels
sounds. When I practice, I can sing my part better before I play if I know how to shape my mouth.
This experiment has been a wonderful experience!”
Pretest: 47
Posttest: 93
Total time spent: 160’

Subject 13
Gender: Female

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Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 10
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 5
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “I thought learning it was easy, and with the right amount o f repetition, it would be
something that would be easy to know. And I think it would be helpful with all types o f music
including instrumental music because the shape o f your mouth while speaking can be transferred to
an instrument fairly well.”
Pretest: 36
Posttest: 77
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 14
Gender: Male
Age: 28
Major: Master’s in Music Performance
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 17
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Learned IPA for linguistics class in 1991; forgot mostly since
then.
Languages spoken besides English: French
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 7
Comments: “The items that were part o f the software were helpful, but I would have liked to see
more applications that tested knowledge o f IPA symbols in context - transliterating words into IPA
or vice versa (using IPA symbols to figure out words).”
Pretest: 68
Posttest: %
Total time spent: 150’

Subject IS
Gender: Female
Age: 24
Major: Master’s in Music Performance
Primary instrument: Harp
Years playing the instrument including high school: 13
Years singing in choir: 4
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Little German
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: I
Comments: “The software is very effective but it would be much more helpful if it was accompanied
by classroom or one-on-one instruction. I would have probably performed better if I could have
asked questions as I was learning.”

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Pretest: 46
Posttest: 84
Total time spent: 3S’

Subject 16
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: B. Developmental Psychology
Primary instrument: Trombone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 12
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 5
Group in the study . Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 46
Posttest: 87
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 17
Gender: Male
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: French horn
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 4
Comments: “I wish there were more exercises on the software ”
Pretest: 49
Posttest: 78
Total time spent: 65’

Subject 18
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument : Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 12 and 1/2
Years singing in choir: 9
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Brief instruction in IPA in choral tech for non-voice
principals
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 47
Posttest: 91
Total time spent: 135’

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Subject 19
Gender: Female
Age: 19
Major: B. Music Business
Primary instrument: Bassoon
Years playing the instrument including high school: 3
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds of English:
Comments: “ I think the IPA will make it easier to pronounce songs written in other languages if it is
well-learned”
Pretest: 60
Posttest: 77
Total time spent: 60’

Subject 20
Gender: Male
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Cello
Years playing the instrument including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: S
Pretest: 45
Posttest: 46
Total time spent: 25’

Subject 21
Gender: Female
Age. 18
Major: B.A. Music/ B.S. Social Science Ed.
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 5
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 7
Pretest: 37
Posttest: 38
Total time spent: 10’

Subject 22
Gender: Female
Age: 31

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Major: DM Performance
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 20
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility of the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 49
Posttest: 87
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 23
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Percussion
Years playing the instrument including high school: 12
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 3
Comments: “This could be useful for a future music educator who plans on teaching all areas; this
information could transfer to other areas such as brass pedagogy.”
Pretest: 35
Posttest: 77
Total time spent: 144’

Subject 24
Gender: Male
Age: 19
Major: Physical Education
Primary instrument: Tuba
Years playing the instrument including high school: 5
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish, French
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest : 41
Posttest: 44
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 25
Gender: Female
Age: 22
M ajor B. Music Education/Music Performance
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10

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Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 3
Comments: “The computer program did a good job o f informing o f each individual sound. I wish it
had done more with learning how to put them together.”
Pretest: 50
Posttest: 63
Total time spent: 20’

Subject 26
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Percussion/Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: S/14
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class. No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility of the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 10
Comments: “The mouth in the software was gross and the x-rays pointless. It needs examples to
apply to sounds. The anatomy parts weren’t really explained towards applying sound. The game was
dumb and the chart serves only to memorization. It would be nice to have feedback to talk along and
show voice on the screen.”
Pretest: 47
Posttest: 54
Total time spent: 10’

Subject 27
Gender: Female
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Voice
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 17
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility of the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 4
Comments: “During the game it would have been nice to have sound available. It was hard to try to
learn the IPA with the game and not have sounds to reinforce what was taught. It was more like a
memory match game than reinforcement. It would be better to only have the consonant sound
without “ah” before.”
Pretest: 4
Posttest: 30
Total time spent: 35’

Subject 28

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Gender: Male
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Baritone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 6
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 7
Comments: “The program just seemed to not bee too clear. I wasn’t exactly sure how to apply the
sounds I learned to a word full o f the new symbols.”
Pretest: 32
Posttest: 34
Total time spent: 15’

Subject 29
Gender: Male
Age: 22
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trombone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “Enjoyed it... Good luck!”
Pretest: 55
Posttest: 93
Total time spent: 90’

Subject 30
Gender. Male
Age: 19
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Saxophone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 5
Comments: “Thank you very much. Good luck!!”
Pretest: 45
Posttest: 85
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 31
Gender: Female

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Age: 23
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 13
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Yes, five years ago in a voice class
Languages spoken besides English: A little Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: S
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility of the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 2
Comments: “The computer software would have been very helpful if it had more listening sounds
(word examples) and more exercises to play with.”
Pretest: 41
Posttest: 72
Total time spent: 155’

Subject 32
Gender: Male
Age: 19
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 4
Pretest: 62
Posttest: 93
Total time spent: 150’

Subject 33
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Major: Master’s Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Guitar
Years playing the instrument including high school: 13
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “Great idea o f bringing people together to learn music regardless o f language barriers.
This tool could aid teachers and singers in the learning process.”
Pretest: 54
Posttest: 67
Total time spent: 90’

Subject 34
Gender: Male
Age: 19

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Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 8
Pretest: 57
Posttest: 76
Total time spent: 150’

Subject 35
Gender: Female
Age: 19
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Percussion
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 3
Group in the study : Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 8
Pretest: 32
Posttest: 80
Total time spent: 172’

Subject 36
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education/ B. Music Performance
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 9
Years singing in choir: 4
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 4
Comments: “I enjoyed it.”
Pretest: 36
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 155’

Subject 37
Gender: Male
Age: 29
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Percussion
Years playing the instrument including high school: 7
Years singing in choir: 1

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Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 1
Comments: “I enjoyed taking part and trying to help. It was fun, challenging, and informative.
Thanks.”
Pretest: 35
Posttest: 87
Total time spent: 160’

Subject 38
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 5
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “It was really fun, I just had a hard time remembering everything.”
Pretest: 43
Posttest: 56
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 39
Gender: Female
Age: 18
Major: Biology
Primary instrument: Oboe
Years playing the instrument including high school: 7
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 3
Comments: “The computer program should train us in reading the symbols together to form words,
not just each individual letter. It is harder to say full words. I had to try and think about the individual
letter, not the full context o f the word.”
Pretest: 49
Posttest: 78
Total time spent: 85’

Subject 40
Gender: Female
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8 and 1/2

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Years singing in choir: 4
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 2
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 49
Posttest: 90
Total time spent: U S ’

Subject 41
Gender: Female
Age: 18
Major: Biology
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: S
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test : 4
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility of the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “It was very fun learning the International Phonetic Alphabet! I think I will use it for fun
from now on!”
Pretest: 56
Posttest: 87
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 42
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: B. Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Voice/Guitar
Years playing the instrument including high school: 5
Years singing in choir: 10
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:
Comments: “It was a great experience and I learned a lot o f information to transfer to my voice
lessons.”
Pretest: 44
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 43
Gender: Female
Age: 21
Major: B.A. Music and Psychology
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 8
Years singing in choir: 0

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Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 59
Posttest: 82
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 44
Gender: Female
Age: 28
Major. Master’s in Music Education
Primary instrument: Viola
Years playing the instrument including high school: 19
Years singing in choir: 5
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: A little Spanish and German
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 4
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 4
Pretest: 58
Posttest: 91
Total time spent: 197’

Subject 45
Gender: Female
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Clarinet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 2
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 1
Pretest: 55
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 150’

Subject 46
Gender: Female
Age: 37
Major: Master’s in Dance
Primary instrument: Violin
Years playing the instrument including high school: 3
Years singing in choir: 6
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: French
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 3
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 2

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Comments: “Although the computer software was a nice addition to the class, I learned much more
by having a real live teacher and students to interact with.”
Pretest: 50
Posttest: %
Total time spent: 155’

Subject 47
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Major: B. Music Therapy/ Pre-Med
Primary instrument: Guitar
Years playing the instrument including high school: 4
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 3
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 49
Posttest: 89
Total time spent: 90’

Subject 48
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: Master’s in Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Sign language (ASL)
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 9
Comments: “Once I figured out how to use the software, I had no problems moving around in it;
however, I don’t know how effective the software was in the learning o f phonetics. I guess there was
not much o f a transfer between the computer and exams.”
Pretest: 37
Posttest: 39
Total time spent: 60’

Subject 49
Gender: Male
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Hom
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 10
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 3

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Comments: “I found the alphabet more complex after using the computer."
Pretest: 37
Posttest: 39
Total time spent: 10’

Subject 50
Gender: Male
Age: 20
Major: B. Music Performance/Music Education
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Some Spanish
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: S
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 2
Comments: “The computers were readily available to use, the software was very advanced and
specific and straight forward.”
Pretest: 53
Posttest: 81
Total time spent: 35’

Subject 51
Gender: Female
Age: 48
Major: B. Music Education/ Master’s in Archeology
Primary instrument: Flute/Cello/Bassoon/Piano
Years playing the instrument including high school: 36
Years singing in choir: 15
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “Easier if not British but more American English orientation.”
Pretest: 24
Posttest: 51
Total time spent: 120’

Subject 52
Gender: Male
Age: 21
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Viola
Years playing the instrument including high school: 12
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 5
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English:

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Comments: “I have truly enjoyed this experience. It was refreshing to leam something totally new
Good Luck! It was a pleasure.”
Pretest: 55
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 135’

Subject S3
Gender: Male
Age: 26
Major: Master’s in Music Performance
Primary instrument: Percussion
Years playing the instrument including high school: 16
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Portuguese
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 3
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 4
Pretest: 46
Posttest: 93
Total time spent: 110’

Subject 54
Gender: Female
Age: 23
Major: Master’s in Music Therapy
Primary instrument: Flute
Years playing the instrument including high school: 11
Years singing in choir: 3
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 10
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 10
Comments: “I did not understand the graph or the importance o f placing each letter in the appropriate
place on the graph. The sounds were fine, but I wish 1 could have seen letters together to understand
more the make-up o f words. It was very frustrating.”
Pretest: 16
Posttest: 30
Total time spent: 25’

Subject 55
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: Master’s in Music Education
Primary instrument: Violin
Years playing the instrument including high school: 15
Years singing in choir: 9
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 4

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Comments: “I would like to have had sample senteaces to read from the software (like pre and
posttests).”
Pretest: 43
Posttest: 90
Total time spent: 63’

Subject 56
Gender: Male
Age: 32
Major: Ph.D. in Music Education
Primary instrument: Trombone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 14
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Class and Computer
Accessibility of the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 2
Comments: “Drills for vowels. Computer will tend to become boring due to lack o f exercises other
than just the game with consonants and vowels.”
Pretest: 28
Posttest: 30
Total time spent: 150’

Subject 57
Gender: Female
Age: 22
Major: B.A. Music
Primary instrument: Percussion/Voice
Years playing the instrument including high school: 6
Years singing in choir: 7
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Yes
Languages spoken besides English: A little German
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 8
Group in the study : Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 4
Comments: “On the computer, I think it would be helpful if there was a way for it to give you a word
and have you spell it using IPA and the other way around. It gives you and IPA word and you have to
spell it in English.”
Pretest: 56
Posttest: 83
Total time spent: 45’

Subject 58
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Major: B. Music Performance
Primary instrument: Hom
Years playing the instrument including high school: 15
Years singing in choir: 1
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7

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Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 6
Comments: “I still don’t understand why the IPA is designated the way it is. Is it based on
international symbols that represent the same sound?”
Pretest: 40
Posttest: 43
Total time spent: IS’

Subject 59
Gender: Male
Age: 24
Major: B. Hospitality Administration
Primary instrument: Violin
Years playing the instrument including high school: 3
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: Yes
Languages spoken besides English: French and Arabic
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 9
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 7
Comments: “The keys on the program were easy to initiate. However, there were no direct
application on the software to practice using the alphabet.”
Pretest: 61
Posttest: 72
Total time spent: 60’

Subject 60
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Major: B. Music
Primary instrument: Piano/Trumpet
Years playing the instrument including high school: 16/12
Years singing in choir: 19
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Portuguese
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study: Computer Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English: 1
Pretest: 51
Posttest: 52
Total time spent: 40

Subject 61
Gender: Female
Age: 24
Major: Master’s in Music Performance
Primary instrument: Percussion
Years playing the instrument including high school. 14
Years singing in choir: 0
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty o f the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 3
Group in the study: Class Only

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Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Pretest: 50
Posttest: 78
Total time spent: 135’

Subject 62
Gender: Male
Age: 38
Major: Ph.D. Music Education
Primary instrument: Trombone
Years playing the instrument including high school: 24
Years singing in choir: 6
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: None
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 6
Group in the study . Class and Computer
Accessibility o f the phonetic software, Sounds o f English: 4
Comments: “Computer software should be expanded to include full words.”
Pretest: 42
Posttest: 63
Total time spent: 168’

Subject 63
Gender: Female
Age: 19
Major: B. Music Education
Primary instrument: Violin
Years playing the instrument including high school: 10
Years singing in choir: 2
Diction, voice pedagogy, or IPA class: No
Languages spoken besides English: Spanish
Difficulty of the International Phonetic Alphabet test: 7
Group in the study: Class Only
Accessibility o f the phonetic software. Sounds o f English:
Comments: “This was very interesting and fun.”
Pretest: 70
Posttest: 85
Total time spent: 120’

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REFERENCES

Adepoju, A. A., & Elliot, Robert T. (1997). Comparison o f Different Feedback


Procedures in Second Language Vocabulary Learning. Journal of Behavioral
Education. 7 (4). 477-495.

Adler, Kurt (1971). The Art of Accompanying and Coaching. New York, NY: Da
Capo Press.

Anderson, William M„ & Campbell, Patricia Shehan (1989). Multicultural


Perspectives in Music Education. Reston, VA: Music Edu».^ s National
Conference.

Anderson, William H., & Moore, Marvelene C. (Eds.) (1998). Making Connections:
Multicultural Music and the National Standards. Reston, VA: Music
Educators National Conference.

Anderson, William M. (Ed.) (1991). Teaching Music With a Multicultural


Approach. Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference.

Anton, Marta (1999). The Discourse o f Learner-Centered Classroom: Sociocultural


Perspectives on Teacher-Leamer Interaction in the Second-Language
Classroom. Modem Language Journal. 83 (3), 303-318.

Appelman, D. Ralph (1967). The Science of Vocal Pedagogy: Theory and


Application. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Armstrong, Kerchal, & Hustad, Donald (1986). Choral Musicianship and Voice
Training: An Introduction. Carol Stream, IL: Somerset Press.

Assis, Ana A. (1997). Peer Interaction and Language Learning in the Foreign
Language Context. Communication & Cognition. 30 ( 1-2L 115-135.

Bailey, P., Onwegbuzie, Anthony J., & Daley, Christine (2000). Using Learning
Style to Predict Foreign Language Achievement at the College Level.
System. 2 8 .115-133.

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Ill

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Name: Elisa Macedo Dekaney

Birthplace: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Higher Education: Seminario Teologico Batista do Sul do Brasil


Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Major: Piano Performance
Degree: B.M. (1988)

Universidade Federal FIimmense


Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Major: Communication
Degree: B.S.C.(1992)

University of Missouri-Kansas City


Kansas City, Missouri
Major Choral Conducting
Degree: M.M. (1998)

The Florida State University


Tallahassee, Florida
Major: Music Education
Degree: Ph.D. (2001)

Experience: Seminario Teologico Batista do Sul do Brasil


Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1989-1994
Adjunct Professor, Music

Faculdade Teologica Batista de Sao Paulo


Sao Paulo, Brazil
1994-1996
Adjunct Professor, Music

Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York
2001 -
Assistant Professor, Music Education

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Honors: Sutton Award
Chancellor’s Non-Resident Award, UMKC
Conservatory Organizations Award, UMKC
Florida State Teaching Assistantship
Pi Kappa Lambda

113

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