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Digital Learning
Part A: Content Design

Course Title Mechanisms and Robotics

Course No(s) DE ZG561/ES ZG561

Credit Units 5


(32 Hours of Class-room Instruction + 32 Hours of Case-

Credit Model
studies/Tutorials/Laboratories + 64 Hours of Student

Course Author YVD RAO

Version No 1.0

Date 27/6/2016
Course Description
This course is intended to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the technology related to robotics.
The necessity of human like machines to replace human beings from the work-sites have been long
felt for a large variety of reasons. The field of robotics has emerged as one of the important engineering
areas of the future.

The course will develop overall background of the student in interdisciplinary robotic
technology with emphasis on mechanical aspects. Mechanisms which can be used in robots, their
characteristics, kinematic and dynamic analysis and design will be discussed in detail along with the
issues, applications and implementation principles of industrial robotics.

Course Objectives:

No Course Objectives
CO1 Understand the basics of robotics and its necessity in industrial world.

CO2 Learning the mathematical modelling and analysis of industrial manipulator using
computer programing

CO3 Understand the role various sensors and actuators in robotics motion and its control
system. Thereby, understand the system integration with both mechanical and
electrical/electronic control systems

CO4 Understanding the process of programming of an industrial manipulator

Teaching Methodology
The pedagogy for this course consists of class-room instruction explaining the basics theory and
mathematical part of the modelling and analysis supported by the realistic case studies.
To practices and realize the application of the modelling, simulation and analysis MATLAB baes
coding will be extensively utilized. Some of the solid modelling software such as solid works etc.
will be also utilized for modelling and simulation. In addition, students will be also encouraged
and supervised to develop their own working models.

Text Books
T Mittal R. K. & Nagrath I. J., “Robotics and Control”, TMH, 2003 (Reprint 2007 or later).

Reference Books & Other Resources

R1 Groover, M. P., et al., “Industrial Robotics”, MGHISE, 1986.

R2 Fu, K. S., et al., Robotic: Control, Sensing, Vision & Intelligence, MGHISE, 1987.

R3 Robert J., Schilling, Fundamentals of Robotics: Analysis and Control, Prentice Hall, NJ, 2002
John Joseph Uicker, G. R. Pennock, Joseph Edward Shigley, Theory of Machines and Mechanisms,
Oxford University Press, 2003

Modular Content Structure

M1. Fundamentals of Robot Technology

1.1 Introduction
1.1.1. Automation and Robotics
1.1.2. Robotics in Science Fiction
1.1.3. Progressive Advancement
1.1.4. The Robotics trends and the future prospects
1.2. Robot Anatomy
1.2.1 Links, Joints and Joint Notation scheme
1.2.2 Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
1.2.3 Required DOF in a Manipulator
1.2.4 Arm Configuration
1.2.5 Wrist Configuration
1.2.6 The End-effector (EE)
1.2.7 Human arm characteristics
1.3 Design & Control issues
1.4 Precision of Movement
1.5 Manipulation & Control
1.6 Robotics sensors
1.7 Robot specification
1.8 Robot programming & work cell control
1.9 Bio-mimic robots

M2. Analysis & modelling of mechanisms

2.1 Mechanisms
2.2 Spatial Mechanisms
2.3 Four bar planar and Spatial Mechanisms
2.4 Mathematical models of simple mechanisms

M3. Manipulator Frame Analysis

3.1 Introduction to co-ordinate frames mapping
3.1.1 Mapping between Rotated frames
3.1.2 Mapping between Translated frames
3.1.3 Mapping between Rotated & Translated frames.
3.1.4 Description objects in space
3.1.5 Transformation of vectors - Rotation & Translation of vectors
3.1.6 Composite transformations.
3.1.7 Inverting a Homogeneous Transform
3.1.8 Fundamental Rotation Matrices – Principle axes Rotation fixed
3.1.9 Euler and Equivalent angle axis Representations

M4. Manipulator modelling

4.1 The Kinematic Modelling of Manipulator
4.1.1 Direct kinematics model mechanical structure & Notations
Description of links & Joints
4.1.2 Denavit – Hartenberg Notation
4.1.3 Kinematic Relationship between links
4.1.4 Manipulator transformation matrix
4.1.5 Examples of direct Kinematics
4.1.6 The Inverse kinematics manipulator
4.1.7 Solvability of inverse kinematic model
4.1.8 Solution techniques
4.1.9 Closed form solutions
4.1.10 Examples of inverse kinematics
4.1.11 Singularities of manipulators

4.2 Differential Kinematics

4.2.1 Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body
4.2.2 Relationship between transformation matrix and angular velocity
4.2.3 Mapping velocity vectors along links
4.2.4 Manipulator Jacobian
4.2.5 Jacobian Inverse
4.2.6 Jacobian singularities
4.2.7 Static Analysis.
4.2.8 Examples

4.3 Dynamic modelling

4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Lagrangian Mechanics
4.3.3 Lagrange–Euler (LE) formulation
4.3.4 The Lagrangian-Euler (LE) Dynamic model algorithm
4.3.5 Newton-Euler (NE) Formulation
4.3.6 Examples on dynamic modelling.

4.4 Trajectory planning

4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Joint space technique
4.4.3 Coordinate space technique
4.4.4 Examples

M5. Control of Manipulators

5.1 Control of movements of mechanical joints control sequence
5.2 Multi- joints manipulator control system
5.3 System performance
5.4 Control system with damping
5.5 Control strategy
5.6 Architecture of control systems

M6. Robotics sensors

6.1 The meaning of sensing
6.2 Sensors in Robotics kinds of sensor used in Robotics
6.3 Tactile sensors Force-Torque sensors
6.4 Introduction to machine vision
6.5 Industrial application of vision controlled Robotic systems
6.6 Image processing and Analysis
6.7 Architecture of Robotic vision systems
6.8 Description of other components of vision system

M7. Robot Application and Programming

7.1 The Interaction of EE with Environment – Assembly
7.2 Task Frame Compliances
7.2.1 Active/Passive Compliance
7.2.2 Methods providing Compliance
7.2.3 RCC device
7.3 Optimization position definitions
7.4 Interpolation language command
7.4.1 Data object command
7.4.2 Motion commands
7.4.3 Gripper command
7.4.4 Tool commands
7.4.5 Sensors command
7.4.6 Other commands
7.5 Writing programs for different tasks

Experiential learning components

(Case-Problems / Topics for Discussion in the class)
EXPLORE/STUDY/DISCUSS (Discuss the topic to arrive answers to
# Problem / Topic
these questions—however not limited to these…)
Analysis of workspaces of different
1 Arm configuration studies. Robot signature.
Preparing MATLAB code for coordinate
2 Basics of MATLAB functions, input, output, GUI etc.
Analysis of kinematic modelling for different
3 Kinematic Modelling of Manipulator, matrix operations
manipulator configurations
4 Examples of Inverse kinematic problems Inverse kinematic methods, matrix operations
5 Examples of manipulator Jacobin matrix Manipulator Jacobian
Analysis of singularity of various manipulator
6 Manipulator Jacobian
7 Dynamic modelling of RR manipulator LE formulations
Trajectory planning of different manipulator
8 Joint space and Cartesian space technique of trajectory planning
Preparation of MATLAB code for generating Joint space and Cartesian space technique of trajectory planning, Basics of
torque-trajectory graph MATLAB functions, input, output, GUI etc
Application of sensors in automation
10 Sensor technology
11 Preparing pseudo code for a robotic task Basics of robot programming
Preparation of MATLAB simulation for
12 Synthesis of mechanisms, MATLAB coading
selected mechanisms
Learning Outcomes – Students will be able to

LO1 Differentiate the domain of industrial and service robots

LO2 Discuss the workspace and its basic characteristics, Given the configuration of manipulator

LO3 Develop manipulator for specific task

LO4 Illustrate the application part of a manipulator operation

Part B: Course Handout

Academic Term FIRST SEMESTER 2019-2020

Course Title Mechanisms and Robotics

Course No DE ZG561 / ES ZG561

Lead Instructor GLYNNA JOHN

Session Schedule / Plan of Self-Study

(Each Contact Session is of 2 Hours duration)

(Sub-Topics) (for Discussion)
1. Introduction M1 T, R1, R3 1
Analysis & modelling of R4
2. M2 12
3. Robot Frame Analysis M3: 3.1 T, R2 2
4. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.1.1-4.1.2 T, R2, R3 ---
5. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.1.3-4.1.5 T, R2, R3 3
6. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.1.6-4.1.11 T, R2, R3 4
7. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.2 T, R2, R3 5,6
8. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.3.1-4.3.4 T, R2, R3 ---
9. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.3.5-4.3.6 T, R2, R3 7
10. Manipulator modelling M4: 4.4 T, R2, R3 8,9
11. Control of Manipulators M5 T, R3 ---
12. Robotics sensors M6 T, R3 10
Robot Application and T, R1, R2,
13. M7 11
Programming R3

CS: Contact Session (2Hrs); ISM: Instructor Supplied Material;

CASE-PROBLEM: Discussion on typical situational problems experienced by practising software project

 Each student is given an individual assignment on any of the topics discussed

in the class
 Assignments are take-home and deadline-driven (typically of 2 weeks
duration) announced post Mid-semester examination
 Students to spend at least 16 hours of work in study, research, discussion and
preparation of the report and presentation.
 As part of deliverables, the student is expected to prepare a report and make
a short-presentation in the class
Evaluation Scheme

Evaluation Name Type Weight Duration Schedule


EC - 1 Assignments Individual and 10% 2 Weeks August 23 – September

Take-home 01, 2019

Lab - MATLAB Online 20% - Please refer lab calendar

given below

EC - 2 Mid-Semester Closed Book 30% 2 Hrs Friday, 20/09/2019 (FN)

Examination 10 AM – 12 Noon

EC - 3 End-Semester Open Book 40% 3 Hrs Friday, 15/11/2019 (FN)

Examination 9 AM – 12 Noon

Lab Calendar

11.08.2019 Lab Session 1

18.08.2019 Lab Session 2
25.08.2019 Lab Session 3
08.09.2019 Lab Session 4
13.10.2019 Review Session

Lab Starts : 12.08.2019 - 10.09.2019 Phase I

duration 30 days Practice
Mid Sem Break
Lab reopens : 12.10.2019 - 27.10.2019 Phase II
duration 16 days Practice
Remote Proctored LAB Exams

Regular 31.10.2019- 07.11.2019 7 days

Makeup 08.11.2019-15.11.2019 7 Days

Syllabus for Mid-Semester Test (Closed Book): Topics in Contact Hours : 1 to 16

Syllabus for Comprehensive Exam (Open Book): All topics
Important links and information:
E-learn portal: https://elearn.bits-pilani.ac.in
Students are expected to visit the E-learn portal on a regular basis and stay up to date with the latest
announcements and deadlines.
Contact sessions: Students should attend the online lectures as per the schedule provided on the E-learn
Evaluation Guidelines:
1. EC-1 consists of either two Assignments or three Quizzes. Students will attempt them through
the course pages on the E-learn portal. Announcements will be made on the portal, in a timely
2. For Closed Book tests: No books or reference material of any kind will be permitted.
3. For Open Book exams: Use of books and any printed / written reference material (filed or bound)
is permitted. However, loose sheets of paper will not be allowed. Use of calculators is permitted
in all exams. Laptops/Mobiles of any kind are not allowed. Exchange of any material is not
4. If a student is unable to appear for the Regular Test/Exam due to genuine exigencies, the student
should follow the procedure to apply for the Make-Up Test/Exam, which will be made available
on the E-learn portal. The Make-Up Test/Exam will be conducted only at selected exam centres
on the dates to be announced later.
It shall be the responsibility of the individual student to be regular in maintaining the self-study schedule
as given in the course handout, attend the online lectures, and take all the prescribed evaluation
components such as Assignment/Quiz, Mid-Semester Test and Comprehensive Exam according to the
evaluation scheme provided in the handout.