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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

Chapter 1

Lecture 6

Introduction - 6

Topics

1.3.1 Statistical features

(IV)

Joint probability

(V)

Correlations

(VI)

Spectrum

Homogeneity

Isotropy

Characterization of anisotropy

(IV) Joint probability :

When two variables say U & V, are studied simultaneously, the joint probability density

is B(U,V). It is defined as the fraction of time when U is between U and

(U + ΔU) and V is between V and (V + ΔV ),divided by the total time.

B(U,V)UV = T / T

Then,





BU,VdUdV

1

For further details see Ref.1.9, chapter 6.

(1.33)

(1.34)

(V) Correlations

To know whether two quantities influence each other, the time average of the product of

the two quantities is taken. Such an average is called a correlation. The basis for this

procedure is that (a) the product of two positive or two negative numbers, is positive i.e.

(+) x (+) = (+) and (-) x (-) = + and (b) the product of two numbers, one of which is

positive and other negative, is negative i.e. (+) x (-) = (-) or (-) x (+) = (-). Thus, if both

the quantities have the same sign at a given instant of time, then their contribution to the

correlation is positive. If the signs are opposite then the contribution to the correlation is

negative. Correlations are frequently used in practical applications e.g. students who

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 1

used in practical applications e.g. students who Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

are above average in physics would generally be above average in mathematics. Thus,

the correlation of marks in mathematics and physics, with respect to class averages in

these subjects, would be positive. On the other hand, their performance in literary

subjects may not be correlated with that in science subjects and the correlation may be

a small value.

As mentioned in section 1.2.4 the turbulent flows can be considered as consisting of

eddies of different kinds, sizes and orientation. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence

also confirms this kind of picture. References 1.40, chapters 5 & 6 give elaborate

description on this topic. An idea of the size of the eddy can be obtained by studying

correlations between fluctuating quantities (velocity components, pressure, temperature

etc.) at different places and at different instants of time.

The general definition of correlation is :

ss

i

x,r,

j

= s

i

x

,t

s

j

x +r

,t+

=

1

T

t

0 +T

s

t

0

i

x

,t

s

j

x+r

,t+

dt

(1.35)

where,

s

i

and

sare two fluctuating signals. The signal

j

sis measured at point x and

i

signal

sis measured at point (x+r) at time (t+). As mentioned earlier, the fluctuating

j

signal may be velocity component, pressure, temperature etc.

Correlation coefficient

It is defined as :

R

α,β

 

s

'

s

β

 

s  2 α
s
2
α



 

s  2 β
s
2
β

 

; no summation on greek indices.

(1.36)
(1.36)

Note :

(1) In Eq.(1.36) and in subsequent equations when Greek indices are used, the

summation convention is not applicable.

(2) Correlation coefficient indicates interdependence of two fluctuations.

Example 1.3

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Turbulence

 

Chapter-1

Consider

the

case,

when

s

i

= u,s

j

= v , r = 0 , = 0

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

i.e.

the

two

quantities

(

s

j

and

sj ) are measured at the same point and at the same time. Let, for every value of

u’, the value of vbe a multiple of u’ i.e. v’ = cu’ ; where, c is a constant. Figures 1.15a

and b show two cases when c is positive and negative respectively. In these cases it is

seen that

R

αβ

=

u  ×cu  u  2 cu  2
u  ×cu
u
2
cu
2

= 1 when, c > 0.

= -1 when, c < 0.

These two cases are representative of perfect correlation with R = 1 or -1. (Fig.1.15a &

b).

perfect correlation with R = 1 or -1. (Fig.1.15a & b). In the case shown in

In the case shown in Fig.1.15c, u’ and v’ are not perfectly correlated but for many

realizations when u’ is positive v’ is also positive or when u’ is negative v’ is also

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

negative. In this case,

R αβ

(Fig.1.15d) then, R = 0.

lies between 0 & 1. If the values of u’ & v’ are uncorrelated

Example 1.4

From the data of example 1.2, obtain

Solution :

uv

U

2

From the last column of Table E2.2 : Σuv=0.4528 or uv = 0.04528 u'v' 0.04528
From the last column of Table E2.2 :
Σuv=0.4528 or uv = 0.04528
u'v'
0.04528
=
= 1.063×10
-4
Hence,
U
2
20.64
2
Special cases

(i) Point correlation : This correlation is between any two signals measured

simultaneously at the same point P i.e. r = 0,=0 . Examples of such correlations are:

(a) Correlations among velocity components i.e.

tensor notation is used these correlations are written as :

u, v,w,u'v' , v'w' and wu' . When

2

2

2

u

1

222

, u

2

, u

3

, uu,uu

1

2

2

3

and

uu

3

1

.

(b) Pressure-velocity correlations i.e.p'u', p'v',and p'w' .

(c) Velocity-temperature correlations i.e. uθ,νθ,wθ . Note: θ is temperature

fluctuation.

(ii)Autocorrelation coefficient : In this case   , r=0, i=j,  0 i.e., a correlation

between signal and its value at times separated by a constant time interval. This

correlation is denoted by R() i.e.

R

=

s'

α

X

,t

s

α

X

,t+

s

2

α

, no summation on .

Remark :

(a) Measurement of R ()

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

(1.36a)

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

The older technique to measure time correlation was to use a correlator along with a

time delay limit (Fig.1.16). The correlator is an electronic device which takes time

average after multiplying two signals. The signal from Hot-wire anemometer (HWA) is

split into two. One of them is connected directly to the correlator and the other signal

passes through a time delay unit which can be set for desired time delay. Current

practice is to process the signal using softwares like MATLAB.

is to process the signal using softwares like MATLAB. (b) Typical autocorrelation curve is shown in

(b) Typical autocorrelation curve is shown in Fig.1.17. Following aspects are noted.

(i) At = 0, from Eq.(1.36a), R() = 1.

(ii) As increases the correlation decreases and goes to zero for some value of .

Subsequently, R() may oscillate around zero (Fig.1.17a).

(iii) For a stationary random quantity, by its definition, R() = R (-) or R() is

symmetric about =0.

) = R (-  ) or R(  ) is symmetric about  =0. Dept.

Dept. of Aerospace Engg., Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

Turbulence Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-1 Time correlation : It is a generalization of autocorrelation which

Time correlation : It is a generalization of autocorrelation which includes two distinct

signals emanating from the same point but at times separated by , i.e.

s

1



t

s

2

t+

=

1

T

t

0

+T

t

0

s

1

x

,t

s

2

x

,t+

dt

(1.37)

(iii) Spatial correlation: In this case, = 0 but r 0. It is a correlation between two

signals generated simultaneously a two points P 1 and P 2 with spatial separation r i.e.

s 1

X

s

2

X r

=

1

T

t

0 +T

s

t

0

1

x

,t

s

2

x+r ,

t

dt

(1.38)

When the two points P 1 and P 2 lie on the x 1 axis the special case is denoted by R 11 and

given by :

R

u 1

x

,

t

u

1

x

x

1

,

t

=

11 u

1

2

x

Space correlation coefficient is defined as :

s  x  , t s  x +r , t   
s
x 
,
t
s
x
+r ,
t
 
r
=
α
β
;
R αβ
s
2
s
2
α
β

no summation on α and β .

A plot of R 11 is given in Fig. 1.18.

(1.39)

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Turbulence Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-1 Remarks:
Turbulence
Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara
Chapter-1
Remarks:

(i) As x 1 0, R 11 (x 1 ) 1. However, R 11 (x 1 ) will in general be not symmetric about x 1

= 0 as the features of turbulence vary from point to point.

(ii) Two probes are needed to measure spatial correlation. The determination of

correlation coefficient between the two signals can be done by a correlator or using

software. Typical variation of R 11 (x 1 ), obtained when the second probe is moved in the

x 1 direction is shown in Fig.1.18.

(iii) Beyond a certain value of x 1 , say x 1L , in Fig.1.18, the correlation is zero or

negligible. This implies that the events at x 1 = 0 and at x 1 = x 1L are not correlated. This

provides an idea about the size of the larger eddies. Further, this fact of R(x 1 )

approaching zero, distinguishes turbulent flow from laminar flow. In a subsonic laminar

flow the correlation coefficient between any two points in the flow domain is either +1 or

-1, whereas in a turbulent flow it (correlation) goes to zero after a certain distance.

Direct spatial correlation :

It refers to correlation between same quantity at two different points.

R

r

=

u

α

x

,t

u

α

x+r

,t

u

2

α

(1.41)

Space time correlation : It is the general case defined by Eq.(1.35).

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

Remarks :

In this subsection correlations between two signals, have been discussed. These are

second order correlations. The averages like

uuuand

i

j

k

uuu

i

j

k

u are the third and

l

fourth order correlations.

VI) Spectrum

As mentioned in section 1.2.6 a turbulent signal can be approximated as superposition

of waves of different frequencies and amplitudes. The distribution of the energy of the

signal at various frequencies constitutes the frequency spectrum of the signal. This can

be measured with the help of a spectrum analyzer. This instrument consists of a band

pass filter in which the frequency band and the frequency in the middle of the band can

be selected. The band pass filter allows only the part of signal which lies in the selected

frequency band. For example, if the middle frequency is chosen as 100 Hz and the

band is 10 Hz, then the instrument would allow only the part of the signal having

frequencies between 90 to 110 Hz. The spectrum analyzer processes the signal and

gives

Δs

2 which is the mean square of the signal in the chosen frequency band. It is

evident that when the band width ( Δn ) decreases, the quantity (

limit. This limit is called ‘spectral density’ and denoted by E 11 (n) i.e.

E

11

n

= Lt

Hence,

s

2

Δn 0

s

2

n

=

0

E

11

n

dn

The normalized spectral density is defined as :

φn =

Then,

E

11

(n)

s

2

0

φ n dn =1

Δs

2 /Δn ) reaches a

(1.42)

(1.43)

(1.44)

(1.45)

A typical plot of spectral density function for the turbulent kinetic energy is shown in

Fig.1.19. The spectrum for u’ fluctuation is given in example 1.7.

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

Turbulence Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara Chapter-1 Remarks : (i) Relation between autocorrelation and spectrum The

Remarks :

(i) Relation between autocorrelation and spectrum

The autocorrelation and spectrum are two different ways of characterizing a turbulent

flow. Starting with the assumption that the fluctuating velocity component u’ can be

expressed as :

u

1

 

t

= 2



a n

e

-i2πnt

dn

(1.46)

and noting that the definitions of Rand E 11 (n) (see Eqs.(1.36) and (1.42)), Hinze

(Ref.1.3, chapter 1) shows that Rand E 11 (n) are Fourier transforms of each other i.e.

and

R

E 11

n

=

1

u

1

2

0

E

11

= 4u

1

2

0

R

n cos2πnt dn

 

(1.47)

cos2πn

d

.

(1.48)

It may be added that there are some mathematical difficulties in representing u’ by

Eq.(1.46). Hence, (Re.1.3, chapter 1) points out the ways to overcome these difficulties

and that it is valid in practical cases. Further, using Eqs. (1.47) & (1.48) one can deduce

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Turbulence

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

Rfrom E 11 (n) and vice-versa. However, with the availability of computers, both R

and E 11 (n) can be deduced from the record of the fluctuating quantity (see example 1.7).

(ii) Wave number spectra

The wave number in one-dimensional case is defined as :

1

2πn

=

U

1

Note that

1

is reciprocal of wavelength and has dimension of m -1 .

The spectrum function in terms of

E

11

1

=

U 1 E

2π 11

n

1 is defined as :

(1.49)

(1.50)

The one-dimensional wave number spectrum and the direct spatial correlation can be

shown to be related as:

R

11

 

x

1

and

E

11 1

=

=

0

E

11

1

cos

2

π

u

2

0

R

11

x

1

1

x dx

1

cos

1

1

x dx

1

1

(1.51)

(1.52)

(iii) As noted earlier, turbulence is three-dimensional in nature. Hence, in theoretical

work, especially while analyzing homogeneous turbulence; it is convenient, to work in

terms of wave number vector.

= i+j+

1

2

3

k

(1.53)

Homogeneity

A turbulent flow is said to be homogeneous, if the statistics are independent of position.

In this case, the spatial correlation ui x,tuj x+r,twill not depend on x, but only, on

the relative position r.

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Turbulence

 

Prof. E.G. Tulapurkara

Chapter-1

 

Isotropy

A

turbulent flow is said to be isotropic, if its statistics are independent of the directions.

In

this case, the correlation ui x,tuj x+r,twill depend on (a) x, (b) on the magnitude

r

of r, (c) the direction of r and (d) the angle between i and j. But, will not depend on

choice of direction of ‘i’. If the turbulent field is both isotropic and homogeneous then, it

will not depend on x. In isotropic turbulence,

See Hinze (Ref.1.3, chapter 3) for relation between correlation tensor and three-

dimensional energy spectrum.

u

1

2

2 2

= u

3 2

= u

.

Characterization of anisotropy

The commonly encountered turbulent flows are anisotropic i.e.

u

1

2

2 2

u

3 2

u

anisotropy is sometimes roughly characterized by the ratios

more precise manner, it is characterized by the anisotropy tensor defined as :

u

1

2

2 2

/u

and

u

1

2

3 2

/u

b

ij

=

u

i

u

j 1

-

2k

3

δ .

ij

u

222

 +u +u

1

2

3

2

k =

δ

ij

is the turbulent kinetic energy and

is Kronecker δ i.e. δ = 1if i = j and δ = 0 if i j

ij

ij

Note : 1)

b

11

=

2

u 2k

1

1

3

-

;

b

22

=

u

2 2

1

-

2k

3

;

b

33

=

u

2

3

1

-

2k

3

2) In isotropic turbulence b 11 = b 22 = b 33 = 0.

(1.53a)

.

The

. In a

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