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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all we would like to thank to our very merciful god ALLAH S.W.T because with
ALLAH S.W.T blessed we manage to finish this report in time. On behalf of my group partner
members, we would like to extend our appreciation to the many people who helped and giving
some idea in the accomplished of this report especially to both theory lecture and tutorial practical
lecturer, MISS SITI ARIFAH BT ABDUL KADER, for giving some guidance and taught in the
process of doing this report. In leading, this report had make several difficult decisions and also
difficulty in finding materials and resources, but this obstacles finally solved when we co-operates
with each other very well.

This report is designed based on the format given and we hope that there is no mistake in
this report as we have work so hard put all of our effort to finish this report. There are numerous
illustrations which help recognition, clarification, and most effectively in putting the field work
procedure in a concrete form. Many are grouped together to allow helpful comparisons to be
made. I have deliberately avoided to going into refinements and discussed only the bare
essentials of the subject.

Last, but certainly not least, owes it success to the tireless efforts of each and every group
member. Their contributions and personal sacrifices are truly appreciated and hope this will
continue in the next practical and other report or project.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENT PAGE
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 background of practical task
1.2 practical location
1.3 aim and objectives
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Overview of cadastral survey
2.2 Reconnaissance in cadastral surveying
2.3 Concept of differential field test
2.4 Concept of datum / solar observation
2.5 Concept of traversing
2.6 Radiation (BM pickup line)
2.7 Software used
2.8 Equipments used
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Flow chart form
3.2 Explanation of the flow chart
CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Result of DFT
4.2 Pre-comp plan
4.3 Proven datum
4.4 Calculation of traversing method
4.5 Radiation
4.6 Calculation of offset for refixation
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
5.1 Overall conclusion
5.2 General comments / group comments
5.3 Individual comments
References
Appendix
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 background of the practical task

The practical task is the first alienation survey. The purpose of the first alienation survey
is to plant / mark boundary mark on the earth surface. The first alienation survey work start with
the reconnaissance. A pre-computation plan need to be drawn by using AutoCAD. Before starting
the survey work, a differential field test should be done to test or to make sure whether the
equipments was in good condition and can be used. The differential field test that need to be done
is the three peg test.

Next, proving datum is important before start the survey work as datum is needed to find
fixed or permanently coordinate. As the students found two boundary marks so the method that
need to be done is the solar observation. After proving datum, the traverse can be start by using
the datum that had obtained. The traverse should be larger the actual location / site based on the
certified plan.

Next, pick up the boundary mark or as known as the radiation method will be done.
Refixation plays an important roles for the first alienation survey. Finally, a certified plan need to
be draw using AutoCAD.
1.2 practical location

Figure 1 shows the location of the site based on Google map.

The location of the first alienation survey work that had been done is at the water
tank near the Dewan Seri Semarak, UiTM Perlis. The location was lot number 7463 with
the area 2558.9 m². There is water tank, a lot of trees and the condition of the surface is
high and slope ground.
1.3 Aim and objectives of practical task

Aim

The aim of this practical task is to produce a certified plan for the first alienation survey.

Objective

1. To understand the concept of first alienation survey.


2. To understand the concept of traversing for the first alienation survey.
3. To know the offset calculation, procedure, pertaining for the refixation purpose.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Overview of cadastral survey

Cadastral surveying is the discipline of land surveying that relates to the laws of land
ownership and the definition of property boundaries. It involves interpreting and advising on
boundary locations, on the status of land ownership and on the rights, restrictions and interests
in property, as well as the recording of such information for use on plans, maps, etc. It also
involves the physical delineation of property boundaries and determination of dimensions, areas
and certain rights associated with properties, whether they are on land, water or defined by natural
or artificial features.

Cadastral surveys are generally performed to subdivide land into parcels for ownership
under a land title and to re-establish boundaries of previously surveyed properties to determine
the physical extent of ownership or to facilitate the transfer of the property title.

A surveyor, who is registered as a licensed surveyor under the Surveying Act 2004, is the
only person authorized to perform cadastral surveys in Victoria. The regulation of cadastral
surveying reflects the importance with which Government holds Victoria’s cadaster. The cadaster
is a parcel-based system of property (land) administration. It is comprised of physically delineated
boundaries, being the extents of parcels or interests in parcels, and datasets containing the public
record of the interests (i.e. rights, restrictions and responsibilities) in those parcels. The
government and community entrust licensed surveyors to maintain and protect the integrity of the
cadaster, which underpins economic development through confidence in the property market.
2.2 Reconnaissance in cadastral surveying

A reconnaissance is a process made during which an overall picture of the area is


obtained. The method of survey is considered and the most suitable positions for the traverse
station are decided. The purpose of the survey and the accuracy required will be known, as
these will affect the choice of a station positions.in ordinary traversing convenience, low cost
and time of work are of primary importance, so long as the required accuracy can be
maintained. The criteria for selection of station points is the station must be at the stable
surface, avoid any disturbance such as tree, building, The distance between stations must be
far (more than 30 m) and same as other traverse line. Avoid the sight line to close with earth
surface and the station must be available to observe all the detail surrounding.

2.3 Concept of differential field test

Differential filed test or as known as calibration is the process of evaluating and adjusting
the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment. Proper calibration of an instrument allows
people to have a safe working environment and produce valid data for future reference.
Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of
measurement equipment. Instrument calibration is intended to eliminate or reduce bias in an
instrument's readings over a range for all continuous values. Precision is the degree to which
repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same result. Accuracy is the
degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to its actual true value.
2.4 Concept of datum / solar observation

A datum is a reference from which measurement are taken. In surveying, a datum is a


reference point on the earth’s surface against which position measurement are made and an
associated model of the shape of the earth for computing position. Datum also be used to find
fixed or permanently coordinate. Without a good or precise datum, the surveyor will not achieve
a good job or satisfy. Then the errors occurred to overlap and land encroachment between a lots.

There are three types of boundary marks. Cadastral reference mark, two boundary marks
and three boundary marks. A two boundary marks measurement from NDCDB that separated
less than 40 meters which that exact position has proved with direct measurement and calculation
together with astronomical observation that is solar observation.

A solar observatory is an observatory that specializes in monitoring the Sun. As such, they
usually have one or more solar telescopes. Solar observatories study phenomena associated with
the sun to determine the azimuth. Azimuth determination is important and common operation in
cadastral work to determine the location of a points on earth surface (x, y, z).

2.5 Concept of traversing

A traverse is a series of straight lines called legs. The surveyor uses them to connect a
series of selected points called traverse stations (TS). The surveyor makes distance and angle
measurements and uses them to compute the relative positions of the traverse stations on some
system of coordinates. There are two types of traverse, open traverse and close traverse.

An open traverse originates at a starting station, proceeds to its destination and ends at a
station whose relative position is not previously known. The open traverse is the least desirable
type of traverse because it provides no check on fieldwork or starting data. For this reason, the
planning of a traverse always provides for closure of the traverse. Traverses are closed in all
cases where time permits. A closed traverse starts at a point and ends at the same point or at a
point whose relative position is known. The surveyor adjusts the measurements by computations
to minimize the effect of accidental errors made in the measurements. Large errors are corrected.
2.6 Radiation (BM pickup line)

Radiation is one of method of data collection. It is the bearing and distance observation.
The observation was on face left and the back bearing. The radiation process is done when there
is boundary marks found near the area / location of traverse.

2.7 Software used

AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design


(CAD) and drafting available since 1982 as a desktop application and since 2010 as a mobile
web- and cloud-based app marketed as AutoCAD 360. Developed and marketed by Autodesk,
Inc., AutoCAD was first released in December 1982, running on microcomputers with internal
graphics controllers. Prior to the introduction of AutoCAD, most commercial CAD programs ran
on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator (user) working at a separate
graphics terminal. AutoCAD is used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project
managers, engineers, designers, and other professionals. It is supported by 750 training centers
worldwide as of 1994. As Autodesk's flagship product, by March 1986 AutoCAD had become the
most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide.[4] As of 2014, AutoCAD is in its twenty-ninth
generation, and collectively with all its variants, continues to be the most widely used CAD
program throughout most of the world.

2.8 Equipment used

In first alienation survey task, the equipment used is total station, EDM reflector and tripod.
A total station or TST (total station theodolite) is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern
surveying and building construction. The total station is an electronic theodolite (transit) integrated
with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope distances from the instrument to a particular
point. EDM reflector is a corner-cube prism which is essential for most EDM and total station. The
EDM reflector (prism) is use to return the transmitted beam to the instrument to allow a distance
to be determined by time of flight or phase comparison. A tripod is a portable three-legged frame,
used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of some other object. A
tripod provides stability against downward forces and horizontal forces and movements about
horizontal axes. The positioning of the three legs away from the vertical center allows the tripod
better leverage for resisting lateral forces.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Flow Chart Form

RECONAISSANCE

PRODUCE PRE-
COMPUTATION PLAN

DIFFRENTIAL FIELD
TEST (DFT)

TRAVERSE

RADIATION

PROVE DATUM (SOLAR


OBSERVATION)

REFIXATION

PRODUCE CERTIFIED
PLAN (CP)

Figure 2 shows the process of the first alienation survey works


3.2 Explanation of the Flow Chart

Table 1 shows the explanation of the first alienation survey work

METHODOLOGY EXPLANATION
Reconnaissance Carried out to determine and selection of suitable station
points. The criteria for selection of station points:
 Use “whole to part “principle.
 The number of station must be minimize but
cover all the survey site.
 The distance between stations must be far (more
than 30 m) and same as other traverse line.
 Avoid the sight line to close with earth surface.
 Station must be at the stable surface.
 Try to avoid any disturbance such as tree,
building etc.
 The station must be available to observe all the
detail surrounding.
Produce pre-computation plan  According to Circular 2009 : pre comp plan
mean array plan or pre computation plan that
produce by DSMM or LS to show the propose of
new boundaries line (bearing & distance) and
the area of the lots based on computation from
existing survey data and any relevant survey
data which the linear misclosure not less 1:4000.
 The importance of pre-comp plan is to:
i) As a guideline for the LS to start survey
work as the pre-comp plan consist of
area, bearing and distance.
ii) To find the location site
iii) To plant the proposal new boundaries
line
iv) To produce new CP
Differential field test  Involves the use of an unknown 3-point
baseline.

 Measure a straight line L1. The line is than


divided in two part L2 and L3 and have to
measure this two lines.

Step 1 :

A B

Step 2 :

A C B

Step 3 :

A C B

Figure 3 shows the DFT steps

Zero error = (AC + BC) – AB


Traverse  A traverse consist of consecutive line related by
horizontal angle (bearing) and length (distance).

 Traverse may be classified as closed traverse


and open traverse. The traverse that had been
done in this practical task is closed traverse.

 Closed traverse is a complete cycle is made and


the work can be adjusted. It is begin with the
known point and ending at another known point.

 The traverse also should be bigger than the old


plan based on the old Certified Plan.

 The steps in doing traverse based on this


practical task are:

1. Do reconnaissance survey.
2. Choose stations on the site area to be used
as traverse stations. The distance between
stations should be larger.
3. Key in the datum which is based on the
certified plan into the total station.
4. Measure bearing and distance using total
station for all traverse line.
5. Compute the latitude and departures of all
traverse line.
6. Compute the linear misclosure.
7. Compute the adjustment using Bowditch
method.
8. Compute the coordinates of all traverse line.
Radiation  It is the bearing and distance observation. The
observation was on face left and started with
taking the back bearing first.

 The radiation process is done when there is


boundary marks found near the area / location of
traverse.

Figure 4 shows the radiation process


Prove datum  The process proving datum is important as datum
is a reference point.

 Since the students found only two boundary


marks, the process for the proving datum is the
solar observation.

 Solar observation used in determination of


location of a points on earth surface (x, y, z). The
RO for the solar observation is 211° 21’ 00’’ which
is taken from the old Certified Plan.
Refixation  It is the process of plant / placing the boundary
marks to its exact / old place based on the old
certified plan.

 The point where to plant the boundary marks was


checked by using the AutoCAD.

 The process of placing boundary marks is using


a picket not the granite stone, concrete pillar etc.
Produce Certified Plan  A certified plan or CP is a plan that reflects all the
materials on the ground into a plan. The CP is
prepared with the following format the given by
the DSMM. Its describe all information of
boundary limit and importance data.

 The preparation of the CP is:


1) Calculating field book
2) Calculate the area using final bearing, final
distance and traverse adjustment.
3) Creating calculation volume of lot.
4) Producing CP using appropriate software
such as AutoCAD.
CHAPTER 5: CONCUSION

5.1 Overall Conclusion

From the survey work, the traverse survey should be done with full of patients. During the
project site student got some knowledge and know how to prove datum using two boundary
marks. When using two boundaries marks, students have to prove it using solar observation.
Therefore, student can learn to do solar observation and know how to calculate the data from it.
Moreover, students have learned how to use radiation method in survey work.

On the other hand, the cooperation of the group members is very vital in order to get a
best result and completing the traverse work within the period that has been given by the lecturer.
Otherwise, the task could be very difficult to be completed and the objectives might not achieve.

Besides, students have to ensure that the equipment used are in their best condition to
avoid any errors and difficulties during survey work. Therefore, student have to do the differential
Field Test (DFT) first in other to know whether the instrument are under well-conditioned. Student
also have to avoid the error that may occur in the survey and try to minimize the error that beyond
control. Otherwise, this will lead to an unaccepted data computation
5.2 General comments / group comment

The most successful achievement that we had achieved is when we managed to follow
the rules and procedure of the first alienation survey works. We also managed to achieve all the
aim and the main objectives of this practical task. We had understand the concept of first
alienation survey, the concept of traversing for the first alienation survey and knowing the offset
calculation, procedure, pertaining for the refixation purpose.

We also tried to fulfill all requirements and specifications which have been specified in the
Peraturan Ukur Kadaster (PUK) 2009 but we faced some minor problems. In the process of taking
data when doing the traversing, one of our group members had taken the data wrongly. The
bubble in the prism also not centered which had caused error to the data. In the process of
calculating and analyzing the data, we had obtained error which is the value of c-correction was
bigger 1’ 15’’. We tried to fix all the errors and flaws and as the result, we successful to get a
precise data and a completed perfectly report.

While doing the process of the first alienation survey works, we faced a lot of problems /
obstructions regarding the equipment and the location of our site. We always cannot have a full
set of equipment as there are other group doing the same project. We have to rush to ensure that
we can have the equipment. In addition to that, we had to buy picket by our own as it was not
come with the equipment. However, we always lost our picket and our station’s mark. Therefore,
we often redo the traversing due to these problem. We also always had to scramble and compete
the boundary mark which we had set as the datum as other groups was using the same datum.
Sometimes, due to the bad weather, we had to postponed our project although we already at the
site. We cannot avoid the nature phenomenal. Regarding to our location, the condition are slope
ground which caused some difficulties for us to setup the tripod and we also easily exhausted as
the we had to walk up the hill. There is also a place where there is a lot of ants and we had bitten
and it is hurt.
5.3 Individual Comments

Muhammad Afiq bin Shaharuddin (2014808526)

 general comment on the commitment of your group member


I think my group members are giving 100% their commitment in this project work.

Rating from 0 to 10 according to their commitment, leadership and attendances


Name commitment Leadership attendances
Angelynna Lovelyn Laurence 5 5 5
Raihan Maisara Binti Ahmad Izdihar 5 5 5
Fadilah Binti Mohd Husni 5 5 5

 suggestion if any to improve the quality of project in the future


Use GIS software so planners can analyze scenarios more quickly and giving decision
makers more choices.
Fadilah binti Mohd Husni (2014468788)

 general comment on the commitment of your group member


The commitment of my group is high because we have divided the work among us and
every member are doing their work very well.

Rating from 0 to 10 according to their commitment, leadership and attendances


Name commitment Leadership attendances
Angelynna Lovelyn Laurence 5 5 5
Raihan Maisara Binti Ahmad Izdihar 5 5 5
Muhammad Afiq Bin Shaharuddin 5 5 5

 suggestion if any to improve the quality of project in the future


Identify additional information sources which may be leveraged to improve classification
accuracy.
Raihan Maisara Binti Ahmad Izdihar (2014815576)

 general comment on the commitment of your group member


My group members are supportive and cooperate well.

Rating from 0 to 10 according to their commitment, leadership and attendances


Name commitment leadership attendances
Fadilah binti mohd husni 5 5 5
Angelynna Lovelyn Laurence 5 5 5
Muhammad Afiq bin Shaharudin 5 5 5

 suggestion if any to improve the quality of project in the future


Use ESRI’s software solutions so planners can get a broad view of the current situation
and more accurately assess the future.
Angelynna Lovelyn Laurence (2014638726)

 general comment on the commitment of your group member


My group members did their work very well.

Rating from 0 to 10 according to their commitment, leadership and attendances


Name Commitment Leadership Attendances
Fadilah Binti Mohd Husni 5 5 5
Muhammad Afiq Bin Shaharudin 5 5 5
Raihan Maisara Binti Ahmad Izdihar 5 5 5

 suggestion if any to improve the quality of project in the future


Provides expert advice to wildfire management branch in the area of obstacles and radar remote
sensing.