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Dissertation Report on

Geo-Structural Approach

Submitted

in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Technology

in

Civil-Structural Engineering

by

Mr Khan Sirajahmad Anwar

(Roll No. 1724005)

Sponsored by

Z Z Consultants, Mumbai

Dr. P. S. Patil

K.E. Society’s

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar

(An Autonomous Institute, Affiliated to Shivaji University, Kolhapur)

2018-2019

K.E. Society’s

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology, Rajaramnagar

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that, Mr Khan Sirajahmad Anwar (Roll No- 1724005) has suc-

Structural Engineering from the Department of Civil Engineering, as per the rules

Sangli.

Date:

Name and Sign of External Examiner Name and Sign of Head of Program

ii

Here join Company Project Completion certificate on Letterhead of company

iii

DECLARATION

I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and

where others’ ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and ref-

erenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of

academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsi-

(data, theoretical analysis, figures, and text) from other sources, I have given due

credit to them by citing them in the text of the report and giving their details in

the references.

Date: 1724005

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Though only my name appears on the cover of this dissertation, a number of peo-

ple have contributed to its production. I owe my gratitude to all those people who

have made this dissertation possible and have helped me through the year leading

up to this.

ened guide Dr. P. S. Patil, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,

RIT Rajaramnagar, for his instinctive and careful guidance and continued encour-

agement in the completion of this dissertation work.

of Civil Engineering Department and Prof. Dr. P. S. Patil, Head of Program for

giving me permission for internship and immense co-operation for completing this

dissertation.

I would like to express my gratitude towards Librarian Mr. Vishwas Hase of RIT

Central Library and E-Library for providing me ample literature and e-journals..

ration in the research field of master of technology. I am greatly thankful for his

perspective in research which has given motivation to me.

I, finally, would like to thank all faculty, teaching and non-teaching staff, friends

and family who have helped me directly and indirectly to complete this disserta-

tion.

Date: 1724005

v

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been an increasing number of structures using piled rafts

as the foundation to reduce the overall and differential settlements. The piles are

mainly designed to take up the foundation loads and the raft only carries a small

proportion the raft foundation performance alone does not satisfy the design re-

quirements. Also, piled raft foundations provide an economical foundation option

for circumstances. Under these situations, the addition of a limited number of

piles may improve the ultimate load capacity, the settlement, and differential set-

tlement performance, and the required thickness of the raft. An finite element

method of analysis has been performed to estimate the settlement and load dis-

tribution of a large piled raft foundation. In this method, the raft is modeled

as a thin plate and the pile and soils together are treated as interactive springs.

Both the resistance of the piles as well as the base of the raft are incorporated

into the model. Raft-soil-raft interaction is taken into account. The solution to

problems of uniformly and large nonuniformly arranged piled rafts ‘makes possible

by this proposed method in a timesaving way using computers. The computed

settlements compared favorably with permissible value. This paper focuses on the

general effects of various parameters like raft thickness and soil on the piled raft.

Keywords: Pile foundation, piled raft foundation, pile cap, RC tall building,

settlements, SAFE 2012.

vi

Contents

CERTIFICATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

SPONSORSHIP CERTIFICATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

DECLARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

CONTENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

NOMENCLATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii

ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Motivation of the present work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.3 Piled Raft Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.4 Brief review of the literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.4.1 Finite element method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.4.2 Boundary element method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.4.3 Piles as a settlement reducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 Layout of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Literature Review 11

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3 Research Gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.4 Scope of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.5 Objectives of present work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

vii

2.6 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3 Soil-Structure Interaction 23

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.2 Brief review of the literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.3 Interaction mechanism of piled raft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4.2 Finite Element Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

4.3 Modelling of tall building using ETABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.3.1 Plan and 3D view of 56 storey building . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.3.2 Loading Inputs Using ETABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.4 Modeling and analysis of Piled foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.4.1 Piled property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.4.2 Plan view of Pile 56 storey buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.4.3 Loading inputs used in SAFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.5 Modeling and analysis of Piled raft foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.5.1 Meshing of Piled Raft Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.5.2 Raft Material and Raft Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.5.3 Assign of Soil Subgrade Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.2 Analysis result . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.2.1 Maximum Settlement and Differential Settlement . . . . . . 42

5.2.2 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.2.3 Effect of different pile diameter and length in piled raft . . 44

5.2.4 Effect of varying soil stiffness on the load carrying capacity

of raft and pile for building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.3 Cost analysis of piled raft foundation with conventional pile foun-

dation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

5.4 Discussion of results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

viii

6 Conclusions And Future Scope 48

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.2 Concluding Remark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.3 Future Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ON PRESENT WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

APPROVED COPY OF SYNOPSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

VITAE (CV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

ix

List of Figures

1.2 Burj Khalifa Tower, ht 828m Dubai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3.2 Interaction between a loaded pile and an unloaded pile . . . . . . . 26

3.3 Interaction between a loaded pile and the soil surface . . . . . . . . 27

3.4 Interaction between a loaded surface and an unloaded pile . . . . . 28

3.5 Interaction between a loaded surface and an unloaded surface . . . 28

4.2 Snip of a static earthquake and wind load pattern considered for

the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.3 Snip of static earthquake load in X- direction . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.4 Snip of static earthquake load in Y- direction . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

4.5 Snip of Response spectra used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.6 Snip of Response spectra load case in X- direction . . . . . . . . . . 33

4.7 Snip of Response spectra load case in Y- direction . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.8 Snip of details of wind load considered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.9 Snip of Piled Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.10 Layout of Pile foundation (Plan view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.11 Load acting on piles (3D view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.12 Displacement of pile cap ( 13.10 mm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.13 Structural idealization for a raft with pile and supporting soil . . . 37

4.14 Snip of Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.15 Snip of RAFT with Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.16 Snip of Raft Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

x

4.17 Snip of Slab Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.18 snip of Soil Subgrade Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.19 Plan and view of RAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.20 Soil pressure distribution in piled Raft foundation (447.03kN/m2) . 40

4.21 Displacement of piled raft foundation (9.90mm) . . . . . . . . . . . 40

5.2 Graph shows Raft thickness v/s Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.3 Graph shows Pile cap thickness v/s Bending Moment . . . . . . . . 43

5.4 Graph shows Raft thickness v/s Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . 44

5.5 Graph shows the load taken by Raft v/s soil stiffness . . . . . . . . 45

5.6 Graph shows the load taken by Pile v/s soil stiffness . . . . . . . . . 46

xi

List of Tables

5.1 Top story displacement and max story drifts for 56 storey building . 41

5.2 Shows the variation between various structural moments and dis-

placements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.3 Shows effect of varying raft thickness on a pile . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

5.4 Shows the variation of a maximum positive and negative moment

with an increase in pile cap thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

5.5 Shows the variation of a maximum positive and negative moment

with an increase in raft thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

5.6 Effect of different pile diameter of 15m length in piled raft . . . . . 44

5.7 Effect of different pile diameter of 18m length in piled raft . . . . . 44

5.8 Effect of different pile diameter of 20m length in piled raft . . . . . 45

5.9 Effect of soil stiffness on the load carrying capacity of Raft in piled

raft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.10 Effect of soil stiffness on the load carrying capacity of Pile in piled

raft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

xii

NOMENCLATURE

δs Vector of soil displacement at the nodes

αps Pile-soil interaction

αss pile-soil interaction

αss Soil-soil interaction

Is Soil influence matrix

Ps Dector of forces acting at the soil interfaces

d Displacement

Ec Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

EX Earthquake in X- direction

EY Earthquake in Y- direction

fck Characteristic compressive strength

fy Yield Stress

EY Earthquake in Y- direction

h Height

I Important factor

k Stiffness of the Structure

k1 Risk Coefficient

ks Terrain Roughness and Height factor

k3 Topography Factor

R Response reduction factor

T Time period

Vb Base shear

Vd Design lateral force

Vz Design wind speed

WX Wind in X-direction

WY Wind in Y-direction

V Seismic weight

Z Zone factor

xiii

ABBREVIATIONS

CA Conventional Analysis

IS Indian Standard

3D Three Dimensional

RC Reinforced Concrete

RS Response Spectrum

xiv

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 General

This introductory chapter gives quick insights into the project. It gives a general

idea about the necessity of tall structures, the motivation of the present work Also,

Advantages and limitations for piled raft foundation.

Since the dawn of time, men have tried to touch the sky. In fact, living in high

houses has become synonymous with being at the top of the social order. Even

if they look at the Egyptian pharaohs, it is quite clear that they thought ”the

greater, the better.” These extremely tall and impressive structures, however, are

evidence of how far the methods of the human building have come. Human beings

have always aspired to construct ever higher heights from Babel’s legendary Tower

to the iconic Burj Khalifa. We have built towering buildings over the centuries

to celebrate our culture, encourage our towns–or just show off. Historically, the

preservation of excellent leaders, religions, and empires has been high structures.

For example, Giza’s Great Pyramid — constructed to house Pharaoh Khufu’s

grave— once towered over 145 meters high. For almost 4,000 years, it was the

highest man-made structure before being overtaken in the 14th century by the 160-

meter-tall Lincoln Cathedral. Yet the skyscrapers of the 20th and 21st centuries

are dwarfing these great historical attempts. London’s Shard stands at its broken

tip at a height of 310 meters–but the world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa, stands

at a height of over 828 meters, makes it look tiny. And the Kingdom Tower in

1

Jeddah will leave both these behemoths in the shadows. Originally scheduled to

achieve 1,600 meters by architect Adrian Smith, the tower is now likely to achieve

a height of 1000 meters once it is finished in 2020. Building height has risen

over the years to save on property, and the construction of high-rise structures

of reinforced concrete (RC) has become common. As a consequence, issues were

noted and reported owing to differential axial shortening of vertical components.

The complete shortening of the columns is usually of practical concern. However,

the impacts on horizontal components of differential axial shortening can lead to

excessive deflection and unacceptable crack widths. Furthermore, the former can

cause damage to non-structural elements such as façades, partitions, cladding, and

mechanical facilities. In addition, when vertical components are rigidly attached

via plates or beams, relative vertical deformations can produce substantial inner

forces and the ultimate limit states may require important redistribution of forces.

Thus, the axial deformations of columns, both elastic and inelastic, involve unique

consideration in designing and constructing high constructions of buildings. In

India, a law enacted in the 1990s restricts the maximum height of a building

to under 300 meters. However, the government has occasionally granted special

clearances for some projects that are over 300 meters. Imperial tower 1 and 2 in

Mumbai stand as the tallest building in India rising to a height of 254 meters (833

feet). Ahuja tower 250 meters (820 feet), Lodha Fiorenza 225 meters (738 feet),

World crest 223 meters (732 feet) are among the rest to name a few.

There have been many building projects built on soft soil in latest years. Because

of soft soil features, the structures constructed on it are subject to differential

settlements. The layout is one of the ways in which differential settlement can be

reduced. Despite the appropriate bearing capacity of the raft foundation, it may

trigger excessive settlement. The Piles can be used as a stacked raft foundation

scheme with a raft foundation, piles are added to decrease the colonies to an ac-

ceptable amount[4]. In the field of geotechnical engineering, FEM assessment is

common. Piled raft analyzes using the finite element method to explore researchers

’ efficiency of a piled raft. For stacked raft analysis. This technique can produce

excellent outcomes. Construction of tall buildings over 150 m in height has been

2

seen in the last two decades as a notable rise and an almost exponential growth

rate. In the Middle East and Asia, a substantial amount of tall buildings have

been built, and many more are either scheduled or under construction. The new

challenges facing engineers, especially in relation to structural and geotechnical

design, constructing super-tall buildings in excess of 300m in height. Many of the

traditional methods of design require extrapolation well beyond the realms of pre-

vious experience and cannot be used with confidence, Structural and geotechnical

engineers are compelled to use more complicated analytical and design methods.

In specific, geotechnical engineers are increasingly leaving behind empirical meth-

ods and using state-of - the-art techniques to design the foundations of super-tall

buildings[21]. The pile foundation layout is based on vertical and horizontal stress

account and the foundation’s structural integrity. The lateral bearing on pile

foundations resists the base shear. During earthquakes, vertical seismic loads may

have to bear big tensile as well as compression forces on individual pile structures.

The most challenging element of seismic pile design is lateral strength(S). It must

be closely ensured that the strata adjacent to and below the stacks have adequate

adhesive, shear, and bearing power under the soil-pile interaction during earth-

quakes[19]

3

Figure 1.2: Burj Khalifa Tower, ht 828m Dubai

The use of piled raft foundations is considered in the situation that the raft alone

cannot meet the design demands, and the piles are required to decrease the struc-

tures ’ overall and differential settlements. In these situations, adding a limited

number of piles can improve the ultimate load capacity, settlement, and differ-

ential settlement performance, and the raft’s required thickness. When piles are

used together with a raft, the loads applied are transmitted through the pile to

the supporting soil. As a piled raft base, both the pile and the cap are taken

into consideration when carrying the imposed load as a raft footing. Piled raft

foundations design philosophies are

a) The piles are intended primarily to take up loads of the foundation and the

raft carries only a tiny percentage.

b) A raft is designed to withstand the foundation loads and a small proportion of

4

the total load is carried by the piles. They are strategically positioned to decrease

differentials settlement.

c) A raft is intended to handle most of the loads from the base. The piles are

designed to reduce the net pressure of contact between the raft and the soils to

a level below thesoil pre-consolidation pressure. Extensive study work has been

performed over the previous decades to enhance the precision of predicting piled

raft behaviour. Design technicians must know the behavior of load transfer from

a raft to the piles and to the soil to predict when designing piled raft.

i) The raft’s behavior involving settlement, bending time and the raft’s ratio of

load and

ii) Piles behavior involving displacement and distribution of load along with piles.

In the assessment, the interaction between pile, raft, and soil is of great interest.

In the design of the foundation, it is prevalent practice to consider first the use of

shallow or raft foundation to support a structure, and then, if this is not sufficient,

to design a fully piled foundation in which the piles resist the full design loads. It

is also common for the raft to be part of the framework instead of this design strat-

egy because of the need to provide the cellar below the structure. Construction

of tall structures has become increasingly prevalent in the previous few years, and

fresh difficulties strike structural and geotechnical engineers with them. The huge

study has been carried out for this purpose and it has been acknowledged that the

strategic use of piles can decrease raft settlement and differential settlement and

can lead to a significant economy without including the foundation’s safety and

efficiency.

sub-soil, the construction blocks are backed on isolated footings, mixed footings,

raft or mat foundation system, pile foundation system and piled raft foundation

scheme. Most of the multi-story structures built on fragile soil are usually backed

on the base of the mat or pile or piled raft.

A mat foundation for high constructions with an appropriate safety factor may

be against ultimate bearing capacity failure. There may be excessive settlements,

however. Under these conditions, pile foundations would be used to bypass soft

5

foundations that are unable to support the shallow foundation and bring loads to

harder strata and provide a more suitable strategy.

In some circumstances, pile foundations are sometimes subjected to considerable

lateral loads in addition to vertical loads. The lateral loads may be due to wind

loads and seismic forces when constructing frames. A pile foundation-even a single

pile-is to a very large degree statically indeterminate. Accordingly, the possibility

of accurate assessment is even more remote than most soil structure interaction

issues.

Deep foundations are traditionally used when shallow foundations do not satisfy

the criteria of bearing capacity or settlement, and the design philosophy is under-

going a gradual shift lately. It is increasingly embraced the notion of piled-raft

foundations (PRF), in which the load from the superstructure is partially taken

by piles and the rest removed by the raft. The piles are intended not to carry the

complete load, but to decrease settlement.

The piles used only as ”settlement reducers” were regarded as a piled-raft scheme

and strategically situated below the strongly charged parts of the mat to decrease

settlements.

Analysis of the foundations of pile raft presents a much more complicated issue

than the evaluation of any other foundation scheme, such as isolated bases, mixed

bases, and mat scheme. When the lateral load acting on such a foundation scheme

goes into the image, the assessment becomes more complex. Combined flexural

stresses are generally significant variables that require reliable prediction of bend-

ing moments in the piles. This needs a reasonable assessment of the structure

based elements interaction.

The different analytical and numerical methods available for solving the pile raft

foundation issue can be widely categorized into the following classifications:

i) Approximation Method

ii) Boundary Element Method

iii) Finite Element Method

iv) Combined Boundary Element and Finite Element Method

v) Combined Finite Layer and Finite Element Method

vi) Variational Approach

6

1.4 Brief review of the literature

The accessible literature on the different methods for the assessment of piled raft

incorporating soil-structure interaction is briefly discussed. Generally speaking,

the full analysis implies considering each pile in the group in detail. For this

type of assessment, it is possible to use boundary element analysis, finite element

analysis or some mixed techniques. This type of technique can be used to resolve

the issues found in the solutions to the load-transfer curve and the method of

the interaction variable. Through this full assessment, the piles vary in length,

diameter, rigidity or the strength of the foundation and shaft may be considered in

detail. It is also possible to consider nonlinear soil-pile reaction and pile-soil-raft

interaction. In addition, it is easy to obtain the distribution of load and bending

moment along with the piles and raft.

A range of methods has been created in the latest years, as stated in the previous

chapter, to analyze the pile raft foundation system. All of these approaches vary in

the degree of sophistication of the number of formulations and the type of required

input parameters, the assumptions made, and the applicability to realistic pile-soil

situations. A short overview of these methods and a few significant references are

presented in the subsequent paragraphs.

The assessment of finite elements determines the piles’ load transfer conduct

through the surrounding soil, but it is not very relevant to groups of piles. In

addition, this type of assessment is very time-consuming, the cost is very high,

and too much attention is needed to prepare information. Therefore, the as-

sessment of boundary elements is preferable. However, with the latest computer

programs, the finite element analysis can be done in a simpler way. Naturally, the

technicians should dominate the laws and acceptance of the program while using

these types of programs. He or she should therefore always be in command and

not depend entirely on the program.

Maharaj (2003) used a nonlinear finite element method to analyze square raft and

piled raft foundation. For the analysis of piled raft foundations in overconsoli-

dated clay, Reul and Randolph (2003) provided a three-dimensional elasto-plastic

finite element method. Maharaj and Gandhi (2004) suggested a non-linear finite

7

element method for analyzing a piled raft undergoing uniform load distribution.

Y.C. Tan, C.M. Chow et al. (2005), an iterative design method for piled raft foun-

dation, is provided using skin friction piles of varying size in smooth ground. G.

Hassen and P. Buhan (2006), to design the foundation of a medium-rise construc-

tio. In order to predict the settlements experienced by a piled raft foundation

when subject to the combined action of vertical and lateral loadings, present a

multi-phase model and the corresponding computational time-saving finite ele-

ment code.

Ningombam Thoiba Singh and Baleshwar Singh (2008), they present the results

of a finite element analysis for piled rafts in cohesive soils. Noh et al. (2008) pre-

sented the results of the finite element based analyses of a series of different size

mat foundations with and without pile group beneath, in sandy soils. Jun Chen et

al. (2009), the layered soil model is used to simulate the nonlinear performances

of the layered soil and the interaction equation of the superstructure-pile-raft-soil

system is formulated.

Zehai Cheng (2011), has presented a simplified pile-soil-raft interaction method,

the raft is analyzed by the Finite Element Method (FEM). Cui Chun-Yi et al.

(2011), the soil deformation on interaction behavior of piled rafts and soil founda-

tion by using a fully coupled finite element method of consolidation in which an

elasto-viscoplastic model is incorporated.

Unlike the assessment of finite elements, the boundary element assessment pro-

vides precise alternatives for pile groups, is not very time consuming and has a

reduced price as it provides alternatives using boundary values. Some critical

places such as the pile-soil interface are given unique care.

There are several computer programs that have been created through several kinds

of studies using the boundary element analysis with several other techniques.

Fleming et al. (1992) list these. Below are some examples:

a) DEPIG which is developed by Poulos in 1990, uses a simplified boundary ele-

ment method analysis and interaction factors.

b) MPILE, originally named PIGLET (developed by Randolph, 1980), uses a

semiemperical method with analytical solutions and interaction factors.

8

c) PGROUP which is developed by Banerjee and Driscoll in 1976, uses a linear

elastic analysis.

d) GEPAN which is developed by Xu and Poulos in 2000, uses a linear analysis.

e) PGROUPN which is developed by Basile in 1999, uses a non-linear boundary

element analysis.

The standard design practice for pile foundations is based on the premise that

piles are free-standing and that all internal loads are performed by piles and that

any footing contribution is ignored. This strategy is therefore over-conservative,

as the raft or pile cap is in direct contact with the soil and therefore carries a

substantial portion of the load.

Recently, the design philosophy is undergoing a gradual shift. It is increasingly

embraced the notion of piled raft foundations (PRF), in which the load from the

superstructure is partially taken by piles and the rest taken by the raft.

This idea of using piles as settlement-reducers was started in the seventies (Hanson

et al., 1973; Burland et al., 1977). In the case of a piled raft on clay, this philosophy

has been developed into a refined design method in Sweden. According to overview

of design method, the building load inducing stresses in excess of the clay pre-

consolidation pressure is carried by the piles in a state of creep failure, while the

remaining portion of the load is carried by the contact pressure at the raft-soil

interface (Hansbo, 1984; Jendeby, 1986; Hansbo and Jendeby, 1998).

Keeping in view the above objective, the dissertation is divided into six chapters;

the dissertation is organized as per detail is given below:

Chapter 1: Introduction to the problem under consideration; various elements re-

lated to it and present the current state of relevant knowledge at the backdrop of

the brief review of the corresponding literature. Aims and objectives of the pro-

posed investigations are also outlined. The scope of the work is also mentioned.

Chapter 2: This chapter involves a review of the literature, including a review of

prior research conducted by some researchers.

Chapter 3: Describes the interaction of the soil structure, the impact of the super-

9

structure on a piled raft foundation, the interaction mechanism of the stacked raft

consisting of four distinct kinds of interaction (such as pile-pile, pile-soil, soil-pile,

and soil-soi).

Chapter 4: Deals with a brief introduction to the software tool that is used for

the whole and sole process of analyzing, designing and producing results for the

various structural models used for the dissertation work.

Chapter 5: This chapter deals with a summary of the results obtained from the

analysis.

Chapter 6: Salient conclusions and recommendations of the present study are

given in this chapter. Future scope of this study is mentioned as well followed by

the references.

10

Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

This chapter provides a detailed review of the literature related to finite element

modeling of a tall building with effect Piles system and Piled Raft Foundation are

addressed in this chapter. A brief review of previous studies on the application

of the finite element method to the analysis of tall buildings is presented in this

section. By referring some of the resources like Science Direct, fundamental tech-

nical papers from journals and conferences, latest technical papers, research thesis,

national and international workshop proceedings, research institute publications,

authorized websites, and reference books, etc.

The researches carried on this topic are shown in the form of a literature survey

are as follows:

Hain and Lee (1978): “The Analysis of flexible Raft-Pile Systems” developed an

analysis to examine the behaviour of a flexible raft supported by a group of com-

pressible friction piles embedded in an elastic homogeneous or non-homogeneous

material with the consideration of the ultimate capacity of the piles. The analysis

combined the finite element method for the analysis of the raft and the boundary

element method for the analysis of the piles and soil. The raft was treated as

a thin elastic plate and the pile group - supporting soil system was modelled by

the use of the Mindlin equation. However, the connection between the raft and

11

the pile was assumed to be a sliding ball joint which implied that no moments or

lateral forces were transferred between the raft and pile heads. In the analysis,

they suggested that the behaviour of the piled raft would depend on the relative

flexibility of the raft and the relative stiffness of the pile to the soil. Four differ-

ent interactions between the piles, raft, and soil were introduced and thoroughly

considered in the analysis. In addition, a ‘load cut-off’ procedure was introduced

to account for the development of the ultimate load capacities of the piles.

analysis to predict the settlement of piled raft foundations. The method is capable

of taking into account the soil-structure interaction and non-linear behaviour at

the pile-soil interface. The piles were analyzed by the boundary element method

and the behaviour of a pile group embedded in an elastic continuum was then

analyzed based on the use of interaction factors. The raft was analyzed by the use

of the finite element method and the interaction between the piles, raft and soil

were represented by a linear elastic model. To stimulate the non-linear behaviour,

a stepwise linear incremental procedure was used and a hyperbolic load settlement

relationship for a single pile was assumed.

clearly that piled raft foundations provide an economical foundation option for

circumstances where the performance of the raft alone does not satisfy the design

requirements. Under these situations, the addition of a limited number of piles

may improve the ultimate load capacity, the settlement, and differential settlement

performance, and the required thickness of the raft. This report summarizes the

philosophy of using piles as settlement reducers and outlines the key requirements

of design methods for rafts enhanced with piles. A number of available methods

of analysis of piled raft behaviour are reviewed, and their capabilities and limita-

tions are discussed. Some of the methods are useful only for preliminary design

or for checking purposes, while others are capable of giving detailed performance

predictions and can be used for detailed design. Conclusions are reached regard-

ing the utility of some of the current methods used for design and the limitations

of two-dimensional numerical analyses. A summary is also given of some recent

12

research on the analysis of piled rafts subjected to lateral loadings.

plified method of numerical analysis to estimate the deformation and load distri-

bution of piled raft foundations subjected to vertical, lateral, and moment loads,

using a hybrid model in which the flexible raft is modelled as thin plates and the

piles as elastic beams and the soil is treated as springs. Both the vertical and

lateral resistances of the piles, as well as the rafting base, are incorporated into

the model. Pile–soil–pile, pile–soil–raft and raft–soil–raft interactions are taken

into account based on Mindlin’s solutions for both vertical and lateral forces. The

validity of the proposed method is verified through comparisons with several ex-

isting methods for single piles, pile groups, and piled rafts.

Maharaj D.K. (2004): “Non-linear Finite Element Analysis of Piled Raft Founda-

tions” continued his work in non-linear finite element analysis of piled raft founda-

tion under the application of uniformly distributed load. Figure 2.1 shown below

gives finite element discretization and boundary conditions applied to pile raft

foundation. Load settlement curves of the raft and piled raft foundation have

been provided for different raft and pile stiffness.

13

Reul O. (2004): “Design Strategies for Piled Rafts Subjected to Nonuniform Ver-

tical Loading” has carried out a numerical study of bearing behavior of piled rafts

in overconsolidated clay. It is shown that the interaction between piles and rafts

is a major influence on bearing capacity of the piled-raft foundation. Novak L.J et

al. (2005) carried out an analysis of pile-raft foundations with a 3D finite-element

method. They found following reasons for use of the 3D Finite Element Method

(FEM): (1) the problem is so complex that simplified methods cannot model the

problem correctly; and (2) codes for the FEM are available, powerful, and capable

of being run on the personal computer. Comparisons were made between experi-

mental and analytical results for two piled –raft foundations resting on stiff clay

and the FEM has shown to yield excellent results for the cases analyzed.

Y. C. Tan et. al. (2005): “Piled raft with different pile length for medium rise

buildings on very soft clay”- presented an iterative design approach for piled raft

foundation in which the foundation of a medium-rise building (5-storeys) is de-

signed using skin-friction piles of different lengths in a soft ground show that

control the differential settlement at the onset rather than limiting the overall set-

tlement. The foundation system consists of a piled raft with varying pile length

with longer piles in the central portion of the building and progressively shorter

piles towards the edge. The detailed design of the foundation system requires the

following cases to be considered i) Overall settlement behavior (predict the settle-

ment profile for structure design), ii)Pile-soil-structure interaction (to determine

the load distribution and local settlement of piles). the design utilizes the interac-

tion between piled raft soil in order to produce an optimum design that satisfies

both serviceability and ultimate limit states.

piled raft foundations”- presents an approximation which reduces computer run

time considerably, and yet results in very little error. This approximate method

should be useful for quick or preliminary design. A numerical method has been

described for the approximate computation of influence factors for raft and piled

raft foundations. The only restriction is that the raft has to be square and of equal

size. The accuracy of the approximate method compared to a full analysis has

14

been demonstrated through the examples. The advantage of the approximation is

that it can reduce computer run time by up to 100 times that of the full analysis.

For large problems, this saving can be very significant. When the bearing stratum

becomes stiffer, the piles carry loads and the raft carries fewer loads. For the case

of a flexible raft, all the piles carry almost the same load and the twisting moments

are largest in the region where the piles are in contact with the raft.

tion to optimize the design of high-rise buildings and bridge foundations” have

done generally over view on recent innovative applications (case studies) of piled

rafts in Germany on Frankfurt clay, Berlin sand, and Marl and weathered rock

for highway bridges. The piled raft foundation provides a new geotechnical con-

cept not only for high rise buildings but also for residential buildings and bridges,

which allow a high grade technical and economical optimization of construction.

Any kind of eccentric construction can be safely founded on soft to stiff clay and

also on loose to medium dense sand by appropriate location of piles, staggering

the pile length and suitable pile diameter. The number and length of piles, the

pile load share, total bearing capacity of the piled raft and its settlement are main

criteria that should be investigated during a feasibility study to check the valid-

ity of piled raft. Sometimes geological conditions at the site consist of weathered

rocks on which piled raft foundation has to be laid. Recently high rise buildings

are founded on weathered rock especially in Middle East countries.

represented a method of analysis for piled raft foundations where the piles exhibit

non-linear load-deflection behavior. The raft is analyzed through the use of finite

element methods, while the piles are treated as springs having a variable stiffness,

so as to modal any non-linear behavior. The soil is treated as an elastic medium

that may consist of a layer of soil having different stiffnesses. Interaction between

the piles in the group is assumed to remain constant even though the stiffness of

the piles may change with the load level. The method has been incorporated into

the computer program GRAP (General Analysis of Raft with Piles).

15

H. G. Poulos et al. (2008): “Foundation design for the burj dubai – the world’s

tallest building” has outlined the processes followed in the design of the foun-

dations for the Burj Dubai and the independent verification of the design. The

maximum settlement predicted by ABAQUS for the tower and podium foundation

compares reasonably well with the maximum settlement estimated by the revised

PIGS analysis carried out during the independent verification process.

Noh et al. (2008): “Finite Element Modeling for Piled-Raft in Sand” presented

the results of the finite elements based analyses of a series of different size mat

foundations with and without pile group beneath, in sandy soils of Surfers Par-

adise of Australia. PLAXIS code was employed to achieve the results. They have

studied the effect of raft thickness and number and spacing of piles on the internal

shear forces and bending moments.

Luca de Sanctis and Gianpiero Russo (2008): “Analysis and Performance of Piled

Rafts Designed Using Innovative Criteria”- the design analyses and the back-

analyses have been performed with relatively simple procedures based on the avail-

ability of a pile load test and using the code NAPRA Russo 1998. The shallow

foundation would have been safe against a bearing capacity failure, while the pre-

dicted settlement was beyond the allowed limit. Accordingly, piles were designed

to reduce the settlement and improve the overall performance of the foundations.

The substantial contribution of the raft in supporting almost half of the total

applied load is an indirect result of a design approach where the piles have only

the role of settlement reducers. This approach led to a substantial saving in the

total number of piles without significantly affecting the overall performance of the

piled rafts. This remark immediately evident if the average settlement calculated

for the traditional design solution is compared with the observed and the calcu-

lated settlement of the innovative design solution adopted in practice. The general

agreement between the analyses and the experimental results is rather satisfactory

confirming the validity of both the computer code and the procedure of analysis.

for Piled Rafts in Cohesive Soils”- presents the results of a finite element analysis

16

for piled rafts in cohesive soils. The finite element analysis of a raft foundation

has shown that the raft thickness has little effect on maximum settlement in soft

cohesive soils. As soil stiffness increases, a greater raft thickness leads to smaller

settlements. The value of contact stress is found to be less at the center of the

raft and is greater at the corners. The addition of even a small number of piles

increases the load-carrying capacity of the raft foundation, and this enhancement

effect is greater for higher soil stiffness. An increase in raft thickness does not

always improve the behavior of the piled raft foundation with respect to the max-

imum settlement. In the piled raft, the censer pile carries the maximum load,

followed by the edge pile and then the corner pile, which carries the minimum

load. The piles reach their ultimate capacity earlier than the raft and are thus

effective in reducing overall settlement.

ing of composite foundation” carried out 3D non-linear finite element modeling

of a composite foundation formed by Cement-Flyash-Gravel-lime piles which is a

widely used ground improvement technique. A CFG–lime multi-pile composite

foundation is a new concept utilizing CFG and lime piles. The parameters study

include the length and diameter of piles and the thickness of the cushion. The

stress distribution beneath the composite foundation, the influence of the cushion

on load-settlement behavior, and the ratio of stresses in the piles to those in the

subsoil are also studied. The results show that settlement is much more signifi-

cantly affected by the length and diameter of the CFG pile rather than that of the

lime pile, thus CFG pile acts as a settlement-reducing pile. On the other hand, the

load distribution between piles and subsoil is significantly affected by the cushion

thickness.

R. Meisam (2009): “Parametric Study for Piled Raft Foundations”- has considered

a parametric study on pile configuration. Pile number, pile length and raft thick-

ness on piled raft foundation behavior and it have been found that the maximum

bending moment in raft thickness, decreases pile number and decreases in pile

length. Central and differential settlement decrease with increase raft thickness

and uniform increase in pile length. It has also been found that pile configuration

17

is very important in pile raft design. The program ELPLA for a piled raft with

9 pile supporting rafts of varying thicknesses. Except for thin rafts, the maxi-

mum settlement is not greatly affected by raft thickness, whereas the differential

settlement decreases significantly with increasing raft thickness. Conversely, the

maximum moment in the raft increase with increasing raft thickness. The design

philosophy based on both ultimate load capacity and settlement criteria.

R. Meisam (2010): “Effect of Pile Configuration and Load Type on Piled Raft”

used a computer program ELPLA and found that pile configuration and load

distribution are very important and effective in piled raft settlement, maximum

moment and pile bearing factor. Three basic pile configurations and three load

distribution types were considered. Pile configuration 1 has the pile uniformly

distributed under the whole raft area. Pile configuration 2 has piles under central

area of the raft as well as under the edge of the raft. In pile configuration 3 the

piles are placed only in the central area of the raft.

clearly that design of pile foundation is based on consideration of vertical and

horizontal stresses and structural integrity of the foundation. The base shear is

resisted by the lateral bearing on pile foundations. The vertical seismic loads on

individual piles systems may have to bear large tensile as well as compression

forces during earthquakes. It must be carefully ensured that the strata contiguous

to and below the piles have sufficient adhesive, shear, and bearing strength under

the soil-pile interaction during earthquakes, the most difficult aspect of seismic

design of piles is lateral strength

combined pile raft foundation founded on sand with various arrangements of piles

using PLAXIS-3D”- studied the behaviour of combined pile raft foundations pro-

vide an economical foundation option for circumstances where the raft foundation

can satisfy the bearing capacity requirement but fails to keep differential as well

as maximum settlement below the maximum allowable limit. It had been estab-

lished that augmenting features like the thickness of raft, length of piles, etc has

18

decreased the settlement of raft and on other hands: decreasing ‘spacing/depth’

of piles has increased settlement of raft. In this paper permuted arrangement of

piles were adopted rather than a uniform arrangement; such that an improved

performance of the CPRF system can be envisioned. In this paper, CPRF is anal-

ysed using Finite Element Software PLAXIS 3D with a permuted arrangement

of piles. Three different Pile diameters and its combinations were modelled and

analysed. For the study, a 10 storey building founded on Medium Dense Sand

was analysed in STAAD.Pro Software to determine the loads to be transferred,

after fixing dimensions of raft and settlement analysis of raft PLAXIS 3D work

programme was composed. Piled Rafts with various combinations of piles were

modelled and analysed. From the comparison of results, it has been found out

that; installing high capacity piles at the region with maximum load concentration

and reinforcing the rest of the raft with medium capacity piles have the most im-

portant effect on significantly reducing maximum settlement and the differential

settlement. A few general trends in the behaviour of piled rafts have been studied

during this investigation. Thus, from our study on settlement characteristics of

combined pile raft foundation founded on sand with various arrangements of piles

using Plaxis-3D following points can be concluded, from the results obtained, it

is advisable to provide piles with different diameter than with equal diameter ir-

respective of soil type, from all the possible diameters, it is best to provide larger

diameter piles in the interior region to reduce the maximum settlement and the

differential settlement. The piles’ configurations in raft have the most important

effect on significantly reducing maximum settlement and the differential settle-

ment, particularly by concentrating the piles in the centre of the raft.

the behaviour of piled raft foundations provide an economical foundation option

for circumstances where the performance of the raft alone does not satisfy the

design requirements. Under these situations, the addition of a limited number

of piles may improve the ultimate load capacity, the settlement, and differential

settlement performance, and the required thickness of the raft. An approximate

method of analysis has been performed to estimate the settlement and load distri-

bution of large piled raft foundation. In this method, the raft is modelled as a thin

19

plate and the pile and soils are treated as interactive springs. Both the resistance

of the piles as well as raft base are incorporated into the model. Raft-soil-raft

interaction is taken into account. The proposed method makes it possible to solve

the problems of uniformly and large non-uniformly arranged piled rafts in a time

saving way using computers. The computed settlements compared favourably with

permissible value. This paper focuses on the general effects of various parameters

like raft thickness and soil on a piled raft.

Raft Foundation”- The use of piled raft foundations has become more popular

in recent years, as the combined action of the raft and the piles can increase the

bearing capacity, reduce settlement, and the piles can be arranged so as to reduce

differential deflection in the raft. Piled raft foundation is a new concept in which

the total load coming from the superstructure is partly shared by the raft through

contact with soil and the remaining load is shared by piles through skin friction. A

piled raft foundation is economical compared to the pile foundation. Because piles

do not have to penetrate the full depth of the clay layer but it can be terminated

at higher elevations. Such piled raft foundation undergoes more settlement than

the pile foundation and less settlement than the raft foundation. In this paper

the study of different parameters like the size of the raft, thickness of the raft,

diameter of the piles, length of piles, a spacing of piles, etc., which affect the be-

haviour of piled raft foundation. And its interdependency is also reviewed for G +

20 storey building. This study is useful to decide the various parameters required

in the design of piled raft foundation and suggest the suitable combination of Pile

Raft Foundation.

on soft soil using PLAXIS 2D”- The author has presented, there are many con-

struction projects constructed on soft soil. Due to the characteristics of soft soil,

the structures built on it are subject to differential settlements. Raft foundation

is one of the methods for reducing the differential settlement. Although it has an

adequate bearing capacity, it may cause excessive settlement. Piles can be used

with a raft foundation as a piled raft foundation system. The addition of piles is

20

to reduce the settlements to an acceptable amount. The aim of this study is to

analyse the settlements of the raft foundation and by adding piles, as the pile raft

foundation, under the same loading. The numerical analysis has been done by

finite element method using PLAXIS 2D with considering the various number of

piles. As the results, the addition of piles could reduce the settlement, but after

reach, a certain number of piles, increasing the number of piles showed the settle-

ment tends to be constant. For an economic design, it is necessary to consider the

optimum number of piles in a piled raft foundation system based on the allowable

settlements.

Now a days tall buildings are constructed on pile foundation is provide global

stability of building under the effect of lateral loads. By stabilizing the structure

using heavy substructure. But the no. of the pile can be reduced in day to day

design without compromising with the safety the reduction in no. of the pile will

add tremendous values to the project w.r.t. cost saving. The same is achieved by

using the pile cap as a raft to contribute as load resisting element transferring the

load to the soil rather then pile.

2. An increase of overall stability of the foundation.

3. The detailed economic analysis will be conducted considering conventional piles

and piled raft concept separately. The variation in the amount of reinforcement

should also be considered.

2. To analyze the effect of piled raft combination for a tall building.

3. To compare the results of a tall building with piles system and piled raft and

21

suggest codal recommendations.

4. Parametric study by varying concrete grade, pile length, and diameter will be

carried out.

5. Cost analysis of piled raft with conventional pile system.

2.6 Methodology

from the literature survey. A detailed study of collected information.

2. Analyze the structure using commercially available softwares.

3. Analysis of piles by using Finite element software.

4. Analysis of piled raft by using Finite element software.

5. Analysing the feasibility of both the systems as per relevant codal criterias

of differential settlement, pressure development on the structural raft or pile cap,

consumption of steel. Consumption of concrete and economic aspect of both the

systems.

6. Result interpretation and arriving at a conclusion.

22

Chapter 3

Soil-Structure Interaction

3.1 Introduction

At the beginning of this chapter, the literature on the subject and its contents is

briefly reviewed and describes the interaction between the soil and structure, the

effect of the superstructure on the base of the piled raft, the interaction mecha-

nism of the piled raft consisting of four different types of interaction (e.g. pile-pile,

pile-soil, soil-pile, etc.).

The work presented in this chapter will be limited to analyzing under static load

raft or piled raft foundations. Traditionally, structural and geotechnical engineers

have separated the design work for structures from that of the foundations, thus

neglecting the rigidity of the superstructure. However, the structural stiffness can

affect the distribution of column loads and bending moments transmitted from

the structure to the foundation, so it is necessary to consider interaction analysis

that accounts for the structural stiffness.

In foundation design, analyzes of actual settlements are based on a flexible loading

pattern without assessing the effect of structure stiffness on foundation settlement

patterns and magnitudes. While this method of neglecting the coupling or inter-

action between soil and structure tends to simplify the problem’s mathematical

analysis, it is an oversimplification of truth, however.

For the mechanics of the interaction between the foundation, soil, and super-

structure, the term soil-structure interaction has been largely used. The standard

design processes generally require assuming fixity at the foundation base, thus

neglecting the foundation’s flexibility, the compressibility of the soil mass, and

23

consequently, the impact of foundation settlement on further redistribution on the

superstructure’s bending moments and shear forces. Including these significant

variables in the assessment and design of any soil-based structure warrants a cor-

rect coupling of soil and structure.

Piled raft foundations are composite structures consisting of three elements: the

piles, the raft, and the supporting soil, and the loads applied to the raft are trans-

ferred through the piles to the soil; therefore, the interaction between the three

elements must be taken into account. The interaction mechanism for stacked raft

foundations is discussed in this section.

The standard approaches to solving the issue of interaction between soil and struc-

ture are widely categorized as:

i. Winkler’s Method

ii. Method of elastic half-space

interaction has been addressed by many researchers to analyze the construction

frame with a piled raft foundation. The impact of soil-structure interaction is ig-

nored in a standard technique of structural analysis taken for the practical design

of most buildings, and superstructure frames are usually analyzed because their

bases are totally stiff or hinged. This could lead to an underestimation of the

magnitude of some of the parameters that are likely to be created in structural

members, leading to unsafe design.

The simplified assumptions of the standard technique can only be regarded as

satisfactory for preliminary research and should not be used to analyze signifi-

cant structures as compatibility with displacement is not taken into consideration.

However, the foundation that rests on deformable soil also undergoes deformation

depending on certain characteristics, i.e., foundation rigidity, superstructure, and

soil. In order to arrive at the realistic magnitudes of these parameters, given this

interaction, it is essential to carry out an assessment.

The impact of soil-structure interaction (SSI) has been quantified in numerous

research. Few studies[ Chameski (1956), Subbarao et al. (1985), Allam et al.

(1991), Kuraian and Manoj Kumar (2001)] regarded the impact of interaction in

24

a very streamlined way and showed that force amounts need to be revised due to

the interaction between soil and structure.

Infinite components have been increasingly used in the issue of soil-structure inter-

action with the continuous enhancement in numerical techniques over the years.

Coupled finite-infinite components together provide the best means to idealize the

issues of interaction between soil and structure and, therefore, are reported to

have been widely used in many analyses [Viladkar et al. (1991), Godbole et al.

(1991), Noorzaei et al. (1991).

It is reported that several simplified models and idealizations were used in the

analysis to simulate the soil medium’s behavior. In most analyzes, the soil is ide-

alized as linear springs based on the hypothesis of the Winkler even though the

soil acts rather than springs as an elastic continuum. Lee and Harrison (1970) and

Subbarao et al. (1985) used the Winkler model while Mayerhof (1953) saw the

soil medium as homogeneous, isotropic, elastic half-space. The two models were

used in their analysis by Lee and Brown (1972) and Hain and Lee (1974).

Poulos (1968) launched the notion of interaction variables. It has since been

commonly accepted for pile groups and piled rafts assessment. Davis and Poulos

(1972) proposed that a piled raft’s assessment includes the interaction between

the piles and the cap. In this chapter, , four different interactions are (a) pile-pile

(b) pile-soil (c) soil-pile and (d) soil-soil. as shown in Figure 3.1

25

Pile-pile interaction

A significant factor in the assessment of pile groups and piled rafts as shown in

Figure 3.2. This interaction is described as the extra deflection of an unloaded pile

caused by a loaded pile adjacent to it. The αpp interaction factor can be described

as:

isolation..................(3.1)

This interaction can be calculated by considering a pair of piles with a distance‘s’

between them and piles are divided into a number of beam elements. The soil is

divided into several layers corresponding to the pile elements.

Deflections of the soil at the locations of the ring or uniform loads can be expressed

as

δs = Is * Ps ...............(3.2)

Where,

δs = vector of soil displacement at the nodes

Is = soil influence matrix and

Ps = vector of forces acting at the soil interfaces

Pile-soil interaction

This is the interaction between a loaded pile and the soil surface at a distance ‘s’

from the loaded pile as shown in Figure 3.3. The pile-soil interaction, αps , may be

26

expressed as

pile in isolation..................(3.3)

Figure 3.3: Interaction between a loaded pile and the soil surface

Soil-pile interaction

This is the interaction between a uniform rectangular load applied to the soil sur-

face and an unloaded pile at a distance s from the center of the loaded soil surface

as shown in Figure 3.4. The soil-pile interaction, αsp , may be expressed as

isolation..................(3.4)

This interaction is computed by considering the soil first. The deflection of the

soil consists of two components – (i) due to the ring loads along the pile shaft and

(ii) the surface load applied to the soil. The deflection due to the ring load can be

computed by using equation (3.2). The load-deflection relationship can be written

as

δs = Is * Ps + δt ...............(3.5)

Where,

δs = vector of deflections of the soil along the pile shaft and at the pile base

computed at the nodes of each pile.

27

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Ps = vector of loads acting on the soil along the pile shaft and at the base.

δt = vector of deflections of the soil due to a unit surface load at a distance ‘s’

from the pile computed at the nodes of the pile

Soil-soil interaction

This is the interaction between a uniformly loaded surface and the unloaded soil

surface at a distance s from the center of the loaded surface as shown in Figure

3.5. The soil-soil interaction, alphass , may be expressed as

soil in isolation..................(3.6)

Chapter 4

Building

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, finite element modeling of the tall building has been done using

Extended Three-dimensional Analysis of Building System (ETABS) 2016 software.

The building analysed in ETABS includes the software validation, geometrical

details model and analytical investigation, then modeling foundation in SAFE

2016 software.

The finite element method (FEM) in structural mechanics is the dominant tech-

nique of discretization. FEM modeling idea is the division of mathematical model

into non-overlapping easy geometry parts. Each element’s reaction is articulated

in terms of a finite amount of degrees of liberty defined as an unknown function’s

value. The finite element method is well suited for superimposing material models

for a composite material’s constituent components. Advanced constituent mod-

els introduced in the ETABS finite element system serve as rational instruments

to clarify the link conduct between steel and concrete. Nonlinear simulation us-

ing ETABS models can be used effectively to support and extend experimental

research and predict structural and structural details conduct. In the computer

code ETABS, which is a finite element package intended for computer simulation

of concrete constructions, several constitutive models covering these impacts are

29

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

introduced. The ETABS graphical user interface offers an effective and strong

environment to solve many issues with anchoring.

Using ETABS software, the assessment of large structures in the dissertation was

carried out. ETABS features state-of-the-art interface, visualization instruments,

strong analysis and engine design featuring sophisticated finite element skills and

vibrant analytics. ETABS is the decision of experts from model generation, analy-

sis and design to visualization and verification of results. Because of the following

benefits we chose ETABS:

1. Conformation with the Indian codes

2. Easy to use interface

3. The solution is accurate

4. Solving any type of problem is possible

• Parameters are to be considered according to the layout. Dead load: 1.5KN /

m2 Live load: 2.0KN / m2 (live loads of 3kN / m2 and 5kN / m2 are provided for

the passage and staircase slab)

• 8KN / m3 Siporex density blocks are used for walls

• In EQ, i.e. (h/500) wind i.e. (h/250), the size of the columns and walls are

given for deflection control

• Story number: 56

• Floor height: 3.5 m

• The concrete grade used for the analysis is M60

• Soil SBC is 450KN / m2

• The slab is modeled with a rigid diaphragm

• Wind load is to be considered according to IS 875. (Part III)

• The load of the earthquake is regarded in accordance with IS 1893-2002. (SMRF

with reaction reduction factor 4, Zone factor 0.16, and 5 percent damping is given.)

• The building is analyzed using the Response Spectrum method for the dynamic

load

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

1 Location Mumbai

2 Zone III

3 Zone factor 0.16

4 Importance factore, I 1

5 Response factore, R 4

In this, load parameters considered for the study has been shown the following

Figures. Seismic analysis is carried out as per IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002 and wind

analysis is carried out as per IS 875 (Part 3): 1987. Response spectrum analysis

is carried out as defined in IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002.

Static Method

Figure 4.2: Snip of a static earthquake and wind load pattern considered for the study

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Press modify lateral load to shown in Figure 4.3 and assign various value as per IS

1893 (Part 1): 2002. Seismic zone factor, Z is 0.16 and Time period is calculated

as per IS 1893 (Part 1):2002.

Press modify lateral load to shown in Figure 4.4 and assign various value as per

IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002. Seismic zone factor, Z is used 0.16 in used defined and

Time period is calculated as user defined.

Dynamic Method

The design response spectra of IS 1893 (Part 1) 2002 is given as input in the

Define menu > Function > Response spectra as shown in figure 4.5

For defining the response spectrum load case go to Define menu > Load case

> Add new case and selecting load case type as Response Spectrum and scale

factor as shown in Figure 4.6

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

For defining the response spectrum load case go to Define menu > Load cases

> Add new case and selecting load case type as Response Spectrum and scale

factor as shown in Figure 4.7

Wind Analysis

To define the IS 875 (Part 3): 1987 wind load, go to Define ¿ Load pattern.

Double click in the edit box for the Load column and type WX. Select Wind as

the Type. Select Indian IS 875: 1987 from the Auto Lateral Load drop-down

list. Click the Add New Load button. With the WX load highlighted, click the

modify Lateral Load button. This will bring up the Wind Load Pattern – IS 875

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

(Part 3): 1987 from shown in Figure 4.8. Select the Exposure from Extents of

Rigid Diaphragms option. This option would result in the program automatically

applying all possible permutations of the IS 875 (Part 3): 1987 wind load to the

diaphragms.

The DL, LL, WL, Earthquake Load, and Load combination of RC building mod-

els have been directly exported from finite element software ETABS 2016 and

imported into SAFE 2016 to model the Pile foundation for RC building 56 stories.

As a point spring of equivalent rigidity, the piles are attached as 1022KN /mm,

respectively the length and diameter of the pile 20 and 1m. The thickness of the

pile cap is considered as 3m. With a horizontal spacing of 3m and a vertical spac-

ing of 4m, the piles are evenly distributed. The permissible 10mm settlement and

the pile’s ability to carry working load is considered to be 10000KN.

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

The Material is given as input in the Define menu > Point spring property

data > Add new property as shown in figure 4.9

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

In this, the load has directly imported from ETABS to SAFE 2016 software from

each RC building storey. Seismic analysis is carried out as per IS 1893 (Part 1):

2002 and wind analysis is carried out as per IS 875 (Part 3): 1987. Response

spectrum analysis is carried out as defined in IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002.

philosophy of modeling piled raft. Initially, piles are modeled as spring and raft

beam on an elastic foundation as shown in Figure 4.13 to observe the conduct of

piled raft.

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Figure 4.13: Structural idealization for a raft with pile and supporting soil

A piled raft is analyzed in SAFE software, the piles are connected as point spring

of equal stiffness as 1022KN /mm and raft is modeled as normal, here the pile’s

size and diameter vary. The raft’s thickness is 3m and the raft’s size is 42x32 m2.

With a horizontal spacing of 4 m and a vertical spacing of 3m, the piles are evenly

distributed. Here the soil carrying capacity is considered to be 450KN /m2 with

the permissible settlement to be 10mm and the pile’s ultimate carrying capacity

is considered to be 10000KN.

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

The Material is given as input in the Define menu > Materials > Add new

property

The thickness is given as input in the Define menu > Slab Properties > Add

new property. The M50 material has considered for Raft of RC multi storey

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

The soil subgrade is given as input in the Define menu > Soil Subgrade

Properties > Add new property

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Chapter 5

5.1 Introduction

results of lateral load analysis in ETABS are also presented in this chapter. The

RC tall construction was researched on a separate foundation system and out-

comes were assessed in terms of maximum, minimum and differential settlement

with variable depth and also the variation of bending moment of foundation with

variable depth of pile cap as well as a raft.

The analysis is conducted for gravity and lateral loads while the design is done

only for gravity and wind loads without earthquake loads. The total load on base

from software i;e 1001364.198 kN. Top storey displacement limit for 56 stories, as

per H/500, comes out to be 376.4 mm and max story drifts limit for 56 stories,

as per 0.004h, comes out to be 0.014. The max time period for the first mode is

6,176 seconds.

Table 5.1: Top story displacement and max story drifts for 56 storey building

Directions Top story displacement (mm) Max story drifts

EQ in X Direction 111.519 0.00074

EQ in Y Direction 195.12 0.00128

Wind in X Direction 257.49 0.00168

Wind in Y Direction 251.022 0.00164

The below table showing the advantage of piled raft over conventional pile foun-

dation.

41

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Table 5.2: Shows the variation between various structural moments and displacements

Type of foundation Thickness Bending moment KN-m Settlement mm Differntial Settlement mm

Pile 3 23952.07 13.10. 13

Piled-raft 3 21436.52 9.9 9.3

The increase in the settlement thickness of the pile cap for a 56-story building also

significantly decreases the differential settlement. The thickness of the pile cap

was initially 1m and the settlement was 18.98mm and the differential settlement

was 16.41mm as well. After increasing the thickness to 3.0m with an increase of

500 mm, the settlement was observed to decrease to 13.1mm, while the differential

settlement decreased to 13mm.

Raft thickness mm Settlement mm Differential settlement mm

1000 14.67 12.77

1500 12.68 10.96

2000 11.9 10.8

2500 10.88 9.76

3000 9.9 9.3

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

It is also observed that with an increase in depth foundation the dead load increase

which will result in an increase in the maximum bending moment. However, an

increase in depth foundation is advantageous for punching shear.

Table 5.4: Shows the variation of a maximum positive and negative moment with an increase in

pile cap thickness

Pile Cap thickness Max +ve Bending Max -ve Bending

(m) Moment (kN-m) Moment (kN-m)

1 13105.87 4017

2 20546.18 3183.94

3 23952.07 2979.33

Figure 5.3: Graph shows Pile cap thickness v/s Bending Moment

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Table 5.5: Shows the variation of a maximum positive and negative moment with an increase in

raft thickness

Raft thickness Max +ve Bending Max -ve Bending

(m) Moment (kN-m) Moment (kN-m)

1 10429.6 3230.01

2 18907.71 2891.25

3 21436.52 3672.15

As the diameter of the pile increases for the same length, raft load reduces. As the

length of the pile for the same diameter, the raft’s load reduces. The percentage of

raft load reduces at a quicker pace for pile diameter increases rather than length

increases. As the diameter or length of pile increases, the max moment in raft

increases. As the diameter or length of the pile increases, raft settlement reduces.

Table 5.6: Effect of different pile diameter of 15m length in piled raft

Pile dia. (m) Settlement (mm) Raft Thickness (m) Max +ve Bending Max -ve Bending

Moment (kN-m) Moment (kN-m)

1 12.33 3 24075.01 3547.94

1.2 10.46 3 22566.8 3736.92

1.5 8.36 3 20702.39 3888.03

Table 5.7: Effect of different pile diameter of 18m length in piled raft

Pile dia. (m) Settlement (mm) Raft Thickness (m) Max +ve Bending Max -ve Bending

Moment (kN-m) Moment (kN-m)

1 11.29 3 22895.65 33627.61

1.2 9.84 3 21430.52 3789.15

1.5 7.88 3 18762.48 3910.46

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Table 5.8: Effect of different pile diameter of 20m length in piled raft

Pile dia. (m) Settlement (mm) Raft Thickness (m) Max +ve Bending Max -ve Bending

Moment (kN-m) Moment (kN-m)

1 9.90 3 21436.04 3672.15

1.2 9.47 3 20006.00 3817.52

1.5 7.59 3 18559.80 3921.44

raft and pile for building

For a 56th story building increase in stiffness of soil stiffness below raft results in

an increase in load taken by the raft as shown in Figure

Table 5.9: Effect of soil stiffness on the load carrying capacity of Raft in piled raft

Stiffness of soil (KN/m3) Load took by raft (KN)

30000 231444.27

60000 385793.86

80000 455412.89

Figure 5.5: Graph shows the load taken by Raft v/s soil stiffness

Table 5.10: Effect of soil stiffness on the load carrying capacity of Pile in piled raft

Stiffness of soil (KN/m3) Load took by raft (KN)

30000 769919.93

60000 615570.34

80000 545951.31

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

Figure 5.6: Graph shows the load taken by Pile v/s soil stiffness

tional pile foundation system

After comparing analyses of both the system, it has been found that the con-

sumption of pile in case of a piled raft is reduced which minimises the cost of

construction to a substantial extent. The consumption of steel in a raft in case of

piled raft maybe slightly higher than that as in case of pile cap in piled system.

The overall economy as achieved by a reduction in pile cap due to substantial

load resisted by raft in case of a piled raft. This has been seen that the piled raft

foundation consumes lesser no of piles in comparison to the pile foundation. In

pile foundation 110nos. of piles are used to withstand the load from the super-

structure. The requirement of piles in the piled raft is 91nos. In the case of a piled

raft, the requirement of the pile is less in comparison to pile foundation case. In

piled raft foundation 19nos. of piles are reduced which affects the time and cost of

the construction. The cost of a pile is around 200000rs approximate. Therefore,

the cost of the 19 pile is 3800000rs approximate which is a substantial amount of

saving in a piled raft system. Hence, the piled raft foundation system reduces the

cost and time of the construction.

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

thickness of the pile cap.

• It is observed that with an increase in depth the dead load increases resulting

in an increase in the maximum bending moment.

• As the diameter of the pile increase with the same length, the raft load reduces.

As the length of the pile increases for the same diameter, the load of raft reduces.

• The maximum moment in the raft increases as the diameter or length of the pile

increases. As the diameter or length of the pile increases, raft settlement reduces.

• For a building increase in stiffness of soil stiffness below raft results in an increase

in load taken by the raft, and also decrease in load taken by the pile.

• The piled raft foundation system reduces the cost and time of the construction.

Chapter 6

6.1 Introduction

ported. The investigation aims at bringing out the significance of the aspect of

the analysis of piled raft, especially in the context of the vertical load acting on

the piled raft and various aspects of the foundation such as various modulus of

subgrade reaction and thickness of raft. The response of the piled raft is consid-

ered in terms of vertical displacement, differential settlement, and moment at the

respect of time and cost.

All studies show that the piled raft foundation has important benefits over the

standard design of the base for the accessible soil strata. The following points

were noted in the research.

• Piled raft foundation efficiently decreases settlements, differential settlements

and bending moment compared to pile foundations.

• Maximum deflections are reduced as raft thickness increases as well as soil mod-

ule increases.

• The piled raft foundation’s complete and differential vertical settlement is less

than that of the conventional pile foundation.

• The settlement of raft and pile decreases as increases in pile diameter.

• The settlement of raft and pile decreases as increases in pile length.

• Increase in diameter or length of pile results in an increase in moments in the

48

Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation- A Geo-Structural Approach

raft.

• It is observed that stiffer the soil more will be the load shared by raft.

• The piled raft foundation reduces no. of piles which affects the time and cost of

constructions.

The present work reports the analysis of piled raft, analysis of 56 storey building

frame on a piled raft. The studies indicate that the piled raft foundation concept

has significant advantages in comparison to a conventional foundation for the

available soil strata. However, the present investigation can be extended further to

account for some of the aspects that are not considered in the present investigation.

• Various configurations of the frame, i.e., symmetrical and unsymmetrical.

• Effect of analysis in another type of tall buildings such as outrigger-belt system

can be studied.

• Various modulus of subgrade reaction.

• Various soil conditions.

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52

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS ON PRESENT

WORK

on Load Carrying Capacity of Piled Foundation in Tall RC building”,

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, , Volume

06, Issue 04, 1406-1409, April 2019.

A Geo-Structural Approach” Submitted to Journal of Advanced Struc-

tural Engineering (Springer).

53

Here join approved copy of synopsis.

54

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