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Chapter 08, Problem 11

The sun appears to move across the sky, because the earth spins on its axis. To a person standing on the earth,
the sun subtends an angle of sun = 9.25 x 10-3 rad (see Conceptual Example 2). How much time (in seconds)
does it take for the sun to move a distance equal to its own diameter?

Number 127.196630519043 Units s

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 08, Problem 11

REASONING The average angular velocity is defined as the angular displacement Δθ divided by the elapsed
time D during which the displacement occurs: (Equation 8.2). Solving for the elapsed time gives
. We are given Δθ and can calculate from the fact that the earth rotates on its axis once every 24.0
hours.

SOLUTION The sun itself subtends an angle of 9.25× 10-3 rad. When the sun moves a distance equal to its
diameter, it moves through an angle that is also 9.25× 10-3 rad; thus, Δθ = 9.25× 10-3 rad. The average angular
velocity at which the sun appears to move across the sky is the same as that of the earth rotating on its axis,
, so . Since the earth makes one revolution (2π rad) every 24.0 h, its average angular velocity is

The time it takes for the sun to move a distance equal to its diameter is

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Chapter 08, Problem 17

A stroboscope is a light that flashes on and off at a constant rate. It can be used to illuminate a rotating object,
and if the flashing rate is adjusted properly, the object can be made to appear stationary. (a) What is the shortest
time between flashes of light that will make a three-bladed propeller appear stationary when it is rotating with an
angular speed of 15.4 rev/s? (b) What is the next shortest time?

(a) Number 0.021645021645 Units s

(b) Number 0.043290043290 Units s

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 08, Problem 17

REASONING AND SOLUTION

a. If the propeller is to appear stationary, each blade must move through an angle of 120° or rad between
flashes. The time required is

b. The next shortest time occurs when each blade moves through an angle of 240°, or rad, between
successive flashes. This time is twice the value that we found in part a, or .

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Chapter 08, Problem 28

A top is a toy that is made to spin on its pointed end by pulling on a string wrapped around the body of the top.
The string has a length of 54 cm and is wrapped around the top at a place where its radius is 2.2 cm. The
thickness of the string is negligible. The top is initially at rest. Someone pulls the free end of the string, thereby
unwinding it and giving the top an angular acceleration of +13 rad/s2. What is the final angular velocity of the top
when the string is completely unwound?

Number 25.262260749621 Units rad/s

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Chapter 08, Problem 28

REASONING Equation 8.8 from the equations of rotational kinematics can be employed to
find the final angular velocity ω. The initial angular velocity is ω0 = 0 rad/s since the top is initially at rest, and
the angular acceleration is given as α = 13 rad/s2. The angle θ (in radians) through which the pulley rotates is not
given, but it can be obtained from Equation 8.1 (θ = s/r), where the arc length s is the 54-cm length of the string
and r is the 2.2-cm radius of the top.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 8.8 for the final angular velocity gives

We choose the positive root, because the angular acceleration is given as positive and the top is at rest initially.
Substituting θ = s/r from Equation 8.1 gives

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Chapter 08, Problem 29

Interactive Solution 8.29 offers a model for this problem. The drive propeller of a ship starts from rest and
accelerates at 2.20 x 10-3 rad/s2 for 2.39 x 103 s. For the next 1.16 x 103 s the propeller rotates at a constant
angular speed. Then it decelerates at 2.10 x 10-3 rad/s2 until it slows (without reversing direction) to an angular
speed of 2.58 rad/s. Find the total angular displacement of the propeller.

Number 17380.248095238094 Units rad

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Chapter 08, Problem 29

REASONING There are three segments to the propeller’s angular motion, and we will calculate the angular
displacement for each separately. In these calculations we will remember that the final angular velocity for one
segment is the initial velocity for the next segment. Then, we will add the separate displacements to obtain the
total.

SOLUTION For the first segment the initial angular velocity is ω0 = 0 rad/s, since the propeller starts from rest.
Its acceleration is α = 2.20 × 10-3 rad/s2 for a time t = 2.39 × 103 s. Therefore, we can obtain the angular
displacement θ1 from Equation 8.7 of the equations of rotational kinematics as follows:

[First segment]

1 1
(
θ 1 = ω 0t + αt 2 = (0 rad/s) 2.39 × 10 3 s
2 ) + 2 (2.20 × 10 − 3 rad/s2 ) (2.39 × 103 s )2
= 6.28 × 10 3rad

The initial angular velocity for the second segment is the final velocity for the first segment, and according to
Equation 8.4, we have

ω = ω 0 + αt = 0 rad/s + (2.20 × 10 − 3 rad/s2 )(2.39 × 103 s ) = 5.26 rad/s


Thus, during the second segment, the initial angular velocity is ω0 = 5.26 rad/s and remains constant at this value
for a time of t = 1.16× 103 s. Since the velocity is constant, the angular acceleration is zero, and Equation 8.7
gives the angular displacement θ2 as

[Second segment]

1 1
(
θ 2 = ω 0t + αt 2 = (5.26 rad/s) 1.16 × 10 3 s
2 ) + 2 (0 rad/s2 )(1.16 × 103 s )2 = 6.10 × 103 rad

During the third segment, the initial angular velocity is ω0 = rad/s, the final velocity is ω = 2.58 rad/s, and the
angular acceleration is α = 2.10× 10-3 rad/s2. When the propeller picked up speed in segment one, we assigned
positive values to the acceleration and subsequent velocity. Therefore, the deceleration or loss in speed here in

segment three means that the acceleration has a negative value. Equation 8.8 (ω2 = ω20 + 2αθ3 ) can be used to
find the angular displacement θ3. Solving this equation for θ3 gives

[Third segment]

ω2 − ω2
0 ( 2.58 rad/s ) 2 − ( 5.26 rad/s ) 2
θ3 = = = 5.00 × 10 3 rad

2 ( 2.10 × 10 − 3 rad/s2 )

The total angular displacement, then, is

θ Total = θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 = 6.28 × 10 3 rad + 6.10 × 10 3 rad + 5.00 × 10 3 rad = 1.74 × 10 4 rad


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Chapter 08, Problem 32

A spinning wheel on a fireworks display is initially rotating in a counterclockwise direction. The wheel has an
angular acceleration of -7.45 rad/s2. Because of this acceleration, the angular velocity of the wheel changes from
its initial value to a final value of -32.4 rad/s. While this change occurs, the angular displacement of the wheel is
zero. (Note the similarity to that of a ball being thrown vertically upward, coming to a momentary halt, and then
falling downward to its initial position.) Find the time required for the change in the angular velocity to occur.

Number 8.697986577181 Units s

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 08, Problem 32

REASONING The time required for the change in the angular velocity to occur can be found by solving Equation
8.4 for t. In order to use Equation 8.4, however, we must know the initial angular velocity ω0. Equation 8.6 can
be used to find the initial angular velocity.

SOLUTION From Equation 8.6 we have

Solving for ω0 gives

Since the angular displacement θ is zero, ω0 = ω. Solving (Equation 8.4) ω0 = ω + αt for t and using the fact
that ω0 = ω give

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Chapter 09, Problem 07

A pair of forces with equal magnitudes, opposite directions, and different lines of action is called a “couple.” When
a couple acts on a rigid object, the couple produces a torque that does not depend on the location of the axis. The
figure shows a couple acting on a tire wrench, each force being perpendicular to the wrench. Let L = 0.271 m and
F = 33.9 N. Determine the torque produced by the couple when the axis is perpendicular to the tire and passes
through (a) point A, (b) point B, and (c) point C.

(a) Number 9.1869 Units N·m

(b) Number 9.1869 Units N·m

(c) Number 9.1869 Units N·m

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 09, Problem 07


REASONING AND SOLUTION The torque produced by each force of magnitude F is given by Equation 9.1,
, where is the lever arm and the torque is positive since each force causes a counterclockwise rotation.
In each case, the torque produced by the couple is equal to the sum of the individual torques produced by each
member of the couple.
a. When the axis passes through point A, the torque due to the force at A is zero. The lever arm for the force at C
is L. Therefore, taking counterclockwise as the positive direction, we have

b. Each force produces a counterclockwise rotation. The magnitude of each force is F and each force has a lever
arm of L/2. Taking counterclockwise as the positive direction, we have

c. When the axis passes through point C, the torque due to the force at C is zero. The lever arm for the force at A
is L. Therefore, taking counterclockwise as the positive direction, we have

Note that the value of the torque produced by the couple is the same in all three cases; in other words, when the
couple acts on the tire wrench, the couple produces a torque that does not depend on the location of the axis.

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Chapter 09, Problem 16 GO

The drawing shows a rectangular piece of wood. The forces applied to corners B and D have the same magnitude
of 17 N and are directed parallel to the long and short sides of the rectangle. The long side of the rectangle is
twice as long as the short side. An axis of rotation is shown perpendicular to the plane of the rectangle at its
center. A third force (not shown in the drawing) is applied to corner A, directed along the short side of the
rectangle (either toward B or away from B), such that the piece of wood is at equilibrium. Find the magnitude and
direction of the force applied to corner A.

= 8.5

N toward corner B

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 09, Problem 16 GO


REASONING The net torque is the sum of the torques produced by the three forces: . The
magnitude of a torque is the magnitude of the force times the lever arm of the force, according to Equation 9.1.
The lever arm is the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the axis. A torque that
tends to produce a counterclockwise rotation about the axis is a positive torque. Since the piece of wood is at
equilibrium, the net torque is equal to zero.
SOLUTION Let L be the length of the short side of the rectangle, so that the length of the long side is 2L. The
counterclockwise torque produced by the force at corner B is , and the clockwise torque produced by the
force at corner D is . Assuming that the force at A (directed along the short side of the rectangle) points
toward corner B, the counterclockwise torque produced by this force is . Setting the net torque equal to
zero gives:

The length L can be eliminated algebraically from this result, which can then be solved for FA:

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Chapter 09, Problem 18 GO

The wheels, axle, and handles of a wheelbarrow weigh W = 62 N. The load chamber and its contents weigh WL =
620 N. The drawing shows these two forces in two different wheelbarrow designs. To support the wheelbarrow in
equilibrium, the man’s hands apply a force to the handles that is directed vertically upward. Consider a rotational
axis at the point where the tire contacts the ground, directed perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Find the
magnitude of the man’s force for both designs.

(a) F = 219.384615384615

(b) F = 28.615384615385 N

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 09, Problem 18 GO

REASONING Since the wheelbarrow is in equilibrium, the net torque acting on it must be zero:
(Equation 9.2). The magnitude of a torque is the magnitude of the force times the lever arm of the force (see
Equation 9.1). The lever arm is the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the axis. A
torque that tends to produce a counterclockwise rotation about the axis is a positive torque.

SOLUTION The lever arms for the forces can be obtained from the distances shown in the text drawing for each
design. Equation 9.1 can be used to obtain the magnitude of each torque. We will then write an expression for the
zero net torque for each design. These expressions can be solved for the magnitude F of the man’s force in each
case:
Left design

Right desigh

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Chapter 09, Problem 50 GO

Two thin rods of length L are rotating with the same angular speed ω (in rad/s) about axes that pass
perpendicularly through one end. Rod A is massless but has a particle of mass 0.73 kg attached to its free end.
Rod B has a mass of 0.73 kg, which is distributed uniformly along its length. The length of each rod is 0.78 m, and
the angular speed is 5.5 rad/s. Find the kinetic energies of rod A with its attached particle and of rod B.

(a) KEA = 6.7174965

(b) KEB = 2.2391655 J

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 09, Problem 50 GO

REASONING The kinetic energy of a rotating object is expressed as (Equation 9.9), where I is the
object’s moment of inertia and ω is its angular speed. According to Equation 9.6, the moment of inertia for rod A is
just that of the attached particle, since the rod itself is massless. For rod A with its attached particle, then, the
moment of inertia is . According to the table below, the moment of inertia for rod B is .
SOLUTION Using Equation 9.9 to calculate the kinetic energy, we find that

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Chapter 09, Problem 53

Interactive Solution 9.53 offers a model for solving problems of this type. A solid sphere is rolling on a surface.
What fraction of its total kinetic energy is in the form of rotational kinetic energy about the center of mass?

Number 0.285714285714 Units No units

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Solution CLOSE

Chapter 09, Problem 53

REASONING The rotational kinetic energy of a solid sphere is given by Equation 9.9 as , where I is
its moment of inertia and ω its angular speed. The sphere has translational motion in addition to rotational motion,
and its translational kinetic energy is (Equation 6.2), where m is the mass of the sphere and v is the
speed of its center of mass. The fraction of the sphere’s total kinetic energy that is in the form of rotational kinetic
energy is KER/(KER + KET).
SOLUTION The moment of inertia of a solid sphere about its center of mass is , where R is the radius of
the sphere (see the table below). The fraction of the sphere’s total kinetic energy that is in the form of rotational
kinetic energy is

Since the sphere is rolling without slipping on the surface, the translational speed v of the center of mass is related
to the angular speed ω about the center of mass by v = Rω (see Equation 8.12). Substituting v = Rω into the
equation above gives
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