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Abstract: The widely used Jaky coefficient of earth pressure at rest, K0, is revisited. It is demonstrated that this coefficient was derived

from an analysis of the stress state in a sand prism that yields an unrealistic stress field. It is also surprising that the at rest stress state is

represented as a function of the limit state parameter 共internal friction angle兲. Consequently, one arrives at the conclusion that reasonable

predictions made by classical K0 are somewhat coincidental. Jaky’s solution to K0 is discussed in view of more recent research on the

stress fields in prismatic mounds of sand.

DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲1090-0241共2005兲131:11共1429兲

CE Database subject headings: Earth pressure; Sand; Stress distribution; Geology.

ously related to the angle of internal friction of granular materi-

Solving geotechnical problems often requires that the initial stress als.” While the coefficient derived is indeed a fair depiction of the

state in the soil be known. The coefficient of earth pressure at rest stress ratio in the “natural state,” one cannot dismiss the impres-

is frequently used to determine this stress state if geologic infor- sion that coincidence played a role in rendering this coefficient so

mation is available about both the load history and the soil type. close to the true state at rest.

The coefficient of earth pressure at rest proposed by Jaky 共1944兲 The author has revisited the problem of stress distribution in a

is accepted as the horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio in loose wedge-shaped prism of sand because of the recent interest among

deposits and normally consolidated clays. In its abbreviated, and both physicists and engineers in the stress distribution under sand

widely accepted form, this coefficient is written as heaps. Stress distribution in sand mounds became a fashionable

research area in the late 1990s, with the focus on a counterintui-

K0 = 1 − sin 共1兲 tive observation that the stress at the base can exhibit a local

minimum 共or a “dip”兲 at the center of a conical or a wedge-

where stands for the effective internal friction angle of the shaped sand prism. The stress depression 共local minimum兲 is a

soil 共for brevity = ⬘兲. For clays, angle represents the angle result of arching, but predictions of the degree to which the soil

obtained from a series of tests on specimens 共for instance, triaxial will arch are not easily made. The significance of this phenom-

compression tests兲, each normally consolidated to a different enon was probably overstated in the Science article of Watson

stress. The stress ratio in Eq. 共1兲 represents, of course, an admis- 共1996兲: “... sand pile pressure dip is to granular mechanics what

sible stress state, and it falls between the minimum and maximum Fermat’s Last Theorem was to number theory.” Nevertheless, it is

coefficients that follow directly from the Mohr–Coulomb yield interesting to place Jaky’s 共1944兲 work in the context of the other

condition. The extreme values of the horizontal-to-vertical stress research on stress states in sand piles. While the appearance of

ratio are referred to as active and passive earth pressure coeffi- the stress dip may be a curiosity problem to engineers, arching

cients, and they represent the limit 共or yielding兲 states in the soil. associated with it is a phenomenon of interest and importance in

Therefore, they must be functions of the strength of the soil, geotechnical engineering.

represented in the Mohr–Coulomb yield condition by the effective The term “sand pile” is used in this note to describe a mound,

internal friction angle . The stress that represents an at rest state a heap, or a prism of sand, and not a sand column, as it is often

has not reached yielding, and it is intriguing that such a state used in foundation engineering. Particular attention will be paid

would be fairly well represented by a function of . to long sand mounds, such as that in Fig. 1共a兲, that render the

It is a common misconception that the coefficient in Eq. 共1兲 is stress state to be a function of two space coordinates 共plane

an empirical result. To the contrary, it was derived 共in a more strain兲.

elaborate form兲 by Jaky 共1944兲 from an analysis of the stress field The early experiments on the distribution of the stress under-

in a wedge prism of a loose granular material. In his 1944 paper

neath piles of sand were described by Hummel and Finnan 共1920兲

Jaky made a bold statement that “... the experimental evaluation

who found that, if a sand is deposited from a point source

共a funnel兲, then a distribution of the base stress beneath a conical

1

Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Univ. pile of sand has a depression at the center. Similarly, a stress

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125. E-mail: rlmich@umich.edu dip occurs under a wedge prism deposited from a line source

Note. Discussion open until April 1, 2006. Separate discussions must 共a hopper兲. This was confirmed by other published results, most

be submitted for individual papers. To extend the closing date by one

recently by Vanel et al. 共1999兲, who indicated that the deposition

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Managing Editor.

The manuscript for this technical note was submitted for review and process has a significant effect on the stress distribution in sand

possible publication on October 28, 2004; approved on April 1, 2005. mounds. More experimental results are listed in Michalowski and

This technical note is part of the Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvi- Park 共2005兲. Efforts toward theoretical description of the stress

ronmental Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 11, November 1, 2005. ©ASCE, state in sand piles can be found in Wittmer et al. 共1997兲, Savage

ISSN 1090-0241/2005/11-1429–1433/$25.00. 共1998兲, Didwania et al. 共2000兲, and Michalowski and Park 共2004兲.

at the symmetry plane. Three components of stress need to be

determined in region BCO, but only two differential equations of

equilibrium are available. Hence, an additional piece of informa-

tion is needed to solve for the stresses in BCO, and Jaky 共1944兲

chose to predetermine the shear stress distribution xy. The shear

stress needs to match that in Eq. 共2兲 along OB, and it needs

to drop down to zero at the symmetry plane OC. An obvious

first attempt would be an assumption of a linear distribution, as

indicated along line EF, Fig. 1共b兲; this yields the following stress

field in BCO

x = ␥y共1 − sin 兲

Fig. 1. Wedge-shaped sand prism: 共a兲 schematic of a long mound xy = ␥x sin

共plane strain analysis兲; and 共b兲 cross section of a symmetric half It is not clear whether Jaky did or did not try this distribution, but

if he tried, he found that the ratio of horizontal-to-vertical stress

Solutions with fully plastic stress states were considered earlier along OC 共x = 0兲 is equal exactly to 1 共hydrostatic stress兲. It

by Booker 共1969兲. comes as a surprise that the principal stress directions in BCO are

It appears that some of the more recent considerations of the constant, and that they are the same as those in region ABO

stress state in piles of sand resemble the theoretical effort of Jaky

共1944兲. As will be shown in this note, the stress field in the sand BCO = ABO = + 共4兲

prism that led Jaky to derivation of his coefficient is not supported 4 2

by experiments, yet the coefficient itself was proved to be a good where ⫽the angle of inclination of the major principal stress to

representation of the natural state in loose deposits and normally axis x关tan 2 = 2xy / 共x − y兲兴. Consequently, the stress state must

consolidated clays. be hydrostatic on OC for equilibrium to hold, and the symmetry

The theoretical background for K0 is shown in the next sec- plane is not a unique principal direction. Clearly, as x / y = 1 on

tion, followed by a discussion in the context of other results. OC, this is not a case that leads to acceptable K0.

Modification of K0 to account for overconsolidated soils is only While the above-presented solution did not yield a reasonable

briefly mentioned. The note ends with brief concluding remarks. coefficient K0, it was considered by Wittmer et al. 共1997兲 as a

possible explanation for the occurrence of a stress dip under

prismatic sand mounds, and they termed it a fixed principal axis

Coefficient K0 共FPA兲 solution. The FPA solution was derived by Wittmer et al.

共1997兲 by assuming directions of principal stresses rather than

The derivation of coefficient K0 is presented in this section in the distribution of xy in region OBC. The distribution of the stress

context of other possible solutions. The translation of the original components at the base for a wedge-shaped sand prism with

paper of Jaky 共1944兲 can be found in Hayat 共1992兲. = 30° is presented in Fig. 2共a兲. This distribution exhibits a clear

Jaky 共1944兲 considered a sand prism of loose granular soil, stress depression under the center of the pile 共the length scale

inclined at to the horizontal, and asserted that the stress on is normalized so that the base length ⫽1, and the stress norm is

vertical plane OC, Fig. 1共b兲, is the pressure at rest. This in itself is ␥H, H⫽sand wedge height兲.

a far reaching assumption. In the introductory portion of the paper Another intuitive but reasonable assumption for distribution

Jaky indicates that the coefficient of pressure at rest is associated of xy is a square-root function, as shown along GH in Fig. 1共b兲;

with one-dimensional strain state 共supporting structure “does not it has the analytical form

shift sideways, tilt or tip over ...”兲, whereas sand heaps certainly

are not a result of a one-dimensional strain 共or deposition兲 冑x

xy = OB 共5兲

process. xy

冑x1

The stress state in region ABO was assumed to be at its limit,

with uniform directions of the principal stresses, and the major xy ⫽shear stress along line OB 关Fig. 1共b兲兴 that is described

where OB

principal stress being parallel to OB. This stress state is identical by the third equation of Eq. 共2兲 for x = x1, and x1 is a horizontal

to that considered by Rankine 共1857兲 for an infinite slope in the distance from the symmetry axis OC to line OB

limit state 共see Michalowski and Park 2004兲, and it is admissible

as long as the base AC of the prism is sufficiently rough. The

stress components in region ABO then become

x1 = y tan 冉 冊

−

4 2

共6兲

x = ␥共y cos − x sin 兲cos By integration of the partial differential equations of equilibrium,

with xy described in Eq. 共5兲, one arrives at the solution to the

stress state in region BCO, given in the Appendix 关Eq. 共11兲兴. The

y = ␥共y − x tan 兲共1 + sin2 兲 共2兲

distribution of the base stress under the prism of sand is illustrated

in Fig. 2共b兲. Although stress xy assumed in Eq. 共5兲 seems reason-

xy = ␥共y cos − x sin 兲sin

able, the resulting distribution of y is not, as it has a singularity

where ␥⫽unit weight of the sand. The same stress state cannot of order −1 / 冑x when x → 0. Consequently, the stress state in the

be extended into triangle BCO, as it would violate equilibrium neighborhood of the symmetry axis becomes inadmissible.

The third distribution of xy considered here is a parabolic

distribution depicted by the curve along JK in Fig. 1共b兲. This

distribution seems to be less intuitive, but this is the one that Jaky

共1944兲 considered

x2

xy = OB

xy 共7兲

x21

Integration of the equilibrium equations leads now to the stress

state in region OBC 关see Eq. 共12兲 in the Appendix兴 that yields

the base stress illustrated in Fig. 2共c兲. While this stress state is

statically admissible 共it satisfies differential equations of equilib-

rium, it does not violate the Mohr–Coulomb yield condition, and

it is consistent with the stress boundary conditions兲, it is not a

stress field that is likely to occur in a sand prism. The distribution

of the normal stress in Fig. 2共c兲 is rather peculiar and it is not

confirmed by any known experimental data. Nevertheless, this is

the distribution that led to the so well-accepted coefficient of

earth pressure at rest.

Newer theoretical data 共e.g., Savage 1998; Didwania et al.

2000; Michalowski and Park 2004兲 indicate that the stress ratio at

the symmetry plane of a wedge sand prism may vary in a large

range from active to passive coefficient of earth pressure. The

known experimental data indicate that the stress distribution

can reach the maximum at the symmetry, or, it may exhibit a

local minimum 共a stress dip兲 at the center point 共see, for instance,

Vanel et al. 1999兲. However, none of the known experimental

measurements resembles that in Fig. 2共c兲.

Jaky 共1944兲 conjectured that the coefficient of pressure at rest

is equal to the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical stress on the

symmetry plane OC 共x = 0兲 of the sand prism. The vertical stress

y in Eq. 共12兲 becomes equal to ␥y when x → 0, and

2

x 1 + 3 sin

K0 = = 共1 − sin 兲 共8兲

y 1 + sin

In a later paper, Jaky 共1948兲 dropped the fraction term from

Eq. 共8兲 without explanation, and the generally accepted form is

that in Eq. 共1兲.

An early set of results from tests with both virgin loading

and unloading of clay soils in one-dimensional strain state was

presented by Brooker and Ireland 共1965兲, who confirmed the

usefulness of the formula in Eq. 共1兲, although they found that

a slightly modified formula, K0 = 0.95− sin , matched the

experimental results for clay soils a little better. A large set of

experimental data was assembled by Mayne and Kulhawy 共1982兲,

who concluded that Eq. 共1兲 is a good representation of the

stress coefficient at rest for normally consolidated clays, and it is

“moderately valid” for granular soils. Similar views are held by

others 共e.g., Mesri and Hayat 1993兲. It is rather surprising that the

at rest stress state is well represented as a function of the limit

state parameter 共internal friction angle兲.

Remarks

the solutions to the stress state in wedge-shaped sand prisms

presented here are those relevant to the original derivation of K0.

A multitude of admissible solutions to the stress field in sand

prisms can be found elsewhere 共Wittmer et al. 1997; Savage

Fig. 2. Distribution of the contact stress at the base of a sand prism 1998; Michalowski and Park 2004兲, including those that do not

for different assumptions of xy in region OBC: 共a兲 linear distribution; enforce stress symmetry in geometrically symmetric prisms

共b兲 square-root distribution; and 共c兲 Jaky’s parabolic distribution 共Didwania et al. 2000兲. Stress field solutions for conical heaps

were not considered, though they can be found in the literature available today confirmed the peculiar distribution following from

共e.g., Wittmer et al. 1997兲. These solutions are numerical in Jaky’s solution. In view of these comments, it is surprising that

nature, and do not yield a convenient form for stresses at the the theoretical formula K0 = 1 − sin is a good representation of

symmetry axis. Radial stress fields form a special class of solu- the true stress ratio in soils at rest.

tions where the stress magnitude is proportional to the distance

from the apex of the sand heap, whether prismatic or conical.

For such stress fields the ratio of horizontal-to-vertical stress

along the symmetry axis is constant; however, this is not true for

Acknowledgments

all solutions. The multitude of admissible solutions includes

The writer thanks Dr. Youssef Hashash of the University of

horizontal-to-vertical stress ratios spanning from active to passive

Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, for making the translation of the

earth pressure coefficients. Jaky 共1944兲 selected a very particular

paper of Jaky available. The work presented in this paper was

stress distribution 关Fig. 2共c兲兴 that proved to be a good represen-

carried out while the writer was supported by the Army Research

tation of the at rest pressure, even though no rational criterion for

Office, Grant No. DAAD19-03-1-0063. This support is greatly

this choice was given.

appreciated.

While the coefficient K0 proposed by Jaky was the result of a

purely theoretical exercise, its later modifications to account for

overconsolidation fall into the category of empirical corrections.

It is remarkable that the earth pressure coefficient at rest for over- Appendix

consolidated soils 共KOC 0 兲 is typically represented as a function of

overconsolidation ratio 共OCR兲, but independent of the magnitude Substituting xy from Eq. 共5兲 into equations of equilibrium

of the maximum consolidation stress. Such a suggestion was 共xy = yx兲

presented by Schmidt 共1966兲, and it has been widely used in a

slightly modified form x yx

+ =0

KOC

0 = K0OCR sin

共9兲 x y

共10兲

The unique dependence of KOC

0 on OCR was criticized by Jefferies

xy y

et al. 共1987兲, who argued that the measured geostatic stress for + =␥

Beaufort Sea clays is not a single-value function of OCR. While x y

this criticism prompted a vivid discussion 共Mayne and Kulhawy one obtains two differential equations with unknown functions

1988; Mesri and Feng 1988兲, one might speculate that stress and x and y, and, after integration, the set of equations describing

deformation history may affect KOC 0 . Elastic properties are influ- the stress state in region OBC becomes

enced by geologic-time processes, and, because the response to

unloading 共“rebound”兲 is affected by the elastic properties, KOC

may reflect some dependence on the history, not just OCR. Geo-

logic features, such as compaction bands, may also affect KOC

0

0 ,

x = ␥y共1 − sin 兲

4

1 + 3 sin

1 x

− ␥x tan

1 + sin 3 y

−

4 2

冋 冉 冊册 1/2

sin

再 冋 冉 冊册 冎

but this technical note will not venture into these arguments.

1 y 1/2

y = ␥y 1 − sin tan −

3 x 4 2

冋 册

Conclusions

1

3

sin tan

+

4 2

冉 冊

− 共1 − sin 兲tan

from its dependence on the soil strength parameter , whereas the

冋 冉 冊册

stress state at rest is below the soil yielding level. Examination of

the original derivation of this coefficient 共Jaky 1944兲 led to two 1/2

conclusions. First, K0 was derived from an analysis of the stress xy = ␥ sin xy tan − 共11兲

4 2

distribution in a wedge-shaped sand prism—a problem that is

not related to the stress path typical of a one-dimensional strain Integration of Eq. 共10兲, with xy as assumed by Jaky 共1944兲 and

process associated with the K0 state. Results of the investigation described in Eq. 共7兲, leads to the following set of equations

of admissible stress states in sand prisms 共Savage 1998; Vanel describing the stress state in region OBC

et al. 1999; Michalowski and Park 2004兲 indicate that the

冉 冊

2

horizontal-to-vertical stress ratio at the symmetry axis of a sand 1 + 3 sin x3

prism can span the entire range from the active to the passive x = ␥y共1 − sin 兲 +␥ sin tan +

1 + sin 3y 2 4 2

state, and it depends on the history of deposition of the granular

冉 冊

material as well as the deflection of the base.

The second conclusion relates to a rather peculiar distribution y

y = ␥y − 2␥x sin tan + ln

x tan共 4 + 兲

of the base stress that stems from Jaky’s solution. Since the

4 2 2

problem formulated by Jaky 共1944兲 was indeterminate in the core

of the sand heap, the shape of the shear stress distribution was

assumed in that part of the prism. Of possible stress distributions,

− ␥x sin tan 冉 冊

−

4 2

the one taken by Jaky yields a rather unrealistic distribution of the

冉 冊

normal stress at the base. Interest in this problem was revived in

the last ten years in the context of stress “depression” under the x2

xy = ␥ sin tan + 共12兲

center of sand piles, but none of the experimental test results y 4 2

References Mayne, P. W., and Kulhawy, F. H. 共1982兲. “K0– OCR relationship in

soil.” J. Geotech. Eng. Div., Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 108共6兲, 851–872.

Booker, J. R. 共1969兲. “Applications of of the theory of plasticity Mesri, G., and Feng, T. W. 共1988兲. Independence of geostatic stress

to cohesive-frictional soils.” PhD thesis, Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, from overconsolidation in some Beaufort Sea clays: Discussion.

Australia. Can. Geotech. J., 25, 621–624.

Brooker, E. W., and Ireland, H. O. 共1965兲. “Earth pressures at rest related Mesri, G., and Hayat, T. M. 共1993兲. “The coefficient of earth pressure at

to stress history.” Can. Geotech. J., 2共1兲, 1–15. rest.” Can. Geotech. J., 30, 647–666.

Didwania, A. K., Cantelaube, F., and Goddard, J. D. 共2000兲. “Static Michalowski, R. L., and Park, N. 共2004兲. “Admissible stress fields and

multiplicity of stress states in granular heaps.” Proc. R. Soc. London, arching in piles of sand.” Geotechnique, 54共8兲, 529–538.

Ser. A 456, 2569–2588. Michalowski, R. L., and Park, N. 共2005兲. “Arching in granular soils.”

Hayat, T. M. 共1992兲. “The coefficient of earth pressure at rest.” PhD Proc., Geomechanics: Testing, Modeling and Simulation, ASCE

thesis, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Ill. Geotechnical Special Publication 143, ASCE, Reston, Va., 255–268.

Hummel, F. H., and Finnan, E. J. 共1920兲. “The distribution of pressure on Rankine, W. J. M. 共1857兲. “On the stability of loose earth.” Philos. Trans.

surfaces supporting a mass of granular material.” Minutes of Proc., R. Soc. London 147, 9–27.

Institute of Civil Engineering, Session 1920–1921, Part II, Selected Savage, S. B. 共1998兲. “Modeling and granular material boundaryvalue

Papers, 212, 369–392. problems.” NATO Advance Study Institute: Physics of dry granular

Jaky, J. 共1944兲. “The coefficient of earth pressure at rest. In Hungarian media, H. J. Herrmann, J.-P. Hovi, and S. Luding, eds., Kluwer,

共A nyugalmi nyomas tenyezoje兲.” J. Soc. Hung. Eng. Arch. (Magyar Dordrecht, The Netherland, 25–95.

Mernok es Epitesz-Egylet Kozlonye), 355–358. Schmidt, B. 共1966兲. “Earth pressures at rest related to stress history.

Jaky, J. 共1948兲. “Pressure in silos.” Proc., 2nd Int. Conf. on Soil Discussion.” Can. Geotech. J., 3共4兲, 239–242.

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam, The Netherland, Vanel, L., Howell, D., Clark, D., Behringer, R. P., and Clement, E.

1, 103–107. 共1999兲. “Memories in sand: Experimental tests of construction

Jefferies, M. G., Crooks, J. H. A., Becker, D. E., and Hill, P. R. 共1987兲. history on stress distributions under sandpiles.” Phys. Rev. E, 60共5兲,

“Independence of geostatic stress from overconsolidation in some R5040–R5043.

Beaufort Sea clays.” Can. Geotech. J., 24共3兲, 342–356. Watson, A. 共1996兲. “Searching for the sand-pile pressure dip.” Science

Mayne, P. W., and Kulhawy, F. H. 共1988兲. “Independence of geostatic 273共5275兲, 579–580.

stress from overconsolidation in some Beaufort Sea clays: Wittmer, J. P., Cates, M. E., and Claudin, P. 共1997兲. “Stress propagation

Discussion.” Can. Geotech. J., 25, 617–621. and arching in static sandpiles.” J. Phys. I, 7, 39–80.

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