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Tonkin Gulf Ghosts

World War I in Film

Charles I at Edgehill
Texian Massacre
Death of a Journalist
Educating Warriors


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World War I, 1914-1918
The 17 cm mittlerer Minenwerfer (17 cm mMW) was developed by Rheinmetall In action, the 17cm mittlerer Minenwerfer was placed in a pit, after its wheels
and entered German service in 1913. It was a muzzle-loading, rifled mortar were removed, not less than 1.5 meters deep to protect it and its crew. Despite
weighing 1,065 lbs. (483 kg) that had a standard hydro-spring recoil system its extremely short effective range of 300 m (325 yards), this mortar proved to
designed for destroying bunkers and field fortifications otherwise immune to be very effective at destroying enemy bunkers and other strong points. With the
normal artillery. nature of static warfare on the western front, the number of mortars grew from
It fired 110 lb (50 kg) HE shells, which contained far more explosive filler than 116 in service when the war broke out in 1914 to some 2,361 by the end of the
ordinary artillery shells of the same caliber. The low muzzle velocity allowed for war in 1918.
thinner shell walls, hence more space for filler. Furthermore, the low velocity Our new German Minenwerfer is a meticulously hand painted and assembled
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less shock-resistant than TNT, which was in short supply. This caused a large To see our complete range, please visit one of the fine retailers listed or visit:
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July 2015

26 Japan’s Last Fight
Though Hirohito surrendered on Aug. 15, 1945, soldiers on islands to the
north and in Manchuria kept fighting to the death against Soviet invaders
By Sir Max Hastings

36 Casting the Die at Edgehill
The seesaw clash that commenced the English Civil War By Christopher G. Marquis

44 ‘Biggest Story of My Life’

Behind enemy lines reporter Joe Morton found death—his own By Norman Goldstein

52 Bloody Goliad: Birth of a Republic

After the Alamo came a far worse—yet often overlooked—massacre By Ron Soodalter

60 War Ends!
World War II ended in a flurry of headline-grabbing events and memorable images

66 Great War Films

Movies that capture the horror and dark humor of World War I By Richard Farmer

Type 95 Ha-Go Light Tank

14 INTERVIEW Not Just Another ‘Great’ Opponent

General James Mattis
17 HISTORYNET READER River Vale, New Jersey
England’s Best Knight
21 WHAT WE LEARNED… War’s Unexpected Images
From the Tonkin Gulf, 1964

On the cover: In the closing days of World War II, and for some days afterward, Japan and the Soviet Union
kept fighting in Manchuria and on a contested island group. (National Archives; Flag Image: Enjoyz/Istockphoto)

Disabled Japanese

60 warplanes and castoff

propellers litter Atsugi
airfield, south of Tokyo,
in the days after Japan’s
August 1945 surrender.
RE-PUBLICATION Join the discussion at

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$24.95 each plus
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of the communists on their home turf.

CIVIL WAR By Anthony Brandt

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Vol. 32, No. 2 July 2015

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major forces—whole armies—
Failed Intervention in Russia into Russia. Does anyone think
that would have been easy?
That the American public would
Anthony Brandt, in his article on the Allied intervention have accepted it? Ask Napoléon
in Russia [“First Shots of the Cold War,” May], seems Bonaparte if Russia was easy.
to have ignored a few salient figures—namely, Vladimir
Lenin, Joseph Stalin and those that followed them. These Falklands War
[Re. “Crags of Tumbledown,”
people may well have killed more Russians than Adolf
by Ron Soodalter, May:] There
Hitler. They were not a bunch of liberal idealists. Nothing are 1,513 good reasons for the
we could have done would have made these guys into Brits to punch the Argentines
anything other than enemies. So, Western intervention in the nose over the Falklands
—namely, the British resi-
didn’t change a damn thing. lomat and historian George and British and French troops dents who want no part of
It was a failure—but it was Kennan, who, in Brandt’s were exhausted; that the Ameri- a corrupt and incompetent
a failure to nip communism words, claimed that this “in- can troops there had only re- Argentine government. More
in the bud. Had the Western tervention killed whatever cently been well-enough trained important, the residents know
powers intervened whole- germ of hope existed for a to go into battle; that because their motherland will be ready
heartedly, they could have better relationship between of the Russian collapse in 1917 to fight for them no matter
helped the Whites defeat the the two countries.” Poppy- the Germans had been able to how many miles away.
Reds, and that would have cock! How can anyone be throw some 40 or so additional Anyone who questions this
changed history. Of course, so naive as to believe that if divisions at the Allies; and that fine example of loyalty should
a more liberal peace treaty the United States and its the whole purpose of the Allied visit the Falklands. Enter any
with the Germans might have allies had not intervened in intervention was to reopen the of the shops where you see a
prevented Hitler from rising the Russian Civil War there Eastern Front and take pressure Union Jack flying and ask an
to power, too. There are a lot would have been a chance off the Western at a moment islander what he thinks about
of “might have beens,” but us for a better relationship be- when the outcome of the war the Argentine bullies. Take
having a nicer relationship tween the communists and remained in doubt. a bus tour to see the battle
with the communists wasn’t America? Communism and Winston Churchill was the memorials—and where the
something that was going to democracy are worlds apart. only Allied leader who really Argentines abandoned their
happen. We were the people Lenin and later Stalin would had much interest in “nipping own dead for the Brits to bury.
the communists wanted to have nothing to do with communism in the bud,” but The message is simple:
destroy. What part of that do America. When the Bolshe- those who thought it might be “Don’t tread on me!” The
Brandt and those who would viks rose up in 1917, they not easy to invade Russia in force Falklands are British. The
have us sit back on our hands only wanted Russia but also were soon enough disabused. islanders are British and very
and do nothing not get? wanted their rebellion to George Kennan wrote a two- proud and thankful for it. And
Bob Frazier spread throughout the world. volume account of the inter- that is the way it will remain.
SAN DIEGO, CALIF. Tom R. Kovach vention, and his conclusions Robert F. Reynolds
NEVIS, MINN. seem wise to me. He admitted GEORGETOWN, TEXAS
In his article on the Allied the slim chance of cooperation
intervention in Russia at the Anthony Brandt responds: Both between the United States and
end of World War I, Anthony correspondents seem to assume Russia had there been no inter- Send letters to
Brandt writes that this “mis- it would have been easy to vention, but he thought there Editor, Military History

World History Group

step” by President Woodrow “nip communism in the bud” was a chance. 19300 Promenade Drive
Wilson would initiate the had the Allies only applied Oppose that to the “might Leesburg, VA 20176
Cold War and ruin whatever themselves instead of going into have beens” these correspon- or via e-mail to
chances there were for any Russia halfheartedly. They dents suggest, and imagine the militaryhistory@
J U LY 2 0 1 5

sort of relationship between seem to have forgotten that consequences among the Amer- historynet.com
Please include name, address
the communists and America. at the time the Allies were fully ican public if, right after the and phone number
Brandt mentions the late dip- engaged on the Western Front, war was over, the U.S. had sent

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News By Brendan Manley

U.S. Naval Reserve Celebrates DISPATCHES

a Centennial of Global Service Team to Excavate

Waterloo Farm
This spring an international
team of battlefield experts
com] led by Tony Pollard
of Glasgow University will
begin the most comprehen-
sive excavation to date of
Hougoumont farm, south

of Brussels, Belgium, where

Anglo-allied troops led by
the Duke of Wellington re-
pelled French troops under
By World War II reservists comprised Napoléon Bonaparte during
the June 18, 1815, Battle
84 percent of U.S. naval manpower.
of Waterloo. The team will
include wounded veterans
from recent campaigns
as part of the Operation
The U.S. Navy Reserve, which contributed reserve played an even greater role in World Nightingale initiative of
the bulk of American naval manpower during War II, contributing 84 percent of U.S. na- the Defence Archaeology
both world wars, marks its centennial this year val manpower. Manned by reservists, the Group [www.dmasuk.org].
with a series of events at installations nation- destroyer Ward’s deck gun fired the first
wide. The celebration kicked off in early American shot of the war, sinking a Japanese HMS Victory
March with a Pentagon ceremony, the open- midget sub off Pearl Harbor on the morning Restoration Begins
ing of a related exhibit at the U.S. Navy Memo- of Dec. 7, 1941. Among the reservists who Britain’s National Museum

rial [www.navymemorial.org] in Washington, served during the war were future Presidents of the Royal Navy [www.
D.C., and ceremonies at the Intrepid Sea, Air John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard royalnavalmuseum.org]
has begun its restoration of
& Space Museum [www.intrepidmuseum. Nixon, Gerald Ford and George H.W. Bush,
HMS Victory, the 104-gun
org] in New York, the USS Ward Gun Memo- as well as 15 Medal of Honor recipients. Some flagship of Vice-Admiral
rial in Minneapolis and the USS Iowa Museum 21,000 reservists served during the 1990–91 Horatio Nelson at the deci-
[www.pacificbattleship.com] in Los Angeles. Gulf War, while more than 70,000 reserve sive Oct. 21, 1805, naval
Created by an act of Congress on March 3, sailors have mobilized since Sept. 11, 2001.
1915, the Navy Reserve [www.navyreserve. The Navy Memorial exhibit continues
navy.mil] has long been an integral com- through April 2016. Other centennial events
ponent of U.S. sea power. It entered World include organized runs, honorary banquets,
War I in April 1917 with some 8,000 sail- family appreciation nights, parades and re-
ors and by war’s end numbered more than lated happenings during annual Navy Weeks.
250,000 reservists (including 12,000 women) For more info visit the Navy Reserve Centen- Battle of Trafalgar. In dry
—more than half of the wartime Navy. The nial website [navyreservecentennial.com]. dock at Portsmouth, Victory
is the world’s oldest com-
J U LY 2 0 1 5

‘Ready Now, Anytime, Anywhere’ missioned warship. Initial

efforts will focus on water-
—U.S. Navy Reserve motto proofing and construction
of a new dry dock cradle.

Museum to Display
Coat From Monitor Paul Allen Pinpoints WAR RECORD
After a decade of pain-
staking restoration the
Mariners’ Museum [www.
Battleship Musashi June 14, 1930: Universal
Pictures premieres All Quiet
on the Western Front (see
marinersmuseum.org] in P. 66) in London after Brit-
Newport News, Va., will
ish censors trim 2 minutes
soon display a Union sail-
or’s woolen coat retrieved from the epic war film.
from the wreck of the Civil Based on the novel by Ger-
man World War I veteran
Erich Maria Remarque, the
After an eight-year search Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen movie sees general release
announced in March that a remotely operated submersible stateside that summer.
launched from his expedition yacht Octopus had located the
wreck of the World War II Japanese battleship Musashi, 3,300 July 1839: Retired Texas
feet deep in the Sibuyan Sea off the Philippines. Footage posted army Colonel William
War ironclad USS Monitor.
on Allen’s website [www.paulallen.com] shows unmistakable Parsons Miller is elected
On Dec. 31, 1862, the 179-

foot coastal steamer sank probate judge in Victoria

details from the battleship’s hull and superstructure, including
off Cape Hatteras, N.C., County. Miller and the men
a space on the prow that once held a teak chrysanthemum,
during a violent storm. In of his Nashville Battalion
2002 Navy divers raised
the seal of imperial Japan. were fortunate survivors of
its distinctive revolving Musashi and sister ship Yamato were the heaviest and most the March 27, 1836, Goliad
gun turret, which contained powerfully armed battleships ever built, each displacing Massacre (see P. 52) during
the skeletal remains of two some 73,000 tons and carrying nine 18.1-inch naval guns. the Texas Revolution.
crewmen and numerous On Oct. 24, 1944, during the Battle of Leyte Gulf, dozens of
artifacts, including the coat.
carrier-based U.S. warplanes attacked and sank Musashi, July 9, 1945: An Associ-
claiming nearly half of its 2,399-man crew. ated Press investigation
Richard Hottelet, 97, concludes that German
Last ‘Murrow Boy’ guards executed its corre-
‘Would it not be a shame to have the fleet spondent Joe Morton (see
Richard Hottelet, 97—
the last of the “Murrow
remain intact while our nation perishes?’ P. 44) on January 24 at the
Boys,” a cadre of World —Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita Mauthausen concentration
War II–era CBS radio camp in Austria. Morton
reporters who worked was the only Allied reporter
under famed broadcaster executed in World War II.
Edward R. Murrow—died
in December. In 1941 the
Replica Prewar Bugatti July 12, 1642: The British
May Take to the...Sky? Parliament votes to raise
an army to oppose King
Charles I and appoints
This fall a team of aviation enthusiasts hopes to fly a replica Robert Devereux, 3rd
of the Bugatti Model 100P [bugatti100p.com], a revolutionary Earl of Essex, as its com-
air racer built in 1939 by Italian-born French auto designer mander. The earl’s troops
Ettore Bugatti and see their first major fight
Belgian engineer on October 23 at the Battle
Louis de Monge. of Edgehill (see P. 36).
German Gestapo held Fitted with twin
Hottelet in Berlin for four July 24, 1945: Its neu-
months on suspicion of
Type 50 480hp
engines driving trality pact with Japan
espionage. In wartime he expired and tensions rising,
was the first CBS corre- forward-mounted
the Soviet Union recalls
spondent to broadcast an contra-rotating propellers, it was reportedly capable of speeds
eyewitness report of the all embassy staff from
up to 474 mph. But the original, owned by the EAA AirVenture that nation. On August 8
June 6, 1944, invasion of
Normandy and later cov- Museum [www.eaa.org] in Oshkosh, Wis., never flew. Bugatti the Soviets declare war
ered such major events put the plane in storage for the duration of the war to keep and invade Japanese-held
as the Battle of the Bulge. its technology out of German hands. Manchuria (see P. 26).

The American Civil War
Taught by Professor Gary W. Gallagher
1. Prelude to War
2. The Election of 1860
ED F 3. The Lower South Secedes
IT 4. The Crisis at Fort Sumter

5. The Opposing Sides, I


6. The Opposing Sides, II
7. The Common Soldier
8. First Manassas or Bull Run
9. Contending for the Border States

off 10.
Early Union Triumphs in the West
Shiloh and Corinth

12. The Peninsula Campaign

13. The Seven Days’ Battles
BY J U 14.
The Kentucky Campaign of 1862
16. The Background to Emancipation
17. Emancipation Completed
18. Filling the Ranks
19. Sinews of War—Finance and Supply
20. The War in the West, Winter 1862–63
21. The War in Virginia, Winter and Spring 1862–63
22. Gettysburg
23. Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and Tullahoma
24. A Season of Uncertainty, Summer and Fall 1863
25. Grant at Chattanooga
26. The Diplomatic Front
27. African Americans in Wartime, I
28. African Americans in Wartime, II
29. Wartime Reconstruction
30. The Naval War
31. The River War and Confederate Commerce Raiders
32. Women at War, I
33. Women at War, II
34. Stalemate in 1864
35. Sherman versus Johnston in Georgia
36. The Wilderness to Spotsylvania
37. Cold Harbor to Petersburg
38. The Confederate Home Front, I
39. The Confederate Home Front, II
40. The Northern Home Front, I
41. The Northern Home Front, II
42. Prisoners of War
43. Mobile Bay and Atlanta
44. Petersburg, the Crater, and the Valley
45. The Final Campaigns
46. Petersburg to Appomattox
47. Closing Scenes and Reckonings
48. Remembering the War

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Battle of Britain
Chapel Kept Open Britons Remember Churchill on
London Biggin Hill Airport,
on the site of the wartime
RAF Biggin Hill Aerodrome
50th Anniversary of His Death
in Kent, has pledged to foot
the £50,000 annual oper-
ating cost of St. George’s
Wartime PM Winston Churchill
Chapel of Remembrance
[www.rafchapelbigginhill. ranks among the most influential
com], dedicated to the 454 leaders of the World War II era.

local RAF members who

died during the 1940 Battle
of Britain. The Ministry of
Defence, citing spending
cuts, had threatened its
closure. Built in 1951, Britain is holding a series of events this year where they cast the wreath into the water.
St. George’s features a to commemorate the 50th anniversary of The ship bears a commemorative plaque,
floor hewn from wooden wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s presented by the International Churchill
propellers, while wartime death. On Saturday, Jan. 30, 1965, six days Society [churchillsociety.org], inscribed with
Spitfire and Hurricane
after Churchill’s passing at age 90, officials broadcaster Richard Dimbleby’s words: AND
fighters flank its gate.
held a state funeral service for him at St. Paul’s SO HAVENGORE SAILS INTO HISTORY ... NOT EVEN
Cathedral in London. Attended by throngs of THE GOLDEN HIND HAD BORNE SO GREAT A MAN.
Researchers: PTSD Britons and representatives from 112 nations, The National Railway Museum [www.nrm.

As Old as Warfare with a worldwide television viewing audi- org.uk] in York is displaying the restored
British researchers poring ence of some 350 million, it marked history’s locomotive (renamed Winston Churchill)
over ancient texts have largest state funeral to date. and Pullman carriage that carried Churchill’s
identified likely instances
Fifty years later Britons marked the date family from Waterloo Station in London to
of post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) dating with a service and wreath-laying at the Houses Oxfordshire. Churchill is buried in the
far earlier of Parliament, a memorial service at West- family plot at St. Martin’s Church, Bladon,
than pre- minster Abbey and the rebroadcast by BBC near his birthplace at Blenheim Palace.
viously Parliament [www.bbc.co.uk] of the original More information and a full list of events
—roughly live funerary coverage. A ceremonial flotilla are available at the Churchill Central website
3,000 years down the Thames centered on Havengore, [www.churchillcentral.com]. Meanwhile, the
back dur- the very launch that bore Churchill’s coffin. Royal Mint [www.royalmint.com] has issued
ing the As- This time Havengore took Churchill family a series of silver and gold commemorative
syrian dynasty in ancient
members from the Tower of London to coins, including one patterned after a 1965
Mesopotamia (present-day
Iraq). Excerpts from their a point on the river opposite Parliament, design by Churchill sculptor Oscar Nemon.
paper, titled “Nothing
New Under the Sun,”
describe how the king of ‘I am ready to meet my Maker. Whether my Maker is prepared
Elam’s “mind changed”
after battle, while soldiers
for the great ordeal of meeting me is another matter’
attributed their anxiety to —Sir Winston Churchill
ghosts of their fallen foes.

Congress Honors LOST AND FOUND
‘Devil’s Brigade’ Re-enactors Mark 70th
The U.S. Congress has
awarded the Congres-
sional Gold Medal to
Anniversary of ‘Bulge’ While the 863-foot Japa-
nese battleship Musashi
(see P. 9) is undoubtedly
the American-Canadian the largest military relic
1st Special Service Force American and Belgian
in the news, there’s no
(aka “Devil’s Brigade”), re-enactors gathered shortage of smaller finds.
an elite commando unit in December in the Other discoveries include:
that served during World Ardennes region of
War II. Activated in 1942,
Belgium to portray Norse Trader: Norwegian
the brigade saw heavy
the winter 1944–45 archaeologists examining
Battle of the Bulge, a Viking-era grave near
the costliest clash for Trondheim recovered a
U.S. forces in World leather purse containing
War II. In similarly frigid, snowy conditions uniformed Islamic coins. The purse was
concealed in a shield boss
participants conducted mock maneuvers with such mili-
that dates to the year 950.
tary vehicles as a U.S. M36 Jackson tank destroyer and a As the Vikings traded as far
action in 1944, from the German Jagdpanther tank destroyer. The commemorations
Allied amphibious landing south as Constantinople, re-
extended to Bastogne, where Belgium’s royal family laid searchers surmise the coins
at Anzio, Italy, through
the siege of Monte Cas- wreaths at Place Général McAuliffe, a memorial dedicated may have been payment for

sino and capture of Rome to the wartime commander of the 101st Airborne Division. such items as ivory or furs.
to the invasion of south- Fought from Dec. 16, 1944, to Jan. 25, 1945, along a 70-mile
ern France. During the front, the Bulge pitted more than 82,000 dug-in Allied troops Windbreakers: During
war the 1,800-man force restoration work to a hut
tallied some 12,000 Ger- against a 200,000-man German offensive targeting Antwerp.
By the time German troops withdrew, the battle had claimed at Bletchley Park, Britain’s
man casualties and 7,000
World War II code-breaking
prisoners. Seventy-five some 76,000 Allied and 84,000 German casualties.
brigade members survive. center, workers found stuffed
within its walls papers tied
‘We should thank God that such men lived’ to efforts to crack the Ger-
Belgium May Close —General George S. Patton man Enigma code. Crypt-
Bastogne Barracks analysts apparently used
Faced with spending cuts, them to block drafts.
the Belgian army may shut-
ter the Bastogne Barracks
Museum, wartime head-
Germans to Revive Aerial Assassin: Owners
of a wartime resistance safe
Iconic Nazi Sites house in Czechoslovakia
found the radio antennae
agent Jiri Potucek used to
Nuremberg officials are pushing to coordinate the June 1942
renovate that city’s decaying Nazi assassination of Nazi chief
party rally grounds [www.museums. Reinhard Heydrich.
quarters of the 101st Air- nuremberg.de]. Proponents tout the
borne Division during the historical significance of the site, Spee Spat: Salvors are
December 1944 siege and which includes 6 square miles of pushing the Uruguayan
the place from which U.S. structures and roadways, a ghost rail- government to auction a
Army Brig. Gen. Anthony 6-foot bronze eagle they
way station and secret rooms for the
McAuliffe issued the recovered in 2006 from
famous one-word reply Nazi elite. Detractors cite the pro-
the prow of the scuttled
“NUTS!” to a German posed $90 million cost and concern
World War II German heavy
demand for surrender. the restored site would become a pilgrimage site for neo-Nazis.
Museum supporters have cruiser Admiral Graf Spee.
Meanwhile, this summer the Top Secret Spy Museum The eagle, legally seized by
circulated a change.org
petition to Belgian Defence [www.topsecret-oberhausen.de] in Oberhausen plans the government, could fetch
Minister Steven Vandeput to open five rooms modeled after Adolph Hitler’s Berlin $15 million, half of which
to keep the barracks open. Führerbunker, where the Nazi leader made his last stand. would go to the finders.

Interview General James Mattis
On Educating Warriors

Mattis insists that a study of history

and shared knowledge from combat
are essential elements of training.

In 2013 General James N. Mattis retired with responsibility for ongoing U.S. mili- people have dealt successfully or un-
after a 41-year Marine Corps career that tary operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. successfully with similar situations or
included field commands in the Persian Since retiring, Mattis, 64, has been a patterns in the past. It doesn’t give you
Gulf War, Iraq and Afghanistan. In the visiting fellow at Stanford University’s a template of answers, but it does help
theater of combat the hard-charging gen- Hoover Institution and taught courses on you refine the questions you have to ask
eral was known by the call sign “Chaos.” various subjects at other colleges nation- yourself. Further, you recognize there is
But it was his respect for history and stu- wide. He also plans to write a book about nothing so unique that you’ve got to go
dious commitment to training in strategy leadership. Mattis paused long enough to extraordinary lengths to deal with it.
and tactics that earned him the moniker to speak with Military History about
“Warrior Monk.” As head of the Marine the importance of educating warriors for How did the Marine Corps
Corps Combat Development Command, the challenges of modern-day warfare. prepare you for warfare?
Mattis furthered the efforts of MCCDC’s The Corps made very clear that I was
Center for Lessons Learned and helped You often quote Ecclesiastes 1:9: responsible for my own learning, and

compile the U.S. Army/Marine Corps “There is nothing new under the that it would guide me with a required
Counterinsurgency Field Manual. He sun.” What does it mean to you? reading list. We learned the Corps was
rose through the ranks to head up U.S. Read about history, and you become as serious about that as it was about
J U LY 2 0 1 5

Joint Forces Command in 2007 and to aware that nothing starts with us. It 3-mile runs and pull-ups. It set an
replace General David Petraeus at the started long ago. If you read enough institutional expectation with a moral
helm of U.S. Central Command in 2010, biography and history, you learn how tone to it: War is bloody enough with-

out having to have amateurs send when the Marines were doing experi- early years in the Marine Corps. Then,
young men into a fight. ments with amphibious warfare and under the guidance of various senior of-
encapsulating lessons from fighting in ficers who coached us juniors, I turned
Don’t superior firepower and their Small Wars Manual. Another key to reading deeply about a few battles or
combat training alone adequately development came in World War II, a few campaigns, and that really helped.
prepare a warrior? in the midst of the Guadalcanal cam- I studied the Geronimo campaign in
We deal with a fundamentally unpre- paign, when Maj. Gen. Alexander Vande- detail, the Great Sioux War, went deeply
dictable phenomenon called war, and grift realized his men were not fully into Waterloo and Gettysburg.
the idea you’re going to solve this with prepared for jungle warfare and cre- Henry Kissinger once said that as
just technology or training alone does ated schools to take lessons learned you fill a kettle full of water, you fill
not hold up in a study of history. Yes, and teach the Marines. When I got to your mind with knowledge, and then,
the training is critical, that you have Quantico [Marine Corps Base Quan- when you’re on those high-tempo jobs,
ingrained the muscle memory, so when tico, Virginia], the formal organization you pour it out. Then you get out of
you employ this force in close contact was already in place. those jobs and refill it.
with the enemy, you have a vicious
level of harmony built on brilliance in What changes did you And then pour out that
the basics. But you educate them for implement? knowledge to the next vessel
what we don’t know will happen. They’re We simply prioritized the center’s mis- in line?
like two rails of a railroad track. If you sion, incorporating lessons learned. Well, yeah. We have an obligation to
want to run your locomotive down a We had to have product, to put out pass on the lessons we learned often-
track, you need both rails. things that changed pre-deployment times at great, great cost. I would liken
training, so we put out the Small Unit it to running the elevator down, open-
How did such training inform Leaders’ Guide to Counterinsurgency ing the doors, bringing on board young
your decisions? and the Counterinsurgency (or COIN) guys, and carrying them up a couple
It meant I was never really bewildered Field Manual, written by both the of levels, sharing what we learned so
for very long by anything an adversary Army and the Marines. It changed the they can go make their own mistakes,
did. I remember in 2001 when the fleet way we trained and codified what we not the same ones we made.
commander [Vice Adm. were already doing in
Charles W. Moore Jr.] some cases. What lessons would you like to
asked if I could get the impart to warriors in training?
Marines from the Medi- Who tops your That small groups of committed people
terranean and the Pa- reading list? can change things. That ethical, com-
cific together and move Colin Gray from the petent and admired leadership is badly
against Kandahar, Af- University of Reading is needed nowadays. For young officers,
ghanistan. I did my re- the most near-faultless certainly to gain trust and respect from
connaissance in a Navy strategist alive. Then their subordinates. But they also have
antisubmarine plane there’s Sir Hew Strachan to be able to gain the affection of their
with beautiful telescopes from Oxford, and Wil- troops. Not popularity—affection. By
on board. I could see the liamson Murray, the doing that they’ll find people who have
fighting up north, a little American. Those three coequal commitment across all ranks.
bit going on further east. are probably the lead- That’s what you see in forces that have
Out west there wasn’t ing present-day military shown spirit even when a lot of things
much. And then down theorists. You’ve got to went wrong.
south at Kandahar, this big dark area— know Sun-tzu and Carl von Clausewitz,
no one down there, not scouts, not even of course. The Army was always big on How would you answer critics
patrols. And I knew right away.…I didn’t Clausewitz, the Prussian; the Navy on who accuse you of espousing
care how brave their boys were. I didn’t Alfred Thayer Mahan, the American; “old school” values?
care how many guns they had. I knew and the Air Force on Giulio Douhet, It takes a military with what could be
I was going to stick a knife in their back. the Italian. But the Marine Corps has considered old-fashioned values or
Based on all that reading the Marine always been more Eastern-oriented. quaint values to protect the country.
Corps had required at each rank, I could I am much more comfortable with There’s always going to be a bit of a ten-
see exactly how to take this enemy down. Sun-tzu and his approach to warfare. sion, a dynamic that has to be under-
stood by those responsible for leading

What are the origins of the How do you structure your a progressive America that does not
Center for Lessons Learned? personal reading? want to be militarized yet needs certain
It goes back to the interwar period, I tried to read very broadly during my military attributes for protection. MH

HistoryNet Reader
A sampling of remarkable adventures, decisive moments and great ideas
from our sister publications, selected by the editors of Military History


Southern Revolution Industrial-Grade Attack Modern Artillery Expert
In the late 1770s the With Adolf Hitler’s Brig. Gen. Thomas
red-hot action in New death and an immi- Jackson Rodman de-
England often over- nent unconditional veloped an alternate
shadowed fighting in surrender, it’s no process for casting
the South. In the June wonder the Battle smoothbore gun tubes,
2015 issue of Ameri- of the Ruhr Pocket reducing the possibil-
can History Edward is overlooked. Robert ity of potential explo-
G. Lengel spotlights the intense struggle Citino recounts the Americans’ late- sions during use—and it wasn’t even
between Patriots and Loyalists in the war victory that crushed any hope of his most important invention. David T.
Carolinas and Georgia in his article a German rebound in “Death in the Zabecki profiles Rodman and his inven-
“Southern Showdown,” excerpted here: West,” in the May/June 2015 issue tions in “The Man Behind the Rodman
of World War II. Gun,” in the Spring 2015 issue of MHQ.
In 1778 it was clear to the British that
three years of fighting in New England The Army hit the Ruhr hard and well. The Rodman gun, developed in the
and the Mid-Atlantic had settled noth- When American armies were encir- mid-19th century, was the technolog-
ing. Loyalist uprisings expected in cling and crushing the last Wehrmacht ical apex of smoothbore, muzzle-
New York and Pennsylvania had not force in the west, Germany was weeks loading artillery. Cannons using chem-
materialized. As the British probed for from unconditional surrender. Amid ical explosives to propel a projectile
American weaknesses elsewhere, they the war’s final tumult, it’s easy to over- had made their first appearance on
thought they discovered the soft under- look the Battle of the Ruhr Pocket. the battlefield in the 14th century, and
belly in the South, where Loyalist sen- By 1945 German losses were soar- for the next 500 years the technology
timents were strong and Patriot military ing, replacements were not keeping changed very little. Almost all artillery
forces were weak and scattered. up, and much of the Reich’s army con- pieces, cast of either iron or bronze,
In December a British expedition sisted of old men and boys, sketchily were smoothbore, muzzle-loaded and
captured Savannah, Ga. It was to be trained and equipped. Field Marshal used propellant charges based on black
the first step in a campaign to conquer Albert Kesselring, German supreme powder. Then, near the end of the 19th
the entire region. Instead, it touched off commander in the west, once com- century, artillery technology made a
America’s first civil war, as Patriot and plained that leading German armies in radical leap forward with the intro-
Loyalist militias squared off. Militia- those days was like “playing a Beetho- duction of rifled steel barrels, breech-
men rarely wore uniforms, and their ven sonata on an old, rickety, out of loading systems, recoil mechanisms
rationales for fighting could be ob- tune piano.” and improvements in propellants.
scure. True, many fought because they But the U.S. Army was mobile and During the 40 years between 1830
disagreed over whether to form a new lethal. The intensity of American artil- and 1870 the older types of artillery
nation independent from Great Britain. lery never ceased to shock the Germans, also underwent drastic scientific im-
But some fought because they had per- who had to obliterate more selectively. provements, culminating in the Rod-
sonal, social or economic grievances or And overhead, American airpower man gun. Although in the long run the
because they had private scores to settle. nearly paralyzed German forces by day. gun was a technological dead end, the
Others sought to protect their families In 1945 these advantages coalesced. advances introduced by its designer,
and homes. More than a few probably In the Ruhr Pocket the U.S. Army lived Rodman, revolutionized gun-barrel
just aimed for plunder. Whatever the and fought the dream: establishing production and propellant design.
motivation, the results were tragic. Brit- dominance to achieve, at minimal
ish Redcoats weren’t the worst perpe- cost, the greatest American victory
trators of violence in the Southern war. of the European war. To subscribe to any World History
Most atrocities there were committed magazine, call 1 (800) 435-0715
by Americans against Americans. or visit us online at HistoryNet.com.

Thunder and Flames
Americans in the Crucible of Combat,
“Lengel has done an admirable job cutting through the decades of
legend and half-truths surrounding the American Expeditionary
Forces in the First World War. Students of the war will owe him
a great debt for this comprehensive and effective book.”
—Michael S. Neiberg, author of Dance of the Furies: Europe and
the Outbreak of World War I

The Mediterranean
Air War
Airpower and Allied Victory
in World War II
“Ehlers combines comprehensive
research and insightful analysis in
equal measure. This study rightly
establishes the centrality of airpower
in the struggle in the Mediterranean
theater.”—Sebastian Cox, head of Air
Historical Branch, Royal Air Force
and editor of The Strategic Air War
against Germany, 1939–1945 The Russian Army in the Great War
PAGES PHOTOS MAPS  The Eastern Front, 1914–1917
The Pacific War and “Stone’s long-awaited new standard on the Russian perspective of the First
World War is a really great book and a pleasure to read.”—Wolfram Dornik,
Contingent Victory coauthor of The Emperor’s Hawk
Why Japanese Defeat Was PAGES PHOTOS MAPS #LOTH
Not Inevitable
-ICHAEL7-YERS General Lesley J. McNair
“A provocative book that should be Unsung Architect of the US Army
read by all interested in the Pacific -ARK4#ALHOUN
War, and further debate on the issues
“An insightful portrait of a large, enigmatic, and controversial figure in American
Myers raises will surely contribute to
military history. General Lesley J. McNair finally has the biographer he deserves.”
a better understanding of the Pacific
—Rick Atkinson, author of The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe,
War.”—Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, author
of Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman,
and the Surrender of Japan PAGES PHOTOS #LOTH %BOOK
NEW IN PAPERBACK Through the Maelstrom
The War for Korea, A Red Army Soldier’s War on the Eastern Front, 1942–1945
0APER University Press of Kansas
Valor England’s Best Knight
By David T. Zabecki

Henry II, when her convoy was attacked Marshal transferred his loyalty to King
near Poitiers, France. Eleanor reached John, serving him in the continuing
the safety of her castle while William conflict with France and during the
delayed the attackers. The enemy even- First Barons’ War in England. In 1215
tually overwhelmed and captured him, Marshal was a signatory of the Magna
marking his only recorded defeat in Carta, a document intended to limit
combat. Eleanor personally arranged for royal powers and thus resolve the dis-
his ransom, and in gratitude King Henry pute between John and his barons.
selected Marshal to train his eldest living When John died the following year,
son, Henry, for the knighthood. When his son Henry was only 9 years old.
son Henry—who reigned alongside his With internal tensions smoldering in
father as “the Young King”—died in England, and France’s Prince Louis
1183, he made a deathbed request of installed in London by the barons as
Marshal to carry his Crusader’s cloak pretender to the throne, the marshal
William Marshal to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in remained the only universally trusted
Knights Templar Jerusalem. After making the pilgrimage, man in the kingdom. Marshal knighted
Order of the Temple Marshal remained in Syria several years the boy and oversaw his coronation as
1219 fighting alongside the Knights Templar. Henry III. He was also appointed Henry
On his return to England in 1187 III’s protector and given the title Rector

illiam Marshal, 1st Earl Marshal joined the royal household Regis et Regni, making him England’s
of Pembroke and lord and the following year accompanied de facto military and political leader.
marshal and regent of Henry II on campaign against Philip II Marshal’s first act was to confirm and
England, was considered of France. Prince Richard had allied reissue the Magna Carta. Despite that
the greatest fighting man with Philip in an ongoing dispute over overture, conflict with the barons soon
of his day. Reportedly defeated only territory and alliance through mar- resumed. Although in his 70s, Marshal
once in personal combat, he was per- riage. In the spring of 1189 Richard led commanded the Royalist forces in the
haps the only man to unhorse Richard I a pursuit of his ailing father’s convoy field for two years. In 1217 Marshal led
“the Lionheart” and live to tell about it in the Loire Valley. As Richard his forces to victory against the
Marshal, the younger son of an im- galloped after Henry’s train, French and rebel barons at the
poverished Wiltshire baron, was born Marshal drove a lance into Battle of Lincoln. As the battle
circa 1146. As a child he was sent to his Richard’s horse, killing it and was ending, French commander
father’s cousin, William de Tancarville, leaving the Lionheart sitting Thomas, comte du Perche, who
chamberlain of Normandy, to train for in the dust. Within days Henry was young enough to be Mar-
the knighthood. At 6 feet Marshal was died, and Richard rose to the shal’s grandson, challenged the
tall for his era, and he displayed an in- throne, yet one of his first acts English commander to single
stinctive skill for weaponry that made was to pardon William’s ac- combat. It was a fatal mistake.

him a formidable warrior. Still, when tions in defense of Henry and Marshal’s remains, Marshal died on May 14,
knighted in 1167 he had to borrow reconfirm his position in the in robes bearing 1219, having secured the En-
a horse to enter his first tournament. royal court. the order’s symbol, glish throne for Henry III and
Tournaments in those days were no Marshal served Richard loy- lie in London’s the Magna Carta for humanity.
mere sporting events; they were deadly ally for a decade, thwarting Temple Church. Just before death he assumed
affairs fought on a winner-take-all basis. Prince John’s power grab while the habit of a Knight Templar.
Marshal claimed to have defeated some Richard was off at the Third Crusade He was entombed in London’s Temple
500 knights without a loss during his and later serving the Lionheart during Church, where his recumbent effigy
long career on the tournament circuit his many small wars in France. On the remains. Presiding at Marshal’s funeral,
in England and France. death of his older brother in 1194 Wil- Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen
In 1168 Marshal was helping escort liam served the king as sole marshal of Langton said, “Here lies all that remains
Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of King England. When Richard died in 1199, of the best knight of all the world.” MH

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firstSTREET for Boomers and Beyond, Inc.
What We Learned...
From the Tonkin Gulf
By Stephan Wilkinson

led to the deaths of more than 58,000

Americans and countless Vietnamese.

Good gunnery takes practice. In the
August 2 incident Maddox expended
283 3- and 5-inch rounds yet inflicted
significant damage on only one of
the three attacking PT boats. A dozen
of the rounds were illuminating star
shells, useless in daytime combat.
Micromanagement is never a good
tactic. The commanders of Maddox
Senior Pentagon officers sought
and Turner Joy were bombarded by
to grasp a confused situation
scores of distracting radio queries from
unfolding half a world away.
officials in Washington, D.C. If you
are nearly 9,000 miles from a battle,
hold that thought until it’s over.

hat happened on the night aged at least one with gunfire. Pursu- Say again? Lacking a dedicated
of Aug. 4, 1964, in the ing jet fighters from the aircraft carrier communications ship, the destroyers’
Gulf of Tonkin—a large USS Ticonderoga damaged all three radios were so swamped by their
body of water pinched be- North Vietnamese boats, leaving one own traffic that legitimate traffic
tween North Vietnam and dead and burning in the water. Damage from Pacific Fleet commanders didn’t
China—changed the course of military to Maddox comprised a single hole from reach the ships until after the action.
history. The murky events involved the a 14.5mm machine-gun bullet. Radar and sonar can lie. Though
U.S. Navy destroyers Maddox and Turner Little more than 48 hours later Mad- experienced operators knew better,
Joy and constituted the second of two dox, joined by Turner Joy, fought another novice techs were fooled by sonar
closely linked Tonkin Gulf incidents. three-hour running battle far out in the returns off their own ships’ rudders
The first had occurred two days earlier, Tonkin Gulf with…well, ghosts, phan- and by “Tonkin spooks”—radar
on the afternoon of August 2. toms on a stormy, lightning-laced night. returns generated by atmospheric
The United States was not yet at war Maddox and Turner Joy fired more than and maritime phenomena.
in Vietnam, but the presence of Maddox 300 3- and 5-inch shells and several The fog of war is thick. Maddox and
within a dozen miles of North Viet- depth charges at false radar and sonar Turner Joy had the entire Pacific Fleet
nam’s offshore islands (inside that gov- targets, perhaps reflected from the wound tight with requests for help.
ernment’s claimed territorial limits) wave tops and the ships’ own rudders. Ticonderoga launched numerous air-
certainly offered provocation. This was At one point radar operators on Maddox craft, none of which saw a single target.
no mere “show the flag” cruise, either. even identified Turner Joy as a possible Once the camel gets its nose under

Maddox was there to gather electronic target. The destroyers reported having the tent, the hump is sure to follow.
intelligence from North Vietnam’s radar evaded at least 26 torpedoes, and to this Within hours of the phantom battle
installations, communications facilities day former crewmen of the ships insist Johnson ordered retaliatory air strikes
and coastal defenses. So it’s not sur- the attacks were real. against North Vietnamese torpedo boat
prising the tiny North Vietnamese navy Three days later President Lyndon bases, while the Gulf of Tonkin Reso-
sent three fast torpedo boats to inter- Johnson used the “battle” as a means lution gave him the authority to further
cept Maddox. In the attack the U.S. de- to push through Congress the Gulf of escalate the conflict without a formal
stroyer evaded several torpedoes, neatly Tonkin Resolution, which gave him declaration of war from Congress—
outmaneuvered the PT boats and dam- the war-making power that ultimately and the rest, as they say, is history. MH

Type 95 Ha-Go Light Tank 7
By Jon Guttman / Illustration by Peter Bull

1 2

25 26




20 17

Crew: Three

n July 1933 Japan’s infantry and cavalry
schools—responding to complaints Combat weight: 8.1 tons
that the Type 89 medium tank was too Armor: 12mm hull and
slow and the Type 92 cavalry tank too turret, front, rear and sides;
lightly armed (machine guns only)— 9mm top and bottom
collaborated on the design of a tank that Power-to-weight ratio:
would combine greater speed with better 16.2 hp/ton
armament. The result was a 7.7-ton light tank Overall length: 14 feet
(half the weight of the Type 89B, but using 4 inches
9 the same diesel engine) armed with a 37mm Width: 6 feet 9 inches
cannon. Mitsubishi had a prototype ready Height: 7 feet
for trials by June 1934. After further modifi- Engine: Mitsubishi A6120VD
cations, including the addition of a rear- 120 hp six-cylinder diesel
11 facing machine gun in the one-man turret, engine with a five-speed
the machine went into production in 1936 as transmission
the Type 95 Ha-Go (“third issue”) light tank. Fuel capacity: 27 gallons
The Ha-Go entered service in Manchuria, (main tank), seven gallons
12 (reserve)
and at the outset of World War II it supported
the invasions of Malaya, Singapore and the Max. speed: 28 mph (road),
Philippines, where it held its own against 18 mph (cross-country)
the Allies’ M3 Stuart light tanks. Although its Max. range: 130 miles
quarters were cramped and its armor scarcely Fuel consumption: 5.4 mpg
able to withstand a heavy machine-gun round, Ground clearance: 15 inches
attempts to produce an improved design— Armament: Type 94 or
including an amphibious variant—amounted Type 98 37mm tank gun;
to little. Mitsubishi and the Hino Motor Co. two Type 97 7.7mm
built 2,300 Ha-Gos, which Japan deployed machine guns
everywhere from western Burma to Kiska in Ammunition: 130 rounds
the Aleutian Islands. But as the Allies forced 37mm; 3,300 rounds 7.7mm
Japan onto the defensive, the Ha-Go suc- Muzzle velocity: 2,300 fps
cumbed to more advanced opposition, such Max. effective range:
as the M4 Sherman medium tank. When 1.8 miles
Soviet forces stormed Manchuria in August
1945 (see related story, P. 26), the Ha-Go
and its medium-weight stablemates found
themselves outnumbered and hopelessly
outclassed by the armored columns that had
just prevailed over Nazi Germany’s best. MH

1. Main gun trunnion 15. Helical compression springs under

2. Type 94 37mm gun armored cover for suspension
3. Right side ammunition storage for 37mm gun 16. Return roller
4. Turret 37mm ammunition ready rack 17. Front Type 97 7.7mm machine gun
5. Engine bulkhead 18. Road wheel in twin bogie mount
6. Rear turret Type 97 7.7mm machine gun 19. Drive sprocket
7. Engine muffler 20. Steel tracks
8. Air intake for engine 21. Transmission
9. Mitsubishi A6120VD diesel engine 22. Brake pads for vehicle steering
10. Oil filler cap 23. Tank headlight
11. Tank repair jack 24. Driver’s forward visor
12. Tank tools 25. Driver’s instruments
13. Idler wheel (electrical switches)
14. Power train to transmission 26. Driver’s seat
(cover omitted for clarity)

to spread or combat an ideology,
to gain or defend territory, to
punish a nation for some real
or perceived wrong, prompted by
some minor dynastic struggle or
even resulting from a calculated misrepresentation of actual events.
Once begun, military conflicts—whether between nations, members
of different ethnic groups or adherents of differing faiths—all tend to
include the same ingredients.
There is, of course, actual combat, the struggle of armed forces over
well-defined battlefields or, increasingly, across far-flung cityscapes
whose residents are suddenly thrown into the midst of combat. There
is also the accompanying war of words, ideas and beliefs, in which
each side attempts to justify itself to its own people and to the larger
world, while at the same time working to vilify the enemy and undercut
support for him both at home and abroad. And, of course, there are the
concurrent diplomatic and financial battles, as the war’s participants
seek to achieve through other means what they might not be able to
accomplish with weapons.
Yet those who fight wars, either as aggressor or victim, all have the
same ultimate goal: to conclude the conflict as quickly and successfully
as possible, hopefully at the lowest cost in blood and treasure. Whether
the war lasts six days or 30 years, the purpose is to defeat the enemy
and prevent the destruction of one’s own homeland, culture or political
system. Nations that revel in the conduct of war for its own sake, without
regard for its costs or consequences, seldom survive.
When wars finally do end, the victors seek to ritually demonstrate
the superiority of their cause and the extent of their martial prowess.
The demonstrations have historically involved the execution of a
defeated monarch, a parade of captives, the destruction of an enemy
capital or, in more recent times, solemn surrender ceremonies aboard
mighty warships. However conducted, the event has conveyed one
clear message: We won, you lost, and the war is definitively over.
Until, of course, the next time. MH

On Aug. 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito
broadcast Japan’s surrender to his people—
but on islands to the north and in Manchuria
many Japanese kept fighting to the
death against Soviet invaders
By Sir Max Hastings

In August 1945 Joseph
Stalin committed Soviet
troops to helping the
Allies defeat Japan. But
the forces the Soviets met
weren’t about to give in.

For all the Red Army’s experience of continental warfare,
it knew pitifully little about opposed landings from the sea

he Soviet Union joined the Allied war against On the night of August 14 Shumshu’s senior officer,
Japan on Aug. 9, 1945, just weeks before Tokyo’s Maj. Gen. Fusaka Tsutsumi, was alerted by Fifth Area Army
formal surrender. The opening of hostilities was to listen with his most senior staff to Emperor Hirohito’s
in keeping with Moscow’s commitment at the broadcast next day. Having done so, Tsutsumi awaited the
November 1943 Tehran Conference to enter the arrival of an American occupation force, whom he had
war in the Pacific once Nazi Germany had been no intention of fighting. Instead, however, at 4:22 a.m.
defeated, and with its further pledge at the February 1945 on August 18, without warning or parley, a Russian divi-
Yalta Conference to join the campaign against Japan within sion assaulted Shumshu—and met resistance. For all the
three months of Berlin’s surrender. The Soviets first invaded Red Army’s experience of continental warfare, it knew piti-
Japanese-occupied Manchuria and then conducted amphib- fully little about the difficulties of opposed landings from
ious landings in Korea and on Sakhalin Island and the Kuril the sea. From the outset the Shumshu operation was a
Islands, with the ultimate goal of both gaining control of shambles, perfunctorily planned and chaotically executed.
the territories and winning a role in the occupation of Japan. The landing force was drawn from garrison troops without
combat experience.

ven as Soviet armies completed the occupation of At 5:30 a.m. Japanese shore batteries began to hit
Manchuria, amphibious units were assaulting the Soviet ships as they approached. Some assault craft were
Pacific islands promised to Joseph Stalin at Yalta. sunk, others set on fire. Those who abandoned founder-
Eight thousand men were dispatched across 500 miles ing boats found themselves swept away by the currents.
of sea to the Kurils, a chain of some 50 islands situated The invaders’ communications collapsed as radios were
northeast of Japan. The northern Kurils were defended by lost or immersed when their operators struggled ashore.
25,000 imperial troops, of which 8,480 were deployed on Sailors labored under Japanese fire to improvise rafts to
the northernmost, Shumshu, 18 miles in length by 6 wide. land guns and tanks—the Russians possessed none of
Their morale was not high. This was, by common consent, the Western Allies’ inventory of specialized amphibious
one of the most godforsaken postings in the Japanese empire. equipment. A counterattack by 20 Japanese tanks gained
some ground. What was almost certainly the last kami-
kaze air attack of the war hit a destroyer escort. Early on
the morning of the 19th the Soviet commander on Shum-
shu received orders to hasten the island’s capture. Soon
afterward a Japanese delegation arrived at Russian head-
quarters to arrange a surrender. Yet next morning some
coastal batteries still fired on Soviet ships in the Second
Kuril Strait and were heavily bombed for their pains.
Tsutsumi’s men finally quit on the night of August 21,
having lost 614 dead.

akhalin Island represented a less serious challenge,
for its nearest point lay only 6 miles off the Asian

coast, and its northern part was Soviet territory. But

the island was vastly bigger—560 miles long and
between 19 and 62 miles wide. Japan had held the south-
Marines of the Soviet Pacific Fleet sail to Port Arthur (in Japanese- ern half since 1905, a source of bitter Russian resentment
J U LY 2 0 1 5

occupied China) aboard a U.S.-provided landing ship in 1945. Moscow now to be assuaged. Sakhalin’s terrain was inhospitable—
sought access to the port as a precondition for joining the Pacific War. swamp-ridden, mountainous, densely forested.

Soviet forces began combat operations on August 9,
three months to the day after the German surrender.
They initially invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria,
then moved against Korea, Sakhalin and the Kurils.

For reasons of prestige, the Japanese had lavished precious side. Japanese troops opened fire. Thick fog hampered gunfire
resources on fortifying the island. The consequence was that observation. Defenders had to be painstakingly cleared from
when Soviet troops began an assault on August 11, their the quays and then the city center. “Japanese propaganda
advance made little headway. Only after bitter fighting did had successfully imbued the city’s inhabitants with fears of
they capture the key Honda strongpoint, whose defenders ‘Russian brutality,’” declared a Soviet account disingenuously.
fought to the last man. The weather was poor for air sup- “The result was that much of the population fled into the
port, and many tanks became bogged. Russian infantrymen forests, and some people were evacuated to Hokkaido. Women
were obliged to struggle through on foot to outflank Japa- were especially influenced by propaganda, which convinced
nese positions. Early on August 16, however, after the im- them that the arriving Russian troops would shoot them and
perial broadcast, the Japanese obligingly launched “human strangle their children.” The Soviets claimed to have killed
wave” counterattacks, which enabled the Russians to in- 300 Japanese in Maoka and taken a further 600 prisoners.
flict much slaughter. Next day, yard by yard, Soviet troops The rest of the garrison fled inland. Sakhalin was finally
forced passages through the forests, battering the defenders secured on August 26, four days behind the Soviet schedule.
with air attacks and artillery barrages. On the evening of
August 17 the local Japanese commander in the frontier From the book Retribution, by Sir Max Hastings,
defensive zone surrendered. copyright © 2008 by Max Hastings, published by
Elsewhere on Sakhalin, however, garrisons continued to arrangement with Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of
The Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, a division
resist. When the Soviets’ Northern Pacific Flotilla landed a of Penguin Random House LLC. Originally published
storming force at the port of Maoka (present-day Kholmsk) on in Great Britain in 2007 as Nemesis, by Harper Press,
August 20, the invaders mowed down civilians at the shore- an imprint of HarperCollins Publishers, London.

U.S.S.R. vs. Japan
he Soviet Union declared war on Japan on Aug. 8, 1945, three months
to the day after the German surrender, in compliance with agree-
ments signed at the Yalta Conference that February. Among other
preconditions, the Soviets demanded postwar access to Port Arthur
on mainland China, a share in the operation of the Manchurian railways and
possession of southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Soviet forces launched a
three-pronged invasion of Manchuria on August 9. Though Emperor Hirohito
broadcast his nation’s decision to surrender on the 15th, pockets of Japa-
nese troops in Manchuria continued to fight the Soviet invaders, and the
Soviets went ahead with amphibious landings on Sakhalin and the Kurils.

Hutou Fortified Region

Fighting persisted the longest at Hutou, a reinforced
concrete fortress complex centered on five hilltop
artillery positions overlooking key roads and rivers.
For more than two weeks Hutou’s 1,500 defenders
held out with their families from deep within the
subterranean stronghold. When combat ceased
on August 26, only 46 Japanese remained alive.

Invasion of South Shakhalin
Japan had held the southern half of 560-mile-long
Sakhalin Island since the 1905 Russo-Japanese War,
a sore point the Soviets sought to remedy. Invading
the island on August 11, they faced unexpectedly
stubborn Japanese resistance, even after Hirohito’s
broadcast. With superior artillery and air support,
the Soviets finally secured the island by the 26th.

Invasion of the Kuril Islands

On August 18, three days after Japan’s surrender
announcement, Soviet forces invaded the Kurils
from Kamchatka, striking first at Shumshu. The
operation exposed the Soviets’ inexperience with
amphibious landings, costing them 1,567 casualties
to just over 1,000 for the Japanese. Japan and Russia
continue to contest the sovereignty of the islands.

Battle of Shumshu
The Soviets faced a tough fight from the 8,480-man
Japanese force on Shumshu. In the wake of Japan’s
surrender, Shumshu’s garrison commander had
expected a U.S. occupation force and not a Soviet
amphibious invasion on August 18. But his artillery
and tanks inflicted a steep toll on the Soviets before
the last Japanese holdouts surrendered on the 23rd.




a Ku

CHINA Pacific Ocean



talin harbored more far-reaching designs on Japanese
territory. Before the Manchurian assault was launched,
Soviet troops were earmarked to land on the Japanese
home island of Hokkaido and to occupy its northern
half as soon as north Korea was secure. On the evening
of August 18 Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, commander of
Soviet forces in the Far East, signaled Moscow, asking permis-
sion to proceed with a Hokkaido attack scheduled to last from
August 19 to September 1. For 48 hours Moscow was silent,
brooding. On August 20 Vasilevsky signaled again, asking for
orders. Continue preparations, said Stalin: The assault force
should be ready to attack by midnight on August 23.
Meanwhile, the Americans also dallied with possible
landings in the Kurils and at the mainland port of Dalian,
China, to secure bases—in breach of the Yalta agreement—
before the Soviets could reach them. Both sides, however,
finally backed off. Washington recognized that any attempt
to preempt the Soviets from occupying their agreed terri-
tories would precipitate a crisis. Likewise, President Harry
S. Truman cabled Moscow, summarily rejecting Stalin’s Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky
proposal that the Russians should receive the surrender of commanded Soviet units in
Japanese forces on north Hokkaido. At midday on the 22nd the Far East, preparing his
Moscow dispatched new orders to Far East Command, forces far in advance of the
cancelling the Hokkaido landings. The Americans confined scheduled August 9 invasion.
themselves to hastening Marines to key points on and near
the coast of mainland China, to hold these until Chiang
Kai-shek’s forces could assume control. A huge American
commitment of men and transport aircraft alone enabled
the Nationalists to re-establish themselves in the east during Chinese assert that the 30,000 slave laborers who built the
the autumn of 1945. fortress were killed when their work was complete, and
indeed many bodies were exhumed after 1945.

he last battle of World War II was fought at a place few To the Japanese, Hutou was an unpopular posting, remote
Westerners have ever heard of. Hutou means “tiger’s from any pleasures or amenities. For those who occupied
head” in Chinese. In 1945 there were still some tigers its echoing caverns, it was also chronically unhealthy—mois-
in the Wanda Mountains, where the ture dripped off the concrete walls, rusted
town stands beside the great Ussuri River, weapons, spoiled food. In winter the bun-
eastern frontier of Manchuria. On the Rus- Soviet Forces kers were icy cold; in summer stiflingly
sian shore forests stretch for miles across hot. Through the years of war, veteran
flat country. On the Manchurian side, 1,577,725 troops* units had been removed from the fortress


however, steep bluffs rise from the swamps 27,086 artillery pieces garrison and replaced by less impressive
and railway yard at the waterside. There, human material. Despite evidence of Soviet
beginning in 1933, the Japanese Kwantung 3,721 aircraft patrolling and the discovery of pontoons
Army created the most elaborate defensive 3,705 tanks drifting on the Ussuri River, Hutou’s com-
system in Asia: Its commanders were rash mander was absent at a briefing on the
enough to call it their “Maginot Line.” 1,852 self-propelled guns night of the initial attack and was never
Hutou was centered on five forts built able to return to his post. The defense was
on neighboring hills that rise up to 400 * TRANS-BAIKAL FRONT: 654,040; 2ND FAR EASTERN therefore directed by the local artillery
FRONT: 337,096; 1ST FAR EASTERN FRONT: 586,589
feet above the riverbank. The concrete commander, Captain Masao Oki.
roofs and walls were 9 feet thick, with generators, store- The initial Soviet barrage cut road links and spread terror
rooms and living quarters sunk deep underground, linked among the few hundred hapless civilians living behind the for-
by tunnels. The whole system was almost 5 miles wide and tress. On August 9 the Chinese inhabitants of Hutou township,
J U LY 2 0 1 5

4 deep, supported by some of the heaviest artillery in Asia, a wattle-and-wooden settlement, were awakened in the early
including 240mm Krupp guns and a 410mm howitzer. The morning darkness by the roar of aircraft overhead, the whistle

In their engagements with Japanese forces Soviet
units usually wielded far greater firepower, from
PPSh-41 submachine guns like those above to
rocket launchers, artillery and columns of tanks.

of falling bombs and the thud of shells. Some fell on the Japa- Oki was preoccupied with directing the infantry defense.
nese defenses, others among the houses, killing five Chinese. All that day and the next Soviet troops continued to shuttle
After two hours the shelling stopped, and hundreds of across the river. The local Japanese army commander, Lt.
villagers ran out into the street. They saw the horizon rip- Gen. Noritsune Shimuzu, telephoned Hutou on the evening
pling with gun flashes from the Russian shore of the Ussuri of the 9th to deliver a wordy injunction to Oki to hold fast:
and at once understood that the Soviets were coming. Japa- “In view of the current war situation and the circumstances
nese soldiers ran into the town. Though of the garrison, you are all requested to
some buildings were already blazing after fight to the last breath and meet your fate,
being hit by bombs and shells, they merely
claimed that an air-raid practice was taking Japanese Forces when it comes, as courageously as flow-
ers, so that you may become pillars of our
place. All civilians must move immedi- nation.” After this heady torrent of mixed
ately into the nearby woods. There was
1,217,000 troops *
metaphors all contact was lost between
no time to gather food or possessions. 6,700 artillery pieces the defenders and the outside world.
The defenders exploited a lull in Russian By nightfall on August 10 the surround-
artillery fire to move all the garrison’s family
1,800 aircraft ing area was securely in the hands of the
members and nearby immigrant Japanese 1,215 tanks invaders. When darkness came the Soviets
farmers into the tunnel system. As well as began attacks on the bunker system. All
600 regular troops, there were then shelter- failed. It became plain that against such
ing underground 1,000 civilians, some with * KWANTUNG ARMY: 713,000; KOREA, SAKHALIN, strong defenses subtler tactics would be

militia training and weapons. An hour later necessary. Through the days that followed,
shelling resumed, and at 8 a.m. Soviet infantry started crossing artillery was used to keep Japanese heads down, while in-
the Ussuri. The Japanese responded with mortar fire. This fantry and engineer groups inched forward among the
inflicted some casualties, but within three hours the attackers trenches. Soon they had isolated the individual forts and
had secured a bridgehead. Amazingly, Hutou’s biggest artillery destroyed Japanese artillery observation posts. The condi-
pieces did not fire. They were short of gunners, and Captain tion of the defenders became grim.

In Harbin, Manchuria,
on Aug. 20, 1945,
a Red Army officer
takes inventory as
Japanese troops
file past to surrender
their small arms.

“After the first [Soviet] salvo we knew the battle could The wretched defenders of Hutou knew nothing of the
have only one outcome,” wrote one of the few Japanese emperor’s broadcast on August 15, nor of their country’s
survivors, gunner Gamii Zhefu. “In the tunnels beneath the surrender. They rejected all Russian calls to lay down their
fort it was incredibly hot. We were desperate for water. The arms. On the 17th a five-man party of local Chinese and
women were terrified. Then one soldier produced a canteen captured Japanese carrying a white flag was dispatched from
and gave everyone a sip, which did wonders for our morale. the Soviet lines to tell the garrison that the war was over.
We were also very hungry, however, and started looking for The officer who received them dismissed such a notion with
food. We found some cans, ate—and started feeling thirsty contempt. He drew his sword and beheaded the elderly
again. Soon, for all of us, water became an obsession. It over- Chinese bearing the Soviet proposals. “We have nothing to
came even our fears about the battle and the threat of death. say to the Red Army,” he declared, before retiring into his
We were reduced to animal needs and desires.” bunker. The Soviet barrage resumed. Conditions under-
On August 13, adopting a technique familiar in the Pacific ground became unendurable. Many of those in the tunnels
island battles, the Russians poured gasoline down the fortress’ and casemates suffered carbon monoxide poisoning.
ventilation inlets and ignited it. Hundreds of defenders and “There were plenty of bodies down there,” wrote Zhefu. “I
their families perished in the conflagrations that followed. Yet heard a wounded man crying repeatedly, ‘Water, water,’ but no
the Japanese continued to surprise Russian troops with sal- one took any notice of him. I was momentarily excited by seeing

lies, sometimes dislodging the attackers from newly occupied a trickle of fluid running across the floor, until I realized that it
positions. One Japanese rush was led by a 22-year-old pro- was leaking from a corpse. I drank it. Another man said, ‘That
bationary officer brandishing a sword, who fell to a Russian stuff will kill you.’ I didn’t care. I was dying of thirst anyway.”
grenade. Hutou’s gunners, unable to use their huge weapons, For hundreds of peasants sheltering in the woods in the
destroyed them with demolition charges and formed suicide first days there was nothing to eat save a few berries and wild
squads. A Japanese artillery piece was destroyed by a round plants. They drank water from the river and listened to the
J U LY 2 0 1 5

from its neighbor, firing at point-blank range. The central appalling cacophony of battle on the Hutou hills. A few Japa-
heights of the fortress changed hands nine times. nese immigrants huddled among them, but most had sought

Today, a huge Soviet war memorial on the site declares
Hutou to be the scene of the final battle of World War II

the shelter of the fortress. On the fourth day, while fighting edible or of value. The Chinese were appalled to see the
still raged, Red soldiers appeared and herded the civilians liberators drive off the horses on which their tiny farms
down to the riverbank, which was now secure. The Russians depended. Women were raped in the usual fashion.
smashed open a big Japanese food store and invited the Chi- Soviet soldiers warned peasants not to approach the forts,
nese to help themselves. They were able to make rice soup which were still littered with mines and munitions. After
to sustain them through another 10 days of uncertainty and a few days, however, Jiang and a few others wandered up
gunfire on the hills above. to the blackened casemates, gazing in revulsion at the un-
On August 19 a large party of Japanese from the fortress buried corpses of Japanese soldiers and their women. When
attempted a break for freedom. They were cut down by Russian the Russians finally departed, taking with them even the
machine guns. By the 22nd almost all the underground bun- tracks of the local railway, the 1,000 or so desolate people
kers had become untenable. Soviet troops probing cautiously left in Hutou found themselves existing in a limbo. The vil-
down the steps met a ghastly stench of humanity, cordite and lage headman was dead. For more than two years thereafter
death. In one bunker the bodies of men, women and 80 chil- no one attempted to exercise authority over them, nor to
dren aged between 1 and 12 were heaped together. In a cavern provide aid of any kind. When the communists eventually
beneath Strongpoint “Sharp” lay another pile of women’s assumed control of their lives, “things became a little better.”
corpses. There was also the detritus of the dead—cooking pots, Only 46 Japanese are known to have escaped from the
wire-rimmed spectacles, gramophones, a few bicycles, pinup fortress with their lives. “The defense was extraordinarily
pictures of surprisingly smartly dressed “comfort women.” The brave,” says Chinese historian Wang Hongbin, “which usu-
Soviets declared the Hutou Fortified Region secure. Yet for four ally demands respect. But it was also completely futile. It is
days more one isolated Japanese company continued its resis- hard to admire blind loyalty to the emperor at that stage.
tance. Only on August 26 was this remnant snuffed out. Thus, They all died for nothing.” MH
today, a huge Soviet war memorial on the site declares Hutou
to be the scene of the final battle of World War II. Almost 2,000 Sir Max Hastings is the author of 20 books. He has served as
Japanese men, women and children perished in and around a foreign correspondent and as the editor of Britain’s Evening
the fortress, days after the rest of the world celebrated peace. Standard and The Daily Telegraph and has received numerous
British Press Awards, including Journalist of the Year in 1982

ussians told the Chinese fugitives in the woods behind and Editor of the Year in 1988. He resides outside London.
Hutou that it was now safe to come out. In a curious
introduction to their new lives these bewildered peas-
ants were shown a propaganda film about the Russian
Revolution. A commissar addressed them through an inter-
preter: “Red soldiers have made great sacrifices in this battle
to bring you liberty, and now it is yours.” The Japanese were
all dead, he said. The villagers could go home. Home? They
drifted uneasily back to their huts to find only ruins and
blackened earth. In the ashes of Jiang Fushun’s family home
lay the body of his father, a bullet through his head, the price
of his rashness in staying behind. Every Chinese who ven-
tured into the village during the battle had met the same fate.

Those who had relatives elsewhere began long treks in search

of sanctuary, but Jiang’s family had no one to go to. They
lingered among the ruins, scrabbling to build themselves In the wake of the Japanese defeat cheering civilians in Dalian, China,
a shelter, scavenging for food. The task was made no easier greet Red Army tank crews. Though liberated, many Chinese returned
by the fact that Russian soldiers began to remove everything to their villages only to find burned-out ruins and blackened earth.




King Charles I, clad in armor
in this period painting by Sir
Anthony van Dyck, took on the
Parliamentarians in 1642 at the
Battle of Edgehill, the opening
clash of the English Civil War.
England’s King Charles I was an exile in his own kingdom. In early January he had marched
By the on the House of Commons to arrest five of his harshest critics—leaders of a movement
intended to curb the monarch’s royal prerogative and nullify his insistence on the divine right
summer of kings to rule solely as they saw fit. When Charles’ infringement of parliamentary privilege
had failed, sparking an outcry in the Commons and on the streets of London, the royal family
of 1642 had fled the capital city.
In the intervening months, as Charles and his supporters prepared for war against the
Parliamentarians, the king had learned who his friends were. For example, when he sought
to enter the town of Hull and seize munitions stored there, its governor, Sir John Hotham, refused him—twice—and
Charles lacked sufficient numbers to force the issue. By August the king could only count on horse troops of about
700 or 800 men and no more than a few hundred foot soldiers. When Charles later arrived at Coventry to head off
an approach by the Parliamentary army, he found its gates shut to him as well.
The raising of the royal standard at Nottingham on Aug. 22, 1642, made for a pathetic scene, according to
Royalist statesman and historian Edward Hyde, later the Earl of Clarendon:

Melancholic men observed many ill presages about that time. There was not one regiment of foot yet levied and
brought thither; so that the train-bands, which the sheriff had drawn thither, was all the strength the king had
for his person and the guard of the standard. There appeared no conflux of men in obedience to the proclamation;
the arms and ammunition were not yet come from York, and a general sadness covered the whole town, and the king
himself appeared more melancholic than he used to be.

That night, a strong wind arose and knocked down the standard.

arliament had been quite active during the king’s
absence from London. On March 5, 1642, the
Commons had passed the Militia Ordinance, en-
abling Parliament to act independently of the king
to raise militias in defense of the realm. On May 26
Parliament had issued a remonstrance stating that
evil counselors had seduced the king, and that anyone who
assisted him was a traitor. In June it voted to raise a 10,000-
man Parliamentary army—the majority of soldiers recruited
from London and the eastern and central counties—and
appointed Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, its captain-
general and chief commander.
Born in 1591, Essex had gained experience as colonel of
a foot regiment serving with the Dutch. Though brave and
dedicated to the Parliamentary cause, he lacked initiative and
was a poor tactician. “As a strategist he must be considered

distinctly suspect,” British historian Peter Young wrote of

Essex. “What other general fought three of his major battles
with the enemy between his army and his base?” Essex,
seemingly aware of his own limitations, often employed
simple tactics even green recruits could understand.
In September 1642 when Essex coalesced his army in
Northampton, he had some 15,000 men at his command,
Though this engraving depicts a crowd cheering in support of including 20 regiments of foot and 77 troops of horse. His
J U LY 2 0 1 5

King Charles, eyewitnesses present at the raising of the royal instructions from Parliament were to rescue the king from the
standard at Nottingham described a pitifully somber scene. clutches of his evil counselors and disband the Royalist army.

On the eve of the Battle of Edgehill the
Royalist war council—including Prince
Rupert (seated) and the Earl of Lindsey
(in red sash)—advises Charles (in blue
sash) on the disposition of his troops.

At the time there was little to disband. Charles’ fortunes from applying themselves to him.” The clashing personali-
were only slightly better than they had been when he first ties of Lindsey and Rupert complicated matters for the king,
raised the standard at Nottingham, his supporters remaining in spite of their other admirable qualities.
widely scattered. Gradually, however, men of integrity In October, Charles’ war council debated whether to
and military experience—mostly from the north and west, attack Essex’s army at Worcester or march on London and
including Wales—rallied to his cause, and with each passing capture the capital. The latter argument carried the day,
day his army grew stronger. and the Royalists set out from Shrewsbury.
The king had at his command several talented officers. Once Essex realized the king’s intentions, he led his Par-
Charles had appointed Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, liamentarian army from Worcester on a course to intercept
commander of the Royalist army. Born in 1582, he had Charles. On the night of October 22 it arrived at Kineton,

fought in Spain and the Low Countries and took part in a market town midway between Stratford-upon-Avon and
the 1627 La Rochelle expedition. Lindsey and son Montagu, the Parliamentary garrison at Banbury. A few miles to the
the self-styled Lord Willoughby d’Eresby, were among the southeast sat the long, steep ridge known as Edgehill.
first to come to the king’s aid. Commanding the royal

cavalry was Charles’ nephew Rupert, Count Palatine of the oving at a swifter pace than its opponent, the
Rhine, Duke of Bavaria and a wholly different personality. Royalist army had deployed in and around
Although only 22, Rupert was already a seasoned veteran of Edgecote, several miles east of the Parliamen-
the Thirty Years’ War. He could fight with sword or pistol, tary army. Charles planned a morning assault
was an expert rider and had introduced to England such on Banbury, as Rupert sent out parties of quar-
military innovations as horse artillery and mining in siege termasters to secure billets. On the outskirts
warfare. But for all his tactical prowess, he lacked tact in of Wormleighton one of those parties ran into a patrol of
his personal interactions. Other members of the king’s war Parliamentarians. Rupert informed Charles, who ordered
council regarded him as haughty. “The uneasiness of the the army to muster atop Edgehill the next morning.
prince’s nature, and the little education he had in courts,” Early on October 23, as the forces prepared for battle,
Hyde recalled, “made him unapt to make acquaintance with another debate erupted in the Royalist camp, this time
any of the lords, who were likewise thereby discouraged regarding formation of the brigades—called “tertias” by

King Charles I Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey

the Royalists. Rupert favored the Swedish formation, each Around midday Royalist forces descended the hill and

tertia comprising four mixed regiments of pikemen and took up positions, right to left.
musketeers. These regiments were arranged in a checker- Estimates vary on the relative sizes of the armies. James—
board formation, the musketeers on the outside. At close the king’s 9-year-old son, who was at the battle with older
range the musketeers would rush to the inside, screened brother Charles, Prince of Wales—later estimated about
by the pikemen. It was an effective tactic but perhaps too 8,000 foot and 2,500 horse on the Royalist side, while Par-
complicated for a newly formed army with many raw liamentary records place the king’s overall force at between
recruits. Lindsey favored the Dutch formation, comprising 14,000 and 18,000 men. Similarly, numbers for Parliamen-
simple phalanxes eight ranks deep. This, it turns out, was tary forces vary from 10,000 to 13,000 foot and horse. The
the formation Essex had chosen. Predictably, Charles sided Royalists likely held a slight edge in overall numbers, with
with Rupert and informed Lindsey that Patrick Ruthven, an advantage in horse. Parliament was more concentrated
1st Earl of Forth, would oversee the placement of soldiers. in its foot regiments and had three times as many artillery
Offended by the king’s lack of trust, Lindsey left the council pieces as the Royalists.
and placed himself at the head of a regiment of foot. One problem Essex faced was that his Parliamentarians
remained strung out along the route of march between
Worcester and Kineton, with two full regiments of foot still
half a day’s march away. Several troops of horse—including
those belonging to Captains Oliver Cromwell, John Fiennes
and Edward Kightley—were quartered several miles from
Kineton and also not present when the army took up position
around 2 p.m.
Parliamentarians fired the first shot. Artillery on both


sides then opened a duel. The barrage lasted no more than
an hour and was largely ineffective. Meanwhile, at Rupert’s
direction, the Royalist horse spurred into action. Thunder-
ing down on musketeers crouched behind hedges on the
extreme left of the Parliamentary line, the dragoons beat
them back with little resistance. Rupert then led the entire
right wing of Royalist horse against a wavering Parliamen-
tarian regiment of horse under Sir James Ramsay. At their
approach the astoundingly misnamed Sir Faithful Fortescue
and his troop of horse promptly defected to the Royalists,
turning on their heretofore comrades in arms. This sudden
J U LY 2 0 1 5

switch of allegiances had a crippling effect on the morale

of the remaining troops in Ramsay’s wing. Consequently,

Prince Rupert of the Rhine Sir Edmund Verney
Lord Basil Feilding

the defenders panicked, fired their weapons early and gade, went himself into the van, where both by direction
wildly, and broke at first contact. Ramsay, facing a court- and his own execution he did most gallant service, till he
martial after the battle, claimed to have been swept away received a shot in the thigh, of which he is since dead.”
by the tide of horses and men. He was absolved of blame. With Parliamentary fortunes at their nadir, the reserve
The right wing of the Parliamentary line also came under horse pulled off a daring assault on the Royalist center.
attack. Sir Arthur Aston, a veteran of Russian and Polish First, Sir Philip Stapleton’s regiment charged Sir Nicholas
service and the lone overtly Catholic officer on the field, first Byron’s infantry tertia. Though beaten back, Stapleton’s
led his dragoons to clear the Parliamentarian musketeers men withdrew intact and provided relief to the hard-pressed
from the field. Then Lord Henry Wilmot led his Royalist pikemen on their front lines. Next, Sir William Balfour,
horse against the outnumbered horse of Lord Basil Feilding. lieutenant-general of the Parliamentarian horse, led his
As with Ramsay’s wing, Feilding’s troops broke and fled, regiment against the Royalist tertia under Colonel Richard
along with a regiment of foot under Sir William Fairfax. Feilding (no relation to Parliamentarian Lord Basil Feilding),
Having broken both wings of the Parliamentary army, breaking the king’s men and capturing Feilding. Balfour
Wilmot and Rupert’s horse—instead of launching immedi- drove his men forward all the way to the Royalist artillery.
ate flanking attacks against Essex’s center—wildly pursued According to the Parliamentary account (to which Balfour
the fleeing troops to Kineton and commenced plunder- was a contributor), he “laid his hand upon the cannon and
ing the baggage train. Rupert and Sir Charles Lucas sought called for nails to nail them up…but finding none, he cut
to rally the pursuers for a flanking assault, but only a frac- the ropes belonging to them, and his troopers killed the
tion of the Royalist horse responded. The consensus cannoneers.” Unlike Rupert and Wilmot’s unruly horse,
among those present—and historians ever since—was that Balfour’s men were mindful of the ongoing battle to their
this was the great missed opportunity of the battle and rear. After spiking the Royalist guns, they wheeled about
perhaps the war. and returned to the fight. The reserve horse of the Parlia-

For the moment it seemed fortune had smiled on the mentarians had turned the tide of the battle.
Royalists. The foot now advanced to finish off the Parlia-

mentarian rebels and bring Essex and his cohorts to the s he watched events transpire, Charles quickly
mercy of the king. On contact the opposing foot soldiers realized that not only had a swift victory slipped
engaged in a “push of pike,” with pikemen in the vanguard his grasp, but also his army was in peril. He
of each side locking their weapons together in an epic trial couldn’t even rely on protection from his per-
of strength and endurance. The Royalists found the rem- sonal guard, as they had taken leave to partici-
nants of the enemy force more formidable than expected. pate in Rupert’s charge. Whatever shortcomings
Even so, the Royalists continued to tilt the scales in their he may have had as a king, Charles exhibited courage and
favor. A Parliamentarian brigade under Colonel Charles levelheadedness at this critical juncture, remaining in the
Essex (not to be confused with the Earl of Essex) was the fight to rally his remaining tertias. Unwilling to risk his
next to break and run. The official Parliamentary account sons, however, he had a trusted officer escort young Charles
records that the colonel, “being forsaken by his whole bri- and James to the rear.

The Parliamentarians had taken up arms and waged battle
against their own king, and they would have to do so again

Meanwhile, pressing his advantage, Essex ordered two enemies,” James later recalled, “chusing rather to be taken
fresh regiments of foot from Sir John Meldrum’s brigade with his father, that so he might be in a condition of render-
to concentrate on Byron’s tertia. Byron, having repelled the ing him what service was in his power.” If the loss of their
charge from Stapleton’s horse, found himself hard-pressed field commander wasn’t startling enough, the Royalists
by this new assault. His men soon came under a renewed also watched in horror as the Parliamentarians captured
charge from Stapleton’s horse and were encircled when the royal standard, in the process killing standard-bearer
Balfour’s regiment fell on them from the rear. At that Sir Edmund Verney.
moment a regiment from Sir Thomas Ballard’s brigade To the rear of the Parliamentary right, Lucas finally
attacked, finally breaking Byron’s tertia. managed to organize a Royalist charge against Essex’s vul-
Its collapse was particularly damaging to the Royalists. nerable center with the small group of horse he’d been
When a mortally wounded Lindsey fell into enemy hands, able to rally. But his potentially devastating blow fell apart,
his son, Lord Willoughby, came to his father’s aid at great ironically, at the approach of a gaggle of fleeing Parliamen-
peril. “[Willoughby] was left ingaged in the midst of the tarians. Lucas could only watch in frustration as several of
his men broke off to pursue the routed enemies rather than
attack those still fighting. The effort was not completely
squandered, however, as Captain John Smith managed to
retake the royal standard, apparently by masquerading as
a Parliamentarian officer and offering to relieve Essex’s
own secretary of the banner.
Continuing the string of unforeseen consequences, the
arrival of Parliamentary reinforcements may actually have
saved the day for the Royalists. Colonel John Hampden’s
regiment of foot had finally reached Kineton, halting the
Royalist assault on the baggage train and forcing Rupert’s
cavalry into retreat. As it happens, the Royalists were in dire
need of cavalry to support their tenuous position, their lines
having been reduced by half since the start of the fighting.
Rupert’s arriving dragoons managed to fire a volley or two
into the oncoming Parliamentary lines, stopping them in
their tracks. By this time twilight had settled over the field,
and neither side was willing to press on for a better outcome.
The following morning, when the reinforced Parlia-
mentary lines formed for battle, Charles boldly dispatched
herald Sir William le Neve with a proclamation of pardon
to all who would lay down their arms. Essex forbade le Neve
to read it, insisting Charles was not even in the field. Still,
having sized up his own forces and those arrayed against
him, Essex decided he had had enough and retired with his

army to Warwick Castle to recover from this first conflict.

By disengaging to the north, however, he left Charles an
open road south to London.
Initial reports of the battle at Edgehill—carried by Par-
Realizing victory would be hard won, the king had an officer escort liamentarians who had fled the battle—threw the capital
J U LY 2 0 1 5

his young sons—Charles, Prince of Wales, and James, Duke of York into a panic. The sudden appearance of the king at the head
—to safety in the rear, from where they watched the battle unfold. of a battle-tested army could have led to an unconditional

Charles’ nephew Prince Rupert—a veteran
of the Thirty Years’ War—commanded the
royal cavalry and led a charge that stopped
the Parliamentarian reinforcements cold.

surrender. But the lethargic pace of the Royalist advance successes to distract them from finishing off their foes. The
allowed the people time to find their courage. And while event was even more profound for the Parliamentarians.

Charles’ army marched south by southeast before turning They had taken up arms and waged battle against their
due east at Reading, Essex’s army took a more direct south- own king, and they would have to do so again. The die
easterly route from Warwick and reached London by had been cast. MH
November 8. By the time the Royalists advanced on the
capital, 24,000 Parliamentarians were arrayed against Christopher G. Marquis, an officer in the U.S. Air Force,
them. Charles again yielded the capital to his foes and has also written for American History. For further reading
withdrew to Oxford, his wartime capital. he recommends Edward Hyde’s The History of the Rebellion,
The Battle of Edgehill was a significant but inconclusive Edwin Walford’s Edgehill From the Keyhole and Winston
start to a long, bloody campaign. The Royalists initially Churchill’s A History of the English-Speaking Peoples,
displayed superior tactics and discipline but allowed early Volume 2: The New World.

Shadowing the war wherever it led, World War II Associated Press
correspondent Joseph Morton ventured behind enemy lines to report
the full story—and to face his own tragic end By Norman Goldstein

Joe Morton jumped at his first opportunity to

cover World War II as a foreign correspondent,
traveling to West Africa in May 1942. First landing
in Liberia, where he sat for this official portrait,

he went on to report stories throughout Europe.

uring World War II the U.S. War Department Morton earned quick promotion from Lincoln to AP’s
accredited some 500 correspondents to bureau in Omaha and later Cleveland. In 1940 he moved up
cover American military forces in the field. to the agency’s New York office, working as an editor. He
Among the reporters were such names had long wanted to be a foreign correspondent, however,
as Scripps-Howard’s Ernie Pyle; UPI’s and in May 1942 he jumped at the chance to go abroad.
Walter Cronkite; Hal Boyle, Larry Allen His initial wartime assignment did not go as well as he
and Lynn Heinzerling of the Associated had hoped. Boarding a troopship bound for Liberia, Morton
Press; the New York Herald Tribune’s was to cover the embarked task force of black U.S. soldiers
Marguerite Higgins; and Time magazine’s John Hersey. whose secret mission was to build an Allied military base
Sadly, 54 correspondents—including Pyle—were killed in the heart of West Africa. But due to the classified nature
in action, falling to enemy fire on land and sea and in the of the mission the War Department embargoed Morton’s
air. Each of these deaths was tragic, but one stands out stories for months. Not until early December, when the
for its unique circumstances: Joe Morton of the Associated department officially disclosed the presence of Allied forces
Press holds the dubious double distinction of being the in Liberia, was he permitted to file.
first American war correspondent executed by a foreign Meanwhile, after German forces capitulated in French
enemy in wartime and the only Allied correspondent West Africa and American troops headed for Dakar, Morton
executed by the Axis during World War II. traveled overland and reached the French colonial capital
20 days before any other correspondent. He contracted dys-

oseph Morton Jr. was born in St. Joseph, Mo., in 1911. entery but was released from the hospital in time to talk his
The son of an attorney, Morton attended the Uni- way aboard the formerly Vichy French battleship Richelieu,
versity of Nebraska and the University of Iowa, where which left Dakar for refitting in New York in late January
his skill as a wordsmith eventually led to a career in 1943. He was the only reporter aboard.
journalism. He wrote for the St. Joseph News-Press and the On July 19, 1943, Morton became one of the first Allied
Gazette, The Des Moines Register and The Omaha Bee-News. correspondents to see Rome since the start of the war. He
Two years after marrying Letty Miller in 1935, Morton achieved that feat aboard a Martin B-26 Marauder bomber
joined the Associated Press in Lincoln, Neb. participating in the first American air raid on the Italian
capital and reported in vivid firsthand detail the aerial
assault on the city’s rail yards. Later that summer, during the
invasion of Sicily, Morton talked the U.S. Army Air Forces
into flying his jeep to the island, enabling him to run circles
around his fellow journalists.

oon after returning stateside in September 1943 for
treatment of his persistent dysentery, Morton learned
he was to become a father. Family members and friends
quietly hoped impending parenthood on the home
front would give him pause about taking risks on the war
front, but apparently that was not in his professional nature.
Morton returned to Europe, and after the June 1944 fall
of Rome he expanded his coverage into the Balkans. In
August he accompanied Major Walter Ross, chief of opera-
tions for the Office of Strategic Services, to Romania, where
Morton became the first American correspondent to report
on the entry of Soviet troops into Bucharest. He returned to

Members of a black Army engineer task force pose in their ship bunks the Romanian capital in early September to cover Operation
J U LY 2 0 1 5

while en route to Liberia in 1942 to build an Allied military base. The War Reunion, the evacuation of newly liberated American airmen,
Department, citing security, embargoed Morton’s reports for months. held as POWs since being shot down in August 1943 while

The July 19, 1943, air raid on Rome
targeted its rail yards. Morton, who
observed from a B-26 Marauder, was
among the first Allied correspondents
to see Rome since the start of the war.

raiding the Ploieşti oil fields. The wily Morton had flown xpressing a particular interest in clandestine opera-
there aboard a Fifteenth Air Force bomber and was again the tions, Morton was allowed to cover missions under-
only Allied reporter present. taken by the OSS and the Fifteenth Air Force in the
As soon as he landed in Bucharest, Morton raced off to Balkans to rescue downed American airmen and
the royal palace to get the scoop on how Romania’s 22-year- support anti-Nazi partisans. The OSS, established by Presi-
old monarch, King Michael I, had recently summoned the dent Franklin Roosevelt’s military order in 1942, had teamed
fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu to the royal palace, up with the British Special Operations Executive to send
had him seized by guards and then proclaimed Romania’s agents in support of the Slovak National Uprising, a resis-
allegiance to the Allies. tance movement launched against the Nazis in August 1944.
In the late afternoon Morton met the young king, Queen The Fifteenth Air Force, based at Bari Airfield, Italy, trans-
Mother Helen and various aides and advisers. Throughout that ported the agents into Slovakia. On Sept. 17, 1944, a six-

evening and the next day the American correspondent and member team departed Bari in two B-17G Flying Fortresses,
the Romanian royals swapped stories about politics, the war, landing the huge bombers behind enemy lines for the first
rationing, sports and Hollywood. They played table tennis and time. In the successful mission they rescued 14 American
toured the estate by car. Morton left the following day, wrap- and two Australian airmen.
ping all the details of his visit into a widely published story, At the OSS base in Bari, Morton learned of a similar but
the first to explain events leading to the ouster of Antonescu. far more dramatic mission to Slovakia in the works. It was

Eager to cover clandestine operations,
Morton began reporting on OSS and
Fifteenth Air Force missions from Bari,
Italy, writing about rescue missions
and the tense situation in Romania.

to be led by Navy Lieutenant James Holt Green and would less.” He advised against sending in more agents. However,
include intelligence officers, weapons and demolition ex- despite Green’s warnings, his superiors in Bari decided to
perts, translators and a radio operator. Six B-17s—escorted proceed with the larger second mission.
by 32 P-51 Mustang fighters—would transport the OSS and During the last week of September, Morton phoned the AP
SOE agents and their equipment, as well as a cache of arms bureau in Rome seeking authorization to shadow a mission
and ammunition for the partisans. he said would require two to three weeks. Morton shared
Meanwhile, an additional 20,000 German soldiers had no specifics of the operation, but the bureau editor surmised
entered Slovakia in an effort to quell the uprising, and it would be similar to earlier trips the reporter had covered—
by September it was clear the Slovak fighters were losing flying supplies, weapons and ammo to Slovak partisans and
ground, the revolt nearing collapse. Green, stationed in the returning with rescued Allied flyers. Morton got his approval,

rebel capital of Banská Bystrica, reported to OSS head- provided he would return on the next available flight.
J U LY 2 0 1 5

quarters that the German offensive was closing in and “would Before leaving Bari with portable typewriter in hand,
probably be successful. Situation here is considered hope- Morton sent a dispatch to the AP bureau in Rome announcing

Morton, a man who knew a scoop when he saw one, decided to
remain with the OSS/SOE team to cover the Slovak uprising

his departure. He provided no further details on the assign-

ment but said, “I’m off on the biggest story of my life.”
The planes took off from Bari on the morning of October 7
and flew over the Allied air base at Foggia on the Adriatic
coast. To avoid suspicion the aircraft continued north, join-
ing a scheduled bombing mission. As the formation crossed
the Alps and entered Austrian airspace, the B-17s carrying
Morton and the OSS/SOE team dropped out and headed
northeast toward Slovakia.
Hundreds of cheering Slovak partisans were on hand
when the bombers landed at Tri Duby airfield. The B-17s
remained on the ground about 30 minutes, the fighters
circling protectively overhead while 28 Allied airmen
boarded for the return flight to Italy. Major Ross, the OSS
operations chief, was walking to one of the waiting planes
when he spied Morton pecking away on his typewriter,
set atop a box beneath a wing of one of the huge bombers.
“Aren’t you coming with us?” he asked the journalist.
Morton, the only Western journalist in the region and
a man who knew a scoop when he saw one, said he had
decided to remain in Banská Bystrica with the OSS/SOE
team to cover the Slovak uprising. He asked Ross to carry
his hastily written story on the latest rescue of downed
airmen back to Bari. Ross did so, but military censors
deemed the piece too revealing and never passed it on
to the AP bureau in Rome.
No one would hear directly from Morton again.

orton only spent a brief time in Banská Bystrica, but The Red Army occupied Bucharest, top, after Romanian King Michael I
he made every minute count. Seeking a balanced switched his nation’s allegiance to the Allies in August 1944. Morton,
understanding of the Slovak uprising, he inter- in the company of OSS agents, was the first American to report on
viewed its communist supporters as well as the the Soviets’ entry. Bottom, Romanian Prime Minister Ion Antonescu
nationalists. Cecilia Wojewoda, a Polish journalist who had (seated on left) and family meet Queen Mother Helen and King Michael
fled Hungary with her husband and was working for a Slovak (far right) in a more cordial meeting months before the royal coup.
news service in support of the uprising, described Morton as
having “a sort of recklessness” about him, “a carelessness civilians fleeing into the mountains. En route the refugees
of a fine sort” that “made only his work important for him.” took fire from German aircraft and artillery and faced relent-
The German encirclement of Banská Bystrica tightened less pursuit by enemy ground units. All was chaos.
following the departure of the U.S. aircraft. OSS headquarters Morton, Gaul and Piontek eventually linked up with the
in Bari put together a rescue mission, but bad weather Americans from Donovaly. Among the latter was 23-year-old

grounded all aircraft. On October 25, as organized resis- Maria Gulovich, a multilingual Slovakian schoolteacher
tance by the Slovak forces collapsed, most of the Ameri- recruited by the OSS as a guide and translator. The consoli-
cans—comprising the OSS team and remaining airmen— dated group decided to withdraw farther into the Tatra
traveled by bus to Donovaly, about 16 miles north. However, Mountains and make for the Soviet lines, thought to be about
Morton and Navy Lieutenant James Gaul, an OSS team a week’s march away.
member, remained in the threatened city a further two days. For six weeks Morton, members of the OSS team, partisans
With only hours to spare, they left with translator Josef and others evaded their German pursuers in the thick forests,
Piontek and joined the column of soldiers, partisans and seeking to reach the front lines of the advancing Red Army. The

s difficult as conditions were for Morton and the
others who remained in the hut, things soon got con-
siderably worse. On the day after Christmas some 300
troops of a German anti-partisan unit, operating on a
tip from a local Nazi sympathizer, stormed the cabin, captured
its occupants and then burned the structure to the ground.
Their captors first took Morton and the others to Bratislava
for initial questioning, after which they were transported by
truck to the Mauthausen concentration camp, east of Linz,
Austria. There the OSS agents faced further interrogation and
torture under the direction of Gestapo officers. Postwar testi-
mony described how interrogators placed Holt Green in a
crouch, his hands tied behind his knees, then severely whipped
him across the face and buttocks till his blood ran freely. They
U.S. Navy Lieutenant James Gaul remained with Morton in Banská Bystrica bound another agent’s hands behind his back before suspend-
for two tense days after other OSS members had fled the encircled city. ing him from the ceiling by a chain wrapped around his wrists.
A uniformed Morton, protesting that he was not a soldier
weather was a constant threat. Howling winds, a blizzard, crip- but an Associated Press reporter, pointed to his war corre-
pling icy streams that froze boot leather to skin—all took their spondent’s insignia and even produced his ID card. But while
toll. Some desperate souls slaughtered packhorses for food. he was not harmed during the interrogations, his status was
Scores froze to death. Others suffered frostbite and pneumonia. ultimately of no help. On Jan. 24, 1945, a telegram from SS
Morton had tucked packets of antimicrobial sulfa powder headquarters in Berlin ordered the Mauthausen commander
in the hatband of his uniform cap and shared them with Gulo- to execute all members of the Slovak mission.
vich and Nelson Paris, a U.S. Navy photographer. “Many times The death warrant was based on Adolf Hitler’s Oct. 18,
others could walk much better than we did,” Gulovich later 1942, order to ignore the Geneva Convention on the treat-
recalled, “so we kind of stayed together. That powder helped.… ment of POWs and execute any Allied commandos captured
Our wounds started healing after application.” All three were behind German lines. The order, of which only 12 copies were
soon on the mend, but others were not so lucky—one group distributed, declared, in part, “From now on all enemies on
of 83 partisans who chose to sit out the storm all froze to death. so-called commando missions in Europe or Africa challenged
In late November, after escaping another German attack, by German troops, even if they are to all appearances soldiers
the group headed for the central Slovakian village of Po- in uniform or demolition troops, whether armed or unarmed,
lomka, reaching it on December 14 after several close calls in battle or in flight, are to be slaughtered to the last man.”
with German patrols. As a blizzard closed in, Morton and SS guards set up a camera in Mauthausen’s execution
companions, joined by a few SOE agents, made a six-hour room. The prisoners, lined up in the courtyard outside,
uphill slog to a remote mountainside retreat. were individually escorted into the room and told they were
On Christmas Eve the OSS/SOE team members held a to be photographed. As each man turned to face the camera,
party in the hut, which they had decorated with drawings of a guard with a pistol stepped in and shot him in the nape of
American and British flags and a small tree adorned with stars the neck. Their bodies were cremated.
cut from red and blue paper. On Christmas Day the group

celebrated with a holiday feast—black bread and thin soup. llied investigators and the OSS received the first
It was at that point Gulovich, two Americans and two Brits definitive information about Joe Morton’s fate in
left for another partisan hideout some two hours away. Gulo- April 1945 after Allied troops captured Werner
vich said Morton “walked with us half an hour or longer, and Müller, who had served as translator during the
then he said, ‘Well, I have to go back,’ and we hugged.” Years interrogations of the OSS agents at Mauthausen. He accu-
later she recalled their parting. “Joe wore a hat, a green knit- rately recalled the names of the OSS agents and specifically
ted cap. I turned back after he left me. I can see it even now. mentioned “AP reporter Morton.” OSS investigators sat on
He was walking alone with that green hat on top of his head.” the information until further proof surfaced.
After two more weeks of hiking in bitter temps, Gulovich The details of Morton’s fate remained a secret until war’s
and team did finally reach Soviet lines, only to face arrest end, when fellow AP correspondent Lynn Heinzerling was

and interrogation by secret police who suspected them of assigned to investigate the disappearance. He and a member
J U LY 2 0 1 5

being spies. Taken to Bucharest, they soon secured release of the Allied War Crimes Commission visited Mauthausen,
through diplomatic channels. where they were provided with details from Müller’s testi-

German guards interrogated and killed
Morton and the captured OSS agents
scant weeks before the liberation of
Mauthausen concentration camp by the
U.S. 11th Armored Division in May 1945.

mony and interviewed a prisoner who removed the bodies Having established the facts surrounding Morton’s death,
after the executions. They also met with Wilhelm Ornstein, a Heinzerling returned to Rome to write the first complete report
Polish Jew and former prisoner, who shared the details of Mor- on the murder of his friend and fellow war correspondent. MH
ton’s and the others’ final moments. Heinzerling was stunned.
“This was my first visit to a concentration camp and gave For further reading Norman Goldstein recommends
me my first inkling of the scope of Hitler’s madness and Inappropriate Conduct, by Don North; World War II:
crimes,” Heinzerling later wrote to his wife. “I had of course OSS Tragedy in Slovakia, by Jim Downs; and Sisterhood
heard about the camps in the early days in Berlin [where of Spies: The Women of the OSS, by Elizabeth P. Mc-
he was based from 1938 to 1941], and I knew that French- Intosh. The author is grateful to Larry Heinzerling for

men were being shipped away to them during the German providing access to his unpublished account “The Execution
occupation of Paris in 1940, but I had no conception of the of Joe Morton” and for sharing information from the files
systematic killing in progress.” of his father, Lynn Heinzerling.


The ruthless Mexican General Santa Anna ordered the mass execution
of captured Texian rebels at Goliad, but their deaths only further
fanned the flames of the Texas Revolution By Ron Soodalter

Mexican army commander
General Antonio López de
Santa Anna, pictured here
in an 1858 official portrait,
enforced a merciless
death sentence on some
400 Texian prisoners
at Goliad in March 1836.
arly on the morning of March 27, 1836— y New World standards Goliad was a venerable settle-
Palm Sunday, exactly three weeks after the ment, built by and for early Spanish explorers and
fall of the Alamo—Mexican soldiers under colonists. It had its origins in a mission and fort sited
General José de Urrea formed more than 300 in the early 1720s on a Gulf Coast bay, or bahía. Given
Texian prisoners into three columns in the impossibly long names, the structures were known simply
courtyard of the presidio in Goliad, a settle- as Mission la Bahía and Presidio la Bahía. The missionaries
ment on a bluff overlooking the San Antonio were to bring Christianity to the natives, while the presidio
River. At the command of Lt. Col. José Nico- garrison served as a deterrent to French, English and, later,
lás de la Portilla the soldiers marched the American interlopers and as a bastion against marauding
prisoners from the fort on three separate roads—east toward tribes of Lipan Apaches and Karankawas. In time a commu-
Victoria, south toward San Patricio and northwest toward nity grew up around the presidio, and residents applied the
Béxar (present-day San Antonio). A rumor circulated they name La Bahía to the entire district, just as the presidio of
were being escorted to the coast, where they would be San Antonio de Béxar came to be known simply as Béxar.
paroled to board ships for New Orleans and freedom. Spanish officials moved La Bahía progressively further
Before they had proceeded a mile along their separate inland, ultimately to the bluff on the San Antonio River, at
routes, however, the military escorts abruptly halted each the crossroads of various military and trade routes. In 1829
column and lined up the prisoners. The soldiers then its Mexican overseers renamed the settlement Goliad, in
cocked and aimed their weapons. Several of the Texians, honor of a martyred rebel priest. On Oct. 10, 1835, after a
staring suddenly down the muzzles of Mexican muskets, brief clash at the outset of the Texas Revolution, the strate-
wept and begged for their lives. Others stoically accepted gic presidio fell into the hands of the Texians, as early white
what was about to befall them. One of their number, Texans were known.
19-year-old North Carolina native Robert Fenner, exhorted

his comrades to accept their fate with courage: “Don’t take mericans had had their sights set on Texas since the
on so, boys! If we have to die, let’s die like brave men!” 1803 Louisiana Purchase. Freebooters—adventurers
At their officers’ command the soldiers fired into who invaded foreign territories with conquest and
their prisoners at point-blank range, killing most of treasure in mind—made subsequent forays into Span-
them instantly. Others ran, only to be chased down by ish Texas, all without success. Beginning in 1821 Spanish
mounted lancers and slashed or skewered. Miraculously, authorities, and soon Texas’ new Mexican rulers, cautiously
28 managed to escape. The officers then marched their welcomed Americans as colonists, under certain restrictions.
troops back to Goliad, where they fell upon several dozen Some of the provisos—such as a restriction on the number of
wounded Texian prisoners, who had listened helplessly slaves—particularly galled Southern-born Texians, who often


to the musket fire and cries of their dying comrades. circumvented or ignored the law. In 1830 Mexican President
The soldiers killed them to a man. Anastasio Bustamente cracked down, outlawing further Amer-
The morning’s mass execution was the single bloodiest ican immigration to Texas. By 1832 President Andrew Jack-
massacre of the Texas Revolution. Mexican soldiers had son and his loyal acolyte Sam Houston were on the stump,
slaughtered some 400 men at Goliad on the order of their pushing for the annexation of Texas into the Union.
commanding general, Antonio López de Santa Anna. Yet Friction steadily increased between the Texian colonists
for the past 179 years the battle and subsequent massacre and the Mexican government. When Santa Anna installed
have taken a back seat to what one chronicler refers to as himself as dictator in 1834 and tried to rein in the largely
the “inseparable alpha and omega of the Texas creation independent Mexican state, Tejanos—residents of Mexican
myth”—the fall of the Alamo and the vindicating triumph at origin—joined the Texian opposition. Seeking a return to
San Jacinto. And when historians do speak or write about the old federalist system, they made uneasy and sometimes
Goliad, it often comes across as a best-forgotten subtext to fatal alliances with the Texians against a common enemy.
J U LY 2 0 1 5

the real tragedy that ended the lives of the Texas trinity— By the fall of 1835, after several earlier clashes with Mexican
William Travis, James Bowie and David Crockett. forces, the revolution began in earnest.

On March 6, 1836, the Alamo, held by some 200
Texians, fell to Mexican forces after a 13-day siege.
Its defenders were massacred to a man. Goliad
commander Colonel James Fannin had vowed to
reinforce the Alamo, but his expedition fizzled.
Within days of the Alamo’s fall Texian army commander Sam Houston
ordered Fannin to abandon the Goliad garrison, Presidio la Bahía,
and retreat toward Victoria. But Fannin dallied another full week,
exposing his poorly supplied troops to surrounding Mexican forces.

The Texas Revolution has often been painted as a grass- man who replaced Dimmitt at Goliad. A 32-year-old Georgia-
roots juggernaut, peopled by men of singular purpose and a born plantation owner, slave trader and opportunist, Fannin
clear objective. Nothing could be further from the truth. From proved himself a lethal liability as a leader of men. He had
the outset the Texian chain of command was badly fractured dropped out of West Point after two years, having absorbed
and often crippled by jealousy and resentment, with the result few if any of the skills required of a good officer. Tragically,
that, despite early victories, several subsequent campaigns his flaws would soon become all too apparent.
were ill-conceived, poorly planned and ended in disaster. Fannin joined the ranks of the revolution as an agitator
For many participants the actual objective of the revo- as early as August 1835. By January 1836 he had been com-
lution was unclear: an independent republic, annexation missioned a colonel in the Texian army and assigned as a
into the United States, a return to the original federalist con- governmental agent to raise troops and supplies. He had
stitution of 1824, or perhaps the overthrow of the self- initially showed promise as a soldier, fighting at the opening
appointed dictator, Santa Anna. Many volunteers had taken Battle of Gonzales in early October and, alongside Jim Bowie,
up arms solely in the interest of self-enrichment, conducting leading Texian troops at Concepción later that month. The
themselves more as freebooters than soldiers, and in turn fact he had some military training had made him an attractive
alienating both Tejano and Texian settlers. choice for command. He arrived at Goliad in early February
Texian Philip Dimmitt, commanding Goliad during the 1836, and his garrison soon swelled to an often-fractious
fall and early winter of 1835, took it upon himself to father force of more than 400 regulars and volunteers.
the Goliad Declaration of Independence, declaring Texas However, as some of his men noted in letters home, Fannin
“a free, sovereign and independent state.” For emphasis, proved a less than ideal commander. “Colonel Fannin,” wrote

he created what was ostensibly the first Texas free-state flag: Captain Burr Duval to his father, “is unpopular—and nothing
a bloody arm, holding a bloody, dripping sword against a but the certainty of hard fighting, and that shortly, could have
white field (see opposite page). However, the provisional kept us together so long.” Joseph Ferguson, of the Alabama

General Council rejected the declaration as ill-advised and Red Rovers volunteer company, wrote his brother, “Our

likely to alienate their Tejano allies, prompting Dimmit to commander is Colonel Fannin, and I am sorry to say the

resign his post. Not until delegates to the Convention of majority of the soldiers don’t like him, for what cause I don’t

1836 formally declared an independent Texas Republic on know, whether it is because they think he has not the interest
March 2 did the various factions begin to coalesce. of the country at heart, or that he wishes to become great with-
J U LY 2 0 1 5


Still, dissension prevailed among a number of command- out taking the proper steps to attain greatness.” One historian

ers. Among them was Colonel James Walker Fannin Jr., the labeled Fannin the “most reluctant soldier in all of Texas.”

Personality aside, Fannin was indecisive, made poor tacti-
cal decisions and habitually defied authority, sometimes by
simply ignoring orders. When Santa Anna invested the Alamo
on February 23, Travis beseeched Fannin to march to his aid.
Two days later Fannin set out from Fort Defiance—as he had
renamed Presidio la Bahía—at the head of some 300 men and
four cannon. They didn’t get far, as a wagon broke down,
and Fannin had failed to procure sufficient provisions for
the 90-mile trek. The following morning he tucked tail and
turned back to the post. Once again Fannin had failed to act
decisively. He would do so again, with tragic results.
Desperate for reinforcements, Travis had dispatched
multiple couriers, receiving in response only 32 volunteers James Fannin Sam Houston
from Gonzalez. On March 3 he sent an angry missive to the
president of the convention, bitterly indicting Fannin:
Inexperience and indecisiveness were
Colonel Fannin is said to be on the march to this place Fannin’s gravest faults, and both Houston
with reinforcements, but I fear it is not true, for I have and William Travis openly criticized his
repeatedly sent to him for aid without receiving any. lack of judgment. Left, Philip Dimmitt’s
Colonel Bonham, my special messenger, arrived at Goliad flag struck a grimly defiant tone.
La Bahía 14 days ago, and on the arrival of the enemy
in Béxar, 10 days ago, I sent an express to Colonel F., the defeat of Texian forces at San Patricio and Agua Dulce.
which arrived at Goliad on the next day, urging him to Texians had also abandoned the seaport of Copano—a vital
send us reinforcements; none have yet arrived. link to Goliad. Thus Fannin’s requests for more men, weapons
and supplies were met with the same silence as Travis’ letters.
A week after the fall of the Alamo, then General Houston Urrea was on his way with an overwhelming force. There was
—commander of the Texian army and a man never above no strategic reason to stay. Yet Fannin continued to fortify
covering his own flank—wrote to a friend of his irritation: Goliad, biding his time once again—until time ran out.
“Colonel Fannin should have relieved our brave men in the When Fannin finally marched his men from the fort on
Alamo. He had 430 men with artillery at his command and March 19, they were hauling nine cannon and some 500 spare

had taken up the line of march with a full knowledge of the muskets—but insufficient food and water. Lumbering along
situation of those in the Alamo, and owing to the breaking at the pace of his slowest oxen, which Fannin had neglected
down of a wagon abandoned the march, returned to Goliad to feed, he ordered a stop for lunch after traveling only a few
and left our Spartans to their fate!” hours. When Urrea’s men—most of whom had participated
Of course, had Fannin succeeded in reaching the Alamo in the Alamo fight—rode into view, instead of hurrying his
—by no means a certainty, given the presence of the Mexi- column to the relative protection of tree-lined Coleto Creek,
can army between Goliad and Béxar—it can be argued his Fannin formed a defensive square on a low open plain, expos-
men would merely have added to the number of Texian ing his entire command to enemy fire. The next morning
dead. Instead, he elected to hold his ground and fortify Urrea’s artillery arrived, rendering a Texian defeat inevitable.
Goliad in preparation for an imminent Mexican attack. Fannin surrendered his men in hopes of securing favor-
Indeed, Fannin’s aide-de-camp, John Sowers Brooks, pre- able terms, and Urrea’s soldiers promptly escorted the
dicted in a March 9 letter to a friend, “As soon as Béxar falls, Texians back to Goliad. Two days later 80 Texians who had
we will be surrounded by 6,000 infernal Mexicans.” eluded Urrea at Refugio also surrendered. Retaining nearly
However defensible Fannin might have found his actions, 30 of them at Victoria as laborers, Urrea ordered the rest
in the eyes of most Texians his failure to rush to the aid of of the men marched to Goliad.
the Alamo branded him indecisive at best, a coward at worst.

uch has been made of Santa Anna’s practice of

n returning to Fort Defiance, Fannin foolishly split refusing quarter to rebels. In fact, the infamous
his forces, sending 150 of his men in two separate slaughter of the Alamo defenders was not unprec-
parties to relieve the Texians at Refugio. Mexican edented. Santa Anna had established the practice
forces under Urrea swiftly engaged, defeated and of executing prisoners at the outset of the insurrection.
captured both relief expeditions. On March 11 Houston In December 1835, following the execution of 28 Mexi-
ordered Fannin to immediately abandon Goliad and retreat to can rebels captured after an abortive attempt to seize Tam-
Victoria before Urrea’s advancing army cut him off. By then pico, Santa Anna pushed a law through Congress mandating
Fannin was aware of not only the fall of the Alamo, but also the execution of any captured armed rebels as “pirates.” He

When he surrendered to General José de Urrea at Coleto Creek, Fannin as humanity dictated,” Urrea wrote in his campaign journal,
had hoped for lenient terms, but he and his men instead faced execution. “this was beyond my authority. Had I been in a position to
do so, I would have at least guaranteed them their life.”
believed such a policy would act as a deterrent and put a fast According to survivor accounts, Fannin apparently could
end to the insurrection. It proved his greatest miscalculation. not bring himself to share these terms with his men, and,
There is reason to believe many more Texians would consequently, they surrendered their arms on the assumption


have faced execution during the war but for the merciful of fair and honorable terms.
leanings of Urrea. As one Texian contemporary described True to his word, Urrea wrote to Santa Anna, recalling
him, “Urrea, though a man of not much capacity or princi- in his journal, “I wished to elude these orders as far as possi-
ple, was not bloodthirsty and when not overruled by orders ble without compromising my personal responsibility.”
of a superior, or stirred by irritation, was disposed to treat Before resuming his campaign, he sought yet another
prisoners with lenity.” When Fannin surrendered at Coleto, means of shielding the prisoners from execution—sheer
he requested terms that specified treatment as prisoners numbers. “I issued several orders to Lt. Col. Portilla, in-
of war, medical attention for the wounded and parole back structing him to use the prisoners for the rebuilding of
to the United States. Urrea, painfully aware of Santa Anna’s Goliad. From that time on I decided to increase the number
execution order, told Fannin he could accept only uncondi- of the prisoners there in the hope that their very number
tional surrender “at the discretion of the Supreme Govern- would save them, for I never thought that the horrible
ment of Mexico.” He assured Fannin he would attempt to spectacle of that massacre could take place in cold blood…
intercede on behalf of the Texians and would treat them a deed proscribed by the laws of war and condemned by
J U LY 2 0 1 5

well until such time as the government determined their the civilization of our country.” Throughout their weeklong
fate. “In spite of my great desire of offering them guarantees imprisonment, the captives honored their promise not to

attempt escape, although many might well have saved their to a new low; and American men, and American money, for
own lives through flight. the Texan venture would have been scarce indeed.” Instead,
In his reply to Urrea on March 26 a furious Santa Anna Santa Anna—through callous and shortsighted adherence
rebuked the general, demanding the immediate execution to his own bloody edict—created enough martyrs at Béxar
of the “perfidious foreigners.” To ensure his order would be and Goliad to impel Sam Houston’s furious rebels, Texian
carried out, Santa Anna sent a copy to presidio commander and Tejano alike, to a stunning, improbable final victory at
Portilla and dispatched an officer to witness the executions San Jacinto that April, driven home to the echoes of their twin
and make a report. Within an hour of receiving the exe- battle cries, “Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!” MH
cution order, Portilla was handed a dispatch from Urrea,
instructing him to “treat the prisoners with consideration, Ron Soodalter is a regular contributor to Military History. For
and particularly their leader, Fannin.” further reading he recommends Gone to Texas: A History of
Portilla’s journal records that he spent a troubled night the Lone Star State, by Randolph B. Campbell, and Sleuthing
but rose the next morning resolved to obey Santa Anna’s the Alamo: Davy Crockett’s Last Stand and Other Mysteries
superior orders. In the end he spared what men he could— of the Texas Revolution, by James E. Crisp. Also browse the
blacksmiths, wheelwrights, interpreters—about 20 skilled Handbook of Texas Online [www.tshaonline.org/handbook].
workers who could serve the Mexican army. He also culled
out the two surgeons in the command, one of whom would U N I T E D S TAT E S
lose a son and two nephews to the massacre. And, finally,
he reprieved William Miller’s entire Nashville Battalion of
75 volunteers, who had sailed from New Orleans to Copano
but were seized by Urrea’s men as they landed on March 20. Sabine

Portilla spared them because they had surrendered without



resistance. All the others perished.

Fannin was the last to die. He had been quartered with

the wounded at Fort Defiance, having been shot in the thigh


at Coleto Creek. When informed of his fate, he walked reso- lora
Guadalu do
lutely to the courtyard, leaning for support on the shoulder pe

of Joseph Spohn, one of the Texians spared for his language ALAMO Gonzales
skills. With Spohn translating, the captain in charge of the Béxar


firing squad read the execution order: “For having come



with an armed band to commit depredations and revolu- COLETO

Gr a


tionize Texas, the Mexican government is about to chastise


San Patricio Gulf of


you.” According to Spohn, Fannin maintained his composure


Agua Dulce Mexico


throughout. Handing the captain his gold watch, a purseful


of doubloons and a wad of dollars, Fannin secured the man’s

0 100 mi
promise to shoot him in the chest (not the head), to avoid MEXICO
0 100 km
scorching his face by firing too closely and to have his body
properly buried. The captain so promised. He then sat Fannin
in a chair, blindfolded him, stepped back and gave the order
to fire. The muzzles of the soldiers’ muskets were less than
a yard from Fannin when they shot him in the head. They
rolled his body into a ditch. The soldiers then threw the

Texians’ bloodied corpses into carts, hauled them from the

fort, piled them up with loose brush and burned them. Only
partially cremated, their grisly remains were left exposed to
the weather and scavengers for two months till fellow Texians
buried them with military honors in an unmarked common
grave. Some of the survivors attended the ceremony.
As Texas historian Harbert Davenport observed more than
a century later, had Santa Anna merely “seized the oppor-
tunity of Fannin’s surrender to dump his men with Miller’s
on the wharves of New Orleans, humiliated, starving, half-
naked, penniless, homesick and forlorn, and each with his Mission la Bahía, which briefly held the wounded Texians captured
painful story of Texan mismanagement and Texan neglect, at Coleto, is part of present-day Goliad State Park and Historic Site.
Texas’ standing with the American people would have fallen On its grounds stands a memorial to Fannin and his slaughtered men.

The unconditional surrender of Germany
on May 8, 1945, sparked wild celebrations
throughout the Allied nations, with millions
of people taking to the streets in joyous
observance of victory in Europe—V-E Day.

The defeat of Nazism and all it stood for had
long been the prime objective of the grand
and often-fractious coalition that included
the United States, the British Common-
wealth and the Soviet Union. Berlin’s capitu-
lation was a clear sign the most destructive
war in human history was nearing its end.
However, Japan, the sole remaining Axis
power, seemed more than willing to con-

tinue the fight.
By May 1945 Japan had lost most of the
territory it had conquered in the Central and
South Pacific, had seen its once-proud navy
reduced to little more than a coastal-defense
force and could not prevent armadas of
Allied bombers and carrier-based strike air-
craft from systematically reducing its major
cities and industrial centers to smoking
For three months the world rubble. It nonetheless remained a formi-
dable foe, with more than 1 million troops
held its breath before a weapon of under arms on the Home Islands, in occu-
‘prompt and utter destruction’ pied China and Manchuria, and in Southeast
Asia. Pentagon analysts estimated that the
brought Japan to its knees combined military and civilian resistance to
Operation Downfall—the planned two-part
invasion of Japan in late 1945 and early
1946—could result in more than 700,000
Allied dead and wounded. Japanese casu-
alties were expected to be much higher.
Yet by late summer 1945 the entire situ-
ation had changed. Following the atomic
bombings of Hiroshima on August 6 and
Nagasaki three days later, the Japanese gov-
ernment on August 15 announced its accep-
tance of Allied demands for unconditional
surrender. Despite an attempted coup in
Tokyo by diehard members of the armed
forces, as well as several violations of the mu-
tually agreed-upon cease-fire, Allied occu-
pation units began landing in Japan on
August 28. Representatives of the partici-
pant nations signed the instrument of sur-
render aboard the battleship USS Missouri in

Tokyo Bay on September 2, officially ending

World War II. After nearly four years of war
V-J Day had finally arrived. MH

Colonel Paul Tibbets waves
from the cockpit of his B-29
Superfortress before takeoff
on the flight that would change
history—the Aug. 6, 1945, atomic
A mushroom cloud towers
over Nagasaki on Aug. 9,
1945. Less than a week later
the Japanese government
accepted the Allied demand
for unconditional surrender.


The atomic bombs inflicted

catastrophic destruction and
loss of life on Hiroshima, above,
and Nagasaki. The attacks helped
convince Emperor Hirohito that
continuation of the war was futile,
a belief he communicated to Japan’s
senior political and military leaders.

Aircraft of the Imperial Japanese

Navy, left—disabled by the removal
of their propellers or fuel tanks, in
keeping with Allied instructions—
litter Atsugi airfield, just south of
Tokyo. Atsugi’s pilots were among
the last of Japan’s airmen to cease
hostilities following the surrender.

Crew members, journalists and other onlookers
crowd the decks of USS Missouri, above, as the
Sept. 2, 1945, surrender ceremony gets under way.

Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz signs the instrument


of surrender as the United States’ representative,
right. Standing behind him are, from left, General of
the Army (and Supreme Commander for the Allied
Powers) Douglas MacArthur, Admiral William Halsey
and Nimitz’ deputy Rear Admiral Forrest Sherman.
J U LY 2 0 1 5

Foreign Minister Mamoru
Shigemitsu and Chief of the
Imperial Japanese Army General
Staff General Yoshijiro Umezu
lead the Japanese delegation.

signed the
instrument of
surrender aboard
Missouri in Tokyo
Bay on September 2,

officially ending
World War II.
After nearly four
years of war V-J Day
had finally arrived
Shigemitsu signs the surrender
document on behalf of Hirohito
and the Japanese government.

WAR Films


Like many of the standout World War I films, The Fighting
69th is based on actual events. James Cagney stars as
the fictitious Private Jerry Plunkett, a black sheep in the
regiment who earns redemption through self-sacrifice.
All Quiet on the
Western Front (1930)

uly 2014 marked the centennial of the outbreak Sergeant Joyce Kilmer and military chaplain Father Francis
of World War I, and museums, archives and Duffy. Structured around actual events, the story line relates
governments worldwide will continue commem- the transformation of young tough Plunkett into a solid, self-
orations through November 2018. While exhibits sacrificing soldier. Along the way the movie introduces view-
of uniforms, weapons, vehicles and other artifacts ers to the difficulties America faced in raising an army capable
will certainly help illuminate the causes, conduct of participating in the largest war the world had yet seen.
and consequences of the war, those seeking a more personal Moving from the city to the country, Sergeant York
and visceral perspective can turn to a host of feature and (1941) profiles real-life doughboy Alvin York, a pacifist
documentary films that detail virtually every aspect of from rural Tennessee whose change of heart regarding
that first truly global conflict. combat led to action that earned him the Medal of Honor.
Starring Gary Cooper, with perennial co-star Walter Brennan

mong the first motion pictures to depict World as his hometown pastor, the film addresses York’s attempt
War I’s grim realities was All Quiet on the West- to claim conscientious objector status on religious grounds
ern Front (1930), and it remains one of the best. and the negative view many Americans then held of anyone
Based on the eponymous novel by wartime taking such a moral stand. The action that brought him
German army veteran Erich Maria Remarque, the fame is only a small part of a movie focused more on
film follows a group of German friends as they transition personal character. While York’s marksmanship stood out,
from students to soldiers and experience the insanity and he was otherwise typical of millions of men from rural
horrors of war firsthand. All Quiet depicts life and death in America who, despite their limited understanding of the
the trenches with unflinching realism that shocked audi- war and its causes, left home to do their duty as they saw it.
ences of the time. It also captures the alienation soldiers After repeated refusals, York finally agreed to authorize the
often feel while home on leave that makes them long to movie in order to finance construction of a Bible school.


return to the front. Released by Universal Pictures when the Paths of Glory (1957), director Stanley Kubrick’s first
war remained fresh in people’s minds, the film may have led significant box office success, is loosely based on mutinies
star Lew Ayres to declare himself a conscientious objector in the French army in the spring and early summer of 1917.
early in World War II, though he served in the Pacific as In order to quell dissent among frontline units, France’s
a medic. A television version, airing in 1979, features sturdy military and political leaders ordered mass trials of the muti-
performances by Richard Thomas (John-Boy of The Waltons neers, more than 40 of whom faced execution. Paths of Glory
fame), Ernest Borgnine and Donald Pleasence. depicts one such trial. It is an intense film, and Kirk Douglas
The Fighting 69th (1940) is based on the exploits of is riveting as Colonel Dax, an officer assigned to defend three
the New York Army National Guard’s 69th Infantry Regi- of his soldiers arbitrarily charged with cowardice. An ironic
ment, which at the outset of the war was folded into the 42nd footnote is an appearance by actor Wayne Morris, a deco-
“Rainbow” Infantry Division. While the central character, rated seven-victory U.S. Navy fighter ace during World War II,
Jerry Plunkett (James Cagney), is fictional, other characters in the role of a cowardly lieutenant.
J U LY 2 0 1 5

are based on actual members of the 69th, including Medal of A classic film that encompasses not only the war but also
Honor recipient Major William “Wild Bill” Donovan, poet the social upheaval it wrought is Jean Renoir’s La Grande

Illusion (1937). Captured by the Germans, two French Austrians’ families reside. That year also saw the release of
aviators, aristocratic Captain de Boeldieu (Pierre Fresnay) Frank Borzage’s A Farewell to Arms, based on the semi-
and working-class Lieutenant Maréchal (Jean Gabin), are autobiographical novel by Ernest Hemingway. Although less
transferred from several POW camps after failed escape notable for the horrors of war in Italy than for the romance
attempts. Arriving at a fortressed mountain prison, de between the American medical volunteers played by Gary
Boeldieu enjoys a more comfortable relationship with camp Cooper and Helen Hayes, the film won two Academy Awards.
commandant Rittmeister von Rauffenstein (Erich von Stro- Moving to the Middle East, Gallipoli (1981) relates the
heim) than with fellow Frenchmen of lesser pedigree (the futility of the failed 1915–16 Allied campaign in the Darda-
noblemen often converse in English so French and German nelles against the German-allied Ottoman empire through
subordinates won’t understand them). Still, de Boeldieu the eyes of two Australian friends, portrayed by actors Mark
agrees to provide a distraction for an ultimately successful Lee and a pre–Mad Max Mel Gibson. Like many, if not most,
escape by Maréchal and nouveau riche French Jew Lieu- of their contemporaries, these young men start out as ideal-
tenant Rosenthal (Marcel Dalio). Shot by a reluctant von ists in search of adventure, only to be confronted by the
Rauffenstein, de Boeldieu dies pitying his German counter- war’s brutal realities. Peter Weir directed this critically
part, who must adjust to the upended postwar world they acclaimed Australian film.
both foresee. While Gallipoli bogs down in bloody stalemate, the
Among the many surrealist looks at the war, one of the sweeping desert epic Lawrence of Arabia (1962) centers
most entertaining is director Philippe de Broca’s King of on the bold exploits of legendary British officer T.E. Law-
Hearts (1966), a comedy-drama that takes a literal view of rence, who convinced the disparate tribes of the Arabian
the conflict’s insanity. Sent to a French town to disarm a Peninsula to revolt against their Ottoman overlords. Although
bomb planted by the retreating Germans, a kilt-wearing based on historical characters and events, the film takes
Scottish soldier (Alan Bates) finds it populated by escapees literary license in many areas and generally advances the
from the local insane asylum, whom he mistakes for the legend more than the real man—who, for one thing, was
townspeople, who have fled. While trying to find the bomb, much shorter than starring actor Peter O’Toole. Directing
the young soldier tries to make sense of the residents’ antics, the film was David Lean, who also related Russia’s World
leading to a surprising but fitting ending. War I experience of revolution, civil war and communist
domination in his monumental and hugely entertaining

ooking beyond the war of attrition on the Western 1965 film Doctor Zhivago.
Front, some movies remind viewers it was a global For a unique take on the war in a forgotten corner of

conflict. In 1932, for example, two films depicted the the world, there is no better film than The African Queen
Italian front. The Doomed Battalion, co-directed (1951). Directed by John Huston and set in German East
by Cyril Gardner and war veteran and champion Africa, it spins the tale of a grizzled, hard-drinking Cana-
skier Luis Trenker (who wrote and stars in the film), deals dian riverboat captain (Humphrey Bogart), a British mission-
with a unit of Austrian mountain troops holding a position ary (Katherine Hepburn) and the rundown eponymous
12,000 feet in the Tyrolean Alps against an Italian force that vessel they plan to take downriver to Lake Tanganyika and
occupies the town in the valley below where most of the there transform it into a makeshift torpedo in order to sink

the enemy gunboat Queen Louisa. Very loosely based on 1930s de Havilland Tiger Moths and Stampe SV.4 biplane
events in the region, the film was shot in Africa—reportedly trainers) saw much use in later and lesser films, but The Blue
so Huston could go elephant hunting—and is a delightful Max, co-starring James Mason, Jeremy Kemp and Ursula
change from most adventure films of the period, which were Andress, still holds up admirably.
largely shot on Hollywood soundstages. The film gave More dubious is the mixture of replica and computer-
Bogart his first real opportunity to play someone other than generated aircraft that inhabit Flyboys (2006), a movie
a smooth gangster, and the role won him the 1951 Academy based on French fighter squadron N.124, better known as
Award for best leading actor. the Lafayette Escadrille, whose pilots were largely American
volunteers. The film characters are loosely based on real

hile many films thrilled audiences with tales of members of either the escadrille or the Lafayette Flying Corps,
dashing, scarf-wearing World War I aviators, which channeled excess volunteers to other units. An exam-
most of the films made in the 1920s and ’30s ple of the latter is “Skinner,” a black member of N.124 based
are more memorable for their aerial stunt work on Eugene Bullard, a bone fide lightweight boxing champion
than their often-hokey screenplays. Among the who served in the Foreign Legion before qualifying as a pilot
best of the genre is the silent film Wings (1927), directed and flying with escadrilles N.93 and SPA 85. Sorry to say,
by former Lafayette Flying Corps fighter pilot William Well- most of the actual flyboys serving in N.124 were vastly more
man and starring Buddy Rogers, Richard Arlen, Clara Bow interesting than anyone in this cast, and the film’s dogfights
and Gary Cooper (in a brief appearance that helped launch generally pit Nieuport 17s against Fokker Dr.I triplanes—
his career). The film was also the first to receive the Acad- German fighters nobody in the Lafayette Escadrille ever
emy Award for best picture. Howard Hughes’ 1930 action encountered during its time at the front.
film Hell’s Angels is better remembered for its spectacular

dogfight sequence—arguably the last of its kind—and for f documentaries are more to your liking, several provide
Jean Harlow than for its story. The same might be said excellent footage and commentary.
for its contemporary, director Howard Hawks’ The Dawn Produced by CBS and narrated by actor Robert Ryan,
Patrol, with Richard Barthelmess and Douglas Fairbanks the three-disc series The Complete Story: World
Jr., a film whose flying sequences were reused in a far more War I (1963) features black-and-white historical film
dashing 1938 Edmund Goulding remake starring Errol clips from the era. Generally viewing the war from a U.S.
Flynn, Basil Rathbone and David Niven. perspective, it relates the controversial sinking of the British
Perhaps the best combination of an engrossing story liner RMS Lusitania and events on the home front, including

mated to convincing air action is John Guillermin’s The opposition to the United States’ entry in the conflict. The
Blue Max (1966). The film follows German Army Air Ser- series does venture beyond Western Europe, however, to
vice Lieutenant Bruno Stachel (George Peppard), a cynical explore the Allied intervention in Russia (see “First Shots
field-commissioned officer of low birth who seeks to rise of the Cold War,” by Anthony Brandt, May) in the wake of
through the ranks by achieving acedom and attaining the its 1917 revolution and to discuss how the war prompted
J U LY 2 0 1 5

Pour le Mérite—the fabled Blue Max award for extraordinary the rise of communism and fascism in postwar Europe.
valor. The movie’s array of aircraft (most modified from Bonus episodes cover a range of headline prewar events,

The African
Queen (1951)

including Robert Peary’s 1909 journey to the North Pole and Day, Eleventh Hour: Armistice Day, 1918. In one scene illus-
the 1912 sinking of the British liner RMS Titanic, as well as trative of the war’s lasting legacy, Palin examines a pile of
such postwar events as Prohibition and women’s suffrage. relics, including unexploded ordnance, recently unearthed
The more recent five-disc Trenches: Battleground by a farmer. The program ends with the stories of the last
WWI (2006), an eight-episode series with three bonus men killed in action just before the armistice went into
episodes, combines frontline footage and photographs with effect at 11 a.m., the unnecessary loss of life and the contro-
no-nonsense narration some viewers might find dry. Actors versy that resulted.
liven up the script with period quotes from soldiers, leaders Paris 1919 is a unique docudrama based on the postwar
and civilians, and the producers include interviews with framing of the Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended
veterans of both the Allied and Central Powers forces. One hostilities between Germany and the Allies. It combines
annoying aspect for the purist, however, is that the pro- actor portrayals of the major participants with narrated
ducers have reused footage—sometimes in mirror image— period footage and photos of the Paris Peace Conference
to illustrate different battles. and its participants. The film focuses on the background
The First World War (2003) is a well-produced four- and behind-the-scenes events of the conference, including
disc, 10-episode series that combines period black-and-white how cartographers redrew the map of Europe and how
footage with color segments from recent visits to key loca- economists and accountants sought to calculate the massive
tions and incorporates clips from postwar movies to illustrate monetary damages inflicted by the Germans. It also re-
certain battles. The script features passages from the journals creates private discussions among the primary Allied leaders
and letters of everyday soldiers and citizens, as well as quotes as they work out a strategy to punish Germany for the war
from political and military leaders. Voice actors provide much and keep it from regaining its prewar strength. At times
of the narration, though the producers use period recordings actors address the camera directly, bringing the audience

of wartime leaders whenever possible. The narrative style into the moment. The production is entertaining enough to
is more personal than that in Trenches and less dramatic hold a casual viewer’s attention and informative enough for
than Robert Ryan’s delivery in The Complete Story. The series anyone interested in the history behind the war’s end. MH
devotes several episodes to Africa, the Middle East and other
overseas locales largely ignored in the other documentaries. Richard Farmer retired as a master sergeant after a 34-year
If you want a break from the forced march of a documen- Army career, in which he served with the 101st Airborne
tary series, consider two outstanding recent single-episode Division, the 24th Infantry Division and various units of
documentaries, The Last Day of World War One (2008) the Ohio Army National Guard. He deployed for Operation
and Paris 1919 (2009). Enduring Freedom in 2004 and Operation Iraqi Freedom
The Last Day of World War One, an episode of the British in 2008. For further reading Farmer recommends Eleventh
television series Timewatch, is among the most captivating Month, Eleventh Day, Eleventh Hour: Armistice Day,
documentaries about the war, in which narrator Michael 1918, by Joseph E. Persico; All Quiet on the Western
Palin recounts the events on Nov. 11, 1918, the day fighting Front, by Erich Maria Remarque; and Father Duffy’s Story:
ceased on the Western Front. It also features commentary A Tale of Humor and Heroism, of Life and Death With the
by Joseph E. Persico, author of Eleventh Month, Eleventh Fighting Sixty-Ninth, by Francis P. Duffy.


The stories of the Unknown Wars of Asia, Africa and The Americas were cataclysmic and
bloody events that took the lives of millions and impact our world to this day. Yet, most of
these wars are hardly mentioned in articles or even textbooks.

Among some of the wars covered are:

s The wars that involved the Great Wall of China over its’ 1,865 year history as a defensive barrier.
s The longest war in history which was the 1,049 year long Vietnamese War of Independence from China and the
lessons that should have kept France and the US out of Indo-China.
s The wars of the Khmer Empire (802 – 1431)
and the unlikely hero that emerged in a time
of crisis in 1177.
s The Jewish Bar Kokhba Revolt (132 – 136) that
caused the Emperor Hadrian to cover up the
massacre of two veteran Roman Legions and
the truth about how close the revolt came to
s The wars of the Spanish Conquistadors to
conquer the American Southeast and South-
west in the sixteenth century and the Native
American apocalypse in North America
that followed.
s The Cherokee Wars that came very close to
wiping out the colony of South Carolina.
s The wars of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
that took the lives of more than 12 million
Africans and the slave revolts of the Caribbean
and South America.
s The Taiping Rebellion (1851 – 1871) that was
caused by a Confucian scholar who misun-
derstood a poorly translated gospel tract
and started a rebellion that led to over 30
million deaths.
s The 74 year Mongol conquest of China and
disasters in Syria, Japan, Vietnam, and Java
that led to the breakup of the Mongol Empire.
s Before the Holocaust of World War II, there
was a mutual Christian holocaust that took
the lives of close to 8 million lives during
the Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648) between
Catholics and Protestants. Some of the
battles of this war were actually fought in
Africa and in the Caribbean.
s England’s Pirate Wars — The French Conquest
of Indo-China 1857 – 1884.
s The future wars that half of the world’s population
of Jews, Christians, and Muslims are expecting in the near future.
Available at: amazon.com (US) your cop
Not Just Another jump on the imperial band-
wagon and establish its own
colonies in Africa. With that
in mind, along with an aware-

‘Great’ Opponent ness of the Ottoman empire’s

weakness, Italy invaded Tur-
key’s North African territo-
ries of Cyrenaica and Tripoli.
Darius in the Shadow of ander scholarship is based The ensuing conflict was
Alexander, by Pierre Briant, are simply not reliable. the first to combine land, sea
translated by Jane Marie Darius in the Shadow of and air elements to achieve
Todd, Harvard University Alexander is an important victory. While Italy swiftly
Press, Cambridge, Mass., book that makes a major deposed Turkey as ruler over
2015, $39.95 contribution to our under- the region, however, it had
standing of ancient Persia a far more difficult time
Pierre Briant, professor of and the narrative of Alexan- imposing its rule over local
history and civilization der the Great, and we highly inhabitants. The conflict de-
recommend it to students generated into a guerrilla
of the Achaemenid world of the classics. war for which the Italians
at the Collège de France — Richard A. Gabriel were not prepared and which
in Paris, is a renowned dragged on for decades. Hos-
expert on the history of A Box of Sand: The tilities ceased only when the
ancient Persia from Cyrus the Great to its destruction Italo-Ottoman War, 1911– Allies drove the Italians from
1912, by Charles the country during
by Alexander the Great during the reign of Darius III.
Stephenson, World War II.
The difficulty in understanding Persian history is Tattered Flag, A Box of Sand is the
that most of our knowledge derives from the works Ticehurst, England, first English-language
of Greco-Roman authors (Quintus Curtius Rufus, 2014, $22.95 study of a conflict that
set the stage for World
Arrian, Justin, Diodorus Sic- ciopolitical/socioeconomic With the centennial War I as well as much
ulus and Plutarch) writing structure of the Persian of World War I upon of the current politi-
about the exploits of Alex- empire and the Alexander us it is worthwhile to cal situation in Libya.
ander, in which they por- narrative. Focusing on Da- reflect on the events that It is a must for students of
tray Persia and its kings in rius III’s actions with regard brought about that monu- military history, particularly
a largely negative light. The to Alexander, Briant raises mental conflict. Among events in the present-day
scarcity of Persian sources legitimate questions about them is the 1911 war be- Middle East and North Africa.
makes obtaining an accurate key conclusions proffered in tween Italy and the Otto- —Robert Guttman
historical record of Persia the Greco-Roman accounts man empire. The conflict
even more difficult. This is and offers fresh historical had far-reaching effects with Marshal Joffre: The
the first dedicated biography interpretations about both present-day reverberations. Triumphs, Failures and
of Darius III. Parsing the por- Darius and Alexander. From a military standpoint Controversies of France’s
trayals of Darius in Greco- The book is a magnificent it is notable as the first war in Commander in Chief in
Roman sources, Briant reads work of classical scholar- which armored vehicles and the Great War, by André
between the lines to bring to ship, and Briant rewards airplanes played a role. On a Bourachot, translated
light the “Achaemenid kernel readers with insights the political level it was equally by Andrew Uffindell,
embedded in a Greco-Roman source authors either failed important, as it precipitated Pen and Sword, Barnsley,
interpretive shell.” to see or deliberately omit- the creation of the state that U.K., 2014, $39.95
Briant takes a strong ana- ted. He also gives Alexan- became modern-day Libya.
lytical approach, analyzing der biographers reason for A newcomer among the On July 28, 1911, the Jour-
the texts against his prodi- pause, reiterating that the modern-day European great nal officiel de la Republique
gious knowledge of the so- five sources on which Alex- powers, Italy was eager to française published a decree


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appointing as chief of the Secret Warriors: The as a nuisance, the British RECOMMENDED
French General Staff Joseph Spies, Scientists and Code War Office banned reporters
Joffre, 59. He immediately Breakers of World War I, from the front. It was 1915
became commander in chief by Taylor Downing, Pegasus before five reporters and a
designate of the French ar- Books, New York, $28.95 few photographers got near
mies as well, meaning he the fighting. This included
would command in the event British TV producer and two cinematographers,
of war. It was the first and writer Downing argues per- whose 100-pound camera
last time an engineer officer suasively that almost every produced mostly bland
held such a high position of significant modern- scenes of soldiers
responsibility. Bourachot, an day military advance marching and artil-
expert on French army his- originated in 1914 lery firing. The fa- The Handy Military History
tory and himself a former en- and, less persua- miliar clips of troops Answer Book, by Samuel
Willard Crompton
gineer in chief, examines the sively, largely in Brit- going “over the top”
Considering the course
period from Joffre’s assump- ain. His book focuses were staged. of military history,
tion of command until 1916, on advances in code World War I was Crompton explores the
the year of his disgrace. breaking, aviation, the first recorded pivotal conflicts and
the strategies, politics
In the war’s eventful first communication, conflict in which and weaponry that
month Joffre was forced to medicine and weapons. more soldiers died from determined their out-
deal with a lack of unity of Six hours after the dec- combat wounds than dis- come. With more than
1,400 snapshots in a
command among the French laration of World War I a ease. Sanitation and anti- question-and-answer
army, Belgian army and Brit- British ship cut Germany’s sepsis saved many lives, but format, the book is
ish Expeditionary Force, as undersea cables. That left Downing also addresses an excellent reference,
with short, digestible
well as the complete absence radio as its only means of dazzling advances in sur- answers and surprising
of useful intelligence on the overseas communication, gery and the organization trivia for military histo-
real intentions of the German and the British could listen of an efficient military med- rians of any level.
army. Examining the subse- in. Those familiar with the ical service. The high com-
quent dispute between Joffre World War II Bletchley Park mand at first tolerated a
and General Joseph Gal- geniuses may not realize sympathetic treatment of
lieni over who was the prin- Britain did even better in “shell shock” (aka post-
cipal agent of victory in the World War I, deciphering traumatic stress disorder),
First Battle of the Marne, the most German transmissions but disturbed at the loss of
author concludes from the outset. so many men, it ultimately
without question Although dog- cracked down. Oddly, the
that it was Joffre. fights dominated rate of recovery seemed
Bourachot de- headlines, recon- little different.
fends Joffre against naissance was the Discussing iconic weap-
the accusation he airplane’s leading ons, Downing gives poison
left the Verdun sec- wartime contribu- gas, artillery and the ma- Men of War,
by Alexander Rose
tor unprepared, tion. No reader will chine gun their due but
Seeking to answer one
pointing out he had be surprised that points out that the hand question, What is it like
already reinforced Verdun early airmen recognized the grenade became essential being in a battle? Rose
with six divisions before the import of strategic bombing. in trench warfare, and that studies Bunker Hill,
Gettysburg and Iwo
Germans launched their Had the war continued, Brit- the tank was a game changer. Jima, drawing from
offensive. Marshal Joffre ain would have introduced Readers bored by the de- firsthand accounts to
should provide scholars of a four-engine bomber, the bate over which was the first relate American sol-
diers’ experience before,
World War I plenty of ma- Handley-Page V/1500, which modern war will enjoy this during and after war.
terial over which to mull could carry a heavier payload skillful history and likely Deviating from strate-
and debate, along with some than a World War II B-17. agree that World War I de- gic analysis, he offers a
rare peek into the mind
satisfying answers. Holding the traditional serves that distinction. of the common soldier.
—Thomas Zacharis military view of journalists —Mike Oppenheim

Hallowed Ground
River Vale, New Jersey
By Robert Guttman

t must have been terrifying. One moment the 3rd Conti- The troops under attack that night, com-
nental Light Dragoons were resting peacefully in what manded by Colonel George Baylor, were from a
they had assumed was friendly territory, and the next somewhat elite Virginia regiment that had pre-
they awoke to plunging bayonets and screaming in the viously served as escort to Martha Washington.
early morning hours of Sept. 27, 1778. The attack took That September, however, the dragoons were
place amid the houses and barns of the Blauvelt and some 260 miles from home, having been posted
Haring families in a northern New Jersey village then known to duty in the Hudson Valley region. They must
as Overkill—the ominous-sounding name merely signifying have considered the region somewhat foreign,
a place with a bridge over de kille (Middle Dutch for “over as many of the residents still spoke Dutch.
the channel”). The village is known today as River Vale. The early morning assault by the British
was a sideshow, meant to divert attention
from an attack elsewhere in New Jersey. Carry-
ing out the raid were some 650 British infan-
trymen under Maj. Gen. Charles “No Flint”
Grey, an officer experienced in night attacks.
In fact, his peculiar nickname derived from
his practice of having his men remove the
flints from their muskets and use only bayo-
nets during night raids, ensuring none of them
could accidentally fire his weapon and give
away the attack. Using this tactic a year earlier
against 2,500 Continental troops under Brig.
British Maj. Gen. Charles Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne, bedded down
“No Flint” Grey had his near Paoli Tavern (present-day Malvern, Pa.)
men remove the flints on the evening of Sept. 20, 1777, Grey’s troops
from their muskets
had killed 53 Patriots, wounded 113 and taken 71 prisoner
to ensure surprise in


at a cost of four British dead and seven wounded. Grey
the night attack on
used the identical tactic against Baylor’s dragoons, and
dragoons at River Vale.
it proved just as effective.
Heavily outnumbered and literally caught sleeping,
Baylor’s dragoons succumbed quickly with little opportu-
nity to offer resistance. Of the unit’s 116 members, 11 were
killed outright, four were mortally wounded, and 54 were
captured. Baylor himself took a bayonet through the lung
and was captured, though later released. He returned to
combat and ended the war as a brigadier general, but he never
recovered from his wound and died in convalescence in 1784.
J U LY 2 0 1 5

While the engagement was a success for the British, it was

a disastrous embarrassment for the Americans. As they had

after their defeat at Paoli, they labeled the Overkill raid In 1967 an archaeological team unearthed the skeletal
a massacre. It is still referred to as the “Baylor Massacre” remains of six of Colonel George Baylor’s dragoons from a
despite the relatively low death toll. Ironically, less than a makeshift grave near the massacre site on the Blauvelt farm.
year later, on July 16, 1779, Wayne—perhaps in payback
for, or emulation of, Paoli—employed similar tactics in a and other artifacts found positively identified the dead as
successful night attack on the British fortified position at members of B Troop, 3rd Continental Light Dragoons.
Stony Point, N.Y., just up the Hudson from Overkill. When development threatened the massacre site in 1972,
Tradition held that local militiamen had hastily buried the Bergen County Board of Chosen Freeholders bought the
some of Baylor’s dead on-site, prompting local historian property and transformed it into a park. There, in a quiet,
Thomas Demarest to research the incident. In 1967 he per- wooded glade beside the Hackensack River, the freeholders
suaded the county to fund an archaeological dig at the former had the remains of the six Virginia soldiers reinterred. Along-
site of a tannery on the Blauvelt farm. There diggers unearthed side the grave stands the millstone that had capped their
the skeletal remains of six Continental dragoons in aban- makeshift burial site. What had been their only marker for
doned tanning vats capped by an old millstone. Metal buttons nearly two centuries now serves as a simple memorial. MH

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War Games
Arab-Israeli Arms
Modern-day Arabs and Israelis first
clashed in 1948–49 with some of the
following weapons. Recognize any?
____ A. Czech-made MG 34 (Israel)
____ B. Hotchkiss H39 (Israel)
____ C. Bren light machine gun (Arabs)
____ D. Avia S-199 (Israel)
Men of Noble Service
____ E. Renault FT-17 (Lebanon)
English knight William Marshal had
____ F. M3A1 Scout Car (Israel) martial colleagues of comparable valor
____ G. M22 Locust (Egypt) and loyalty. Know ye these men?
____ H. Marmon-Herrington Mk IVF 1. In the service of which Muslim
(Lebanon) kingdom did Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar
earn the legendary moniker El Cid
1 (“The Lord”)?
A. Zaragoza B. Leon
To the Last Man
C. Aragon D. Andalusia
Match the wartime massacre (or

so-called massacre) to the number 2. Who was appointed guardian and

of people who perished in it. protector of Scotland in 1297?
3 A. Andrew Moray
1. Béziers, 1209 2
B. William Wallace
2. Drogheda, 1649
C. Robert the Bruce
3. Boston, 1770
D. William Douglas
4. Paoli, 1777
5. Fort Pillow, 1864 4 3. Who attained martial renown for
the defense of Hennebont in 1342?
6. Little Bighorn, 1876
A. Jean I de Montfort
7. Khartoum, 1884
B. Charles de Blois
8. Frog Lake, 1885
C. Joanna of Flanders
9. Odessa, 1941 D. Bertrand du Guesclin
10. Srebrenica, 1995
4. How many Spanish knights did
____ A. 53 5 Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard,
single-handedly defeat at
____ B. 268 Garigliano Bridge in 1503?
____ C. 11,000 A. 50 B. 100
____ D. 3,552 C. 200 D. 500
____ E. 25,000 5. After the 47 Ronin avenged their
____ F. 8,372 slain lord in 1703, what did they do?
A. Laid Kira Yoshinaka’s head at
____ G. 20,000
7 8 Asano Naganori’s grave
____ H. 9 B. Turned themselves in to the shogun
____ I. 277+ C. All but one committed seppuku
____ J. 5 D. All of the above
Answers: A4, B6, C7, D2, E9, F10, G1, H8, I5, J3 Answers: A2, B8, C4, D1, E5, F6, G7, H3 Answers: A, B, C, C, D

J U LY 2 0 1 5