DEVELOPMENT OF ROLL WAVES
IN OPEN CHANNELS
by
Richard R.
Brock
Project Supervisor:
Vito A.
Vanoni
Professor of Hydraulics
Supported by the
Los Angeles County Flood Control District
and the
W.
M.
Alfred P.
Sloan Foundation
Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources Division of Engineering and Applied Science California Institute of Technology
Pasadena,
California
Report No.
_{K}_{H}_{}_{R}_{}_{1}_{6}
July 1967
To Dr.
Vito A.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Vanoni,
the writer expresses his deepest appreciation
for the advice and encouragement offered throughout the investigation.
For their advice on various phases of the investigation the writer
wishes to thank Dr.
Norman H.
Brooks and Dr.
Fredric Raichlen.
The writer is indebted to Mr.
Elton Daly for the construction of the
_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{l} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y}_{.}
The writer also wishes to extend his
gratitude to the following persons for their contributions to the project:
_{M}_{r}_{.}
Robert L.
Greenway for assisting with the construction of the
channel; Mr.
Robert Dickenson and Mr.
Edward Thompson for analyzing
data and preparing drawings; Mr.
Jiinjen
Lee
for analyzing data;
Mr. 
Leonard Fisher for assisting with the preliminary experiments; 

_{M}_{r}_{.} 
Carl Green for preparing drawings; Mr. 
Carl Eastvedt for all the 
photographic work; Mrs.
Patricia A.
Rankin for typing the manuscript;
Miss Sophia Yen for preparing tables; and Mrs.
Patricia A.
Brock for
typing much of the first draft.
Financial assistance was received by the writer in the form of a
United States Public Health Service Training Grant (196364), Graduate
Research Assistantship (196465) from the California Institute of
Technology,
fellowship provided by the George H.
Mayr Educational
Foundation (196465), and National Science Foundation Graduate
Traineeship (196566 and 196667).
acknowledged.
This assistance is gratefully
iii
The investigation was supported by the Los Angeles County Flood
Control District from August 1964 to September
1966.
_{S}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e}
last year was from the Alfred P.
_{S}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{n} _{F}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{c}_{h} _{w}_{a}_{s}
performed in the W.
M.
Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water
Resources at the California Institute of Technology.
This report was submitted by the writer,
in June 1967, as a thesis
with the same title to the California Institute of Technology in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
in Civil Engineering.
ABSTRACT
This study is concerned with some of the properties of roll waves
that develop naturally from a turbulent uniform flow in a wide rectangu
lar channel on a constant steep slope.
The wave properties considered
were depth at the wave crest,
depth at the wave trough, wave period,
and wave velocity.
The primary focus was on the mean values and
standard deviations of the crest depths and wave periods at a given
station and how these quantities varied with distance along the channel.
The wave properties were measured in a laboratory channel in
which roll waves developed naturally from a uniform flow.
The Froude
number F (F = u
n
/&
n
, u
n
= normal velocity,
h
n
= normal depth,
g = acceleration of gravity) ranged from 3.4 to 6.0 for channel slopes
S of .05 and . 12 respectively.
0
In
the initial phase of their development
the roll waves appeared as small amplitude waves with a continuous
water surface profile.
These small amplitude waves subsequently
developed into large amplitude shock waves.
_{S}_{h}_{o}_{c}_{k} _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}
to overtake and combine with other shock waves with the result that the
crest depth of the combined wave was larger than the crest depths before
the overtake.
Once roll waves began to develop,
the mean value of the
crest depths h
max
began to overtake,
increased with distance.
the mean wave period T
linearly with distance.
Once the shock waves
av
increased approximately
For a given Froude number and channel slope the observed quan
tities _{I}_{;} max
/hn,
T'
(TI
= S
o
T
av
fin),
and the standard deviations of
 

h max 
/h 
n 
and 
TI, 
could be expressed as unique functions of & /h
n
(4,= distance from beginning of channel) for the twofold change in h _{n}
occurring in the observed flows.
A given value of _{h} rnax
/h
occurred
n
_{a}_{t} _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{r} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{&}_{/}_{h}
a given value of _{I}_{;} rnax
n
/h
n
as the Froude number was increased.
For
the growth rate aEmax/a&of the shock waves
increased as the Froude number was increased.
A laboratory channel was also used to measure the wave properties
of periodic permanent roll waves.
For a given Froude number and
channel slope the h
rnax
/h
vs.
n
T' relation did not agree with a theory
in which the weight of the shock front was neglected.
After the theory
was modified to include this weight,
the observed values of h
rnax
_{/}_{h}
n
were within an average of 6.5 percent of the predicted values,
and the
maximum discrepancy was 13.5 percent.
For
max
/h
n
sufficiently large
(E
max
/hn > approximately 1.5)
it was found that the
rnax
/h
vs.
n
was practically identical to the h
T' relation for natural roll waves
rnax
/h
vs.
n
T' relation for periodic
permanent roll waves at the same Froude number and slope. _{A}_{s} _{a}
result of this correspondence between periodic and natural _{r} 011 waves,
the growth rate aE rnax
/as of shock waves was predicted to depend on
the channel slope, and this slope dependence was observed in the
experiments.
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
INTRODUCTION
11. PREVIOUS STUDIES
A. Basic Equations
B. Criteria for Unstable Flow
C. Large Amplitude Wave Studies
Page
2
_{D}_{.} Friction Factors in Unstable Flows
E. Summary
ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION
A. Small Amplitude Theory
_{1}_{.} 
Statement and Solution of Problem 
2. 
Discussion of Solution 
B. Large Amplitude Periodic Permanent Roll Wave Theory
_{1}_{.} Statement and Solution of Problem
2. Discussion of Solution
IV. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS _{} APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE
A. Introduction and Objective
B. Preliminary Experiments
C. Apparatus
1. Steep Channel
2. Measuring and Recording Equipment
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
Chapter
D. Experimental Procedure
Page
56
1. 
Design of Experiments 
2. 
Normal Depth 
3. 
Wave Properties Measured 
4. 
General Procedure for Natural and Periodic Roll Wave Runs 
V. PRESENTATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
A. 
Inlet Condition 

1. 
Smooth and Rough Inlet 

2. 
Drawdown Curves Near Inlet 

B. 
Hydraulic Characteristics of Laboratory Channel 

C. 
Natural Roll Waves 

1. 
General Description 

2. 
Tabulated Basic Data 

3. 
Dimensionle s s Development Relations 

4. 
Frequency Distributions and Wave Shape 

D. 
Periodic Permanent Roll Waves 

1. 130ft Channel 

2. Steep Channel 

E. Observations on Individual Waves 

_{F}_{.} Additional Data  Laboratory and Field 
1. Ghambarian Laboratory Data
2. Field Data
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
Chapter 
Page 

VI. 
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 
130 
_{A}_{.} 
Development of Natural Roll Waves in Terms of Distance Along Channel 

1. 
Average Maximum Depth and Average Period 

_{2}_{.} 
Small Amplitude Roll Waves and the Linear Theory 

3. 
Effect of Channel Slope on Small Amplitude Natural Roll Waves 

4. 
Frequency Distributions 

_{B}_{.} 
Development of Natural Roll Waves in Terms of Wave Period 

_{C}_{.} 
Effect of Inlet on Development of Xatural Roll Waves 

_{D}_{.} 
Motion of Individual Natural Roll Waves 

E. 
Ghambarian and LACFCD Data 
1. Ghambarian Laboratory Data
2. LACFCD Field Data
VII MODIFIED PERIODIC PERMANENT ROLL WAVE THEORY
A. Assumptions in Periodic Permanent Roll Wave Theory
B. Effect of SideWalls and Variable Friction Factor
_{1}_{.} Problem and Method of Solution
2. Discussion of Results
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
Chapter
C. Modified Shock Condition
1. General Shock Condition
Page
170
170
_{2}_{.} Theory Based on Modified Shock Condition
3. Discussion of Modified Theory
_{D}_{.} R eEvaluation of Laboratory Results with Consideration to Effect of Channel Slope
1. Periodic Permanent Waves
2. Natural Roll Waves
VIII. PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DEPTHS IN LARGE CHANNELS
A. Channel Slope Effect
_{B}_{.} Prediction of Maximum Depths in Wide Rectangular Channels with a Constant Slope
_{C}_{.} Prediction of Maximum Depths in Wide Rectangular Channels with a Changing Slope
D. Influence of SideWalls
IX. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
LIST OF SYMBOLS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX I
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
No.
Title
1 View of roll waves in Santa Anita Wash, Arcadia, California, about one mile downstream of inlet, discharge about 195 cfs
2 Graph of dimensionless amplification factor ~T~C~/C,Y,against SOl/F2hn from small amplitude theory
3 Graph of dimensionless wave velocity,
S
o
'n/F2h n
from small amplitude theory
Cry against
4 Definition sketch for periodic permanent roll waves
5 Periodic permanent roll wave watersurface with point of inflection
profile
6
Graphs of solutions for h
max' functions of Froude number,
c
min' F, and SoJhn
h
and
as
from
periodic permanent roll wave theory
7 General view of channel, S
4,
=
128 ft,
no flow
= .08429,
0
8 View of typical joint for channel
Page
No.
20
25
25
9 View of channel showing support bracket and pressure measuring station
10 Drawing of cross section of channel _{a}_{t} a station with a supporting bracket
11
Drawing of inlet box for channel
xi
LIST CF FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure 
Page 

No. 
Title 
No. 
_{1}_{2} View of inlet box and channel near inlet with flow
13 Closeupviewofroughchannel
14 Typical pressure and wire gage record for shock
type roll waves, S = .1192, h station 36, srnoothOinlet
= .210
in.
n ,
_{1}_{5} View of wire gage and pressure transducer with waves approaching
49
50
_{1}_{6} View of 4channel oscillograph recorder with wire gage and pressure transducer
17 Typical calibration of the pressure measuring system
_{5}_{5}
18 Typical wire gage record used to measure normal depths
_{1}_{9} Graph of typical watersurface
profiles near
a smooth inlet for a normal depth of .2 in.
20 Typical smoothinlet and roughinlet development
curves for average maximum depth, _{h} normal depth of .2 in.
at
max _{a}
21 Graphs of watersurface
profiles near inlet of channel
_{2}_{2} Graph of the rough channel relationm
2.03
loglO(r/k)
as a function of k/6, f, in rough channel
using measured friction factors,
72
74
77
23
Graph of friction factors, f, measured in smooth channel as a function of Reynolds number, R
xii
LIST OF FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure 
Page 

No. 
Title 
No. 
24 General view of channel with natural roll waves,
S
o
= .1192,
h
n
= .2lO
in.
25 Side view of roll wave, S station 9498
o
= .08429, h
n
= .208 in.,
26 Development curve for average maximum depth,
h max'
in channel with slope of .050 11
27 Development curve for average maximum depth,
h max'
in channel with slope of .0 8429
28 Development curve for average maximum depth,
, in channel with slope of . 1192
h
max
_{2}_{9} _Development curve for average maximum depth,
h
max
, in rough channel with slope of . 1192
30 Development curve for average wave period, in channel with slope of .05011
3 1
Development curve for average period, in channel with slope of .08429
Tav,
32 Development curve for average period, _{T} in channel with slope of .1192
av'
T
av'
33 Development curves for average minimum depth,
h
m in
, forchannelslopesof.05011,
08429,
.I192
34 Development curves for average wave velocity,
for channel slopes of .O5Oll,
.08429,
. 1192
c
av'
xiii
LIST OF FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure
_{N}_{o}_{*}
Title
35 Development curves for the standard deviation of
for channel slopes of
the maximum depth a _{h}
,
.05011, .08429,. 1192 ^{m}^{a}^{x}
36 Development curves for the standard deviation of
the wave period,
.08429,
.1192
OT'
for channel slopes of .O5O 11,
_{3}_{7} Typical cumulative frequency distributions of maximum depth, h _{m}_{a}_{x}
38 Typical cumulative frequency distributions of
wave period,
_{T}
_{3}_{9} Typical cumulative frequency distributior,~of minimum depth, h _{m}_{i}_{n}
40 Typical cumulative frequency distributions of
wave velocity,
c
41 Typical pressure and wire gage record for small amplitude roll waves, S _{=} .05011,
h = .314 in.,
n
station 36,
srno%th inlet
42 Definition sketch for coordinates of water surface profiles for periodic permanent roll waves
43 Graph of measured and theoretical watersurface
profile for periodic permanent roll waves in 130 ft
channel,
F
= 2.65,
TI
= 1.30,
S
0
= .0194
Page
No.
_{1}_{0}_{0}
101
102
108
44 Graph of experimental and theoretical solutions for hmaxs fiminy and c as functions of dimensionless
wave period Tf and Froude number F, for periodic permanent roll waves
xiv
LIST OF FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure
No.
Title
45 Graphs of measured watersurface periodic permanent roll waves
profiles for
46 Pressurerecordsforatrainof 12shocktype
roll waves at stations 42,
h
54,
= .1192, rough inlet
66,
78,
= .210 in.,
S
o
n
for
47 Pressure records for shocktype roll waves at
stations 60, So = .1192,
66,
72,
78,
smooth inlet,
for _{h}_{,}
_{=} .210 in.,
showing 3 overtakes:
waves 1 and 2 in fig. 47a; waves _{3}
fig. 47b; and waves 5 and 6 in fig. 47c
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{4}
_{i}_{n}
48 Graphof Ghambarian's results for average maximum
depth hmax
of channel &, for channel slope = . 10
as a function of distance from beginning
49 View of inlet to Santa Anita Wash,
Arcadia,
California,
discharge about 210 cfs
50 Graph of average maximum depth
as a function
max of distance from beginning of channel L for Santa Anita Wash
5 1
Graph of average maximum depth
_{a}_{s} _{a} function
max of dimensionless wave period T', for Santa Anita _{'} Wash
Page
No.
119
123
129
52 Development curves for average maximum depth
h max 
for channel slopes of .05011, .08429, and 
.1192 
53 Development curves for small values of average maximum depth j;: for channel slopes of .050 11,
.08429,
and .1l9Pax
136
LIST OF FIGURES (Contld)
Figure 
Page 

No. 
Title 
No. 
54 Graph of relations between average maximum depth
h and dimensionless wave period
periodic max permanent wave theory with Froude number of 3.5, periodic permanent wave experiments in
T ' for :
channel with slope of .05011, and natural wave experiments in channel with slope of .05011
_{5}_{5} Graph of relations between average maximum depth hmax and dimensionless wave period T' for:
periodic permanent wave theory with Froude number of 4.6, periodic permanent wave experiments in channel with slope of .08429, and natural wave experiments in channel with slope of .08429
56 Graph of relations between average maximum depth
hm,,
periodic permanent wave theory with Froude number
and dimensionless wave period T' for:
of 5.6,
periodic permanent wave experiments in
channel with 
slope of . 1192, and natural wave 
experiments 
in channel with slope of _{.} 1192 
57 Graph of relations between average maximum depth _{h}_{m}_{a}_{x} and dimensionless wave period TI for:
periodic permanent wave theory with Froude number of 3. 7, periodic permanent wave experiments in rough channel with slope of _{.} 1192, and natural wave experiments in rough channel with slope of . 1192 148
58 Graph of theoretical period permanent watersurface profiles including effects of variable friction factor _{f} and sidewalls, Froude number = 5.6, dimensionless wave length S i/h = 27.3
o
n
_{5}_{9} Drawing of typical shape of shock front,
based on
169
periodic permanent wave run with F _{=} 5.60,
S
0
=
. 1192,
T'
= 4.25
xvi
LIST GF FIGURES (Cont'd)
Figure
No.
Title
Page
No.
_{6}_{0} Graph of measured geometric properties for shock
6 1
front:
average depth of shock front he,
length of
shock front L.,
and volume of shock front per unit
width h
between depth at crest and depth at trough h
L
J'
ah expressed as a function of ratio
max
e
/h
min
Graph of experimental
(from modified and unmodified theory) for hmax, hmin,
and c as functions of dimensionless wave period TI for
values and theoretical solutions
periodic permanent waves:
channel slope = .05 0 11
Froude number
= 3.5,
^{1}^{7}^{9}
182
_{6}_{2} Graph of experimental values and theoretical solutions
(from modified and unmodified theory) for h
mas' ~'n'
h
T lor
and c as functions of dimensionless wave perio periodic permanent waves : Froude number = 4.6, channel slope = .Of3429
183
63 Graph of experimental values and theoretical solutions (from modified and unmodified theory) for hmax, hmin, and c as functions of dimensionless wave period T' for
periodic permanent waves:
channel slope = .1192
Froude number
= 5.6,
184
_{6}_{4} Graph of experimental values and theoretical solutions (from modified and unmodified theory) for hmaxy _{i}_{n}_{a} and c as functions of dimensionless wave period ~'Yor periodic permanent waves: Froude number = 3.7, rough channel, channel slope = .1192 185
_{6}_{5} Graph of the length of hydraulic jumps L in sloping channels as a function of the Froude num&er at the minimum depth F _{m} _{i}_{n} (from Chow (29))
187
xvii
LIST OF TABLES
Table 
Page 

No. 
Title 
No. 
Sieve Analysis of Sand in Rough Channel
Types of Measurements Obtained for Each Slope and Discharge
Correction Lengths Added to SmoothInlet Development _{R} elations
Hydraulic Characteristics of Laboratory Channel
Basic Data for Natural Roll Waves
Basic Data for Periodic Permanent Roll Waves
Observed Wave Shape for Periodic Permanent Roll Waves
_{V}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{h}_{m}_{a}_{x}_{/}_{h} Waves
for Twelve Consecutive Natural
n
Wave Velocities during Overtaking
Maximum Average Wave Depths After Ghambar ian
Summary of Santa Anita Data
Slopes and Widths for Santa Anita Channel
Observed Dimensionless Wave Lengths of Small Amplitude Natural Roll Waves
Sample Calculations of Maximum Depth for Channel with a Break in Slope
CHAPTER I
INTR ODU'CTION
When water flows down a long and sufficiently steep open channel,
it is found that the depth of flow is not uniform as it would be if the
same channel had a very small slope.
The flow is characterized by
a series of hydraulic bores that extend across the width of the channel
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{a}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{d}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{m}_{.}
Across these bores or shocks the depth
_{o}_{f} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{b}_{r}_{u}_{p}_{t}_{l}_{y}_{.}
Between successive bores the depth of flow
varies gradually.
Waves of this kind are termed roll waves and flows
with such waves are called slug flows by some workers.
shows a typical roll wave train.
Figure
1
In 1904 Cornish (I)+observed and elegantly described roll waves
in prismatic or artificial channels which is the type of channel in
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{u}_{s}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{o}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{d}_{.}
However they have also been observed
in a superglacial stream (2) which indicates that roll waves are not
restricted to artificial channels.
The maximum depth of flow in a roll wave train must necessarily
be greater than the normal or undisturbed depth.
Thus a prismatic
channel designed to convey a discharge at normal depth, may not be
capable of conveying this same discharge with roll waves present
without some of the water leaving the confines of the channel.
A
dramatic example of this was observed by Holmes (3) in a channel
=:Numbers in parentheses refer to publications listed in the Bibliography.
Fig.
1.
Negative No.
7804
View of roll waves in Santa Anita Wash,
Arcadia, California,
discharge about 195 cfs
about one mile down
stream of inlet,
that had water overtopping the 8 ft side walls when the discharge was
estimated to be less than 25 per cent of the design discharge.
Thus
the practical need for understanding the mechanics of roll waves is
clear.
In general one would like to be able to predict whether a channel
will exhibit roll waves for any particular discharge.
Furthermore,
if roll waves are to be present,
it is desirable to know where they will
start, and how high they will be at any section of the channel.
From
the present knowledge (1967) of roll waves,
one can determine the
necessary conditions for roll waves to exist.
However the sufficient
conditions (the length of channel), and the dimensions of a developing
roll wave train have not been defined.
The purpose of this investigation is to describe the geometric
properties of roll wave trains that develop naturally from a turbulent
flow at normal depth in a wide rectangular
channel on a constant slope.
This was done by means of experiments in a steep laboratory channel
where roll waves formed naturally.
Some analytical work also aided
in the understanding of the basic phenomenon.
In Chapter I1 the previous work on roll waves is summarized.
In Chapter I11 theories for small amplitude perturbations on a uniform
flow, and large amplitude periodic permanent roll wave trains are
presented.
Chapter IV describes the laboratory experiments per
formed, the results of which are in Chapter V.
In Chapter VI these
results are discussed and compared with theory where possible.
The large amplitude theory is examined closely in Chapter VII
and modified to substantially improve the agreement between theory
and experiment.
In Chapter VIII methods for utilizing the results
of this study to determine maximum depths for roll wave trains are
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{.}
stated.
In Chapter IX the primary results and conclusions are
CHAPTER Il
PREVIOUS STUDIES
This chapter summarizes the significant analytical and experi
mental work that has been done on roll waves.
First, the basic
differential equations that are used in all of the analytical studies to
be discussed will be considered.
11A
BASIC EQUATIONS
The cantinuity equation for a flow of an incompressible fluid in
an open channel is,
At + (uA)~= 0
_{(}_{2}_{.}_{1}_{)}
where A = A(x, t) is the crosssectional area of the fluid, u = u(x, t) is
the average velocity (Q/A, where Q = Q(x,t) is the discharge in volume
of fluid per unit of time) over A, x is the coordinate along the channel,
t is time, and the subscripts x and t denote partial derivatives with
respect to these variables.
Flows with roll waves are characterized by typical horizontal
dimensions (wave lengths) that are large compared to typical vertical
dimensions (water depths), so that the wellknown shallowwater
equations are valid.
For a turbulent flow in an inclined channel, the
integrated (over the crosssection A) form of the momentum equation
is,
In this equation:
_{S}
0
= sin
8,
8 = angle of inclination of channel;
h = h(x, t) = depth of flow in cross section;
g = gravitational constant (32. 16 ft/ sec2);
u
1 u2 dA = velocity distribution coefficient;
p
a=
AU~JA
P
= u
(x, y, z, t) = fluid velocity at the point (y, z) in the
P cross section A;
p = mass density of fluid;
= 7 (x,t) = shear stress in the xdirection
0
averaged over
the channel walls and bottom; and
r = r (x, t) = A/ (wetted perimeter of
channel) = hydraulic radius.
Equation 2. 2 can be derived from the Navier Stokes equations by
assuming that the predominate motion is in the xdirection,
and thus
for example the term v
t is small compared to u
t '
Equation 2.2
implies that the pressure distribution in a cross section is hydrostatic.
A particularly lucid derivation of this equation has been given by
Keulegan and Patterson _{(}_{4}_{)}_{.}
In all of the studies concerning roll waves,
.r
0
has been evaluated
by using a relation derived from uniform flow considerations.
A
uniform flow is one in which all partial derivatives
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{x}_{}_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
are zero,
a /a x
E
0,
and by definition the depth of flow for a uniform
flow is the normal depth, h
there results,
n
.
For example, from the Chezy equation
where u
n is the average velocity (Q/A) for uniform flow, and f is the
DarcyWeisbach friction factor. It has been assumed that this same
relation is valid for unsteady,
gradually varied flow, where u
n
is
replaced by u. For uniform flows f varies with the Reynolds number
and/or the relative roughness.
In some roll wave studies it has been
assumed that f does not vary in the xdirection and is equal to its
_{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{f}_{l}_{o}_{w}_{.}
Fowever in cases where f has not been held
fixed, its variation in the xdirection has been assumed to have the
same dependence on the Reynolds number (smooth channel) or relative
roughness (rough channel) as it does for uniform flows.
11B
CRITERIA FOR
UNSTABLE FLOW
The majority of the literature on roll waves is concerned with
the determination of the necessary conditions under which roll waves
can exist.
The approach has been to investigate the stability of a
uniform flow on a constant slope by imposing small freesurface
perturbations on it.
If these perturbations increase in amplitude as
time increases, the flow is said to be unstable.
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e}
small amplifying perturbations would eventually result in the clearly
visible large amplitude roll waves.
_{(}_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{1}_{)}
Jeffreys (5) considered a wide rectangular channel,
uniform
velocity distribution (a = I), and an unvarying friction factor (f).
For
this case, the condition for an unstable flow was that the Froude
number F,
(F = u
n
/
,
hn = normal
depth) be greater than 2.
Since Jeffreys,
many others (6,7,8,9) have derived criteria of
varying degrees of generality.
Dressler and Pohle (7) considered
_{a} _{w}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{l}_{,}
m
relation (T~= const.
u
n
/h
a = 1, and a general power law resistance
_{)} Craya (6) considered a channel of
arbitrary shape, a = 1, and a power law resistance.
Iwasa (8)
developed a general expression for the critical Froude number
applicable for arbitrary channel shape, _{f}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{l}_{a}_{w}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{.}
cr
(F
)
Using Iwasa's result for a rectangular channel of any width,
Koloseus
(9) has evaluated values of F
cr
by using the logarithmic resistance law
for both a smooth and a rough boundary.
From all of these studies there results F
values which in
cr
general depend on the channel shape, frictional resistance law, and
the value of a.
The value of F
C r
is 2.0
for a wide rectangular channel
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a}_{n} _{u}_{n}_{v}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{f}_{.}
If f is evaluated from the logarithmic resistance
law, Fcr for a wide rectangular channel (rough or smooth) depends
slightly on f,
but is about
1.6 for
f
= .02.
_{F}_{c}_{r} _{i}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{s} _{a} _{i}_{s}
increased, 
and also increases as the rectangular channel becomes 

narrower. 
In general, 
channels of other shapes, 
such as circular or 
triangular, have a higher Fcr than a rectangular channel.
A flow with a value of F considerably higher than Fcr may not
exhibit visible roll waves.
This fact was noted by Montouri (10) in
his investigation of field data collected in Europe and Russia.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s}
led him to develop a criterion for predicting formation of roll waves
(but not their dimensions), involving not only the value of _{F}
cr '
but
also the length of the channel.
_{F}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,}
_{o}_{n}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
as the discharge and hence normal depth increases, the length required
for visible roll waves to develop also increases.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{c} _{o}_{b}_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{}
tion is most important in studying the development of roll waves.
11C
LARGE AMPLITUDE WAVE STUDIES
Prior to 1940 Thomas conducted experiments on artificially
produced periodic permanent roll waves (to be considered in Chapter
111)in a laboratory channel.
This study is referred to in a paper by
Thomas (11) but personal communication with him revealed that his
results were never published and have since been lost.
_{H}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{h}_{e}
did state that his experiments gave a satisfactory check on the
theoretical analysis of periodic permanent waves.
In 1954 laboratory work on roll waves was done at Kyoto Uni
versity in a smooth channel 36 feet long.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k} _{w}_{a}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o}
in a later paper by Ishihara et al.
(12).
By contacting personnel at
Kyoto,
it was found that the data taken were not sufficient to describe
the growth of roll waves as a function of the distance along the
channel.
In fact for many runs depths were not measured.
In a recent paper (1965), Ghambarian (13) discusses some
laboratory work that has been done in the Armenian Soviet Socialist
Republic. The channel slope varied from S
= . 10 to
0
.86,
and the
length from 10 m to 60 m.
Roll waves developed naturally and
measurements of maximum depth, wave length, wave velocity, 
and 
wave period were taken at various stations along the channel. 
Fre 
quency distributions of these quantities were measured as a function
of distance along the channel.
Unfortunately the results of maximum depth vs.
distance for all
slopes are compressed into one small graph and only the experimental
relations are shown without the numerical data that were used to
derive these relations.
However in the paper for S
= .10 by
0
Ghambarian and Mayilian (14) the experimental points were taken from
_{a} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{.}
These data, along with some extracted from the 1965 paper
will be presented in Chapter V.
More information concerning these
experiments will be presented also.
In 1965 the Los Angeles County Flood Control District conducted
a field study in Santa Anita Wash located in Arcadia,
California.
_{D}_{a}_{t}_{a}
on the roll waves that developed were taken and will be presented in
Chapter V along with a description of the experiments.
The first attempt to describe large amplitude roll waves
analytically was by Thomas (11).
He considered a periodic train of
waves of constant shape and velocity (permanent).
_{B}_{y} _{p}_{i}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}
two gradually varied watersurface profiles for unsteady flow, _{h}_{e}
managed to construct a wave profile similar to observed
r 011 waves.
Dressler (15), using Thomas's basic ideas, was able to find closed
form solutions for a wide rectangular channel with an unvarying
friction factor.
In Chapter 111 the procedure for constructing these
periodic permanent solutions will be given.
11D
FRICTION FACTORS IN UNSTABLE FLOWS
When the Froude number for a flow is greater than F
the flow
cr Some investigators have found that in unstable
_{i}_{s} _{s}_{a}_{i}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} _{u}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.}
flows the friction factor measured in a reach of uniform flow is a
function of the Froude number as well as the relative roughness (rough
boundary) or Reynolds number (smooth boundary).
found this Froude number effect in a rough channel,
found it in a smooth channel.
Koloseus (16)
and Rouse (17)
In the course of the present investigation friction factors were
measured in two smooth channels:
a 130 ft tiltable channel, and a
_{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{p} _{a}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{m} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{l}_{.}
The Froude number effect noted above was
not detected in either of these channels.
These results for the 130 ft
channel are included in a published discussion of Rouse's paper (17),
which is in Appendix I.
The hydraulic characteristics of the steep
aluminum channel are given in Chapter V.
I
E
SUlMMAR Y
After presenting the basic equations used for roll wave investi
gations, the significant studies that have been done on roll waves were
_{d}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{u}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{d}_{.}
The criterion for unstable flow can be expressed by
a
critical Froude number which in general depends on the channel shape,
frictional resistance law, and the velocity distribution in a cross
section.
Some analytical work on nonlinear waves has been done for
a periodic permanent wave train.
The only available laboratory data
on roll wave development were discussed briefly and will be presented
in Chapter V,
along with some available field data.
CHAPTER 111
ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION
The laboratory results to be presented in Chapter V show that
the geometric properties of roll waves (i. e.
maximum and minimum
depth, wave length, etc. ) are not only functions of distance along the
channel, but vary from one wave to another at a fixed station.
This
was observed both for the small amplitude waves with a continuous
water surface (which occurred downstream of the uniform flow and
upstream of the shock waves), and the large amplitude shock waves.
Thus a complete theory for describing natural roll waves must be able
to predict the frequency distributions of the geometric properties as
_{a} _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{.}
Needless to say, no such theory exists.
In this chapter two theories are presented for periodic wave
trains; one for small amplitude sinusoidal waves,
and the other for
large amplitude permanent waves with shocks.
Because of the
periodicity assumption, it is clear from the above description that
these theories do not directly relate to natural roll waves.
However
it will be shown in Chapter VII that the large amplitude theory is at
least indirectly related to natural roll waves in terms of average
values of the geometric properties.
Periodic permanent waves were
produced in the laboratory channel and in Chapter VI their character 
istics will be compared with the theory.
Also in Chapter VI it will
be shown that some trends derived from the small amplitude theory
agree with the observations on the small amplitude natural waves.
111A 
SMALL AMPLITUDE THEORY 
1. 
Statement and Solution of Problem 
Jeffreys (5) imposed a small sinusoidal perturbation on a uniform
flow in a wide rectangular channel with an unvarying friction factor.
The result was that for a value of _{F} of two the disturbance was
neutrally stable, or its amplitude neither increased or decreased with
time.
In fact all of the work on stability criteria discussed in
Chapter I1 was concerned with finding this neutrally stable condition.
The object of this investigation,
as stated above, is to study
the development of natural roll wave trains from a uniform flow.
This
development only occurs if the uniform flow is unstable and therefore
the growth rates of small perturbations for Froude numbers above 2.0
are of interest.
For a wide rectangular channel (r = h), a = 1, and the simplifying
assumptions outlined in Chapter 11, equations 2.1 and 2.2 become,
after using the relation,
 u2 /F2 gh),
which results from assuming that f does not vary from its value at
uniform flow.
To render these equations dimensionless the following
dimensionless quantities are introduced:
x'
t'
H
u
= x/X,
1 = wave length;
= u
n
= h/hn,
t/1, un = normal velocity (q/h n );
h
n
= normal depth; and
= ulun.
Equations 3. 1 and 3.2
can now be written as,
where F is the Froude number for uniform flow (F = un/Gn).
Equations 3.8 and 3.9 are now linearized by assuming that the
deviations from the undisturbed or uniform flow condition are small.
This assumption is expressed as,
U=l+U1 
(3.10) 
H=ltq 
(3.11) 
where U' and q are the perturbation quantities which are small com
pared to unity.
It is further assumed that the derivatives of U' and q
are also small compared to unity.
Substituting equations 3. 10 and
3. 11 into
3. 8 and 3.9,
and neglecting products of any two small terms
(i. e. U'U'x,, Uf\,,qUlxl, etc. ), yields two linear equations,
The quantity U' is then eliminated from equations 3. 12 and 3. 13 to give
a second order linear partial differential equation for q ,
A sinusoidal perturbation can be expressed as the real part of,
which is equivalent to,
rl
'*
= Toe
'it'
exp [i 2a (xi  crtf) ]
where:
_{'}_{Q}_{o} = the amplitude at t' = 0;
C = C
r
tic. dimensionless complex velocity;
1
C = dimensionless phase velocity of the perturbation
r
q ; and
Ci = dimensionless number pertaining to the growth rate.
To convert the amplitude of the perturbation (qoe?ITCit') from a function
of time to a function of distance, the expression,
is used, where 4,is the dimensional distance over which the wave
train travels in the time t, and c is the dimensional phase velocity.
Using the expression,
C
r
= clu,
(3.18)
and equations 3.5 and 3.17,
an expression for t' can be written as,
Then equation 3.16
can be expressed as,
where Y is defined by,
Y is a dimensionless wave length,
and the term (2nCi/CrY) will be
referred to as the amplification factor.
The problem is reduced to finding a solution for the amplifica
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{C}_{r}_{.}
When these two quantities are known, equation
3. 20 shows that the behavior of q will be known.
To obtain the
expressions involving C. and C
1
r'
equation 3. 14 which results in,
equation 3. 15 is substituted into
Separating real and imaginary parts of this equation leads to,
These two equations give,
These expressions show that the quantities C
and C. are functions of
r
1
Y and F,
and thus the amplification factor can also be expressed in
terms of Y and F.
The functional relationships for the amplification
factor and the phase velocity were determined numerically for values
of F of 2.5,
3.5,
and 5.0,
and are shown in figures 2 and 3.
The neutrally stable solution occurs when the amplitude does not
change with time which requires the value of _{C}_{.} to vanish.
1
equations 3.25 and 3.26 there results,
Then from
which was the solution obtained by Jeffreys (5).
For small values of Y (Y << 1) equations 3.23 and 3.24 become,
Equation 3.30
requires that Cr equal unity,
or that C. is of the same
1
order of magnitude as Y.
If
C
r is unity, equation 3.29 shows that Ci
must be imaginary which it is not.
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{C}_{.} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d}
1
equation 3.29 is further simplified to,
from which there results,
Then equation 3.24 yields,
This asymptotic solution for the amplification factor is shown on
figure 2.
For large values of Y (Y>> 1) equations 3.23 and 3.24 become,
and
from which results,
and
This asymptotic solution is shown on figure 2.
2. Discussion of Solution The solution for q is given by equation 3.20 where the
amplification factor and phase velocity are shown in figures 2 and 3,
respectively.
At a fixed time t 2 0, the solution describes a train of
sinusoidally shaped waves,
each wave having the same amplitude,
phase velocity,
and wave length.
Furthermore this train of waves
extends indefinitely along the channel because x was not restricted in
_{a}_{n}_{y} _{w}_{a}_{y}_{.}
As t increases,
the amplitude of each wave increases ex
ponentially (if F > 2), but according to equation 3.20 the wave shape
and phase velocity remain the same.
Amplitudes of natural roll waves increase as the waves travel
along the channel,
and ultimately shock waves are formed.
Therefore
it is clear that at a fixed time the amplitudes of natural roll waves in
crease in
the downstream direction, whereas in the theory it was
assumed that all waves had the same amplitude at a fixed time.
It is
likely that a theory in which the amplitudes of the waves increased in
the xdirection (at any given time) would predict different growth rates
than the periodic theory considered here.
Boundary conditions other than the initial conditions (periodic in
x)used here would be required to obtain _{a} better model for natural roll
waves,
although it is not obvious what these might be.
In general this
would lead to a more difficult problem than was considered above,
because of the additional dependence on x.
However the above theory
is useful for obtaining at least qualitative re sults concerning the
effect of wave length and Froude number on the growth rate.
The growth rate will be defined as the rate of increase of the
maximum depth (or the amplitude) with respect to distance along the
channel.
From equation 3.20 the growth rate becomes,
where q
max
is the amplitude,
7 max
qo exp [(z=c./c1

r Y)(s~/F~)(.L/~~)]
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{3}_{9}_{)}
which varies with 4, .
Equation 3.3 shows that the term S
/F~is
0
related to the friction factor which varies very little with slope or
Froude number in a given channel.
Therefore it suffices to examine
the amplification factor to determine the effect of wave length and
Froude number on the growth rate.
From figure 2 the growth rate is seen to increase as the wave
length decreases and essentially to attain its maximum value at values
of Y such that the shallow water theory is still valid.
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}
with F = 5 the maximum amplification factor is reached at about
Y
= . 1,
so that the value of k/hn is about 50 if the slope is .05 which
is a practical situation.
The occurrence of _{a} wave length with a
maximum growth rate is usually interpreted to mean that this will be
the observed wave length in a situation where disturbances of all wave
lengths are amplifying.
In this case one would expect to observe any
wave length corresponding to the small values of Y
of figure 2 are almost horizontal.
where the curves
Figure 2 shows that the growth rate increases as the Froude
number increases.
Transferring this result to natural roll waves, it
is not unreasonable to expect that roll waves will appear at increasingly
shorter distances from the beginning of the channel as the Froude
number is increased, providing the initial disturbances are of the
same size.
By considering a problem where q was prescribed as a function
of time at the entrance to a channel,
Lighthill and Whitham (18) found
the solution valid near the wave front of the disturbance initiated at
the entrance.
The amplitude of their solution is precisely the same
as the amplitude of the above solution for small values of Y (equations
3.33 and 3.39).
Although the full significance of this is not clear,
it
presumably serves as a check on the present work.
111B.
LARGE AMPLITUDE PERIODIC PERMANENT ROLL WAVE THEORY
The method of solution presented here is essentially that used
by Dressler (15) except that the introduction of the normal depth into
the theory is new.
_{1}_{.} Statement and Solution of Problem
A wide rectangular channel with a friction factor that does not
vary from its value at uniform flow is considered (equation _{3}_{.} 2).
_{A}
permanent wave is one whose shape and velocity does not change with
time or position.
Thus for a permanent wave the t variable can be
eliminated by introducing a coordinate system that moves with the
wave at the velocity of the wave.
Such a coordinate for a wave travel
ing in the +x direction is X = x  ct, where c is the constant wave
velocity.
Thus for a permanent wave, u(x, t) = u(X), and h(x,t)= h(X).
The derivatives are transformed by,
Equations 3. 1 and 3.2 reduce to two ordinary differential
equations in u and h.
Combining to eliminate u gives,
_{d}_{h}_{/}_{d}_{X} _{=} _{S}_{o} h3  (ch  K)~/g~~
h3
 h3
C
where 

K 
= 
(c 
 
u) h 
= constant 
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{4}_{2}_{)} 

and 
This definition of h
will prove to be very convenient.
C
to hmin
The shock condition which relates hmax
is now con
_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{d} _{(}_{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{4}_{)}_{.}
It is assumed that the thickness of the shock is
sufficiently small so that the xcomponent of its weight is small com
pared to the pressure forces,
the
pressure
distribution
_{i}_{s}
hydrostatic, and the velocity distribution is uniform (a = 1).
These
assumptions will be discussed in Chapter _{V}_{I}_{I}_{,} with the _{.}_{a}_{i}_{d} of the
experimental results.
Equating the pressure forces across the shock
to the net momentum flux through the shock results in,
This is a familiar form for wave velocities of shallow water waves.
This can also be written,
Fig. 
4. 
Definition sketch for periodic permanent r 011 waves 
Fig. 
5. 
Periodic permanent roll wave watersur  face profile with point of inflection 
Setting c equal to zero in equation 3.45 gives the expression commonly
used for a hydraulic jump on a horizontal channel.
Thus the shock
considered here can be regarded as a moving hydraulic jump.
Using the expression for _{K} and the definition of h
3.45
can be written,
hmax /hmin = 112 [Jl + 8 (hc/hmin)3
1
From equation 3.46 it is seen that when h
value of hmax/h
hmin'
is also unity.
min h _{r}_{n}_{a}_{x} is required to be less
/h
c Furthermore if h
equals unity, the
is less than
tnin
c
which is meaningless.
than hmin
Therefore,
Solving equation 3.46
for h
rnax
/hc gives,
hmax /hc = 112 [4hmin /hc )2 + 8 hc /hmin
from which it is clear that,
 hminihc]
Therefore h
c
h
rnax
/hc _{z}
1
is in the closed interval from h
hmin <hc sh _{r}_{n}_{a}_{x}
min to hmax ^{o}^{r} ^{1}
(3.48)
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{)}
Now if the wave train is assumed periodic,
there is only one
value of hmin
max must exist at some section between successive shocks on the gradually
and h
_{f}_{o}_{r} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}_{s}_{.}
Equation 3.50 insures that h
c
varying water
surface.
However equation 3.41 requires the value of
dh/dx to approach infinity at h = h
unless the numerator vanishes at
C
h = h
C
.
A periodic solution with dhldx infinite at hc would appear as
in figure 5, where h
is a point of inflection.
C
However a point of
inflection requires d2h/dX2 to vanish at h = _{h}_{c} _{'} which Dressler showed
to be impossible.
The correct solution is one in which the numerator of equation
3.41 vanishes at h = h
, which results in a smooth water
C
surface,
concave upwards.
Setting the numerator of equation 3.41 to zero for
h
= hc,
and using equation 3.43 to eliminate K,
results in an expression
for _{C}_{,}
clm
C
=
1 t
F,
(3.51)
Both the numerator and denominator of equation 3.41 are cubic
algebraic expressions with hc as one of the three roots.
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{m}_{o}_{n}
root can be factored out and equation 3.41 can be written as,
where an asterisk denotes division by h
C
.
The dimensionless
quantities h*
a
and ht are the other two roots,
besides hc (or h:
= l),
of the numerator.
By equating the numerator of equation 3.52 to that
of equation 3.41,
and using equation 3.43 to eliminate K and equation
3. 51 to evaluate c, there results,
where the positive square root is used for h:k
a '
root for h::
b '
so that h:k a
> h::
b*
and the negative square
Equation 3. 52 can be integrated,
results, 

and 
X4 = X/hc 
and with X
= 0
at h
= h
C
there
This relation between X:g and h* has the general shape shown in
figure 4.
Evaluating equation 3.54 at h* max
and h* min
gives an
expression involving the wave length,
where
K,
h:::
= In h* max min
h*
a
+:;
a
K,
h :::
hb"
= In h:; m ax
min hg
In a particular problem the channel slope, So, and the Froude
number at uniform flow,
F, will be known.
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{h}_{i}_{p}
between X* and h::
can be found from equation 3.54.
_{H}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{o}
determine h:; _{m}_{a}_{x} _{'} equation 3.56
shows that S
o
X*
and h::: min
must also
be known, which requires two additional relations involving A:;,
h::: _{m}_{a}_{x} _{'} and h* mine
The shock condition ,equation 3.46,
provides a
relation between the quantity h:k max
/h*: min
and hkin.
Therefore a unique
solution exists between h* and X* (including h* max
and hkin),
for a
given S
0
and F, if the value of S
0
1::' is also fixed.
The above solution
is essentially the form of the solution that Dressler
(15) presented.
The above solution is in terms of the depth h
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{b}_{e}
C
found from the values of S
and F (assumed to be given).
0
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}
it is desirable to have the solution in terms of some known depth.
The
most significant depth is the undisturbed or normal depth (h
n
_{)}
There
fore an expression for h* n _{=} hn/hc will be found.
_{W}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{h}_{*} n
known, the solution can be expressed in terms of h _{n}_{*}
From the definition of the discharge per unit width and equation
3.42,
The average discharge over one wave length,
discharge over all waves,
_{i}_{s} then,
If the average depth is defined as,
then equation 3,59 is,
and thus the average
The normal depth depends only on the average discharge and Froude
number as can be seen from,
An expression for h:: n
is found by eliminating q
av
between equations
3.6 1 and 3.62,
using equation 3.5 1 to evaluate c, and using equation
3.43 to evaluate K.
The result is,
h .,312
n
= [(l
+ F) h,Tv 
11 IF
(3.63)
The final step is to find h::
.
av
First equation 3.60 is rewritten,
h::
^{a}^{v}
h::
= 1/~" max h:g(X:$)dX% h* rnin
or when equation 3.52 is used to evaluate dX*,
s ~*h::
=
o av
This can also be written as,
h*
t h* + 1
min max h+ h:K2 (h:$h*) (h*hg)
h*
a
dh*
S Xhh::
^{o}
^{a}^{v}
= J~'~~
h:k
rnin
which is in a convenient form for integration by parts.
_{P}_{e}_{r}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{g}
this integration,
and using equation 3.56 to evaluate SOX*, leads to,
From the above analysis it can be shown that for a given value of
F and Soh/hn, the wave shape and velocity are uniquely determined.
Equations 3.63 and 3.67
show that,
h::
n
= f,
(F, h* max'
h% min
)
where fl
is some function.
From equation 3.56,
S
0
l/hc = fa (F, hLax,
h ::
_{,}_{i}_{n}
)
Dividing equation 3.69 by 3.68 gives,
(3.69)
Sol/hn = fa (F, h:: max'
h+ min
1
(3.70)
The shock condition, equation 3.46,
and hkin,
gives a relation between h:: max
h ::
max
= f
4
(h*
min
)
(3. 71)
For given values of F and S h/h
n'
found from the last two equations.
o
convert these to h
/h
rnax
n
and h
min
h:: max
and hx: min
can in principle be
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{3}_{.}_{6}_{8} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o}
/hn.
Then the value
of h* n from
equation 3.68 is applied to equation 3.51 to get c/mn . _{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}
it is correct to write,
The wave shape can be expressed as,
_{(}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{3}_{.}_{5}_{4}_{)}_{,}
Dividing this by equation 3.6 8 gives _{,}
h/h
n
=
f
9
(F, hx: max
, h
min'
S o X/h
n
)
(3.74)
But equations 3.70 and 3. 7 1 show that h* max
and
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