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Marine black carbon emissions redu

technologies

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted a work plan to address the impact of blac
including potential reduction measures. In response to the IMO's need, the International Council on C
continue collect data on emissions abatement strategies and technologies for marine black carbon. Th
technologies recognized by the ICCT for their potential black carbon reduction. The data was obtained
by interviews of government and industry leaders.

The Emissions Control Technologies tab contains the list of all the strategies and technologies with th
BC LEVEL- Classification of strategies and technologies where Level I = 0-49% Black carbon reductions
FUEL PENALTY- The addition fuel needed to operate a strategy or technology. Values in () are where fu
ECA EQUIVALENT- The technologies recognized by the IMO as measures that are at least as effective i
Annex VI.
POTENTIAL ECA EQUIVALENT- The technologies recognized by the ICCT as having the potential to be a
been certified by the IMO as ECA equivalent.
LIFETIME- (measured in years) the average time the technology works within its operational paramete
PROVIDERS- List of manufacturers of the technology.
SOURCES- The citation for information gathered; numbers correspond to the list in the Sources tab.

The Product Knowledge tab lists the providers and their technologies as well as links to their websites

This database will be continuously updated, as more data is made available. If you have any additions
haifeng@theicct.org with Marine Black Carbon Database in the subject line.
emissions reduction strategies and

o address the impact of black carbon from international shipping on the Arctic
e International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) has collected and will
for marine black carbon. This database contains these strategies and
tion. The data was obtained from a survey published literature and collaborated

es and technologies with the following column headers:


9% Black carbon reductions, Level II = 50-74%, and Level III = 75-100%.
gy. Values in () are where fuel consumption is reduced.
hat are at least as effective in SOX emissions reductions as required by MARPOL

having the potential to be as effective in SOX emissions reductions but have not

hin its operational parameters.

he list in the Sources tab.

ell as links to their websites.

e. If you have any additions or corrections, please email us at ray@theicct.org or


e.
Emissions Reductions Strategies an

TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY BC LEVEL BC REDUCTIONS


TYPE NAME

After-Treatment DieselFilter
Particulate III 95-99%

Sources 8,23,27,32 8,23,27,32

Hybrid Wet
After-Treatment I 45-50%
Scrubber
Sources 1,6,7,22, 29,41 22

After-Treatment Closed Loop Wet I 45-50%


Scrubber
Sources 7,10,22,41 22
Open Loop Wet
After-Treatment I 45-50%
Scrubber
Sources 7,26,22,41 22

After-Treatment Dry Scrubber I 45-50%


Sources 14,15,17,22 22
Selective
After-Treatment Catalytic I >35%
Reduction
Sources 3,5,10,16 3

Efficiencies Slow Steaming 0


Sources 23 *According to current research (Lack etal.), black carbon emissions
Exhaust Gas
Efficiencies 0
Recirculation
Sources 5,10,20
Electric
Efficiencies 0
Propulsion
Sources 25,36,37
Fuel Alternative LNG III ~99%

Sources 10,12,17,19,34,35,38,41

Fuel Alternative CNG III ~99%

Sources 31,35

Fuel Alternative Biofuels 0


Sources 13,26,29 Test conducted with ultra-low sulfur fuel as baseline and blend.

Fuel Alternative Low-Sulphur I 30-80%

Sources 2,5,8,11,22,23 23

Fuel Alternative Fuel Cell III 100%


Sources 9,40

Fuel Alternative Nuclear Power III 100%


Sources 32

In-Engine De-rating I up to 20%


Sources 22
High Fuel
In-Engine Injection II 40-80%
Pressure
Sources 4,10

In-Engine Emulsified Fuel I 70-85%

Sources 8,10,43

In-Engine Slide Valve 0


Sources 43
ductions Strategies and Technologies

SOx REDUCTIONS NOx REDUCTIONS PM REDUCTIONS CO2 REDUCTIONS FUEL PENALTY

70-95% 1-6%

8,23,32 8,23,32

>98% >80% 0.5-2%

1,6,7,29,41 1,6,7,29,41 1,6,7,29,41

>97% 90% 65% 77% 0.5-1%


7,10,41 7,10,41 7,10,41 7,10,41 7,10,41

>98% >65% 60 76.5-77.1% 1-2%


7,26,41 7,26 26,41 26 7,26,41

>98% >80% up to 15% 0.15-2%


14,15 14,15 14,15,17 15,17

up to 90% 2%

3,5,10,16 3,5,10,16

22% 72%
ch (Lack etal.), black carbon emissions 23 23

19% up to 70% 40-58%


20 5,10,20 20

60% 60% (15-60%)


36,37 36,37 25,36,37
>99% >80% 99% up to 20%

>99% >80% 99% ~10%

100% 85% 25% 85%


w sulfur fuel as baseline and blend.

>95% 12% >86% 0

2,5,8,11,22,23 2,5,8,11,22,23 2,5,8,11,22,23

100% 100% 100% 100%

100% 100% 100% 100%

>50% >50%

20-50% 5-8% (5-10%)

up to 30% 20-50% 0.5-2.5%

8,10 8,43 8,43

~25% 10-50% 0-2%


FUEL TYPE ECA POTENTIAL LIFETIME (YRS)
EQUIVALENT ECA
EQUIVALENT

MDO/HFO NO NO 20
(test)
8,23,27,32

HFO YES YES 12.5-15

1,6,7,29,41

HFO YES YES 12.5-15


7,10,41

HFO YES YES 12.5-15


7,26,41

HFO YES YES 12.5-15


17

MDO NO NO 15

3,5,10,16

ANY NO NO

HFO NO NO 30
5,10,20

ANY NO NO 30
36,37
NG NO YES

NG NO YES

BXX NO YES

MDO/MGO/U NO YES
LSD

ANY NO NO 5

n/a NO NO variable

ANY NO NO lifetime

ANY NO NO 30

MDO NO NO

ANY NO NO 3
DESCRIPTION

The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an after-treatment appliance installed downstream of the engine that filters e
through a substrate containing channels in which solid particles are collected.

Hybrid Wet Scrubbers incorporate the components of both the open and closed loop systems offering the choice o
based on the surrounding water quality and discharge restrictions.

In Closed Loop Wet Scrubbers, freshwater is supplied from on-board tanks and chemical treated with caustic soda f
then separated from the sludge and re-circulated.

Open Loop Wet Scrubbers pump seawater in from the surrounding waters to clean the exhaust gas before being
remove sludge then discharged overboard.

Dry Scrubbing systems use lime granular to react with the floe gas resulting in the production of gypsum. No liquid
associated with this method.

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is an after-treatment process where exhaust gas is treated with ammonia or ur
pure nitrogen and water to be expelled from the stack.

In Slow Steaming, ship operators decrease the engine load as a way to reduce fuel consumption and total air pollu
standard of operations or only within designated vessel reduction zones.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a method where some of the exhaust gas is re-directed back to the engine cylind
to reduce the amount of excess oxygen that can cause high emissions.

Electric Propulsion achieves greater efficiency and lower emissions by reducing the loss of power from on-board en
propeller.
Liquefied Natural Gas is a hydrocarbon fuel consisting primarily of methane and other gases such as ethane and pro
results in lower particulate emissions.

Compressed Natural Gas is a hydrocarbon fuel consisting primarily of methane and other gases such as ethane an
which results in lower particulate emissions.

Biofuels such as biodiesel are produced from plant or animal-based oil feedstocks. Drop-in biodiesel can commonly
with diesel, which can reduce emissions abatement potential.

Low-sulphur fuels or distillates are more refined oils with up to 0.1% sulphur.

Fuel cells improve the fuel efficiency of ship by reducing the loss of fuel to electric efficiency. They require pure hy
some light hydrocarbon such as natural gas to provide a source of hydrogen.

In Nuclear Power, nuclear fission results in heat that powers turbines which in turn power ships' s propellers and g

Retuning is the reconfiguration of the engine's optimal load by removing a turbocharger. This process results in i
combustion efficiency by increasing the pressure in the remaining turbochargers.

High fuel injection pressure (e.g. common rail) is a strategy designed to increase the combustion performance of a
optimizing the time and duration of fuel injection. Common rail is an in-engine component that is now standard
engines and is also an available retrofit.

Emulsified fuels are emulsions of water, fuel oil, and or additives that achieve lower combustion temperatures and
combustion.

Slide valves reduce the uncontrolled evaporation of fuel oil during the fuel injection process, resulting in more c
combustion.
LIMITATIONS PROVIDERS

Incompatible with high sulfur fuel, High Akasaka Diesels Limited, MAN Diesel &
backpressure Turbo

Alfa Laval Aalborg, Belco, Clean Marine,


Large space required Green Tech Marine, Hamworthy

Tanks space, Storage and Handling of hazardous Alfa Laval, Belco, Wartsila
material

Anti-fouling required, Restricted uptake and Belco, Ecospec, Marine Exhaust


discharge Solutions, Wartsila

Dry Storage and Handling of reactants and products Couple Systems

Incompatible with high sulfur fuel (formation of Canopus Marine Solutions, Couple
ammonia sulfates) Systems, MAN Diesel & Turbo

Low combustion temperatures

Must run on low sulfur fuels, Only available for 2 MAN Diesel & Turbo, Wartsila
stroke engines

ABB, GE, Imtech, MAN Diesel & Turbo,


High power range limitations STADT
Limited Infrastructure and Fuel, Expensive MAN Diesel & Turbo, Wartsila, Rolls-
investment, Methane Slip, IMO Type C Tank, Royce
Training

Limited Infrastructure and Fuel, Expensive


investment, Methane Slip, IMO Type C Tank,
Training

Fuel and bunkering infrastructure availability, Risk CAT, Cummins, Fairbanks Worse, MAN,
of corrosion Volvo, Wartsila

Risk of sticking/scuffing and degradation/seizure to


engine components, Oil film thickness, Training

High investment cost, Cost of fuel, Short lifetime Wartsila

Cold Climates only, Nuclear safety precautions Rosatom


required

Permanent change, Not viable under variable All engine suppliers


conditions, Potential violation of certificate

Not suitable with high load conditions MAN Diesel & Turbo, Wartsila

Corrosion to engine components, 1-5% Engine EMF, MAN Diesel & Turbo
power loss, Fuel instability, Reduced fuel economy

Incompatible with 4-stroke engines MAN Diesel & Turbo


UPDATED

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Emission Reduction Technology Providers

Vender Name Technology


MAN Diesel & Turbo Exhaust Gas Scrubber
MAN Diesel & Turbo DPF
Akasaka Diesels Limited DPF
Couple Systems DryEGCS
MAN Diesel & Turbo Exhaust Gas Recirculation
MAN Diesel & Turbo Diesel-Electric Drives
STADT Stascho Electric Propulsion
MAN Diesel & Turbo Fuel Water Emulsion
MAN Diesel & Turbo Common Rail
Canopus Marine Solutions Common Rail Fuel Systems
Clean Marine EGCS
Green Tech Marine GTM R15 Scrubber
Alfa Laval Aalborg PureSOx
Rolls-Royce Marine Bergen Lean-Burn gas B- and C-series
Rolls-Royce Marine Marine Gas Turbines
MAN Diesel & Turbo Dual-Fuel ME-GI series
Wärtsilä LNGPac
Wärtsilä 20DF, 34DF, & 50DF Engine
DuPont Belco Marine Scrubber
Wärtsilä SOx Scrubber
Ecospec SCNOx
Marine Exhaust Solutions EcoSilencer
MAN Diesel & Turbo Selective Catalytic Reduction
Canopus Marine Solutions SCR-systems
Couple Systems SCR (DeNOx)
Wärtsilä SCR
tion Technology Providers

Technology Type Approval


Closed Loop Wet Scrubber
DPF VERT
DPF
Dry Scrubber GL
EGR
Electric Propulsion
Electric Propulsion DNV, Korean Register
Emulsified Fuel
High Fuel Injection
High Fuel Injection
Hybrid Scrubber
Hybrid Scrubber GL
Hybrid Scrubber
LNG
LNG
LNG
LNG
LNG
Open & Closed Loop Wet Scrubbers, Hybrid Scrubbers
Open & Closed Loop Wet Scrubbers, Hybrid Scrubbers DNV, GL
Open Loop Wet Scrubber ABS
Open Loop Wet Scrubber
SCR
SCR
SCR
SCR
Number
1
2
3
4

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13

14
15

16

17

18
19

20
21

22

23

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

39

40
41
42
43
44
Data Sources

Source
Alfa Laval. PureSOx Exhaust Gas Cleaning. Alfa Laval Corporate AB, EMD00281EN 1107.
API Technology Issues Work Group. Technical Consideration of Fuel Switching (2009).
CARB. Effect of SCR Unit on Emissions from Auxiliary Engines, April 2009.
Caterpillar Marine Power Systems. Cat Common Rail: Less Fuel and Reduced Emissions Mean More Environmental
Care. Leaflet No. 245 · 12.11 · e · L+S · VM3 (2011).
CIMAC. "Background information on black carbon emissions from large marine and stationary diesel engines-
definition, measurement methods, emissions factors and abatement technologies". The International Council on
Combustion Engines (2012).
Clean Marine. Integrated Multistream Exhaust Gas Cleaning.
Confurto, Nick. Belco-DuPont Interview.
Corbett et al. “An assessment of technologies for reducing regional short-lived climate forcers emitted by ships with
implications for Arctic shipping”. Carbon Management 1(2), 207-225, 2010.
DNV. “Fuel Cells for Ships”. Research & Innovation, Position Paper 13. 2012.
Fahimi, Sulai. MAN Diesel & Turbo Interview.
Flanagan, Jim. "Maersk Pilot Fuel Switch Initiative". Maersk, 16 May 2008.
Germanischer Lloyd SE & MAN. Costs and benefits of LNG as ship fuel container vessels: Key results from a GL and
MAN joint study (2012).

Ghosh, Sujit and Tom Risley. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application Final Report. US MARAD 29 February 2012.

GL. Measurement of particulate emissions before and after COUPLE SYSTEMS DryEGCS on MV "TIMBUS". GL-Reg.-
No.90577. CL-T-SC (2012)
Hafkemeyer, Jan and Olaf Knueppel. "The very new exhaust gas cleaning systems". Couple Systems
Jayaram, Varalakshmi, J. Wayne Miller, Abhilash Nigam, William Welch, David Cocker. "Effects of Selective Catalytic
Reduction Unit on Emissions from an Auxiliary Engine on an Ocean-Going Vessel". California Air Resources Board,
April 2009

Juliussen, Lars R., Michael J. Kryger and Anders Andreasen. "MAN B&W ME-GI Engines. Recent Research and
Results." Proceedings of the International Symposium on Marine Engineering, 17-21 October 2011, Kobe, Japan.

Jurgens, Ralf. Couple Systems Interview.


Karlsson, Sören, Mathias Jansson, Jens Norrgård, Jens Häggblom. "LNG Conversion for Marine Installations".
Wartsila Technical Journal 01.2012.
Khalilarya et al. “Simultaneously Reduction of NOx and Soot Emissions in a DI Heavy Duty diesel Engine Operating a
High Cool EGR Rates.” International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering 6:1 2012.
Khan, M. Yusuf, et al. "Benefits of Two Mitigation Strategies for Container Vessels: Cleaner Engines and Cleaner
Fuels". Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 5049-5056, 2012.
Lack & Corbett. "Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas
scrubbing." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 3985-4000, 2012.
Lack et al. “Impact of Fuel Quality Regulation and Speed Reduction on Shipping Emissions: Implications for Climate
and Air Quality.” Environmental Science & Technology 45(20): 9052-9060, 2011.
Lauer, P. "First DPF at a Medium Speed 4-Stroke Diesel Engine on Board of an Ocean Going Vessel". MAN Diesel &
Turbo SE, Augsburg, Germany.
MAN Diesel and Turbo. Diesel-Electric Drives: Lower emissions, greater reliability.
MARAD. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application Final Report (April 2012).
Meng Lee, YAP , Silvia HENG, BOO Puay Yang. "Excellent verified results of CSNOx by ABS on 11MW main engine, a
world's first". Ecospec Global Technology Pte Ltd, 25 Feb 2010.
Mitsui O.S.K. Line <http://www.mol.co.jp/pr-e/2012/e-pr_1209.html>
Nayyar, Pradeep. "The Use of Biodiesel Fuels in US Marine Industry". MARAD April 2010
Nils, Tove. Clean Marine Interview.
Posada, F. CNG Bus Emissions Roadmap: from Euro III to Euro VI. ICCT, December 2009.
Rosatom <http://wwwrosatom.ru/en/>
Rypos, Inc. <http://www.rypos.com/products/adpfc-for-rtg-cranes/>
Sames et al. "Costs and benefits of LNG as ship fuel for container vessels" MAN Diesel & Turbo, May 2012.
Sember, William J. "The Trade-Off Between LNG and CNG Shipping". ABS Europe, Marseille Maritime 2008: The
Mediterranean Basin Shipping Future, 16 September 2008.
Slettevoll, Hollvard. STADT Interview.
STADT. "STADT has introduced Sustainable Electric Propulsion". 2012.
Verbeek et al. "Environmental and Economic aspects of using LNG as a fuel for shipping in The Netherlands". TNO-
RPT-2011-00166, 2011.
Verbeek, Ruud , Mark Bolech and Herman den Uil. "Alternative fuels for sea shipping". TNO-060-DTM-2011-04219.
2011.
Wallenius Marine <http://www.walleniuslines.com/News/News-archive/2010/Unique-Fuel-cell-onboard-mv-
UNDINE/>
Wartsila. "Shipping in the Gas Age". 2010.
Wartsila. "Wartsila SOx Scrubber System". 2012.
Winebrake, J.J., J.J. Corbett and E.H. Green. Black Carbon Control Costs in Shipping. ClimateWorks Foundation, 31
January 2009.
Yuska, Dan. MARAD Interview
Citation Download
Scrubber Alfa Laval Aalborg
Low-Sulfur API
SCR CARB SCR
Injection Pressure CAT Common Rail

Low-Sulfur, Emulsion, High CIMAC


Injection, EGR, SCR, DPF

Scrubber Clean Marine


Scrubber ~
DPF, Slide Valves, Emulsion, Corbett
Low-Sulfur, Scrubber
Fuel Cell DNV
LNG, High Injection Pressure, ~
Emulsion, EGR
Low-Sulfur Maersk
LNG GL

Biofuel MARAD

Scrubber
Scrubber Couple Systems

SCR CARB SCR

LNG MAN

Scrubber ~
LNG Wartsila

EGR EGR
Low-Sulfur Cleaner Fuels

Low-Sulfur, Scrubber Lack

Low-Sulfur, Slow Steaming Lack

DPF ~
Electric Propulsion MAN
Biofuel MARAD
Scrubber Ecospec
DPF Mitsui
Biofuel MARAD
Scrubber ~
CNG ICCT
Nuclear Rosatom
DPF Rypos
LNG MAN
LNG ABS
Electric Propulsion ~
Electric Propulsion STADT
LNG TNO

Biofuel TNO

Fuel Cell Wallenius


LNG Wartsila
Scrubber Wartsila
DPF, Emulsion, Scrubber, Slide
~
Valve
Biofuel, LNG ~