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1. State the hydraulic system consists of an oil tank pumps, control valves, hydraulic motors and pipework

Virtually, all-hydraulic circuits are essentially the same regardless of the application.
There are six basic components required for setting up a hydraulic system:

- A reservoir to hold the liquid (usually hydraulic oil)

- A pump to force the liquid through the system
- An electric motor or other power source to drive
the pump
- Valves to control the liquid direction, pressure
and flow rate
- An actuator to convert the energy of the liquid into
mechanical force or torque,
to do useful work. Actuators can either be cylinders
which provide linear
motion or motors which provide rotary motion and
- Piping to convey the liquid from one location to

The figure illustrates the essential features of a basic hydraulic system with a linear hydraulic actuator.

The extent of sophistication and complexity of hydraulic systems vary depending on the specific
application. Each unit is a complete packaged power system containing its own electric motor, pump,
shaft coupling, reservoir and miscellaneous piping, pressure gauges, valves and other components
required for operation.

2. Sketch and describe a simple spool valve with shut off and control of flow direction
3. Describe ram and rotary vane actuators

Ram type is one of the commonly used

steering gear construction and is quite
expensive in construction. The basic principle
is same as that of a hydraulically-driven motor
engine or lift. There are four hydraulic
cylinders attached to the two arms of the
actuator disc, on both sides. These cylinders
are directly coupled to electrically driven
hydraulic pumps which generate hydraulic
pressure through pipes. This hydraulic
pressure field present in the pumps imparts
motion to the hydraulic cylinders, which in
turn corresponds with the actuator to act upon the rudder stock. As we know, rudder stock is an
indispensable part of the entire steering gear arrangement of ships and dictates the exact behavior of
the rudder response.

In rotary vane, there is a fixed housing in which two vanes

rotate. The housing along with the vanes form four chambers.
The physics behind its operation is like the ram type with a
small difference.

When chambers A and C are pressurised, there is an

anticlockwise rotation of the vanes. A and C are connected to
the discharge side of the pump while chambers B and D are
connected to the suction side of the pump. Similarly, when
clockwise rotation is required, B and D are connected to the discharge side of the pump while A and C
are connected to the suction side of the pump. As above, this is also operated by specialised control
valves.Thus, differential pressurisation of the chambers cause rotational moments in the vane.

4. Sketch a hydraulic control valve

5. Describe a hydraulic accumulator and explain its use

It is a simple hydraulic device which stores energy in the form of fluid pressure. This stored
pressure may be suddenly or intermittently released as per the requirement. An accumulator usually has
a cylindrical chamber, which has a piston in it. This piston is either spring loaded or some calculated
weight is kept on it or even pneumatically pressurized. The hydraulic pump pumps the fluid into the
accumulator, which is nothing but a sealed container. The volume of the container is fixed and cannot
be changed. But the quantity of hydraulic fluid being pumped inside the container is increasing
continuously. So the pressure of the hydraulic fluid inside the container starts to increase.

The figure to the left shows a hydraulic

accumulator which consists of a fixed vertical
cylinder containing a sliding ram. A heavy
weight is placed on the ram. The inlet of the
cylinder is connected to the pump, which
continuously supplies water or the hydraulic
fluid under pressure to the cylinder. The outlet
of the cylinder is connected to the machine
(which may be a lift or a crane).

6. State the reason why hydraulic oil is necessary to be cooled during operation

Machines routinely assigned to various climatic and geographic conditions should have a
dedicated heat balance program that users can consult in order to anticipate conditional failure
operations. When oil gets hot and breaks down, it looks dark and smells burnt. Thermally degraded oil
placed between the thumb and forefinger feels thinner and much less slippery than new oil. The dark
color is varnish - that is, oxidized particles. Even when a filter has removed the burned particles, the oil
will still smell slightly burnt and feel thinner and less slippery. Oil analysis provides advance warning of
and quantitative data on the extent of, and mechanism resulting in the damage to the fluid.
The temperature of the reservoir oil is not a true representation of the actual oil temperature.
The fluid temperature on the discharge side of the pump is a much better guide. Even then, some regions
are generally hotter due to local oxidation, dieseling, compression heating and/or areas having high
operating friction forces.
The most important action required when overheating occurs, localized or generalized, is
discovering the cause. This requires that someone trained to recognize aberrations in system operation
analyzes the system. After heat dissipation practices have been applied, users may finally have only one
simple solution - to go to a higher temperature system. Such an option is feasible today but often proves
expensive, because such a system requires heat-resistant materials, elastomers, fluids and components.
7. Why is it that cleanliness of the oil is essential for satisfactory operation of the system?

Oil is used for the purposes of lubrication, power transmission, surface protection, heat transfer
and surface cleansing. For a surface to degrade, there must be something to abrade it (hard particles),
adhere to it (break the lubrication boundary), or attack it (corrosion) in some way.
The primary method of defense against degrading forces is the lubricant film. Oil
characteristically collects dust, dirt and other contaminants unless it is purposely prevented from doing
so. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every individual who meets the lubricant to prevent its
contamination through rigorous application of clearly defined clean-handling practices.

8. Explain how variable stroke pump can act as controller and power supply

Variable-stroke reciprocating pumps (also called

variable-displacement pumps) are most commonly used on
naval ships as part of an electrohydraulic transmission
system. They are used on anchor windlasses, cranes,
winches, steering engines, and other equipment. You will
have to maintain and make minor repairs to hydraulic and
related equipment outside your ship’s engineering spaces.
The information that follows is in addition to that found
in Fireman, NAVEDTRA 10520-H. Two general types of
variable-stroke pumps are in common use: the axial-piston
pump and the radial-piston pump. In the axial-piston pump,
the pistons are arranged parallel to each other and to the
pump shaft. In the radial-piston pump (fig. 13-14),
the pistons are arranged radially from the shaft.