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Department Technology in of Building Forensic and Maintenance


1. Harmidzy Bin Muhamad Har (DCF 0108012)

2. Nurul Nabila Binti Hussian (DCF 0108010)
3. Mohamad Ridhwan Bin Miswan (DCF 0108006)

1.0 Introduction

This project entitled the Effect of 1.2 Problem Statement

Salinity Pressure on the Concrete Strength
of Concrete Reinforcement. The main i. Salt can be intruded to the building
purposed of this study is to determine the material itself like from use of
effect of the concrete salinity towards the beach sand in brick and the effect
concrete strength and concrete steel bar. can be found at damages of wall.
Approximately 60 samples will be
used in this project where 30 samples used ii. Underground service pipe, such as
for compressive test and the other 30 used those used sewer or water supplies
for corrosion test. All the sample are being may also been damaged. Increased
soaked in the different salinity content leakage from the pipe and
consist of 0%,10%,25%,37% where 0% act corroded joint can lead to the
as control condition while 37% represent salinisation process.
the sea water.
1.3 Scope of Study
1.1 Objective
i. Preparing 60 sample of cube (mole
Objective of this project is to: size 100mm x 100mm x 100mm)
for concrete grade 20.
i. Identify the compressive strength ii. The entire sample will be cure in
of the sample from difference different concentration which is
concentration salinity by using 0%, 10%, 25%, 30% and 37% and
Universal Testing Machine 0% will be act as control
(UTM). condition.
ii. Determine the corrosion of the iii. The duration for curing to
cube reinforcement bar from determine the sample strength will
different salinity content using be cure for 7 days, 14 days and 28
NDT method. day while to determine the
iii. To study the effect of curing corrodibility reinforce inside the
water salinity on the corrosion of sample, it will be cure for 28 days,
the reinforcement bar and 110 days and 126 days
concrete strength.
2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Compressive Strength Test

Salinity is the saltiness or The compressive strength of

dissolved salt content of a body of water. It concrete is measure by breaking concrete
is a general term used to describe the levels specimens in a compressive-testing
of different salts such as sodium chloride, machine. Compressive strength test results
magnesium and calcium sulfates, and used to determine concrete strength.
bicarbonates (Wikipedia).

Table 2.0 below shows the water salinity; 2.2 Half-Cell Potential

Generally, the potential readings

increased with prolonged curing period,
indicating that corrosion of the steel bars
progressing while the cubes were soaked in
saline solutions (Chan Chee Ming 2007).

Table 2.2: Probability of corrosion

according to half-cell reading (Gu and
Beaudoin 1998, Erhan 2006)

Half –cell
potential reading Corrosion activity
vs. Cu/CuSO4
Less negative 90% probability of
than -0.00 V no corrosion
Between -0.00 V An increasing
Figure 2.0: Urban salinity process and -0.350 V probability of
Example of urban salinity such as
More negative 90% probability of
effect to the building, drainage, gardens
and lawns and other indicators. When it’s than -0.350 V corrosion
happen, the nature of salinity damage
costs will increase.

i. Increased repair and maintenance

ii. Increased costs from the reduced
lifespan of infrastructure.
iii. Increased operating costs.
3.0 Methodology 4.2 Compressive Strength Test

Figure 1: Cube Test Reading after Curing

For 7 Days

Figure 1 shows the cube test

reading after curing for 7 days. It shows
that the value of salinity significantly
increased from salinity of 0% to 25%. For
the 30% salinity the value of compressive
strength slightly decline at 23MPa which is
prior at 26MPa. Meanwhile, the last
sample at 37% salinity recorded that the
value of compressive strength increases
from 23 MPa towards 25MPa.

Therefore it express that the

percentage of salinity is not strongly
affected the compressive strength of the
cube curing for 7 days.

4.0 Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction

All the data gathered from

laboratory and then analysed and Figure 2: Cube Test Reading after Curing
summarized into table and graph. The table For 14 Days
and data will divide into two, which is the
result for compressive strength and half
cell potential reading.
Figure 2 shows the cube test 4.3 Potential Reading
reading after curing for 14 days. In
general, the plotted graph shows that the Based on the result given, it shows
value of salinity gradually increased from that the corrosion activity potential take
0% salinity which is at 23MPa value and place which probability of corrosion
reaches the highest reading data at 30% happened is at 90%, so there is a high like
salinity which given by 28MPa. In the hood that there is active corrosion.
other hand, the compressive strength value
for the cube sample of 37% salinity vastly The initial hypothesis indicates
decline to 24MPa and shows that the loss that the potential readings obtained
of concrete strength appears to take place prolonged curing period. In order, to
correspond with higher salinity content. justify the particular hypothesis, the
numeric technique is the value of the
potential as an indicator of the like hood of
corrosion activity.

Figure 3: Cube Test Reading after Curing

For 28 Days

Figure 4: Potential Reading

The figure 3 above shows clearly
definitive effect of salinity against
compressive strength of concrete with
Figure 4 shows the potential level
prolonged curing time. The plotted graph
against salinity. The highest negative
indicated that the value of concrete
values are -688mV which is recorded at
compressive strength decrease
126 days. The average value of potential
approximately 7 % which the lowest
level lies between -500 mV to -700 mV.
reading recorded at 29.8 MPa. So it shows
Therefore, it can be assumed that there is
that the presence of salt has indeed causing
minor changes value of corrosion at 10 %
the lost of the concrete strength.
salinity to 30 % salinity. This is less
affected by curing day’s period.
This stresses the important keeping
curing water free of salt to avoid the loss
of concrete strength. The strength of
concrete to be reversed against the time,
the particular trend look likely an
experimental error.
Figure 5: Potential Difference vs. Salinity Figure 7: Potential Difference vs. Curing

Figure 5 shows the potential Figure 7 shows the potential

difference against salinity. This can be different against curing. The plotted graphs
seen on 126 curing days period where show that the volume of potential
there are a significant potential difference difference gradually increased over curing
.In the mean time, the potential difference time. This trend shows that the capacity of
for 28 days and 110 days slightly decline. corrosion to take place is proportional with
It is probably happened as corrosion curing time and saline concentration.
activity is uncertain within the curing
period. So it can be suggested that the
corrosion is decreased when the volume of 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
saline is unchanged against time.
Generally it can be concluded that:
i. The presence of chloride or salt
accelerates the early age strength
development of concrete up to
about 7 to 14 days. Beyond this
age reduction in strength was not

ii. The electrical resistance corrosion

rate detection probe appears to be
a reliable device for measuring the
Figure 6: Potential Level vs. curing corrosive effect of concrete on
mild reinforcing steel. The rate of
corrosion is not greatly affected by
The potential level at figure 6 lies the curing time.
within -400 to 700 and remained
unchanged up to 126 days. This point also According to tests done there is some
explains that the corrosion activity actually recommendation can be made to achieve
is not significantly influenced by the length the better result for this test:
of curing time unless there is a presence of
saline concentration in the curing water. i. The use of original sea water
during curing period.
ii. Carry out the tensile test for
reinforcement bar.

i. Samuel.Y.Harris.PE.AIA.ESQ
“Building Pathology”. John Wiley
& Son Publishers Ltd. (2001)

ii. Chan Chee Ming. Research Centre

For Soft Soils (RECESS), UTHM

iii. Dr.Suzanne M-Wilson “Wilson

Land Management Sources Pty
Ltd” (2000)

iv. Mokhtar M. Aburawi Influence Of

Salt Weathering On The Properties
Of Concrete (2008)