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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

At the time of economic crisis, nations around the world encountered various

problems and one of which is the scarcity of food. Here in the Philippines, where the

majority of people belong to the lower class, the plight of the poor is very obvious. Many

children, youth, and adults go hungry, get sick and some even die because of

undernourishment. Hence, it is imperative that both the public and private sectors should

find ways to alleviate these problems.

Pleurotusostreatus, the pearl oyster mushroom or tree oyster mushroom, is a

common edible mushroom. It was first cultivated in Germany as a subsistence measure

during World War I. The oyster mushroom is one of the more commonly sought wild

mushrooms, though it can also be cultivated on straw and other media. It has the

bittersweet aroma of benzaldehyde (which is also characteristic of bitter almonds).

One of the Filipino’s specialties is to prepare nutritious food because they put a

premium on a nutritional value in order to furnish their body with adequate nourishment

for growth, maintaining and repairing their cells and tissues. Everyone knows that squash

is one of the most abundant vegetables in the Philippines so that’s why it is not that very

expensive. It also contains vitamin A, carbohydrates, and many more (Elsevier, 2000).

In this connection, the researchers were motivated to utilized mushroom in

producing polvoron which it will be useful not only for consumption but also in

producing products for commercial purpose as an additional source of income for the

low-income group. Hence, this study is anchored.


Objective of the Study

This study was conducted to determine the acceptability of oyster mushroom.

Specifically, it has the following objectives:

1. To determine if the oyster mushroomis acceptable in making polvoron.

2. To find out the level of acceptability among treatments in terms of appearance,

aroma, flavor, texture, color, and general acceptability.

3. To test if there are significant differences among the three treatments in terms of

appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, color, and general acceptability.

Significance of the Study

The result of this research may give vital information’s to the rural women who

are producers as well as consumers, wage earners, teachers as well as homemakers, with

responsibilities of feeding, care, socialization of children along with other domestic

chores. The rural women may able to generate income by spending their leisure time in

food processing using oyster mushroom. Above all, they may prepare simple,

economical, but nutritious recipes for snacks by utilizing the indigenous resources.

Furthermore, the result of this study may furnish information’s industry in the

community and in educational institutions. Moreover, this study may help to solve our

economic crisis and unemployment problems as well as jobless homemakers and out of

school youth, students and teachers to put up or engage in a project utilizing oyster

mushroom.

Maximum utilization of the crop may help in minimizing the importation of raw

materials like flour as the main ingredient in most baked products, thus saving the
country’s dollar earnings. With stable supply of raw materials, a vast array of staple foods

and food products of good quality will be made available.

This study is essential for the future; it is the start of new staple food that would

suffice the hunger of the future. New technologies have been adapted, have been

introduced-these innovations are for the development of our country. These innovations

may take years for us to adopt into our daily living, but little by little, it will help us

develop from state of poverty to one dynamic community which utilizes the gift and

harvests of nature sustainably, that the future generations may be able to feel, enjoy and

taste the sweetness of nature.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study covers only to the development and evaluation of oyster mushroom

into polvoron. The sensory qualities to be tested was confined to the appearance, aroma,

flavor, texture, color, and general acceptability of the products based on the sensory

perception of the panel of tasters consisting oftwenty (20) members replicated three

times. The criteria provided in a hedonic scale will be the basis for this evaluation.

Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined operationally to provide a throughout

understanding of the study.

Appearance. In this study,it refers to the outside look of oyster

mushroompolvoron.

Aroma. In this study, it refers to the characteristics of Polvoron that determine its

smell or odor.
Color. In this study, it refers to the visual characteristics of the Polvoron product.

Flavor. In this study, it refers to the quality attribute oyster

mushroompolvoronthat affects the sense of taste.

General acceptability.In this study, it refers to the overall quality in terms of the

degree of likeness of oyster mushroomnPolvoron as observe by the panelist.

Polvoron. In this study, the oyster mushroom was dried, grind, and made it into

polovorn with the addition of sugar, milk, and butter.

Texture. In this study, it refersto the quality of Polvoron describe as being

powdery or grainy as felt by the tongue.


CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Related Literature

Mushrooms, a highly-priced delicacy for more than two thousand years, are now

consumed by many people. Mushroom cultivation is profitable agribusiness. Many

agricultural and industrial wastes can be utilized as substrates for the production of

Pleurotus species (Zadrazil&Brunnert, 1981).

Studies conducted by Tan (1981) revealed that cotton waste was the best substrate

for the cultivation of Pleurotusostreatus. Cereal bran rich in protein is usually added to

the substrate in P. ostreatus cultivation to stimulate mycelia growth and increase the yield

of mushroom (Kinugawa et al., 1994)

Sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were the best substrates for growing of Oyster

Mushroom than other agro-based substrates (Ahmed,1998).

Obodai et al. (2002) reported that sawdust substrate for mushroom production

should undergo a period of composting to breakdown the cellulose and lignin

components of the wood in order to release the essential materials for the establishment

of mushroom mycelium. The lignocellulosic materials in sawdust are generally low in

protein content and thus insufficient for the cultivation of mushrooms, and therefore

require additional nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium.

Oei (2003) reported that substrate having high-quality lignin and cellulose

contents takes a longer time to start pinning and fruit body formation.Baysal (2003)

investigated paper waste supplemented with rice husk, chicken manure, and peat for
Pleurotusostreatuscultivation. Highest yield for fresh weight was recorded as 350.2 grams

in the substrate containing 20% rice husk.

The values of commercial cultivation of mushrooms, especially in a developing

economy like Nigeria, is the availability of large quantities of several agro-industrial

wastes which can serve as substrates for the cultivation of mushrooms.(Banjo et al.,

2004) has been reported that mushrooms can grow on chopped cocoa pods, cotton waste,

dried chopped maize straw, oil palm (fiber and bunch) wastes, tobacco straw, used tea

leaves, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, newsprint, old rags and sawdust

Silva et al. (2005) reported that mycelium extension is related to the

bioavailability of nitrogen when they found that eucalyptus residues supplemented with

cereal bran supported fast growth. However, the low amount of available nitrogen (N) in

the lignocellulosic substrate of wood components is often considered as a limitation to its

use as mushroom substrate.

Pleurotus species are popular and widely cultivated throughout the world mostly

in Asia and Europe owing to their simple and low-cost production technology and higher

biological efficiency (Mane et al., 2007).

Moonmoon et al., (2010) studied king Oyster mushroom Pleurotuseryngii on

sawdust and rice straw in Bangladesh and found that sawdust showed the highest

biological efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. He has also reported on sawdust, the

yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw;

the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P.

eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in a controlled environment

for higher yield and production


Stanley et al., 2011 has evaluated the effect of supplementing corn cob substrate

with rice bran on a yield of Pleurotuspulmonarius (Fr) Quel. Un-supplemented corn cob

(0% supplementation) gave the best yield in terms of the mean diameter of pileus 5.50cm,

mean fresh weight of fruiting bodies 53.2g, mean height of stipe 3.64cm and number of

healthy fruiting bodies as 12. The least yield was recorded with 30% supplementation as

follows: mean diameter 3.20cm, mean fresh weight of fruiting bodies 30.0g, mean height

of stipe 1.65cm and number of healthy fruiting bodies as 5.in terms of quantity and

quality, the un-supplemented substrate produced better edible mushrooms

Nasir Ahmad Khan (2012) has observed that Pleurotusostreatus gave the

maximum yield in the first flush followed by a second and third flush.The maximum

yield was obtained on Kikar sawdust 282.2gm followed by Mango sawdust 257.7gm,

mixed sawdust 233gm, Simbal sawdust 216.5gm and Kail 200.5gm.Oyster mushroom

showed relatively more yield on control treatment of cotton waste as compared to other

substrates. The maximumbiological efficiency was obtained in kikar sawdust which was

70.56 %. The lowest biological efficiency was obtained in kikar sawdust which was

50.12 %. Among all substrates, sawdust of Kikar proved the best substrates for the

effective cultivation of Oyster mushroom.


CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the materials, methods of investigation, experimental design,

treatments procedures, and data analysis.

Materials and Equipment

In the preparation of the product, the following ingredients were used, oyster

mushroom powder, all-purpose flour, powdered milk, sugar, butter, and calamansi rind.

The equipment used were, wooden spoon, mortar, and pestle mixing bowl, sifter,

Polvoronmolder, measuring cup, measuring spoon, pan, water cellophane, and grammer.

Methods

Experimental Procedures

Experimental Design and Treatment. This study was a single- factor

experiment in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with the three treatments

replicated three times.

Treatments Proportions

A 2 cups of osyster mushroom powder

B 1 cup all purpose flour, 1 cup osyster mushroom powder

C ½ cup all purpose flour, 1 ½ cup osyster mushroom powder

Management Practices

Preparation of ingredients and its proportion. The ingredients were prepared

in different proportions according to treatment as follows:


INGREDIENTS PROPORTION

Treatment A Treatment B Treatment C

All-purpose Flour 1 cup ½ cup

Oyster mushroom 2 cups 1 cup 1 ½ cup


Powder

Powdered Milk 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups

Sugar 1 ¾ cup 1 ¾ cup 1 ¾ cup

Butter 2 cups 2 cups 2 cups

Calamansi Rind ½ tsp ½ tsp ½ tsp

Preparations of oyster mushroom powder. in the preparation of squash peel

powder the following procedures were followed (Figure. 1): select good quality of the

oyster mushroom, wash the selected oyster mushroom, drain, and arrange them in tray

and sundried until it becomes dry. The dried oyster mushroomwill then powdered or

grind using a mechanical grinder, and then sift. Placed in closed container and store.

Preparation of oyster mushroom polvoron powder. The procedures in the

preparation of oyster mushroom Polvoronwere as follows (Figure 3): prepare all the

ingredients. Heat the panon low fire, combine all-purpose flour and oyster

mushroompowder together with sugar roast it for 10-15. In a separate pan, melt the

butter and place it in a bowl. When the mixture is already cooked, add powdered milk

and stir well. Add the melted butter then mixed. When the Polvoron is cooked, turn off

the fire. Placed the Polvoron in a separate mixing bowl. Using a Polvoron molder, scoop

the polvoron and put it in a cut water cellophane and wrap it properly.
Evaluation of the Product

The acceptability of oyster mushroom Polvoron was evaluated based on the

criteria found in the scorecard for sensory evaluation. The evaluators graded the products

using the different sensory qualities found in the scorecard such as appearance, aroma,

texture, flavor, color, and general acceptability.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were analyzed statistically. The statistical method used in the

analysis and interpretation of data was Analysis of Variance, (ANOVA) Statistical tool

for Agricultural Research (STAR) and means with the help of a statistician.
REFERENCES

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Bangladesh.

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used as additive to sawdust during the cultivation of oyster mushroom
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waster paper with some added supplementary materials. Bioresour. Technol., 89:
95 97.

Mane, V.P., S.S. Patil, A.A. Syed and M.M.V. Baig. 2007. Bioconversion of low
quality lignocellulosic agricultural waste into edible protein by Pleurotussajor-
caju(Fr.) Singer. Journal of Zhejiang University of Science, 8(10): 745-751.

Baysal, E. H. Peker, M. K. Yalinkilic, A. Temiz. Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom on


waste paper with some added supplementary materials, Bioreserch Technology,
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SENSORY EVALUATION SHEET

Name: ___________________________________ Date: _______ Replication: ________

Instructions:

We are conducting a test on sensory evaluation of Oyster Mushroom Polvoron. We


would like to solicit your cooperation. Three samples are presented for you to evaluate.
Please put a check (√) to the column which corresponding to your ratings on the product.
Thank you!

Comments:
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