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Pnocteotflcs oFTue Founra Asn-PeqF,cYoune Rrccnncnens & Gnnouerzs Svnposrun

Hone Konc,4-5 Decenezn 2072

mixfures, whereas the total shrinkage in w/c 0.45 and 0.40 mixtures was greater than control. A maximum
increase of 25Yo was observed in w/c 0.45 mixture containing 70% ISF slag. Broadly, it was observed that the
total shrinkage at365 days was less than or similar to the control in majority of the slag mixtures.

The percentage oftotal shrinkage achieved at 7 days was also analyzed- Table 3 presents a comparison between
the initial strains recorded at 7 days and total strain measured at 365 days in various mixtures. Table 3 shows
that inclusion of ISF slag has beneficial effects on the initial shrinkage of the concrete mixtures in comparison
with the control. It is clear from the Table that initial shrinkage in slag mixtures is less than the control mixtures.
For example, the 7-day strains measured initially for the control atdT0Yo slag mixtures were 37Yo and 26%o in
1l,z/c 0.55 mixtures; 39oh and2}%o in w/c 0.50 mixtures; l8%o arrd 10% in Wc 0.45 mixtures; and l0o/o and lo%o
in w/c 0.40 mixtures, respectively, of the total shrinkage strain measured at 365 days. This indicates that ISF
slag reduces the rate of shrinkage initially. However, this difference in shrinkage rate was only seen in the
mixtures with higher w/c. The shrinkage rate in ilc 0.40 mixtures was similar to the control mixture.

Previous studies (Kohno et al. 1999 Zharg et al. 2005) have also demonshated a low initial shrinkage with the
use of lightweight aggregate in comparison with normal-weight aggregate concrete. This was athibuted to the
high absorption of lightweight aggregates that provides internal curing effect and delays drying. A similar effect
of internal curing through slow release of moisture from Blast Furnace aggregates was reported by Collins and
Sanjayan (1999) also. In another study (Topgu and Bilir 2010), no clear effect of slag aggregates could be
established as the shrinkage of Blast Fumace aggregate mortar was higher than control in a few mixtures and
lower than the control in other mixtures. This behaviour was attributed to the granular structure of slag that
produces irregularly distributed porous structure and results into non-uniform shrinkage with respect to
percentage of slag in mortar.

It may be concluded from the above discussion that the behaviour of slag is similar to the lightweight aggregate
in context with the gradual release of adsorbed water and the irregular structure of slag particle may increase the
porosity which is non-uniform with respect to the amount of slag present in a concrete mixture. Therefore, the
reason for higher than control shrinkage at 365-day in few mixtures might be due to increased porosity of these

The low rate of initial shrinkage may be explained through the internal curing effect. This can be supported by
the SEM images of slag and sand particles (Fig. l), which clearly show the difference in morphology of both the
materials. Surface cavities in slag particles having a size between 2.36mm-600pm were seen, which constituted
approximately 60% of the total particle size in ISF slag (Tripathi et al. 20ll). Owing to irregular shape and
cavities, the slag particles hold a small quantity of water. The gradual release of this entrapped water results in a
slow self desiccation and lowers the rate of shrinkage. Further, it should be noted that the quantity of water
withheld by slag particles in the higher w/c mixtures will be more than that held by the particles in the lower
ilc mixtures. This is because, in pastes with lower dc, the availability of water for aggregate to get saturated is
less and owing to high paste viscosity; the chances of the aggregate to get coated by the paste are higher
(Neville 1995). This is the reason why lower than control initial shrinkage was observed at higher w/c mixtures,
which gradually shifts equivalent to control with reduction in Wc.

The results also show that the total shrinkage decreases with decrease in w/c up to 0.45. However, firrther
reduction of w/c below 0.45 does not lower the total shrinkage. The 365-day shrinkage strains in w/c 0.40
mixtures were similar to those observed for w/c 0.55 mixtures, which may be attributed to increase in the
autogenous shrinkage at lower ilc. It was observed that the morphology of ISF slag particles is benehcial with
respect to the initial shrinkage as the water released during hydration from these particles acts as an internal
reseryoir, prevents reduction of internal relative humidity, and reduces the autogenous shrinkage. Furthermore,
although, reduction in total shrinkage with respect to control was witnessed in most of the slag mixtures, no
trend could be established. It was interesting to note that irrespective of the w/c, the mixture with 30-40% ISF
slag exhibited lower than control total shrinkage indicating that the inclusion of ISF slag reduces the shrinkage
strain of concrete with 3040% sand replacement as an optimum value. However, further studies are required to
explain the reason.


The influence of ISF slag on the shrinkage of concrete containing ISF slag as partial replacement of sand was
assessed experimentally. Concrete specimens with volumetric replacement of sand from 0-70% were cast and
oC temperature and 55o/o relative
cured for 28 days. Specimens were kept in controlled conditions of 25

humidity and strains were measured at 7 , 15, 30, 45, 60,90, 180, 270, and 365 days. Shrinkage strains in control
and slag concrete mixtures were compared and following conclusions are drawn:

l. At higher w/c, the inclusion of ISF slag in concrete lowers the initial rate of shrinkage in comparison with
the natural sand. However, the difference in the initial rate of shrinkage between slag mixtures and the
control reduces with reduction in w/c and the shrinkage of mixtures with lower w/c is similar with the
control concrete.

2. The total shrinkage of slag concrete at 365 days is less than or comparable with the control concrete for
sand replacements up to 70%o. This observation supports higher sand replacements with regard to the
shrinkage related durability of concrete.

3. Irrespective of the ilc, the shrinkage of concrete containing 3040% ISF slag was less than control.
Therefore, a sand replacement of 30-40Yo may be recommended as an optimum value to witness better than
control shrinkage behavior.


This work is a part of project entitled "Durability of concrete containing zinc slag as partial replacement of sand"
sanctioned by The Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, under Women Scientist scherne
(Sanction number - SR/ WO-A/ ET-3912009) and the authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
given to accomplish this study.


ACI. (2005). "Report on Factors Affecting Shrinkage and Creep of Hardened Concrete (ACI 209.1R-05)",
Ameri c an C o nc r et e I ns t i tut e, F armington Hills, Mich.
Alexander, K.M., and Wardlaw, J. (1959). "Effect of powdered minerals and fine aggregate on the dryittg
shrinkage of Portland cement paste", Journal of American Concrete Institute,30(12), 1303-1316.
Bureau oflndian Standards (BIS). (1970). "specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for
concrete", IS: 383,New Delhi, India.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). (1989). "specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement", 1S 8/12, New
F., and Sanjayan, J.G. (1999). "strength and shrinkage properties of alkali-activated slag concrete
Collins ,
containing porous coarse aggregate", Cement and Concrete Research,29(4),607-610.
Hansen, T.C., and Nielsen, K.E.C. (1965). "Influence of aggregate properties on concrete shrikage", ACI
Journal P ro c e edings, 62 (7), 7 83 -7 9 4.
Hobbs, D.W. (1974). "Influence of aggregate restraint on the shrinkage of concrete", ACI Journal, Tl(9),445-
Kohno, K., Okamoto, T., Isikawa, Y., Sibata, T., and Mori, H. (1999). "Effects of artificial lightweight
aggegate on autogenous shrinkage ofconcrete", Cement and Concrete Research,29(4),611-614.
Neville, A.M. (1995). "Properties of concrete",4th Edn., Pearson Educalion, Singapore.
Pickett, G. (1946). "shrinkage stresses in concrete", Journal ofAmerican Concrele Institute, 17 (3),165-204.
Powers, T.C., and Brownyard, T.L. (1947). "Studies of physical properties of hardened cement paste. Part -7",
Journal of American Concrete Institute,43(9), 865-880.
Topgu, I.B., and Bilir, T. (2010). "Effect of non-groud-granulated blast-furnace slag as fine aggregate on
shrinkage cracking of mortars", ACI Materials Journal,10T(6), 545-553.
Tripathi, B., Misra, A., and Chaudhary, S. (201 1). "Strength and abrasion characteristics of ISF slag concrete at
different w/c and sand replacements", Journal of Malerials in Civil Engineering, MTENG-1308, Under re-
Tripathi, B., Misra, A., and Chaudhary, S. (2012a). "Durability of concrete containing ISF slag as partial
replacement of sand," Proceedings of the first International Congress on Durabilily of Concrete, H.,
Justnes, and S., Jacobsen, ed., Trondheim, Norway, June, Abstract number A5-1.
Tripathi, B., Misra, A., and Chaudhary, S. (2012b). "Permeability of concrete containing pyrometallurgical slag
as partial replacement of sand", Proceedings of the fib Symposium on Concrete Structures for Sustainable
Community, D.H., Bager, and J., Silfuerbrand, ed., Stockholm, Sweden, hne,445448.
Zhatg, M.H., Lian, L., and Paramasivam, P. (2005). "Shrinkage of high-strength lightweight aggregate concrete
exposed to dry environment", ACI Materials Journal, 102(2),86-92.

Proceedings of The Fourth Asia-Pacific Young Researchers & Graduates Symposium
Hong Kong, 4-5 Decembet 2012

The Future of Structural Engineering:

Research, Practice and Education

Edited by

Jian-Guo DAI & Songye ZHU

Organized by

Departrnent of Civil and Environmental Engineeritg

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
The Future of Structural Engineering: Research, Practice and Education
Proceedings of rhe 4th Asia-Pacific Young Researchers & Graduates symposium

Copyright @ 2Ol2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced,
transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system or translated into any language, in any form or by any
means without written authorization from The Hong Kong Polytechnic university.

Distributed by: Organizing Committee of YRGS-2O12

The 4th Asia-Pacific Young Researchers & Graduates Symposium
Departrnent of Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
HungHom, Kowloon,
Hong Kong

ISBN: 978-9 62-3 67 -7 58-5


Bhavna Tripathi and Sandeep Chaudhary

Department of Civil Engineering,
Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur, Jaipur, India.


The durability of concrete is governed by several parameters, extemal and internal in nature. Shrinkage of
concrete produces physical volume changes leading to cracks, thereby permitting the ingress of other
deteriorating agents and affecting the overall performance of a structure. This study ,presents the drying
shrinkage of concrete containing ISF (Imperial Smelting Fumace) slag as partial replacement of sand in
comparison with control (0% ISF slag) through experimental assessment. Shrinkage strains in concrete prepared
at four water-cement ratios (0.55, 0.50, 0.45, and 0.40) containing up to 70%o sand replacements were measured
for a period of I year. Less than control initial shrinkage and comparable with control total shrinkage was
observed in slag mixtures, thereby ensuring no adverse effect of slag, as partial replacement of sand on the
drying shrinkage of concrete.


Concrete, ISF slag, sand replacement, drying shrinkage, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope).


Concrete shrinks due to loss of evaporable water and swells when this water is regained (Pickett 1946; Powers
and Brownyard 1947). Shrinkage causes volume changes in concrete and the shrinkage cracks facilitate the
ingress of deteriorating agents. For a given structure, the drying shrinkage is primarily affected by loss or gain
moisture. In practice, the structure experiences collective effect of different shrinkage parameters extemal and
internal (mixture composition) in nature. The proportion, size, shape, density, and elasticity of aggregate; water
content of concrete; workability of fresh concrete; sulphate and alumina content of cement; fineness of cement;
air content of concrete and use of chemical or mineral admixtures are factors associated with composition of the
mixture. Besides compositional parameters, the humidity and temperature at the time of mixing, placing and
curing of concrete along with the environmental exposure conditions also govern the shrinkage (ACI 2005).

This study presents the drying shrinkage of cpncrete with ISF (Imperial Smelting Furnace) slag as a substitute to
sand. It is known that the shrinkage of concrete is a result of shrinkage of paste and shrinkage of aggregate. The
aggregate, unhydrated cement grains and the calcium hydroxide crystals provide restraint to shrinkage. Pickett
(1954) derived an expression to calculate the restraining effect of the aggregate on shrinkage of cement paste.
Hansen and Nilsen (1965) extended this expression to calculate the restraining effect ofa single non-shrinking
aggregate on shrinkage of cement paste. The effect of aggregate shrinkage and elastic modulus of the cement
paste and aggregate were considered in this formula.

The effect of aggregate restraint on the shrinkage of cement paste and concrete has also been experimentally
examined in past (Pickett 1954; Alexander and Wardlaw 1959; Hansen and Nilsen 1965; Hobbs 1974).
Alexander and Wardlaw (1959) observed that shrinkage of paste decreases with increase in the volume of
aggregate. Hansen and Nilsen (1965) observed that stiffer aggregates produce less shrinkage as compared to
concretes containing less stiffaggregates. Hobbs (1974) investigated the effect ofaggregate size and volume on
concrete shrinkage and found that shrinkage strain reduces with increase in the size and volume of aggregate in
concrete. The study also revealed that aggregates with same stiffness may also produce distinct shrinkage owing
to shrinkage ofthe aggregate itself.

Although, a lot of studies are available on shrinkage of concrete containing slag/recycled materials, the
influence of ISF slag on shrinkage of concrete has not been reported till date. ISF slag is a by-product of ztnc

refining process which is generated during plrometallurgical refining of sulphide ore. The authors have
previously reported the mechanical and durability performance of ISF slag concrete in comparison with the
control (Tripathi et aL.2011,2012a, and 2012b). The objective of this work is to provide information on the
influence of ISF slag on the drying shrinkage, which is necessary for practical utilization of this slag.


Details of the raw materials and the mixture proportions are given in Table I and the gradation analysis of sand
and ISF slag are presented in Table 2.

Table I Materials used and mixture proportions

Materials Details
Cement Ordinary Portland Cement confirming Indian standards BIS (1989)
Sand River sand, specific gravity 2.68; SSD water absorption0.650/o; gradation
confirming to Zone II as per BIS (1970)
Coarse aggregate crushed stone, equal proportions of nominal size 20mm and lOmm as per Indian
standards BIS (1970)
ISF slag specilrc gravity 3.69; SSD water absorption0.45Yo; gradation confirming to Zone
Ias per BIS (1970)
Cement content 377.78kg/m3
Mixture proportions I : I .6:3.2 (cement: sand: aggregate)
wlc 0.55, 0.50, 0.45, and 0.40
Sand replacement Equivalent volume of sand was replaced in increments of l0%, up to70%o
Superplasticizer Modified polycarboxylic ether based, ASTM type F was added to w/c 0.50, 0.45,
and 0.40 mixtures in order to maintain similar workability as achieved by w/c
0.55 mixtures without superplasticizer.
Curing Specimens were water cured for 28 days at27+2"C
SSD- Saturated Surface Dry

Table 2 Gradation analysis of sand and ISF slae

Sieve size (mm) o/o passing

Sand ISF slag

4.75 100 100
2.36 97.6 97.9
l.l8 83.95 67.15
0.6 65. I 36.75
0.3 16.3 4.85
0. l5 2.45 1.15

Morphologt of ISF slag and sandparticles

The morphology of slag and sand particles was studied through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) - JEOL
JSM 6610 LV. In order to allow the comparison, three different sizes of sand and slag particles were obtained
through sieving. Sand and ISF slag particles passing 2.36mm and retained on 600pm; passing 600pm and
retained on 300pm; passing 300pm and retained on l50pm were collected and mounted on sample holder for
observation under SEM.


The effect of sand replacement on the shrinkage (total shrinkage) of concrete was evaluated for a period of I
year. Concrete prisms 75x75x300 mm rrere cast, immediately covered, and demoulded after 24 hours. Demec
studs were glued on surface dn' prisms after completion of curing period, at a spacing of 212 + lmm. All
specimens were kept in controlled exposure conditions of 25 "C temperature and 55o/o relative humidity. The
measurements were performed usine a mechanical strain gauge having a least count of 0.002 mm. First reading,
expressed as initial reading s:s taken after 24 hours of mounting demec studs. Shrinkage stains were measured
at7,15,30,45,60.90- lt0. 170- ad 36-i davs of initial reading and average value of three demec readings are


Morpltology of ISF slag and sund particles

The morphology of sand and ISF slag particles at different sizes is shou,n in Fig. l.

(a) ISF slag particle size between 2.36mm and 600pm (b) Sand particle size between 2.36mm and 600pm

(c) ISF slag particle size between 600pm and 300pm (d) Sand particle size between 600pm and 300pm

.- ix
(e) ISF slag particle size between 300pm and l50pm (D Sand particle size between 300pm and
and 150pm

Figure I SEM images of ISF slag and sand particles

The images (Fig. l) show that compared with sand particles, which are regular in shape and have smooth
surfaces, the slag particles are irregular and contain cavities/ spherical profuberance. Presence of surface cracks
and needle like protuberance has been reported previously also by the authors (Tripathi et al.2011). However,
the shape of particles passing 600pm and retained on 300pm [Fig. 1(c)] were less irregular with a few particles
possessing surface cracks and needle like protuberance. Fufiher, slag particles between the size of 300 pm and

150 pm [Fig. I (e)] contained spherical, oblong, and flaky shape. Presence of fractured portions of larger slag
particles was also noticed. The images of sand particles [Fig. l(b), (d), and (f)] largely show smooth surface
with a regular shape in comparison with slag particles. The irregular shape and cavities present on the surface of
slag particle are expected to decrease the workability even while offering better adherence with the cement paste.

It can be seen from the gradation analysis (Table 2) that ISF slag is coarser than the natural sand. The difference
in gradation among sand and ISF slag is significant particularly between the sizes of 2.36mm to 600pm. ISF
slag consists of approximately 600/o of the particles with size between 2.36mm and 600pm, while in sand, only
about 30% of the particles confirm within this range. It shall be noted that the difference in the morphology of
sand and ISF slag particles within this range of particle size was maximum. Therefore, owing to considerable
quantity of the irregular shaped particles present in slag, significant effect of the slag morphology may be


The shrinkage of control and ISF slag concretes for w/c 0.55, 0.50, 0.45, and 0.40 are shown in Figs. 2-5.

Yo of total strain at 7
wlc sR(%) 7 days (10-6) 365 days (10-6)
0.55 0 lll.l1 302.22 -tt
0.55 l0 123.33 322.22 38
0.55 20 91.1I 274.44 JJ
0.55 30 88.89 283.56 3l
0.55 40 r04.44 302.22 35
0.55 50 86.67 304.44 28
0.55 60 103.33 295.56 35
0.55 70 84.44 322.22 26
0.50 0 106.67 27t.tt 39
0.50 10 103.33 300.00 34
0.50 20 9l.l I 288.89 )z
0.50 30 76.78 230.00 JJ
0.50 40 68.89 216.67 5Z
0.50 50 66.67 220.00 30
0.50 60 51.1 I 2t3.33 24
0.50 70 5l.l I 25t.tt 20
0.45 0 33.33 187.78 l8
0.45 l0 24.44 180.00 t4
0.45 20 20.00 207.78 l0
0.45 30 24.44 177.78 t4
0.45 40 24.44 182.22 l3
0.45 50 20.00 217.78 9
0.45 60 JJ.JJ 206.67 l6
0.45 70 22.22 232.22 l0
0.40 0 28.44 282.00 10
0.40 l0 20.44 255.56 8
0.40 20 27.44 224.44 t2
0.40 30 25.78 226.67 u
0.40 40 23.33 z)5.J3 l0
0.40 50 24.44 286.67 9
0.40 60 37.78 311.11 t2
0.40 70 JJ.JJ 317.78 l0
SR: Sand Replacement

+ Control # 10 % ISF Slag +2OYe ISF Slag 30 % ISF Slag
- +- 4OYo ISF Slag - -e - 50 % ISF Stag --b- @yolSFSlag - -* - 7oo/o lSF Slag


o 250

'!c zoo
! roo

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390

Age (days)
Figure 2Drying shrinkage in ilc 0.55 concrete mixtures

+Control * 10 % ISF Slag # 20% ISF Slag 30 % ISF Slag

- a- 4oolo ISF Slag - -r - fl) % ISF Slag - -c - 6OYo ISF Slag - -* - 70o/o ISF Slag


o 250
!o roo


30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390
Age (days)
Figure 3 Drying shrinkage in w/c 0.50 concrete mixtures

--+Gontrol #l0tSEFSlag + 20% ISF Slag 30 % ISF Slag
40% ISF Slag - + - 50 % ISF Slag - -& - 60% ISF Slag - -* - 70o/o ISF Slag


o 250
!o zoo
U, 150
E roo


120 1s0 180 210 240

Age (days)

Figure 4Dryingshrinkage in w/c 0.45 concrete mixtures

+ Gontrol --+- 10 % ISF Slag + 20% ISF Slag +(- 30 % ISF Slag

40% ISF Slag - -e - 50 % ISF Slag - -^c - 60% ISF Slag - -* - TOoh ISF Slag


o 250 Atrt - -E -
'!tr zoo
sr 150 #,'
o c,
g il

!o roo

120 1s0 180 210 240

Age (days)

Figure 5 Drying shrinkage in ilc 0.40 concrete mixtures

The results (Fig. 2) showed that the total shrinkage strain in w/c 0.55 mixtures with20Yo and30Yo ISF slag were
less than the control mixture. Lower than control shrinkage strains were observed in ilc
0.50 mixtures (Fig. 3)
containing 30-70% ISF slag. Strains in w/c 0.45 mixtures (Fig. a) with l0%, 30%o and 40% ISF slag were less
than the control. Similarly, strains in w/c 0.40 mixtures (Fig. 5) with ISF slag up to 4Oo/o were less than the
control. The total strains in mixtures with 70Yo slag were comparable with the control in 0.55 and 0.50 ilc