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ALCOHOL PLAN

REGION I

STATE
MWWWS «"*«*
1980

Spring 1974

Northwestern Montana Areawide


Health Planning, Council

127 E. Main
Mi 8 sou la, Montana
Montana State Library

3 0864 1004 9763 8


The plan was written by contractual agreement between the

State Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Alcohol

and Dependent Drugs Bureau, and the Northwestern Montana Area-

wide Health Planning Council, Region I, 127 East Main, Missoula,

Montana.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT . . 1

PURPOSE 1

GOALS 5

METHODOLOGY 7

REGIONAL AND COUNTY PROFILES . . . * 9

PLAN 17

GOAL ONE

Objective A: For agency cooperation .......... 17

Objective B: Provision for transportation to Galen . . 18

GOAL II

Objective A: To help in early detection and treatment . 21

Objective B: Follow-up for individuals released from


Galen 23

Objective C: Special help for the drinking driver, DWI. 2k

GOAL III

Objective AP To provide education re: alcohol and


alcoholism 27

GOAL IV

Objective A: To provide a greater emergency treatment


and detox facilities within each
community 33

Addenda follows conclusion to plan


ABSTRACT

The plan illustrates that a great many agencies and services

already exist in this seven-county area, specifically or incidentally

designed to provide services for the alcoholic, or his ''her family.

There is much evidence that, for whatever reasons, these agencies and

services are consistently under-utilized. The plan delineates ways in

which broadly based attempts to integrate these services may be accom-

plished, in an attempt to facilitate the integration of these services

with the individuals in need of them.

The plan has been written and developed with minimal expenditure

of funds in mind, since 1) it is consistent with our goal of utilizing

existing resources, insofar as possible; that efficient management is an

effort which needs to be implemented before additional services are con-

sidered (which might otherwise merely add to the chaos); and 2) at the

time of the inception of the planning we were advised that there was

little or no money to be obtained for alcoholism treatment and services.

In light of this latter pronouncement, it has seemed reasonable to ap-

proach the problem from the basis of working with the currently avail-

able resources.

It is felt that any plan should adequately reflect the needs of

the community. To this end, we have assessed the needs in each county

of Region I, and the plan has been written around the needs in each

county cf Region I, and the plan has been written around the needs

which were common to all of the counties.


ALCOHOL PLAN

PURPOSE

In keeping with Public Law ^9-7^9, "The Comprehensive Health Plan-

ning and Public Health Services Amendments of 1966,' we quote the


;

following as part of our definition of purpose:

"The Congress declares the fulfillment of our

National purpose depends on promoting and assuring


the highest level of health attainable for every
person, in an environment which contributes posi-
tively to healthful individual and family livings
that attainment of this goal depends on an effec-
tive partnership, involving close intergovernmental
1
collaboration, official and voluntary efforts..."

The following is our planning rationale:

Planning is necessary, since decisions will be made, and continue

to be made, and on the basis of insufficient information, unless we plan

comprehensively for the needs of problem drinkers and alcoholics. The

decisions which will be made, whether based on adequate information,

will affect 71, V76 alcoholic individuals, and, with the "ripple effect,"
2
285,868 Montanans.

By planning, we increase alternatives for individuals. Planning

provides structure — it is a map showing where we can go, and by what

routes. Planning provides a method for deciding which technologies and

services should be developed to most suitably serve individuals in the

long view; it assumes deliberate choices will be made, rather than

1
Public Law 89-^79
2 See 197^Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Pre-
'

vention, Treatment and Rehabilitation, page 16.


haphazard or arbitrary choices. We need to develop foresight, and make

provision for contingencies which are available in advance, rather than

continuing to react to crises without having options available.

Resources are never adecmate for doing everything that is necessary;

consequently, it is mandatory that we make choices rationally, and in

ways which serve the broadest spectrum of individuals, and at the least

possible cost.

If the allocation of resources is not planned, there is no choice

but to continue to accept unmet critical needs, and the general disor-

ganization of services which results when excessive demands are made

upon limited resources.

The 197^ plan will outline existing services available to the alco-

holic, in an effort to chart how such services may be integrated. It

will make recommendations re: how needed services might most easily, and

with the least expense, be implemented and it will delineate the extent

of the problem insofar as the extremely limited precise statistical re-

sources would indicate.

A great many agencies and services already exist in this seven-

county area, which are specifically or incidentally designed to provide

services for the alcoholic, the problem drinker, or his/her family.

There is much evidence that, for various reasons, these agencies and

services are consistently under-utilized. It is the feeling of the

Board of NWAHPC that we should make a broadly-based attempt to integrate

these services with each other, and to facilitate the integration of

services with the individuals in need of them. The term "committee" may

be construed to mean not only community committees, but also community


agencies, services, or groups.

This plan has been written and developed with minimal expenditure of

funds in mind, since 1) it is consistent with our goal of utilizing

existing resources, insofar as possible; that efficient management is an

effort which needs to be implemented before additional services are con-

sidered (which might otherwise merely add to the chaos); and 2) at the

time of the inception of the planning, we were advised that there was

little or no money to be obtained for alcoholism treatment and services.

In light of this latter pronouncement j it has seemed reasonable to ap-

proach the problem from a basis of working with the currently available

resources.

We feel any plan should adequately reflect the needs of the com-

munity. To this end, we have assessed the needs in each county of Region

I , and have asked for the continuing advice, cooperation, and interest

of those involved, and for suggestions from individuals and agencies with

whom we have been in contact.

We see this document as highly flexible; when one aspect of it is no

longer relevant, for whatever reasons, individuals concerned will make

recommendations for revision. This plan is intended as a dynamic process ,

not as a finished product.

An attempt has been made to collate relevant statistics, to utilize

all resources available; if there are amendations or suggestions for

covering areas not covered, we would appreciate being so informed.

The priorities in the "needs assessment" were ranked as follows:

1. Need: For education regarding alcohol and alcoholism


Footnote 3 continued:

2. Need: Special help for the drinking driver, the driving-while-


intoxicated individuals, and DWI education

3. Need: Follow-up for alcoholic after treatment at Galen.

4. Need: Early detection and treatment for the alcoholic, and


counseling for families of alcoholics.

5. Need: Proper and comprehensive facilities to detoxify the


alcoholic.

6. Need: For agency cooperation.

7. Need: For better understanding and cooperation between the


professional and AA»

8. Need: Transportation to Galen*


GOALS

Goals may be viewed as "outcomes to be created." Rather than asking,

"Where do we go from here?", goals provide structure so we can define where

we want to go, and make it possible for us to ask, "What is the best way to

get where we want to go?" Planning goals make it possible for individuals

and communities to become the decision-makers, rather than merely reacting

to crises.

Goals should be broad and all-encompassing, and they represent the

situation we should like, ideally, to see exist.

Two aspects must be considered when we discuss goals. One is concerned

with the effects on individuals, and one with the effects on communities;

we will find it necessary to ask how certain recommendations will affect in-

dividuals, and also how they will affect communities of individuals.

Goals for the Alcohol Plan

1. We will attempt to minimize fragmentation of services, and to effect

agency cooperation in an attempt to integrate existing services in an

effort to more efficiently utilize those services which already exist.

2. We will attempt to alleviate the suffering of the problem drinker/alco-

holic and family by making him aware that alcoholism is a disease, and

a treatable disease, and to reduce the stigma accompanying such disease.

3. We will attempt to educate the community regarding the nature of alco-

holism, and the role the general public plays in the rehabilitation of

the alcoholic; to lessen the stigma of the disease in the eyes of the

general public; and to make them aware that their attitude is important

in any treatment attempt.

5
h. We will attempt to maximize utilization of resources to such an extent

that services can/will be provided to as large a number of individuals

as possible who suffer the effects of problem drinking and alcoholism.


,

METHODOLOGY

Statistical information is a necessary concomitant of planning; it

will provide us with a determination of what now exists, both in terms of

problems, and in terms of services to deal with those problems. Statis-

tical information can be useful in indicating what should exist.

Disclaimer

Two major difficulties with the research should be given priority in

future research and planning: 1) statistical data, and 2) the difficulty of

assessing the middle and upper class incidence of alcoholism, and female

alcoholics. Only those "high profile" alcohol problems come to the atten-

tion of most agencies and law enforcement.

Following is a quotation from the Washington Star-News, February 19i

197*f:

"Society is doing just as little as it can get by with


when it comes to the woman alcoholic. Skid row women,
homeless women, mentally ill vagrants... have just been
ignored by society for too long. The emphasis has always
been on helping men, yet the need for aiding women is
much greater.
"The crux of the problem is that although there are
probably more women than_men at the bpttom of the heap,
the women remain hidden — out of sight, and thus out of
mind."

Baseline data is very difficult to compile where alcoholism is con-

cerned. This becomes noticeable when one recognizes that:

1. Alcoholism is a secret disease — many would rather not talk about

it;
8

2. Much stigma is involved; as a result, alcoholic individuals often

do not seek help for a primary diagnosis of alcoholism, but seek counseling

for marital or other secondary problems;

3. law enforcement officers note that many crimes are related to alco-

hol, but, of course, no blood alcohol or blood urine tests are administered

to the offender, thus non-driving crimes are not compiled under "alcohol-

related crimes."

*f. Statistics are often available, but not retrievable; i.e., "The

data is in my files, but it is not filed according to association with

alcohol it could be done, but it would be a very time-consuming job."

5. Driving offenses are filed under highway patrolmen's names, rather

than by offense; thus, alcohol offenses are difficult to compile.

Henrik L. Blume, in his very excellent book, notes:

"There is something wrong. ..with making the leap that


says that those problems for which we can easily obtain
data are the most important problems. Planners are very
uncomfortable working with problems for which there are no
facts, but they must be careful not to accept that posi-
tivist fallacy that a problem for which there is no hard
data is not an important problem. Many of our most impor-
tant health goals will have to be talked about in terms of
guesses, soft data and subjective judgments. (Perhaps

one of our first health goals ought to be obtaining harder


data about problems for which none now exist.)

Health Planning , 1969, pp. *N 20.


PROFILE OF REGION AND COUNTIES

Montana is known as the land of contrast, and the northwestern portion

is perhaps the most diverse of all the state's regions. Composed of seven

contiguous counties (Flathead, Lake, Lincoln, Mineral, Missoula, Ravalli,

and Sanders), it totals 19,717 square miles, containing 15^,691 persons,

22.3 percent of the state's population. Of these, 3937 are American Indians,

most of whom reside on the Flathead Indian Reservation. As with the rest

of Montana, most of Region I is rural, with the major cities and trade cen-

ters located at Missoula and Kalispell.

The geographic composition of the area has had a profound effect upon

settlement and economy. Mountains punctuate the region, serving to isolate

one community from another, especially during the long winter months.

The northwestern areawide is economically "the most diverse region,

containing vast agricultural sections, as well as major segments of the

lumber, mining, and tourism industries. These primary activities, all

seasonal in nature, result in Region I's having a high unemployment rate.

At no time prior to 1950 has area per capita income equalled the state

as a whole. As presented in the CHP grant application information, the

area's most impressive year was 1950, when per capita income reached a high

of 93.3 percent of Montana's average. This figure, however, had decreased

by 1966 to 89.2 percent. Further, the distribution of per capita personal

income by county is quite irregular, with the three urban counties of Flat-

head, Lincoln and Missoula registered above the state average of 329^2, while

three counties fail to reach the S2000 mark.


10

A more detailed descriptive county breakdown follows. While studying

it, it is imperative to consider the fact that these individual components

of population, physical location, job type and availability, and level of

income interrelate in such a manner as to influence the county's residents;

the county profile reflects the individual's profile. (See Table I, page

Flathead County , the second most populated in the region, has, according

to 1970 census figures, jM-,h&0 persons, 5.6 percent of the state's total.

Although Flathead is the second largest county, it ranks fourth in the

area for unemployment, with 9.8 percent of the labor force without jobs.

Lake County , according to 1970 figures, ranks fourth in Area I, with a

population of 1^,W5, representing 2.0 percent of the total state population.

This county is especially noteworthy since it has by far the largest Indian

population of any county in the region--2,199 individuals, or 15.2 percent

of the population. Compared to the other counties in the Northwest Areawide,

Lake is the smallest, yet has the second highest population density. (See

Table II, page 13). Residents have an annual family income of less than

$3,000.

Mineral County vastly exceeds the rest of Region I in its dollars spent

for alcoholic beverages. It is credited with $73. 60 spent per person in

fiscal year 1971-72, almost $13.00 higher than both the regional and state

averages. (See Table 3, page 1^ and Table 5» page 15.)

Missoula County , the most densely populated county in the northwestern

region, is the major urban area. Missoula County covers 2,612 square miles,

averaging 22.3 persons per square mile. This is almost five times the popu-

lation density of the state.


)

11

Missoula, home of the University of Montana, is the major trade and

employment center of the region. It is also considered the hub of health

services, having more physicians than the other six counties combined.

Missoula has the highest percentage of persons completing more than twelve

years of school (65.5 percent of the men; 71.4 percent of the women). (See

Table IV, page 14.

Sanders County has the second smallest population in Region I, compri-

sing approximately one percent of the state's population. Its 1970 popula-

tion figure of 7.093 represents a growth of less than 1500 persons since

1930. Sanders County is a predominantly rural area in the picturesque

Clark Fork Valley.

Lincoln County , according to 1970 census figures, led the region in

population increase, gaining 44.1 percent. This growth, attributed to the

influx of persons involved in the Libby Dam project, resulted in a county

population of 18,063 persons, or 2.6 percent of the state's total.

Much of Lincoln County's 3»1?4 square miles consists of national forest,

and correlated to this, most jobs center around the logging industry. This

work is often seasonal in this somewhat isolated far northwestern county.

The Libby Dam project has provided Lincoln County with a degree of

prosperity, giving it the highest median family income of $9711 in the

region. 47.2 percent of the population have family incomes exceeding

$10,000. In conjunction with this, Lincoln County's 4.8 percent of persons

receiving welfare benefits make it second lowest in the region.

Mineral County has the highest percentage of unemployment in the area

in its civilian labor force, numbering 13.8 percent. This high figure

mirrors the effect of a general trend of decreasing productivity in


12

agriculture in Mineral County. Corresnonding to this, Mineral County has

the second highest percentage of county population receiving welfare benefits

in the region, and 9.3 percent of the residents have an annual family income

of less than $3000.

Ravalli County is a predominantly rural county, in the scenic Bitterroot

Valley. It underwent a 16.8 percent population increase over the 1960-70

period. More persons are employed in agriculture, forestries, and fisheries

in Ravalli County than in any of the other counties in Region I, with agri-

culture alone employing 23.8 percent of the population.


Table 1 13
POPULATION OF COUNTIES IN AREA I

Number- 19 70 % of State Population

FLATHEAD 39 .,460 _ _. 5.6

LAKE 14.445 2.0

,
LINCOLN 18,063 2.6

MINERAL 2,953 0.4

MISSOULA 58,263 8.3

RAVALLI 14,409 2.0

SANDERS 7,093 1.0

I
AREA 154,691 22.3

Source: Table I A; Area I


Montana County Profile p. 3
Comprehensive Health Planning, 1973

Table 2

NO. OF INDIANS AMERICAN INDIANS AS


7.OF COUNTY P0PUT^T*0N
1930 19 1930 19/0

FLATHEAD 57 327 .2 .8

LAKE 1,781 2,199 18.6 15.2

LINCOLN 11 209 .1 1.1

MINERAL 16 .5

MISSOULA 204 660 .7 .6

RAVALLI 40 142 .3 .9

SANDERS 438 384 7.6 5.4

AREA 2,531 3,937 3.3 2.5


i

Source: Table 3, Area I


Montana County Profile p. 33
Comprehensive Health Planning, 1973
Table 3 14

PERCENT LABOR FORCE UNEMPLOYED

MALE FEMALE TOTAL

FLATHEAD 10.0' 9.5 9.8

LAKE 7.5 4.7 6.5

LINCOLN 10.1 11.0 10.3

MINERAL 17.1 7.7 13.8

MISSOULA 7.2 8.2 7.5

RAVALLI 7.3 8.2 7.9

SANDERS 14.2 7.0 11.8


i

REGION I 8.8 8.3 8.6

Source: Table 6, Area I


Montana County Profile p. 53
Comprehensive Health Planning, 1973

Table 4

LAND AREA, NUMBER OF PERSONS PER SQUARE MILE

LAND AREA POPULATION DENSITY

FLATHEAD 5.137 7.7

LAKE 494 9.7


1

LINCOLN 3.714 4.9

MINERAL 1.222 2.4

MISSOULA 2.612 22.3

RAVALLI 2.382 6.0

SANDERS 2.773 2.6

AREA 19,339 3.0

Source: Table 5, Area I


Montana County Profile p. 53
Comprehensive Health Planning^-, 1973
Table 5 15

Number and percent welfare benefit recipients by type of benefit, for


selected groups.

AID TO DEPENDENT CHILDREN

Family Children General Assistance


No. 7. No*i>" 7. No. 7.

FLATHEAD 210 14.1 512 34.4 30 2.0

LAKE 213 13.4 570 35.3 53 3.4

LINCOLN 122 14.2 310 36.0 38 4.4

MINERAL 24 13.0 62 33.4 .3 .4

MISSOULA 495 16.6 1.165 39.0 82 2.7

RAVALLI 78 10.6 180 24.4 11 1.5

SANDERS 36 10.2 89 25.2 8 2.3

REGION I 1,173 14.3 2,838 35.1 !


222.8 2.7

Source: Table 93, Area I


Montana County Profile p. 93
Comprehensive Health Planning, 1973
16

REFERENCES

Grant Application for State Assisted 314(b) Areawide Health Planning,


Fiscal Year 1972.

Montana County Profiles, Montana State Department of Health, Division


of Comprehensive Health Planning, 1973.

Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Montana State
Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fiscal Year 1972.
17

I. Goal One

We will attempt to minimize fragmentation of services, and to effect

agency cooperation in an attempt to integrate existing services to

more efficiently utilize those services which already exist, and to

make accessible to the alcoholic client those services which vail

most benefit him.

A. Objective : To achieve agency cooperation and better understanding

between the professionals who treat alcoholics and problem drinkers

and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).

Situation Statement ; There are presently many agencies/services

willing and able to serve the needs of the alcoholic. Problems

exist in many areas, reflecting lack of harmony in the past, un-

awareness of just what agencies/services are available, and inde-

cision re: to whom to refer. There is also a breakdown in refer-

rals. Agencies/services should be accessible, both physically and

psychologically, to the individuals they are designed to serve,

as well as to other referring agency services. It seems reason-

able to attempt to effectively utilize those services which already

exist, and which may be under-utilized, before attempting new

programs.

1. It is proposed that a coordinator be hired to help integrate

existing agencies/services in Region I. Contact person:

Bob Solomon, Chief


Bureau of Alcohol and Drug Dependency
'

Helena, Montana 59^01


18 _
2. County committees should be set up in each county. The coordina-

tor would be useful as a facilitator in organising county commit-

tees. The following are possibilities which a committee and co-

ordinator, working together, may be able to achieve:

a. Cooperative seminars, with a representative of each of the

alcohol agencies/services in each county (or region) attending.

Rationale: This is designed to establish a basis for dialogue,

a priority which has consistently been requested.

b. Effect publicity of the options available to individuals seeking

help for problems of alcoholism and problem drinking, as well as

to the agencies/services making the referral. (See Goal 3»

Public Information Campaign)

c. With the help of local agencies/services, establish a procedure

for referrals, to minimize breakdown of referrals. Aim is to

enable more individuals to receive help.

d. Explore the possibility of a resource index, with counselor

background/capabilities/special interests, available to alcoholics.

Rationale : For more complete explanation of the possible advan-

tages of matching counselor background with clients, see Social

Class and the Treatment of Alcoholism , Wolfgang, Schmidt, ejt al ,

University of Toronto Press, 1968.

e. Agencies/services should make provision for the sharing of ser-

vices and records, while taking care to maintain confidentiality.

B« Objective : Provision for transportation to Galen.

Situation S tatement: Currently, agencies/services needing transportation

to Galen for clients have faced a number of problems:


19

1. Individuals taking the bus from Libby to Galen have a two-heur layover

in Kali spell, which has constituted serious problems.

2. Sheriff's departments sometimes are unwilling to transport individuals

when the court has requested transportation, resulting in a breakdown

in the referral, and non-treatment of the individual.

3. When sheriff's departments are willing to provide transportation for

the individuals, they face numerous problems:

a. Lack of manpower, resulting in the individual being "manacled and

treated as a prisoner, 1

b. Insurance for sheriff's vehicles does not cover individual passen-

gers unless they are under arrest or there is an eme^jonoy situation.

4. Local AA groups .have been providing transportation for individuals "out

of pocket." Not only is this expense incurred for the individual AA

member, but if he provider the transportation, he assumes considerable

risk.

5. Individuals often have no transportation of their own, nor the means to

arrange for it.

Counties further from Galen, quite logically, see this as a greater problem

than does Missoula County, There is some feeling that the individual

should be able to take the bus by himself /herself ; if this is not possible,

it is felt that treatment is unlikely to be effective.

1. Each county committee, with the help of the coordinator, should make

recommendations and see that they are effected, re: transportation for

the individual to out-of-town treatment facilities, if they are neces-

sary. These facilities may include detox, half-way houses, Galen,

or out-of-state accommodations. Appendix A outlines some of the questiona


20

which will need to be considered when making the decision. In the interim,

perhaps the Welfare Department will continue to provide funds for indi-

viduals to take the bus, or sheriff's departments may be willing to assume

the burden of transportation until concrete arrangements can be worked out,

and liaison could be effected to this end.


21

II. Goal Two

We will attempt to alleviate the suffering of the alcoholic or problem

drinker and hisAer family by making him aware that alcoholism is a

disease, and a treatable disease 4 and to reduce the stigma accompany-

ing such disease. (Disease-stigma also covered under Goal 3 outline)

A. Objective : To provide help for the alcoholic — make him aware of

his problem. To help in early detection and treatment for the

alcoholic, and counseling for families of alcoholics.

Situation Statement ; It seems reasonable to intervene in drinking

problems at earlier stages, rather than letting the disease pro-

gress. Individuals can be made aware that they have: 1) a predi-

lection for/to the problem; or 2) a problem; and intervention may

be greatly facilitated by this early awareness. This is counter

to the prevailing ethos that the individual may not be receptive

to help unless and until he has "reached bottom." Families can

be helped, even when the alcoholic cannot.

1. A North Dakota mental health association concept, with some

revisions, may be useful to this end. North Dakota Mental

Health has two published documents:

a. A Mental Health Educational Program for North Dakota's

Beauty Colleges

b. A M ental Health Educational Program for North Dakota's

Beverage Handlers

Each document outlines curriculum aimed at teaching: 1)

beauticians, and 2) bartenders, cocktail waitresses, bar owners


22

how to cope with the problems of their clientele, and outlines discus-

sions to center around:

a. Comparison of physical illness with mental illness;

b. Consequences of not receiving treatment for either of the above;

c. Identification as it affects normal behavior;

d. Community resources are delineated, and their functions explained;

e. Role playing is utilized with an illustration of the "right" vs.

the "wrong" way to deal with the situation.

Note is made that "clients and patrons have found in these people

willing listeners who won't make damning judgments of them and their

problems. For some unknown reason, these clients and patrons will

reveal problems bothering them that they wouldn't discuss with their

families, close friends, and even professionals."

2. To promote the concept of occupational assistance for the alcoholic;

to help assist alcoholics and problem drinkers, as well as those with

financial, credit, and marital problems; to facilitate early interven-

tion when alcoholism problems are indicated. One aim of the program is

occupational assistance. Consumer credit counseling in Missoula has

agreed to assume administrative responsibility on an interim basis for

up to one year. The program is sponsored at this time by five employers

in Missoula, several more of whom are considering involvement. Contact

person for Missoula County:

Bill Potts, Occupational Consultant


Alcohol and Drug Dependence Bureau
Helena, Montana 59^01
Telephone: ^49-3 1 76

A similar plan is being developed in Flathead and Lincoln Counties.


23

Contact person for Flathead and Lincoln Counties:

Gene DeGooyer, Occupational Consultant


Alcohol and Drug Dependence Bureau
Helena, Montana- 59601
Telephone: 449-3176

B. Objective : Follow-up for individuals released from Galen should become

a standard part of the individual's re-entry into the community, taking

care to safeguard the rights of the individual.

Situation Statement : Presently many agencies/services exist to provide

services for the alcoholic recently released from Galen; however, these

agencies/services are not informed of the individual's return to the

community (with the exception of law enforcement, if_ they request noti-

fication that those drinking/driving offenders who were sentenced by

the court are returning to the community).

Part of the problem lies in the individual's right to safeguard his

right to privacy, and Galen may not release his name for purposes of

follow-up unless the individual patient so desires.

1. The individual should be encouraged by Galen personnel to request

follow-up services when he/she returns to the community, and be

given a choice of the agencies/services which can/will provide

such a service. These may include:

a. Mental Health

b. Public Health

c. Ministers

d. Welfare Department social workers, etc.

But existing agencies/services are only able to provide such help if


2k

they are made aware of the need. Mental health clinics indicate a

willingness co provide such services, but they would need more staff to

cope with the work lead.

Mental Health notes a willingness to submit a request to NIMH for an

additional staff member (s) to be attached to mental health clinics in

Region I, to counsel those with problems of alcohol and problem drinking,

specifically if it is requested by the CHP board.

^" O bjective ; Special help for the drinking driver, the driving-while-

intoxicated individual, and DWI education.

Situatio n Statement : Much concern is evidenced in all seven counties

regarding the problem of alcoholism and driving.

Highway 93 v
which rans the length of Region I through Ravalli, Missoula,

Lake and Flathead counties, had the greatest number of deaths per

million miles travelled in 1972. No concerted effort has been made to

combat this problem.

31 individuals killed in 1972 on Highway 93

30 individuals killed in 1973 on Highway 93

(it has been noted that existing laws requiring automatic suspension of

driving license upon conviction of DWI appears to deter judges and

juries from convicting.)

Various syllabi arc available, including:

Hennepin County Alcohol Safety Action Project


623 Second Avenue South
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55^02

and DWI Counterattack:

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety


734 13cb Street, NW
Washington, DC 20005
25

Of those reviewed by the CUP staff, DWI Counterattack seems the most easily

implemented at the community level.

1. The following are steps necessary to make the DWI Counterattack program

operational. (See page 3 of the DWI Counterattack Club Guide for steps

preliminary to introducing DWI Counterattack to the community.)

a. A sponsoring group or club must be established.

b. The group or club orders copies of film and syllabi from the above

address.

c. AAA Club legal counsel in Helena must collate state and local laws

regarding drinking and driving violations as a prerequisite to

implementation.

d. "Kick-off" luncheon is suggested, where city officials, police,

educators, insurance industry representatives, religious leaders,

etc. , will be given a preview of the film, and asked for their

support. It will be necessary to involve all segments of the

community who have a "vested" interest in DWI offenses.

e. It may be useful to contact the state safety coordinator, who can

be contacted via the governor's office. He may help the program

qualify for matching federal funds, under Section 402 of the

Highway Safety Act of 1966.

f. A DWI Counterattack or similar consultant on DICE court-attached

schools might be utilized by community planners of the program.

g. Education of judges/ justices of the peace and public understanding

of the real issues involved in the DWI problem.

1) Discussion of and possible recommendation for a lower than .10

presumptive level. In Idaho, the presumptive level is .08.


26

It has already been lowered in Montana from . 15» but there is

interest in seeing it lowered still more.

2) Currently, driving offenses are filed according to arresting

officer's (highway patrolman's) name, rather than by offense.

If statistics are seen as necessary concomitants to planning

and problem solving, perhaps offenses should be filed by cate-

gory of offense, rather than by officer's name.

3) Judges can advise bicycles, teaching wife to drive, etc.

2. Publicization of the argument that temporary loss of driving license

is a trivial hardship, when set against the loss of life on the highway.

3. The Liquor Control Board should enforce the existing law (Section 4-160

of Montana Alcohol Code), which makes it a misdemeanor to serve liquor

to an individual who is intoxicated.


27

HI. Goal Three

We will attempt to educate the community regarding the nature of alco-

holism, and the role the general public plays in the rehabilitation of

the alcoholic; to lessen the stigma of the disease in the eyes of the

general public; and to make the community aware that its attitude is

important in any treatment attempt.

A. Objective : To provide education regarding alcohol and alcoholism.

Situation Statement : A real need exists for accurate information

to be disseminated, and to involve all segments of the community

in the "awareness process."

Individuals interviewed for the "Alcoholism Needs Assessment" felt

that lack of a positive self-image contributed to an individual's

dependence on alcohol (and other drugs), and that one of the most

important contributions an alcohol plan could make would be to

promote positive self-image concepts in grade school settings.

This was seen to require workshops to teach teachers to teach.

It is also important to merely discuss alcoholism, preferably

without euphemism. The more high profile, the more discussable

alcoholism becomes, as with mental retardation and mental illness,

the less stigmatized it becomes, thus enabling the individual

and/or his/her family to seek help. It is felt that prevention

as well as intervention can be enhanced through public under-

standing and information.

The Health Education Bureau in Helena is currently involved in

curriculum development for the state of Montana, and has indicated

an interest in recommendations from the community level.


28

It is proposed that educational information be disseminated through the

following mediums:

1. Schools

a. The committee should become familiar with the Alberta Plan , which is

designed to increase the self-concept of the individual student.

Similar plans might also be reference sources.

b. The committee should work closely with health educators for curri-

culum study at:

1) The state level. Contact person:

Maxine Homer
Health Education Bureau
Montana Department of Health
and Environmental Science
Helena, Montana- 59601
Telephone : hhS-^kkh

2) Local levels. Contact person:

Francis Alves
Missoula 'Public Health Department
Missoula, Montana 59801
Telephone: 728-^510

Communities working with Health Education curriculum committees

may reach some agreement as to:

1) The kinds of information that should be given to school students,

2) Who should provide the information; i.e., classroom teachers,

curriculum specialists, health educators, etc.

A listing is available from NIMH briefly describing curricula

developed for, and now in use in, public schools. From these, in-

formation may be obtained as to the kinds of information to impart

to various ages of students. The document is entitled:

Education and Training About Alcohol


Part A: Education Bibliography
Part B: Curriculum Guides Listing
29

It may be obtained by writing to:

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol


Information
P. 0. Box '23^5
Rockville, Maryland 20852

Public information campaign

This would be designed to inform the community, the individual with the

alcohol problem, and his/her family, and might utilize the following:

a. Any of the l6mm color films, from ten to sixty seconds in length,

for TV public service announcements. Included are such titles as

"Good Old Harry," "Social Drinking," "Typical Alcoholic," "Your

Child."

b. Radio public service announcements. NIAAA radio tapes, from ten to

sixty seconds in length.

c. Guide to audiovisual materials. A list of films dealing with alco-

hol abuse and alcoholism, including description of content, sale

and rental fees, and audience level.

d. Posters (Might be posted in public places, and should include where

help is available.)

e. Various publications are available on all aspects of alcohol abuse.

Titles include Community Services for Alcoholics: Some Beginning

Principles , and Directory of State and Local Alcoholism Information

Services .

Above publications and media resources are available from:

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information


P. 0. Box' 23^5
P.ockville, Maryland 20852

f. Make audiences (TV, radio, magazine and newspaper, as well as

community) aware that proper drinking habits can be taught, and we


"

30

should make every effort to do so. Publicization of the following

kinds of arguments should be encouraged:

1) Drinking moderately is nearly always more enjoyable than getting

heavily drunk.

2) Liquor should be served with food, or as an accompaniment to

meals.

g. Advertisements for the consumption of alcohol should be in conjunc-

tion with other activities, consequently reducing the extent to

which the culture singles liquor out as a hyper-emotional symbol.

h. Continuing publication of law enforcement information, which indi-

cates the amount of liquor one can drink in relation to his weight.

i. Positive cooperation from the retail trade should be elicited,

making it easy for a customer to order fruit juice rather than

liquor without feeling disapproval from the barmaid or cocktail

waitress. At home parties, individuals should not be made to feel

unique if they opt for a soft drink.

j. Public service advertising should be promoted, such as Seagram's

New Year's plea to holiday drivers, "Make the last one for the

road a coffee.

k. Many restrictions preventing the use of advertising for positive

alcohol information should be eliminated. Ordinances which forbid

alcohol advertisers to portray women and children in drinking scenes

should eliminate these rules, thus integrating it with the normal

course of life.

3. Community Publicity Committee

a. It may be useful to conduct a bumper sticker campaign or similar


:

31

publicity campaign. Perhaps the Jaycees or other groups interested

in alcoholism would be willing to sponsor it. Minimal prizes, but

it could generate a great deal of publicity.

b. Should help define the role of the community in alcoholism, and make

the community aware of its role. "Society has a responsibility to

aid the alcoholic in his attempt to gain control of his illness, and

the alcoholic has a right to expect understanding and encouragement

from society." .(195^ Advisory Committee Report to the 33rd Legis-

lative Assembly)

c. Might refer to Community Organization , by George Bragers and Harry

Specht, Columbia University Press.

d. Communities must be made aware that alcoholism is an illness, and

treatable. We need to substitute factual information for prejudice,

emotion, and misinformation.

*f. Speakers' Bureau

a. Communities utilizing community organizational resources and tech-

niques should organize a task force to arrange for a speakers'

bureau.

1) List of persons interested in the problems and solutions of al-

coholism and problem drinking, to include professional resource

people from mental health, public health, etc., and willing to

speak, should be compiled. These individuals would be available

to speak to the following groups (list to be added to by com-

munity groups)

a) Religious

b) Political

c) Social
) s

32
d Women •

e) Fraternal

f) Health

2) Included in talks might be information re: what services are

available to the community, as well as those which exist within

a given community.

3) Speakers must be oriented toward an enlightened view of alcohol-

ism; i.e., community responsibility, the disease concept (alco-

holism as treatable) 4 role of family, as well as institutions,

etc., all aimed at reducing the stigma accompanying alcoholism,

with the ultimate aim of allowing more individuals to become

aware that they, or someone close to them^ has a problem^ and

to allow him/her to seek help,

b. A packet might be developed for the speakers to describe what re-

sources are available to and within the community, where facilities

are located, and who might mo»t benefit from which services. (Also

see Section A 3 c and d)


33
IV. Goal Four

We will attempt to maximize utilization of resources to such an extent

that services can/will be provided to as large a number of individuals

as possible who suffer from the effects of problem drinking and alco-

holism.

A. Objective : To provide adequate emergency treatment and detoxifica-

tion facilities within each county.

Situation Statement : Every county in Region I indicates a need for

emergency care for the acutely intoxicated. Historically, alcohol

detox has occurred in jails. With the advent of the passage of the

UI and TA (Rouse Bill 909; See Appendix Bl and B2), which seeks to

decriminalize public drunkenness, the need for emergency detox ser-

vices will become even more acute. Many services are currently

provided within the area on an out-patient basis, but emergency

in-patient care is singularly lacking. Available emergency services

are limited to 1) ambulance services and 2) hospital emergency rooms.

Currently, hospitals are often reluctant to admit individuals suffer-

ing from results of exceedingly high consumption of alcohol, for,

among others, the following reasons: 1) uncertainty as to who will

pay the bill; 2) alcoholic individuals often require segregation

from other patients; J>) they require more intensive nursing, more

than the majority of patients, often creating a staffing problem.

1. A committee should be formed on each county to investigate the

possibility of detox units, utilizing existing facilities in

area hospitals. This would seem the most logical and least

expensive approach to an otherwise potentially very expensive


service. This would necessitate consideration of the following steps:

a. Liaison with hospitals and doctors

b. Liaison with law enforcement

c. Investigation of possible sources for financial payment to the

hospital.

2. Decision on facilities appropriate for care of acutely intoxicated in-

dividuals. Assurance must be made that all individuals with a critical

need.. for such services will be attended to without delay.

Short-term acute care for detox service should be available where staff

is on duty twenty- four hours a day, seven days a week, where the alco-

holic, his family, or law enforcement can turn, to arrange for immediate

appropriate service. The hospital appears to be best equipped to perform

these functions in rural areas. Screening and diagnosis could occur in

the emergency detox, and enable the alcoholic, with the aid of agencies/

services representatives, to be channeled to the agencies/services most

appropriate for care.

Specific information regarding detox facilities is available in a

publication titled Developing Community Services for Alcoholics: Some

Beginning Principles . It is available from:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


National Institute of Mental Health
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, Maryland 20852
35

CONCLUSION

Survey of Recommendations

GOAL I

Objective A: We see a need for more agencies and services to integrate

their services, for inter- referral mechanisms to be de-

veloped, and for liaison between departments to occur.

Objective B: Transportation should be arranged for those individuals

needing transportation to Galen.

GOAL II

Objective A: We recommend intervention for drinking problems at

earlier stages via education, occupational alcoholism

programs, or perhaps utilizing North Dakota Mental Health

Association concepts, as described in the text of the plan.

Objective B: We recommend Galen personnel encourage individuals to

seek follow-up from agencies and services in their own

communities, when these individuals return home.

Objective C: Special help should be provided for the drinking driver

and the DWI individual.

GOAL III

Objective A: Alcohol and alcoholism through the schools' curricula,

public information campaigns, publicity committees and

speakers ' bureaus.

GOAL IV

Objective A: Adequate emergency treatment and detoxification facili-

ties need to be developed.


36

The entire continuum of services, from entry to services, the treatment

process itself, and follow-up afterwards, appears to lack continuity.

Region I has only one detoxification center, and the entire state of

Montana has only one treatment center (Galen).

One solution to the fragmentation of services for alcoholics is to

organize all the parts which currently exist into a coherent whole, so

services will be provided the alcoholic individual from entry, through

treatment and follow-up, so continuity of services can be maintained.


ADDENDA

1. Appendix A Transportation

2. Appendix B Expansion of Alcohol (Half-Way House Concept)

3. Appendix C Half-Way Houses

k. Services Available to Alcoholics and Problem Drinkers in Region I

5. Description of Services

6. Map of Region I Services

7. Requests for Information from Individuals Involved with Alcoholism

and Problem Drinking

A. Requests for Information: Not Received

8. Missoula Police Department Statistics

A. Adult

B. Juvenile

9. Crime Control Commission Statistics

A. State

B. Region I

10. Montana Highway Patrol (A Fatal Accident Experience, 1971)

(See h above for additional alcohol-involved vehicle accidents)

11. Profile of Galen: Patients

12. Galen Statistics, Indicating Dollars Per Capita Spent on Alcohol

by County

13. Apparent Consumption of Beverages in Montana

A. Wine

B. Malt

C. Distilled Spirits
APPENDIX A

ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION IN THE ALCOHOL PLAN

Transportation to Galen

Transportation of individuals from outlying areas to Galen is an

issue we should address; i.e., what is the best way for transportation

to be provided? The individual probably will not be able to drive him-

self; often his family will be unable to provide transportation.

Who should be responsible for transportation? The state, the

county, the community?

What funding sources are available for transportation?

One sheriff sees a need for an ambulance or special courier,

equipped to restrain, without cruelly handling, the individual in-

volved, whether his problem be alcohol, drugs, or mental illness.

The bus has served as an adequate means of transportation, except

for counties farther from Galen. When there is a two-hour layover, the

individual may decide to have "just one drink," and never make it the

rest of the way.

Individuals have spoken of having the money to pay a driver, but

unable to find anyone to take two days from work in order to make the

trip.

The AA groups, or individual members, have often subsidized trips,

and/or driven the individual to Galen; this is unsatisfactory, due to

the risk involved in case of accident.


APPENDIX B

ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION IN THE ALCOHOL PLAN

Expansion of the Alcohol


Half-Way House Concept

UA and ITA, revised to House Bill 909» may present many problems

to Region I. The concept is sound; i.e., it is designed to decrimina-

lize public drunkenness. Acts involving drinking and driving, or drink-

ing and disturbance of the peace, will remain crimes, but following a

Washington, D.C. ,
precedent, mere drunkenness in public will no longer

be a criminal offense. However, passage of this bill will create

problems for communities which have previously arrested such individuals

and detoxed them in jail. These individuals will no longer be taken to

jail for such help, but will still need a facility in which to recover

or to sleep.

Consequently, the community may need to become involved in alter-

native facilities to jail, or expansion of the alcohol half-way house

concept, which may utilize the 'flop' house or dormitory concepts,

housing individuals in old hotels or similar structures, and the con-

comitant problems of fire safety standards, financing, etc.

Mr. Ralph Fisher, Probation and Parole, Western Division Supervisor,

whose territory includes the seven western Montana counties in Area I,

as well as Galen and Warm Springs, has cited a need for a 'flop' house

or similar accomodation, utilizing existing facilities, which would in-

clude temporary housing not only for alcoholics, but also drug offenders

and alcohol or drug offenders recently released from prison.

This concept is in the very early stages of discussion, but Mr.

2
Fisher feels fairly broadly based community support could be elicited.

Originally half-way houses were not strictly for a narrowly-defined

group of individuals, but housed a variety of individuals half way

between previous and future lives.

It may be possible for individuals involved in diverse concepts

but with similar needs, and concerned with these problems, to meet,

dialogue, and work together.

The Region I CHP staff will be happy to assist individuals or groups

in any way it can.


APPENDIX C

ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION IN THE ALCOHOL PLAN

Half-Way Houses

Half-way houses were not an issue at the time of the needs assess-

ment, but have become rather more so in the five months since. Following

are some of the issues around which discussion has revolved.

Region I may find the half-way house concept very useful, with some

modifications. Three houses are currently in operation: one in Kalis-

pell, to the extreme north of the region; in Ronan, 59 miles south of

Kalispell; and in Missoula, 50 miles south of Ronan. Each is on the

main highway, 93» which extends the length of the region. Each seems

to be a necessary component, since the one in Missoula serves a large

urban area, the one in Ronan primarily an Indian population, and the one

in Kalispell serving] .the population to the north of the region.

There is some criticism of half-way houses, since it thus far has

not been ascertained how many patient days have been provided by each

half-way house. It is our understanding that the Alcohol and Drug De-

pendence Bureau has only recently begun to send out forms to the half-

way houses, which are to be completed, and will indicate the number of

individuals served. Some have suggested that the money spent for these

services, since they serve such a small segment of the alcoholic popula-

tion, would be better utilized for other services, particularly community

awareness and education programs. This is a determination which the

NWAHPC Board will have to make. There is some criticism of half-way

houses in that they serve such a small segment of the population; i.e.,
most alcoholics are family members, and most often elect to stay within

the family unit, unless undergoing treatment. There has been a dichotomy

between what the ADDB/DEHS expects, as far as half-way house 'performance'

and what it receives. Part of this problem has occurred because there

has been inadequate record-keeping on the part of half-way houses, which

in turn may be in part due to the heavy work load imposed on the half-

way house manager, who acts as director, counselor, and general overseer,

as well as record-keeper/bookkeeper.

This might be remedied by:

1. Seminars or in-service training programs, which would instruct

the manager in the techniques required by the ADDB to meet its adminis-

trative management requirements; or

2. Hiring of additional staff, perhaps on a part-time basis, to

keep books and records, compile statistics, fill out forms, etc.

It might also be useful to consider, in conjunction with half-way

house operations, a 'flop-house' concept. (See Appendix B) If the UA

and ITA is passed by the 43rd Legislative Assembly, public drunkenness

will no longer be a crime, and individuals who were previously taken to

jail to be detoxed will no longer be taken to jail, but may still need

a place to recover, or to sleep.

Community-based financial support has been minimal, and until some

idea of the number of individuals served is obtained, it would be

difficult to make any decision regarding future CHP support of half-way

houses.
1. Crisis Center

Provides a telephone listener between 3 and 7 p.m. daily, who is

available for troubled individuals to call and discuss their prob-

lems. The telephone listener is prepared to make emergency, as well

as general, referrals to agencies.

2. University Counseling

Provides long- and short-term consultation, individual and group

therapy. Not limited to University of Montana students.

3. Hospitals

Usually 2k hours daily in-patient emergency service. Need a doctor

for admittance.

k. Salvation Army

Provides emergency meals, lodging, and gas for transients. Aid is

given on the basis of individual need, willingness to accept help,

and the organization's ability to help. Provided more than 1,000

beds for transients in 1973.

5. Occupational Assistance Program

Attempts to help employees with various problems — financial, occu-

pational, marital, including alcohol. Not yet operational in

western Montana, but programs are being developed in Missoula,

Flathead and Lincoln counties.

6. Alcoholism Counseling and Referral

Education and referral services for detoxification and treatment.

Provides out-patient counseling.


7. Detoxification Center

Provides in-patient emergency services and detoxification treatment

in hospital setting.

8. Half-way House

Provides room and board for aftercare and/or rehabilitation of male

alcoholics. Usually provides information and referral services for

and about alcoholism, including community education, family and group

counseling.

9. Public Health Department

Provides health educator who seeks to provide community education to

prevent alcoholism. Currently involved in DWI and workshop on sub-

stance use and abuse for teachers of grades five through eight in

Missoula County.

10. Private physicians

Provide emergency and long-term medical treatment for alcoholics.

Doctor is necessary for admittance of alcoholics to hospital.

11. Juvenile Office

Works with juveniles who have broken the law. After a hearing, a

period of probation is decided, and the conditions of the probation

are discussed with the offender and parents.

12. Public Health Nurse

Provides family counseling in the home; crisis intervention; involved

with the whole family.


8

13. Courts

Justice of the peace and city police courts handle most of the

drinking and driving offenses.

14. Jail

Individuals are often incarcerated in jail when intoxicated, and

allowed to "dry out" while detained. With the passage of House Bill

909, other facilities will need to be made available.

15. Psychiatrist

Provides insight counseling for various problems, including alco-

holism, both for the alcoholic and his family. Indian Health Service

in Lake County has available psychiatrist.

16. Mental Health

Staff consists of psychiatric social workers and psychologists.

Services include outpatient care or in-patient care at hospitals.

Includes some group therapy, crafts and other activities for adults.

17. Welfare Department

Provides Aid to the Disabled for alcoholics and their families.

There are no residency requirements for services.

18. AA (Alcoholics Anonymous)

Comprised of former alcoholics whose aim is to rehabilitate alco-

holics through sharing of experiences. Group therapy provided at

each meeting. Twenty-four-hour phone service is provided for emer-

gency assistance,

a. Alan on

Group composed of friends and relatives of alcoholics who meet to


discuss the problems they share as individuals who live with and

relate to alcoholics.

b. Alateen

Organization for the young relatives of alcoholics. The group

meets to share experiences and work toward solving or handling

problems which each member has in common — living with and relating

to a relative who is an alcoholic.

Information compiled from:

Montana Social Service, Health and Recreational


Dir ectory 1974
,

by John W. Bauer
Department of Social Work
Montana 'State University
Bozeman, Montana

and

Health and Welfare R esource Guide for Missoula,


Montana, 1973 '

by Morton Arkava, et al
Department of Social Work
University of Montana
Missoula, Montana
Services available to
alcoholics and problem
drinkers - Montana Compre-
hensive Health Planning
Region I.

(*j/ Vocational Rehabilitation


^Welfare Department
<^» Mental Health Center

Q Psychiatrist
U\Jail
ggg* Crisis Center
QUniversitv Counseling
Wl Hosnital aid Emergency
Services

V,i Salvation Army


^ Occupational Assistance
Alcoholic Courselinf and
Referral
/f Detoxification venter

^( half-way House
$ Public Health

A Private Physician

-f" Juvenile OiTice


Public health Nurse
Jfc Court

AAMcoHolics Anon "nous

SEVEN t/EGTKRN MONTANA COUNTIES


OF COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH PLANNING
REGION I
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M F Indian White Black Other


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3. Liquor Laws ... ..'".


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Total: 266 High proportion of disorderly conduct


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Total : 374

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ALCOHOL RELATED CRIMES - 1972 **

Lincoln Flathead Sanders Missoula Ravalli Mineral Lake

Drunk 40 146 3 525 36 5 168

DWI 146 191 16 221 39 1 93

Possession 60 115 7 347 4 80

TOTAL 246 452 31 1093 79 6 341

(Includes police departments within each county.)

**Courtesy Criminal Control Commission, Helena, Montana


MONTANA HIGHWAY PATROL
Fatal Accident Experience
1971

There were 275 fatal traffic accidents on the streets and highways of
Montana during 1971.

Speed too fast for conditions, drinking, or a combination of the two


were factors in 161, or 597. of these fatal accidents. The remaining
114, or 417J were attributed to other causes.

Speed too fast for conditions was a contributing factor in 93, or 347.
of the fatal accidents. A drinking driver or pedestrian was involved
in 113, or 417. of the fatal accidents.

143 (527.) of the fatal accidents occurred. .during daylight — 172 killed
132 (487.) of the fatal accidents occurred during darkness — 156 killed

17 (67.) of the fatal accidents involved motorcycles

328 persons were killed 114 (357.) of persons killed had been drinking

224 (687.) were males


104 (327.) were females

50 (157.) were teenagers

178 drivers were killed


80 (457.) of drivers killed had been drinking

113 passengers were killed


23 (207.) of passengers killed had been drinking

34 pedestrians were killed


11 (327.) of pedestrians killed had been drinking

3 bicyclists were killed


bicyclists killed had been drinking

271 (837.) of persons killed were Montana residents


57 (177.) of persons killed were out-of-state residents

366 drivers were involved in fatal accidents


110 (307.) of drivers involved in fatal accidents had been drinking
216 (597.) of drivers involved in fatal accidents were in violation
of traffic laws

Source: Montana Highway Patrol 2/72

Secondary source: Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1972
i

The Alcoholism Rehabilitation and Treatment Center, Galen, Montana,


offers in-patient treatment, diagnostic services, a detoxification center,
information and referral, and a court/probation program for alcoholics who
are residents of Montane It is under the auspices of the State Mental
Hospital, Warm Springs, Montana. In 1972, the following populations were
served by this center

cop ulati on served

•White 75.4
Black .1
Spanish- speaking .2
American Indian 24.3
Youth (under 18) .2
Aged (over 65) 5.4

The average age was 39.7 years.

Public inebriates 20
Drinking drivers 12
Employed alcoholics 60

The programs sources of referral are as follows:

Self 10
Physician 5
Vocational Rehabilitation 2
0E0 Programs 5
Courts 15
A A 50
Half-Way Houses 13

Sources used by this program to refer clients are as follows:

VA 10
Vocational Rehabilitation 30
Local state /government agencies 20
A A 100
Half-Way Houses 20

Estimated average number of alcoholic persons who received services per


month: 73. A total of 713 males were served in 1972, and 160 females.
The average length of stay was six weeks.
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APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF WINE IN MONTANA
For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

1961 292,000
1962 273,000
1963 272,000
1964 203,000
1965 294,000
1966 305,000
1967 328,000
I960 353,000
1969 385,000
1970 418,000

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF MALT BEVERAGES IN MONTANA


For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

Ysar Total Population 21 Years & Over

1961 13,0 32.9


1962 19,2 34.0
1963 19.6 34.9
1964 19.7 35o0
1965 20=4 36.3
1966 20.3 36.9
1967 21.8 32,6
1963 21.7 37.3
1969 22.3 33.7
1970 24.1 42.4

PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF WINE IN MONTANA


For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

Year Total Population 21 Years & Over

1961 .43 .73


1962 .39 .69
1963 .39 .69
1964 .40 .71
1965 .42 .74
1966 .43 .77
1967 .47 .03
1960 .52 .90
19G9 .55 .90
1970 .60 1.03

Source; Brewers Almanac 1971, United States 3rewers Association, Inc.


,

Secondary source; Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Al oholism, I9 7 2
CONSUMPTION OF MALT BEVERAGES IN MONTANA
For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Barrels of 31 Gallons

1961 423,495
1962 432,509
1963 444,223
1964 448,787
1965 465,091
1966 470,742
1967 492,787
1968 484,354
1969 499,371
1970 554,161

APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF MALT BEVERAGES IN MONTANA


For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

1961 13,128,000
1962 13,408,000
1963 13,771,000
1964 13,912,000
1965 14,418,000
1966 14,593,000
1967 15,276,000
1968 15,015,000
1969 15,431,000
1970 17,179,000

APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS IN MONTANA


For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

1961 804,000
1962 839,000
1963 851,000
1964 874,000
1965 918,000
1966 958,000
1967 993,000
1968 1,042,000
1969 1,098,000
1970 1,145,000

Source: Br ewers Al manac, 1971, United States Brewers Association, Inc.


Secondary Source: Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1972
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS IN MONTANA
For Calendar Years 1961-1970
Gallons

Year Total Population 21 Years L Over

1961 1.18 2.02


1962 1.18 2.13
1963 1.20 2.15
1964 1.23 2.20
1965 1.30 2.31
1966 1.36 2.43
1967 1.42 2.51
1968 1.50 2.64
1969 1.58 2.75
1970 U65 2.83

Source: Brew ers Almanac 1971, United States Brewers '--Association, Inc.
,

Secondary Source: Montana State Plan for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,
1972.