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Index

Acknowledgement

Certificate

Introduction

AIM

Apparatus

Chemicals Required

Test for Carbonate

Test for Calcium

Test for Phosphate

Test for Acetate

Test for Magnesium

Conclusion

Bibliography

Acknowledgement

I would like to express my sincerest thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my chemistry teacher Mrs. Poonam Sharma. She has always been helpful to me and also acted as my project guide with her able guidance throughout the duration of my project work despite our busy schedule. She was always there for me whenever I needed her help.

Then I would like to thank the laboratory assistant of chemistry lab for his assistance and co-operation.

Finally I would like to thank my parents and my friends without whom I would not been able to complete my project.

ANURAG MEHRA XII- A

Certificate

This is to clarify that the project report on the topic “presence of ions in toothpaste” submitted by Anurag Mehra of “XII- A” of St. Mary’s Christian School is an original one authentic and is done in fulfillment of C.B.S.E SYLLABUS for all India senior school secondary examination to be held in the year 2015-16.

Signature of Subject Teacher

Signature of Examiner

Introduction

Every toothpaste contains the following ingredients:

Binders, abrasives, flavors, sweeteners, fluorides, tooth whiteners, a preservative and water. Binders thicken toothpaste- they prevent separation of the solid and liquid component, especially storage. They also effect the speed and volume of foam production, rate of flavor release and product dispersal, the appearance of toothpaste ribbon on the toothbrush. Some binders are gum methyl cellulose, carrageen and magnesium aluminum silicate.

AIM

TO CHECK THE IONS PRESENT IN THE TOOTH PASTE OF VARIOUS BRANDS.

Apparatus and Chemicals Required

Test Tubes

Test Tube Holder

Glass Rod

Lime water [Ca(OH) 2 ]

Dilute H 2 SO 4

Ammonium Oxalate [(NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 ]

Dilute and Conc. HNO 3

Ammonium Molybdate

Ferric chloride [FeCl 3 ]

Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate

Ammonium Chloride [NH 4 Cl]

Ammonium Hydroxide [NH 4 OH]

Test for Carbonate

Experiment

Add dilute H 2 SO 4 to test tube containing toothpaste. Pass the evolved gas through lime water. It will turn milky.

S.N

Name of the

Conclusion

o

toothpaste

1.

Pepsodent

CO 3 2-

present

2.

Colgate

CO 3 2-

present

3.

Close Up

CO 3 2-

present

Chemical Reaction Involved

CO 3 2- + H 2 SO 4 (aq) → CO 2 (g) + SO 4 2- (aq) + H 2 O (l)

CO 2 (g) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) → CaCO 3 (g) + H 2 O (l)

Calcium Hydroxide

(Lime water)

Calcium Carbonate

(White ppt.)

Test for Calcium

Experiment

To 1 ml of O.S. directly add 1 ml of ammonium oxalate solution. Add a little ammonium hydroxide and scratch the sides. White precipitate will appear.

S.No

Name of the toothpaste

Conclusion

1.

Pepsodent

Ca 2+ confir med

2.

Colgate

Ca 2+ confir med

3.

Close Up

Ca 2+ confir med

Chemical Reaction Involved

Ca 2+ (aq) + (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) →CaC 2 O 4 (s) + 2NH 4 + (aq)

Calcium ions Ammonium ions

Ammonium oxalate

Calcium oxalate

(White ppt.)

Test for Phosphate

Experiment

To 2-3 ml of O.S. directly add excess dilute HNO 3 . To this, add 1-2 ml of concentrate HNO 3 andthen 3-4 ml of ammonium molybdate reagent and then keep it aside for 5 minute. Canary yellow crystalline precipitate will form.

S.No

Name of the toothpaste

Conclusion

1.

Pepsodent

PO 4 3-

present

2.

Colgate

PO 4 3-

present

3.

Close Up

PO 4 3-

present

Chemical Reaction Involved

PO 4 3- + 12 MoO 4 2- + 24H + → (PMo 12 O 40 ) 3- + 12H 2 O (l)

Molybdate ion

Phospho molybdate ions Canary yellow

Test for Acetate

Experiment

To 1 ml of O.S. directly add HCl drop wise. Wait till effervescence stops. Add freshly prepared FeCl 3 solution. Brick red color will appear.

S.No

Name of the toothpaste

Conclusion

1.

Pepsodent

CH 3 COO - absent

2.

Colgate

CH 3 COO - absent

3.

Close Up

CH 3 COO - absent

Chemical Reaction Involved

3CH 3 COO - (aq) + FeCl 3 (aq) → Fe(CH 3 COO) 3 (aq) + 3Cl -

Acetate ion

colour)

Ferric chloride

Ferric acetate (Red

Test for Magnesium

Experiment

To 1 ml of original solution (which is concentrated by heating) add NH 4 Cl and NH 4 OH in excess followed by disodium hydrogen phosphate. Scratch the inside test tube with glass rod. White crystalline precipitate will appear.

S.No

Name of the toothpaste

Conclusion

1.

Pepsodent

Mg 2+ present

2.

Colgate

Mg 2+ present

3.

Close Up

Mg 2+ present

Chemical Reaction Involved

Mg 2+ + HPO 4 2- (aq) +NH 4 + (aq)→Mg(NH 4 )PO 4 (s) + H + (aq)

Hydrogen Phosphate ions

ppt)

Magnesium ammonium phosphate (Crystalline white

Conclusion

Hence after testing different samples of toothpaste, we find that Colgate, Pepsodent and Close Up has necessary ingredients for making teeth stronger and whiter.

toothpaste, we find that Colgate, Pepsodent and Close Up has necessary ingredients for making teeth stronger

Bibliography

1. Britannica encyclopedia

2. NCERT chemistry

3. Google

4. Chemistry today

5. Wikipedia