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Advanced Electrical Principles (AEP611S) Laboratory 3

 Student’s Surname: Student’s Initials: Bench No: Student No: Date:

SIMULATION OF THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS (STAR -DELTA) USING PSPICE

OBJECTIVE :

To build, simulate, and analyse three-phase circuits using OrCAD Capture Pspice Schematics under balanced and unbalanced conditions, and to understand the characteristics of 3-phase electrical systems.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

All students must complete the pre labs before commencing with the lab experiments. No student will be allowed into the lab without a completed pre-lab. Each and every student must ensure that the pre lab is truly his/her own work. Plagiarism or coping others work is an academic offence.

NB: Lab duration is 2 Hours only.

EQUIPMENT:

1. Computer/Laptop

2. Pspice simulation software

MARKS OBTAINED:

 Part 1 30 Part 2 40 TOTAL Marks 70

Attach a separate sheet showing all your calculations.

Background

Computer Simulations are used in industry to shorten the overall design process, since it is usually easier to study the influence of a parameter on the system behavior in simulation, as compared to accomplishing the same in the laboratory on a hardware breadboard.

Cadence Pspice is a software that allows you to perform circuit analysis by literally drawing the schematic of the circuit, and therefore can provide an intuitive insight of the circuit. Numerous circuit analysis tasks can be done using Cadence Pspice such as time domain analysis, dc sweep and ac sweep. In this experiment, we will learn how to build the schematic of three-phase circuits and then perform the time domain analysis on them using the Cadence Pspice.

PART 1: Pre-Lab

Figure 1: Three phase circuit with load impedances

1. In Figure 1, but let’s assume that the three-phase circuits are balanced and VR = 220 V0°,

VY=220V120° and VB=220V-120°. But the load is (25+ j20) Ω Find:

a) The line currents (I R , I Y , I B ) and (In) in peak values

 b) The power factor for each phase of the load. 2. Repeat problem 1, but let’s now assume that the three-phase circuits are unbalanced and VR =

220 V0°, VY=220V120° and VB=220V-120°. But the load is now (30+ j20) Ω for ry, (50 + j15) Ω for yb, and (10 + j50) for br.

Part 2: Lab Exercice

Procedure:

 1 Open Capture CIS. Go to File on the menu and select “New” and then “Project. 2 The “New Project” window should appear.The default choice is “Schematics”. Please change this

and select “Analog or Mixed A/D” instead. Then, assign a name to your new project, and specify where you want to save the associated files. Hit the “Browse” button if you want to store the files in another directory or path.

3. A small window “Create Pspice Project” pops up. Select the “Create a blank project” option.

4. You should now see the main Schematic window on your screen and you are now ready to draw

 5 Build the three-phase circuits of Figure 1 onto the Schematic window 6 To get parts, go to the top menu, click on Place, and then select “Part”

7. If no library is shown on the Place Part window, then you will have to manually add the library by clicking the “Add Library” button. Look for a library called “Source” and click on i. The “SOURCE” library should now be listed on the “Place Part” window.

8. Use “Vsin” under the “SOURCE” library to build the three-phase voltages. Once the Vsin part is

on the schematic, double click on it to assign its parameter values:

AC=0 DC=0 FREQ=50 PHASE=0 VAMPL=220 VOFF=0

Note that the other two Vsin voltages should have the same parameter values as above except their phases (for VY and VB) should be + 120° and -120°, respectively.

9. Passive components such as Resistor, Inductor, or Capacitor can be found under the “ANALOG”

library. For the given impedances in the Prelab part 1, determine the resistor and inductor values. These are the values that you will need to assign for the Resistors and Inductors on the schematic. These are values you have calculated in table 1.

10. Connect a “0/source” ground to the neutral points (node n and N in Figure 1). The ground can

be obtained by clicking place and then ground, select “0/SOURCE” in the “Place Ground” window And type 0 in name box.

11. Connect all the components with wire by clicking “Place” on the top menu and then select

“Wire”. Do not assume that Pspice will always automatically place a connecting wire between two

components if you move them close to each other. It is advisable that you actually see the connecting wire between the components.

12. After the schematic is done, go to “Pspice” on the top menu, and select “New Simulation

Profile”. A window appears asking you to name the simulation profile. Type in any name, but preferably something that relates to your schematic, such as “three-phase”. Then, hit OK and the Simulation Setting window will appear.

13. Select Time Domain (Transient) as Analysis type and enter the following values for the

simulation settings and then hit OK

Run to time=1050 ms, Start saving data after=1000 ms, Maximum step size=0.1ms

Check the box for the “Skip the initial transient bias point calculation (SKIPBP)”

14. Run Pspice Simulation by selecting “Run” under “Pspice” on the menu. Once the simulation is completed, a Probe window will appear. However, if there is an error or more on your schematic then the simulation will stop. You should then go back to the schematic page and trouble-shoot the schematic.

15 To show various waveforms (voltage, current, power) from the schematic, go back to the schematic window and then place the markers or probes to any place of your interest on the schematic. The probes are located just below the top menu and there are four probes available:

voltage (V), voltage differential (V+V-), current (I) and power (W). Note that you should run your simulation again every time you add or remove probes.

16. By use of voltage probes, run the simulation to show the relationship between the phase

voltages.

17. By taking one phase as the reference run the simulation to show the relationship between the

phase voltage and the line voltage (line-line voltage).

18. Run the simulation to show the relationship between the phase current and line current for each type of load. Explain the phase relationships between the voltages and currents

19. Plot the waveform of Red phase load current Versus Voltage across it. Rescale the current

waveform by a factor of 10 to see the current waveform more clearly and copy the waveforms to word.

20. Post Lab question

1. How do your simulation results compare with your calculated ones from the Prelab?

2. From unbalanced three phase simulation, which line is carrying more current and what is value of

the current?

3. What are disadvantages of unbalanced systems?

21. Report

1. Your report should be typed.

2. Please write the following info on the front page of your report

Course code & name

Student Number & Name

3. Your report should include at least the following sections:

1. Objective(s) of experiment

2. Introduction

3. Experimental setup circuit diagram

4. Findings/Results simulated circuits and all graphs

5. Discussion/Analysis of results / Post lab questions.

6. Conclusion

7. References

NB: Make the cover page of this manual the cover page of your report

END