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RESEARCH FACT SHEET #7

RESEARCH DIGEST
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Title: PERSONALITY TRAITS


(EXTRAVERSION-
INTROVERSION) ON STRESS
LEVEL OF GRADE 12
STUDENTS ON SELECTED
SCHOOLS IN SAN MIGUEL,
BULACAN
Proponent/s: Andrea V. Rosal
Lara Kathleen T. Ocbania

TITLE OF THE SYNTHESIZE FROM RELATED


STUDY/JOURNAL LITERATURE
An Investigation of Furnham (1990) highlighted the
the Extraverts- existence of numerous distinct
Introverts Speaking common-sense relationships between
Anxiety in English introversion-extraversion and
Classes (2015) language use to the point that with the
relative ease, a reliable measure of
this trait can be produced. For
instance, regarding the oral
production, extraverts are
characterized by their talkativeness
and fewer pauses, whereas introverts
are marked by tending to utilize more
formal speech with more careful
grammatical constructions (Dornyei,
2005); however, acquisition and
fluent production of foreign languages
can be highly affected by Foreign
Language Anxiety (FLA), too
(Dewaele, Petrides, & Furham, 2008;
Andrade & Williams , 2008).
Socan and Bucik (1998) confirmed
that since the middle level of arousal
results in the optimal performance,
extraverts’ performance on mental
speech task should consequently be
better in “ high arousing’’ conditions
while introverts would favor “low
arousing” conditions.
Extraverts have proved to have
outperformed introverts in faster
doing of more complex tasks which
calls for more response competition;
however, the easiness of the task or
the task which involves little response
competition would deprive them of
the favored advantage (Eysenck,
1974, 1976). It emphasize that
introvert and extravert person have a
big difference when it comes in
performing task. The personality

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gives them views on how they can


end or finish their specific task.
Additional, (in students) extravert
person more likely to do task not
related to academic (role-plays,
performing physical activities, public
speaking and etc.). On the other hand,
introverts were good at academic
(through written works, analyzing,
expressing their feelings through arts
and etc.)
Dewaele and Furnham (1999)
explained that introverts are more
susceptible to higher pressure
conditions since the arousal level
exceeds their optimal level, which in
turn hampers the automaticity of their
oral production; therefore, they slide
back to controlled serial processing
which would result in slower speech
production, hesitation, and more
errors.
It simply assume the inverse
relationship of introverts to
extraverts.
The Relationship Stress represents a normal,
Between Stress and necessary and unavoidable life
Personality Factors phenomenon which can generate
(2012) temporary discomfort as well as long-
term consequences. The concept of
stress was introduced in the medical
terminology as early as 1936 by the
Canadian philosopher Selye. He
describes “the general adaptation
syndrome” (GAS) as the body’s effort
to respond to the demands of the
environment (Selye 1977).
Considering that personality traits
brings big effect on stress that
everyone's experiencing.
De jhong and Emmelkamp (2000)
stated, scientific data confirm the idea
that personality is an important factor
in identifying, responding and
approaching stress events. In recent
years, a growing number of
researchers have put a lot of effort in
identifying the individual
characteristics that influence the
relationship between stimuli and
stress reactions. It is a well-known
fact that the perceived stress depends
on the degree of congruence between
the individuals and their environment,
so that the individual experiences
stress only if the particular situation is
assessed as being threatening.

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So stress may occur when the


personality of an individual were
being triggered or threatened. Stress
were really based on what personality
a person have and having too much
negative emotion will set an
individual to experience stress.
According to these study, stimuli
with stress-generating potential within
an organization can be divided into
four big classes: work content, work
conditions, employment conditions
and the social network in the
workplace ( V. M. Dumitru, 2012)
Personality types are important
factors in determining stress, being
able to explain how certain people
manage to function for years while
handling huge amounts of stress,
whereas others collapse after several
months under similar amounts of
stress (Cooper 2005).
The Relationship The term stress refers to a tension
between Personality state that bursts the individual’s
Traits and Stress internal homeostasis, developing
Levels in Children physiological and psychic reactions,
(2015) and forcing the organism to respond
in some way. Such imbalance
generates depletion, in a way that, in
order to regain balance, it is necessary
to use physical and mental energies
reserves (Elkind, 2004; Lipp, 2000).
Eisenstein, Jorge, & Lima (2009)
state that stress comprises conflicts,
threats to integrity and deprivation of
the individual’s liberty and occurs
when there are significant losses, such
as the loss of the house, the loss of
people who have any link with the
individual or other conditions that
affectively involve one’s life.
In this perspective, Lipp & Lucarelli
(2011) highlight that many can be the
causes of stress, among them, the
disagreement between the parents,
death of relatives, changes either in
the house or at school, and excess of
activities, waiting for events and
parents’ divorce.
In children's case, their stress was
brought by their surrounding. Child
can adapt many things that they didn't
know if that is right or wrong.
Whatever they see in their
environment was right. Stress may
occur in any situation, by any
prospect, by any chance and stress

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may change individual's view to their


lives. Childrens are more affected by
it, because children were finding
answer to their thoughts and they
gather knowledge on their
surroundings. Stress can cause them
to be frustrated in life.
According to Lipp & Lucarelli
(2011), stress can be measured based
on stages: alertness; resistance; near-
exhaustion and exhaustion phase.
Stress is perceived by means of
symptomatology issued by the child,
and the symptoms presented vary
according to the child’s singularity
and to the stress phase perceived in
the child. These stress reactions can
be: psychological, physical,
psychological with depressing
component and psychophysiological
(Lipp & Lucarelli, 2011). Regarding
the psychological symptoms, it is
possible to highlight anxiety, night
terror, nightmares, difficulties in
relationships, urge to cry, sadness,
sudden isolation, insecurity, fears,
discouragement, apathy and
aggressive acting. Inversely, when
there is the predominance of
physiological reactions to stress, the
child starts presenting diarrhea,
stomach ache, tics, nauseas, nocturnal
enuresis, loss of or excessive appetite,
stuttering, muscular pain, and
headaches and the child starts to grit
the teeth and can behave in a
hyperactive manner (Lipp &
Lucarelli, 2011; Lipp, 2004).
Stress may cause many bad things
to everyone especially in children
because they're so weak to face
anything how much more when it's
stress?
Identifying the Personality traits are
Effects of characteristics that describe an
Personality Type on individual. While there are a number
Stress (2014) of tests and inventories to assess
personality traits (e.g., Cattell’s
Sixteen Factor PF, Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator, etc.), one of the most
efficient and commonly used, is the
Five-Factor model, called the Big
Five (Costa, 1985). The Big Five uses
five factors to assess personality.
These factors are: Neuroticism,
Extraversion, Openness to
Experience, Agreeableness and

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Conscientiousness. The Big Five has


been used in general populations as
well as some psychiatric populations
(Ando, Claridge and Clark, 2014).
Stress was a problem since then.
Researchers made different study
about stress but human don't want a
single knowledge as they live. In this
journal, their are five factors that
evaluate stress, first is neuroticism,
refers to individuals who more likely
than average to be moody and to
experience such feelings as anxiety,
worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy,
jealousy, guilt, depressed mood, and
loneliness (Wikipedia). Next is
extraversion, indicates how outgoing
and social a person is. They enjoy
being with people, participating in
social gatherings, and are full of
energy. (2019 123test). Third is
openness to experience, involves five
facets, or dimensions, including active
imagination (fantasy), aesthetic
sensitivity, attentiveness to inner
feelings, preference for variety, and
intellectual curiosity (Wikipedia).
Followed by agreeableness. It is a
personality trait manifesting itself in
individual behavioral characteristics
that are perceived as kind,
sympathetic, cooperative, warm, and
considerate(Wikipedia). Last is the
Conscientiousness, conscientious
people tend to be efficient and
organized as opposed to easy-going
and disorderly. They exhibit a
tendency to show self-discipline, act
dutifully, and aim for achievement;
they display planned rather than
spontaneous behavior; and they are
generally dependable(Wikipedia).

Examples:
Individuals who score high on
neuroticism, tend to experience
greater negative emotions (e.g., fear,
sadness, embarrassment, anger, guilt,
and disgust) and anxiety than do
individuals who score low on this
factor (DeLongis, Lee-Baggley, and
Preece, 2005). Traits associated
with neuroticism include being
anxious, moody, irritable, and
pessimistic. Moreover, those scoring
high on neuroticism are at risk for
developing depression and anxiety

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disorders (Hirschfelt et al.,1989). It


has also been reported that
neuroticism is moderately heritable
(Birley et al., 2006), indicating that
for some individuals, the traits are
genetic and not the result of
environmental factors (learning
histories, etc.). Because individuals
high in neuroticism are prone to
anxiety and negative affect, they are
poorer at coping with stressful events
than are people who score low on this
trait (DeLongis et al., 2005).
Unlike Neuroticism, the factor
agreeableness, appears to be
associated with better coping
strategies to stress (DeLongis et al.,
2005). High scores in agreeableness
are associated with stoic and
compliant attitudes to stressful
situations and it has been reported that
individuals high on this trait are less
likely to use emotion-focused (e.g.,
self-blame, avoidance, and wishful
thinking) coping strategies to stressful
stimuli (DeLongis et al., 2005).
Introverts, for instance, have
characteristics such as shyness,
bashfulness and bad-temperedness
(Berahani, et, al 2004).in contrast;
extroverts have characteristics such as
cheerfulness, witticism, sociability
and good humor (Ghangi, et al, 1994).
Indicated that there are characteristics
that an introvert and extravert person
have. People’s characteristics
influence their social behaviors,
orientations and interests.(Azimi 2005
The Study of
). Interaction between students
Relationship Among
/teachers in the class is influenced by
Personality Factors
such factors, because during the class
(introversion,
a number of factors, including
extroversion) of
student's interests , personalities and
Students and their
their changing needs, determine the
Effects to Selecting a
type of interaction between students
Good Teacher (2010)
/teachers (Nacino Brone and et al ,
1991), for this reason ,we should not
unify behaviour of Endomorphs those
who have characteristics such as
comfort seeking and showing interest
to others, with Ektomorph who do not
like to make friend with others (Syasi
1975). In this study, they alaborate
how personalitytraits
(introversion/extraversion) affect the
choice of student on identifying or
selecting a good teacher.

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Personality and Everyone exhibits a combination


Individual of common and unique personality
Differences (2017) characteristics, which gives each
person individuality. This complex
combination of characteristics means
that individuals possess a unique set
of traits, with their own strengths and
weaknesses, comprising their
personality. A number of studies have
highlighted the importance for
individuals to know and explore their
own personalities to enhance their
strengths and improve their
weaknesses. For instance, when a
person understands his or her ability
to influence people through
communication, this may lead him or
her to choose a career that involves
communication skills (Littauer, 1992;
Long, 2002; Roberts, Kuncel, Shiner,
Caspi, & Goldberg, 2007).
Every person had different
characteristics/personality, and that
characteristics/personality made them
an individual. An individual is that
which exists as a distinct
entity(Wikipedia). Individual means
single, separate. An 'individual' were
basing on their
characteristics/personality in doing
things that they do. Even their
strengths and weaknesses were
depends on it.
Individuals with a high level of
extraversion personality, also known
as extroverts, can typically be
described as chatty, outspoken, active
and sociable (John & Srivastava,
1999; Komarraju, Karau, and
Schmeck, 2009), while individuals
with a low level of extraversion, also
known as introverts, can typically be
described as quiet, reserved, passive,
and less sociable (John & Srivastava,
1999; Zelenski, Santoro, & Whelan,
2012).
In 2000, a study found that
sociability was not the main feature of
extraversion (Lucas, Diener, Grob,
Suh, & Shao, 2000). They argued that
sensitivity to reward is the central
characteristic of extraversion rather
than sociability, although sociability
is certainly a vital part of
extraversion.
Being an extrovert means you're
sociable. You're always on the famous

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line, being with others was part of


their lives. While being an introvert
hate all things related to socialization,
being alone make them feel free, they
don't talk when it's unimportant
matter.

Personality and Hamburger and Ben-Artzi (2000)


Internet Use: The pointed out that introverts may well
Case of Introversion be empowered by the net. The
and Extroversion protective environment provided by
(2019) the Internet can offer people a sort of
social compensation for their offline
introversion. On the net introverts can
reinvent themselves and may even
become extroverts. In practical terms
this means that socially shy, closed,
and withdrawn individuals may
undergo transformation and become
highly interactive, open, social beings
with a large network of online
connections. These outcomes were
initially found in regard to introverted
women (Hamburger & Ben-
Artzi,2000). The authors suggested
that this may be due to the higher self-
awareness found among women in
general and their ability to receive
social support. At the time it is was
suggested that as Internet use
becomes more widespread,
introverted males will also come to
realize that the Internet has the
potential to respond to their social
needs. This approach has been
defined as “the poor get richer”
(Amichai-Hamburger, 2002). In other
words, that those who are socially
poor offline become socially richer
online. These findings have been
confirmed by other studies. For
example, Maldonado, Mora, Garcia,
and Edipo (2001) evaluated
computer-mediated messages and
found that introverted participants
send messages with an extroverted
tone. Their messages tend to contain
more information than those sent by
extroverted subjects. It seems that on
the Internet, introverts do not act in
accordance with their usual behavior
patterns, but, due to their reaction to
what they perceive as a particularly
secure environment, conduct

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themselves in ways associated with


extroverts in offline relationships.
Amichai-Hamburger, Wainapel,
and Fox (2002) found that introverts
perceive the online world, not the
offline world, as their preferred social
environment and feel that their
relationships on the net are more
special than their relationships offline.
While these findings gave
confirmation to the “poor get richer
theory” this model has not been
without its critics. For example, Kraut
et al. (2002), found that introverts
who use the Internet reported higher
levels of loneliness, as compared with
surfers who are extroverts. Kraut and
colleagues explained their results in
terms of “the rich get richer”
phenomenon. They explained that
people who have better social skills
and many friends offline will exploit
their highly developed social skills
and make more friends online,
whereas people who are less socially
adept and have a poorer social life
offline are likely to gain less from
their Internet interaction. According
to this idea, the Internet is yet another
environment in which extroverts
demonstrate their dominance over
introverts.
The Influence of The study regarding the
Neuroticism, personality trait and its relation to
Extraversion and stress is poorly investigated leading to
Openness on Stress inaccurate conclusions and results,
Responses while some researchers focused
mostly on the neuroticism trait, a
negative trait, which is expected to
affect the stress level of an individual.
In the field of psychology, personality
traits and its relation to mental health
and stress have been the topic of
discussion for many years, but these
researches mainly focus on
neuroticism personality trait.
Although the role of neuroticism on
stress responses has been
investigated, there is a lack of
research exploring positive aspects of
personality, such as extraversion and
openness. Further, the unique
influence of personality dimensions
on stress responses is poorly
understood. (Schneider, Rench,
Lyons, & Riffle, 2011).
According to Schneider et al.,

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(2011), study shows that neuroticism


has deleterious stress outcomes and
that extraversion confers only a
modest influence on stress. This
statement shows that although little,
the stress level of an individual could
be affected by the Extraversion
personality trait.
How a person react to their stress
differs from person to person, it is
usually based on how an individual
perceived their stress and their
capacity for it. Stress responses are
initiated through appraisals the lens
through which individuals make sense
of and initiate interactions with their
environment (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus
& Folkman, 1984).
According to McCrae and Costa
(1987). Extraversion is the tendency
toward positive affectivity and being
energetic and social. Extraversion is
the characteristic of an individual to
be sociable and have a high energy,
because of this, extraverted people
can easily dispel stressful thoughts
and not get affected by stress easily
because of the presence of other
people, thus extravert people could
relax more easily than introverts.
Extraversion should confer affective
benefits during distress (Schneider,
2011).
A Study of The response of a each person to
Personality in stress is different from one another
Relation to because of varying personality.
Resilience and Stress Studies indicate that the variation of
traits represented in people's
personalities can allow for
considerably different responses to
stress (Sarason & Sarason, 2005).
In a study conducted by Vollrath
and Torgersen (2000), Studies
indicate that individuals with positive
and outgoing personalities experience
less stress as compared to individuals
with negative personalities, who
experience higher degrees of distress.
It is thus proposed that awareness of
one's own feelings can help one cope
more effectively with stress (Sarason
& Sarason, 2005). The awareness of a
person personality could help them to
when to retreat to a stressful
situations, and have the right measure
to cope up with stress.
According to Sahi and Raghavi

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(2016), there were no significant


associations between extraversion and
stress however, the review of
literature has mixed opinions
regarding the same, wherein Berkel
(2009) highlighted significant
associations between extraversion and
distress. This seems to be highly
implausible since extraversion is said
to be characterized by a range of
optimistic emotions and sociability
and offers less reasons to be having
distress (Sahi and Raghavi, 2016).
The statements mentioned above
indicates that, research about
personality traits and stress is
inconsistent and vary differently,
however, because of this, the need to
investigate the topic is more
important to provide a more accurate
results.
More contradictory findings
revealed that adaptive personalities
such as those characterized by
extraversion experience less
psychological distress (Vollrath,
2001). Lee-Baggley et al., (2005)
reported extraverts to be susceptible
to lesser distress.
According to Sahi and Raghavi
(2016), there is an insignificant
gender differences in extraversion to
which gender differences are small on
the dimension of Extraversion with
women typically scoring higher than
men on its various facets. Gender
does not greatly affect the personality
and stress issue, as stated above.
Personality and our stress response
may differ from one person to another
which makes our individual
differences but the way we experience
stress is the same and what makes us
the same from one another.
Personality and Personality traits affects our
Coping mental and sometimes physical health
in a way that make assessing the
personality of an individual
important. Extraversion trait which is
deeply connected to the behavior of
the person could affect our mental
state. Extraversion is strongly
associated with measures of well-
being. (Steel et al., 2008).
Extraversion is negatively
associated with suicidality (Brezo et
al. 2006) and with clinical symptoms

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in general, particularly symptoms of


mood, anxiety, and eating disorders
(Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010).
However, according to Malouff et al.
(2005), extraversion is associated
with slightly elevated risk for conduct
problems. This signifies that, although
extraversion is not highly associated
with suicidality, but the way a person
acts or their conduct is affected.
The mental health of an
extraverted person is not affected
negatively but rather brings good
effect in a person’s health.
Extraversion is also associated with
better health, perhaps due in part to
the link between extraversion and
social engagement (Carver & Connor-
Smith, 2010).
Personality does influence coping
in many ways, however, some of
which occur prior to coping. Even
prior to coping, personality influences
the frequency of exposure to stressors,
the type of stressors experienced, and
appraisals (Vollrath 2001).
Extraversion, conscientiousness, and
openness all relate to perceiving
events as challenges rather than
threats and to positive appraisals of
coping resources (Penley & Tomaka
2002, Vollrath, 2001).
Psycho-Social According to Jain (2015), in regard
Factors Causing to the type of personality, teacher
Stress: A Study of educators with Introvert trait of
Teacher personality feel more stressed at work
Educators/ Journal than their counterparts. This may be
of Education and because work settings do not provide
Practice sufficient opportunities to work alone
and in isolation (Jain, 2015). These
statements shows that the work place
of an introverted person significantly
affects their performance and stress
level. Because introverts prefer their
own company, working in a place
where the population is vast like the
school proves to affect them
negatively. However, the finding of
Jain’s study in terms of personality is
in contrast with the review of related
literature. For example, Helbrum
(1989) in a study observed that
extrovert type of people reported
higher role stress than introvert type
of people. This maybe because of the
high expectations that sociable person
like extraverts receives from their

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environment.
Personality and A study by Vollrath (2001) stated
Stress that in recent years have witnessed an
upsurge of interest in how personality
affects the stress process. The desire
to know oneself and the amount of
stress people experienced nowadays
is one of the leading factor for this
event.
Since the 1970s, the transactional
stress theory by Richard S. Lazarus
and colleagues has been the leading
model in psychological stress
research. It inspired an immense body
of research on stress and coping in a
vast array of contexts (Lazarus, 1966;
Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Lazarus &
Launier, 1978). However, personality
trait is rarely considered in this type
of research. Although the relationship
of personality to stress have long been
clarified by psychologist such as
Eysenck in 1967 with his research on
personality traits, and Friedman and
Rosenman in 1974.
According to Vollrath, 2001, the
personality of an individual not only
affects the appraisal of and coping
with stress, but it is also crucial with
regard to the selection and shaping of
stressful situations. This statement
shows that the personality trait of a
person is complex subject affecting
not only the stress level of an
individual but various other related
factors as well.
An individual’s personality could
be said to intrigued researchers from
way before and its relation to other
factors have been the topic of
discussion such as academic
performance and motivation. The
study of stress and coping had a long
tradition in the field of personality
psychology. One of the issues
examined most intensively concerns
the personality dimensions that
predict increased emotional reactivity
under stress conditions (Vollrath,
2001).
A basically unchallenged premise
within stress research is that the
stressful situation is an external force
requiring no further explanation, in
contrast to a situation that is caused
by a person's actions. That is,
causality is assumed to flow from

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stress as a stimulus to the stress


reaction as an outcome (Vollrath,
2001).
According to Bhatti, Rasli, Haider,
& Qureshi (2017), aside from factors
like academic environment, work load
and peer expectations; student's
personality traits also play an
important role in the level of
perceived stress among postgraduate
students of Higher Education
Institutions (HEIs). This is because
postgraduate students is expected to
receive much more responsibilities
from their environment that their
stress level could be affected from
such factors.
As there is such thing as individual
differences in the world, it has been
observed that levels of academic
stress among postgraduate students
vary according to their personality
traits. Not only the personal life of an
individual could be affected by their
personality traits, academic
performance and the behavior of a
Relationship person is highly affected too.
Between Personality Personality traits have a significant
Traits and role in student's life to handle
Academic Stress academic related issues which may
Among lead to decline in the academic
Postgraduate performance. Stress brings changes in
Students in Pakistan the personalities of postgraduate
students' and can alter their behavior
(Bhatti et al., 2017).
A review of literature on academic
stress conducted by Bhatti et al.,
2017, revealed that mostly literature
has overlooked the personality related
factors that can cause the academic
stress among the postgraduate
students. Impacts of academic stress
vary from person to person,
depending on the personality traits
and personal resilience. For the
students, the personality traits are
important in terms of their academic
stress level. Students with positive
personality traits (openness to
experience, conscientiousness,
extroversion and agreeableness) tend
to perceive lower level of academic
stress. On the other hand, students
with negative personality traits like
neuroticism tend to perceive higher
level of academic stress.
Workplace The extraversion personality traits

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intrusions and from the Big Five Personality Factors


employee strain: the really affects our stress level, however
interactive effects of whether it directly affect it or is the
extraversion and cause of it is still unknown. Both
emotional stability extraversion and emotional stability
may play a role in the stressor-strain
relationship, although whether they
are more important as moderators,
direct contributors, or both is still
unclear (e.g., Grant & Langan-Fox,
2007) and likely depends on the job
demands under investigation
(Schaufeli & Taris, 2014).
According to Rogers and Barber
(2019), extraversion may promote
coping and emotion regulation skills
in response to intrusions. Relatedly,
individuals high on extraversion may
effectively adapt to demanding social
encounters via social interaction skills
and high tolerance for social stress.
Because extraverted people are
usually interactive people, how they
response to intrusion and social stress
can be easily bridge with their
sociability.
The personality of both extraverted
and introverted people really differs
from one another with a huge gap,
this difference can easily be seen in
their response from factors affecting
their selves. Because intrusions
involve social interaction, extraverts
may have a tendency to evaluate these
intrusions as positive experiences
compared to introverts. Thus,
extraversion may serve as a personal
resource buffering against strain
resulting from intrusions. Likewise,
individuals low on extraversion are
less sociable, tend to experience fewer
positive emotions, and have a greater
desire for solitude (Rogers & Barber,
2019). Further, research proposes
introverts have greater sensitivity to
noise (Shepherd, Heinonen-Guzejev,
Hautus, & Heikkilä, 2015), as well as
heightened perceptions of invasions
of privacy (Baer, Jenkins, & Barber,
2016; Burger, 1995). Thus, introverts
may evaluate greater frequencies of
intrusions more negatively than
extraverts, thus resulting in more
experiences of strain.
Physiological The extraversion personality trait,
adaptation to specifically the extraversion and
recurrent social introversion personality traits of an

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stress of individual cannot be easily change


extraversion with a day or two. Extraversion is
often defined as a stable personality
dimension that conveys benefits for
coping with stress and affords
positive health outcomes (e.g.,
Jackson & Schneider, 2014).
Individuals high in extraversion
typically prefer excitement,
stimulation, and social interaction
(Costa & McCrae, 1992), have less
perceived stress (Ebstrup, Eplov,
Pisinger, & Jørgensen, 2011), more
effective stress coping (Connor-Smith
& Flachsbart, 2007), and positive
health outcomes (Jackson& Schneider
2014; Wilson et al., 2005). A number
of studies underlined the importance
of stress physiological responses to
health and examined the stress
physiological responses of individuals
with different levels of extraversion.
(Lu & Wang, 2016)
According to Lu and Wang (2016),
extraversion characterized by
sociability may influence
physiological responses to social
stress and thus may affect related
health outcomes. However, our
understanding of how extraversion
influences physiological responses to
social stress, especially recurrent
social stress, is currently limited.
Genetic and Personality traits effect on stress
Environmental level can either affect the stress
Pathways negatively, like neuroticism, or
Underlying positively with high extraversion.
Personality Traits Personality traits, consistent.
and Perceived automatic patterns of thoughts,
Stress: Concurrent feelings, or behavior, may lead people
and Longitudinal toward more or less stress
Twin Studies experiences. Personality traits
demonstrate significant associations
with perceived stress in both cross-
sectional and longitudinal studies
(Ebstrup, Eplov, Pisinger, &
Jørgensen, 2011). However, very little
work has explored the developmental
processes underlying the relation
between personality traits and
perceived stress, both of which are
subject to genetic influences (Briley
& Tucker-Drob, 2014; Federenko et
al., 2006).
Research has also shown that
changes in personality are associated
with changes in perceived stress (Luo

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
17

& Roberts, 2015). Whether the


dynamic association between
personality and perceived stress is
attributable to genetic or
environmental influences remains
unknown.
Parsing genetic and environmental
influences on the continuity in
perceived stress and the continuity in
the associations between personality
traits and perceived stress would
explain the mechanisms of the
proneness to experience perceived
stress over long periods of time, given
the well-established relations between
psychological reactions to stress and
physical and mental health (Dougall
& Baum, 2012).
Association between Research regarding the influence
the Five Factor of personality traits to the mental
personality traits health of individuals have been the
and perceived stress: topic of interest of many researches,
is the effect as it was proven that frequent
mediated by general experience of stress may lead to some
self-efficacy? health problems. Chronic or
frequently repeated stress, with its
many accumulated ill effects on
health, is thought to be influenced by
personality traits. Therefore, in health
psychology, the predictive power of
trait personality measures in stress
research is emphasized (Ebstrup et al.,
2010).
Studying a large general
population, Ebstrup (2011) found that
personality traits associated with
perceived stress, but for openness the
total effect was not significant. They
also found the highest substantive
effect size to be for neuroticism,
moderate effect sizes for extroversion
and conscientiousness and low-effect
sizes for openness and agreeableness.
Most basically, stress occurs when
a person perceives an impending or
actual "punisher" or the impending or
actual inability to attain a goal. It
states that personality influences the
frequency of exposure to stressors, the
type of stressors experienced, and
appraisals of stressors.
Neuroticism and At the current age of teenagers
extraversion in today, change is just a common
relation to occurrence. A human person
physiological stress development can be said to be at a
reactivity during lightning speed at their teens, and
adolescence personality development can be said

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
18

to be one of the most affected.


Adolescence is regarded as a critical
period in the development of
personality traits (i.e. Klimstra et al.,
2009).
According to John and Gross
(2004), Individuals who scored high
on extraversion were found to be less
likely to use emotion regulation
strategies such as suppression because
they were not as sensitive to social
rejection as those scoring high on
introversion. Extravert people are not
really sensitive to other people
opinion compare to Introverts, who
prefer to keep distance from issues.
Individuals who score high on
extraversion is more likely to be not
affected by outside factors because
these individuals rarely distance their
selves from other people. Therefore,
these individuals were less likely to
use suppression to distance
themselves from others who could
reject them. In this way, adolescents
who score high on extraversion may
be more able to regulate their
emotions effectively (Evans et al.,
2016)
Extraversion According to Wilt and Revelle
(2017), extraversion is defined as a
dimension of personality reflecting
individual differences in the
tendencies to experience and exhibit
positive affect, assertive behavior,
decisive thinking, and desires for
social attention. Extraverted can be
simply defined as social people who
is more open to other people and likes
to associate their selves from other
individuals. They make actions
without enough thought and can
perfectly communicate and connect
with other individuals.
The personality trait is made to
describe the different behaviors and
actions made by a person, one of
which is the extraversion trait, on the
other hand people who scores low on
extraversion is called an introvert.
Personality trait dimensions are
abstractions used to describe and
explain consistency and coherence in
affect, behavior, cognition, and desire
—the “ABCDs” of personality
(Ortony, Norman, & Revelle, 2005;
Revelle, 2008)—over time and space.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
19

Introversion–extraversion is a higher
order dimension of personality
reflecting tendencies to experience
and exhibit positive affect, assertive
behavior, decisive thinking, and
desires for social attention (Wilt &
Revelle, 2009). Wilt and Revelle
(2017), stated that extraverted
individuals are characterized by
energy, dominance, spontaneity, and
sociability, whereas more introverted
individuals tend to be described as
more lethargic, inhibited, reflective,
and quiet. The difference between the
two trait can be seen in their behavior
they exhibit, these behavior can be
easily seen in their interaction with
other people.
Teenagers who are at school is
more likely to be more sociable,
maybe because they are surrounded
by students at the same age. Compare
when they were still in grade schools,
individuals experiencing adolescence
can communicate more to the outside
world. Questions regarding how
extraversion changes from
adolescence through adulthood have
received a considerable amount of
attention (Wilt and Revelle, 2017).
This is because, during late
adolescence (around ages 16–20
years), extraversion increases slightly
(Bleidorn et al., 2013; Lüdtke,
Roberts, Trautwein, & Nagy, 2011).
Obtaining a job during this time,
however, is related to decreases in
extraversion (Bleidorn et al., 2013),
perhaps suggesting that entering roles
in which responsibility is valued is
conducive to introversion among
adolescents (Wilt and Revelle, 2017).
Extraversion continues to increase
during the years spent at university, at
least on average (Vaidya, Gray, Haig,
& Watson, 2002).
The Role of Most study about stress mainly
Neuroticism and focuses on depression and major
Extraversion in the factors that affects the life of a person
Stress-Anxiety and such as traumatic experiences. The
Stress-Depression role of life stress in the onset and
Relationships maintenance of various mental
disorders has been studied extensively
over the past several decades, with
most studies focusing exclusively on
major depressive disorder and
episodic stressful life events (e.g.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
20

Hammen, 2005; Monroe, Slavich, &


Georgiades, 2009).
Low extraversion and neuroticism,
two negative personality trait is
known to affect the stress response of
a person, however if it effect
depression is not known. It is
unknown whether neuroticism and
low extraversion, known to be
associated with depressive and
anxiety disorders on the one hand,
and life stress on the other hand,
might partially account for the
associations of depressive and/or
anxiety disorders (Uliaszek et al.,
2010).
The construct of life stress is often
separated into two categories:
interpersonal stress (i.e., stress related
to conflict or difficulties with family,
peers or significant others), and non-
interpersonal stress (i.e., stress related
to occupational, educational, and
health problems; Hammen & Mayol,
1982; Potthoff, Holahan, & Joiner,
1995).
Stress and When people experience stress,
Relaxation in there is always the need to relax.
Relation Relaxing helps the body and the mind
to Personality to relieved itself from negative
emotions or feelings. Closely related
to stress is relaxation. Stress brings
strain whereas relaxation reduces it.
Stress gives the pain but relaxation
relieves it. Coping and defense
reactions are also
applied to attain the relaxation
(Sharma, 2011)
According to Sharma (2011),
personality is a very important
determinant, if stress is equated with
arousal level. This indicates that
introvert’s higher arousal level
generally keeps them near to
threshold point of stress. It means that
introverts are more stress prone than
extraverts. As introvert’s arousal level
is generally high, it is already set to
easily develop stress. The statements
clearly explained that introverts is
more likely to experience stress
because of their sensitivity to
stressors. A person’s sensitivity
directly accounts to their stress level,
it is also said that, a more sensitive
people tend to think about an issue
more causing their stress level to

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
21

raise.
Extraverts, however tends to let
things go very fast, thus causing them
to relax more faster than introverts. In
extraverts, inhibitory process is strong
and as a result the inhibition develops
very quickly and also dissipates very
slowly. It means that extraverts can
relax very quickly (Sharma, 2011).
Sharma (2011), also added that
introverts have poor inhibitory neural
process and thus inhibition not only
develops very slowly but also
dissipates very quickly. It means that
introverts cannot relax as easily as
extraverts. The difference in coping
level of both extraverts and introverts
is greatly different from one another.
Big Five Personality There are many undefined
Traits - A Tool For stressors that create occupational
Managing Stress stress among police constables.
Undefined work descriptions and
timings making policing very hard.
But stress is factor that affects the
performance of the police personals.
Studying occupational stress among
police constables has suggestions for
improving understanding of work
stress and enhancing their life
(Subburaj, Sundaram , Sekar and
Sumathi, 2012)
According to Subburaj et al.,
(2012), the Person fit theory says that
interaction between individual and
environment determines stress. It
assumes that individual behavior,
environment, job satisfaction,
achievement and stability depend on
particular individual’s personality.
The Associations Kural and Özyurt (201), found that
between University extraversion negatively correlated
Adjustment, Adult with perceived university stress. They
Attachment Styles, perceived university life less stressful.
Personality Traits, Contrary to extroverts, neurotics
and Perceived Stress perceived this transition so
‘threatening’. This indicates that
extraversion helps a person to feel
less stress. Neuroticism positively
correlated with perceived stress (Lu,
1994). Penley and Tomaka (2002)
studied Big Five personality types on
stress and coping processes.
Neuroticism was found to be high on
perceived stress, and negatively
correlated with perceived coping
ability. Extraversion was low on
perceived stress and positively

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
22

correlated with perceived coping


ability.
Personality traits are considered all
dimensions of university adjustment
showed positive correlation with
extraversion, conscientiousness,
openness to experience and
agreeableness, except that
agreeableness was negatively
correlated with emotional adjustment
(Kural and Özyurt, 201).
Students who thought they have
enough number of friends were more
extrovert than their counterparts.
Extravert individuals showed high
adjustment as they experience more
positive affect in social situations
(Denissen & Penke, 2008; Elphick,
Halverson, & Marszal-Wisniewska,
1998; Fleeson, Malanos, & Achille,
2002;) and this rewarding effect of the
social interactions makes them to
have more friends and peer
acceptance (Scholte, Van Aken, &
Van Lieshout, 1997).Finding a
negative relationship between
negative valence and personal
adjustment are in accordance with the
expectations, students who have less
self-esteem and negative self-view
might find it hard to adjust personally
within this new environment and their
perceptions of incapability would
increase resulting in less favorable
opinions about self.
According to Kural and Özyurt
(201), High extraversion, openness to
experience, low agreeableness and
neuroticism were related to better
adjustment.
Study of Changes In There also were significant
Working Memory correlations between fatigue and the
Performance Over A extraversion personality trait (Omary
Semester In & Persky, 201).
Student Pharmacists According to Omary & Persky
(201), there was noted differences in
stress and fatigue in the
extraversion/introversion trait.
Extraversion represents where people
draw their energy from and how they
interact with others. Those low on the
scale are considered introverted and
become tired during interaction with
others and replenish their energy in
solitude. There was a negative
correlation between stress and fatigue
and extraversion meaning as students

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
23

moved to more introverted behavior,


they experienced more stress and
fatigue. This could be because of the
constant interactions with people over
the course of the semester which
could result in more fatigue in the
fast-paced nature of a professional
program; alternatively, they could just
self-calibrate differently – that is,
what an introvert feels as fatigue is
not the same as what an extrovert may
feel. There also was minimal
association of extraversion with
working memory performance. Thus,
extraversion may mediate its effects
on working memory through changes
in stress and fatigue. Although even if
both extravert and introvert
experience the same stressful
situation, introverts are more likely to
be affected by it. The stress response
of the two is dependent on their
personality.
Personality and Lloyd (201), stated that
Perceived Stress in extroversion is sometimes called
Rural Police assertiveness and is in contrast to
Officers introversion (Digman, 1990). It has
also been viewed as sociability and
ambitiousness (Detrick, & Chibnall,
2006). It is usually seen as a positive
quality. Extraverts tend to have higher
salaries than introverts and are more
satisfied with their careers (Heller,
Judge, & Watson, 2002).
The Effect of Extraverts will make adjustment
Resilience on and adapt with the current situation as
Perceived Stress to not get affected by these
Moderated by psychological stress. Some studies
Extraversion show that the extraversion personality
Personality in has negative relationship with stress.
Adolescents Living Individuals with extraversion
in Orphanages personality traits will more adaptive
in dealing with problems in life so as
to make them less prone to
psychological distress (Sahi &
Raghavi, 2016).
Another study shows that
individuals with positive personalities
will experience less stress compared
to individuals with negative
personalities, who experience stress
levels higher (Vollrath & Torgersen,
2000). Strategy of individuals with
extraversion personality coping like
humor, the need to discuss feelings
and seek social support. People who
score high on the extraversion scale

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
24

consider stress as a challenge, not a


threat. Because they are having an
extraversion personality tend to be
more proactive, sociable, oriented to
the outside world rather than them
self and optimistic in dealing with
stress (Gallagher, 1990).
Extraversion personality as the
moderator variable has a negative
value even though it is not significant.
the higher individual having the
extraversion personality value, the
lower the potential for perceived
stress on adolescents in orphanages
despite having high resilience.
However, when Extraversion’s
personality is lower, the higher they
will be likely perceived stress along
with the higher resilience of the
nursing home.
Extraversion personality as a
moderator gives a buffering effect on
the relationship resilience to
perceived stress even though it has a
small potential effect (Astriani &
Nurani, 201).
It is all just Schreiber (201), stated that
psychological: extraversion was positively associated
Mindset matters. with challenge but not threat
Stress Mindset, its appraisal, indicating that people
Implications for scoring higher on extraversion
Mental Well-Being perceive stressors rather positively, as
and Personality as a challenging and not threatening
Moderator (Gallagher 1990). Supporting these
findings, individuals scoring higher
on extraversion showed higher
positive affect and less increase of
negative affect (Schneider, Rench,
Lyons & Riffle, 2012; Xin, Wu, Yao,
Guan, Aleman & Luo, 2017).
Occupational Stress Goldberg’s (1990, 1992) Lexical
and Instigator Big Five Personality Model, the
Workplace Incivility imagination/intellect,
as Moderated by conscientiousness, extraversion,
Personality: A Test agreeableness, and neuroticism
of an Occupational personality traits should each
Stress and moderate the relationship between
Workplace Incivility stress and incivility. For example,
Model neuroticism has been linked to
increased stress and uncivil behavior
(Reio & Sanders-Reio, 2011) because
individuals high in this trait tend to
react to more situations as being
threatening and lack the coping skills
required to manage stressful
situations, which, in turn, can increase
the likelihood of behaving rudely.

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
25

Extraversion and neuroticism were


hypothesized to strengthen the
relationship between the two
variables. The findings suggest that
personality does play a role in the
stress incivility relationship, whereas
conscientiousness and agreeableness
dampen the relationship and
neuroticism and extraversion
strengthened the relationship.
Personality of Gymnasts who are more reserved,
Gymnast and silent, focus on subjective experiences
Coping Strategies and trusting their intuition can be
to Manage Stress more resistant against mistakes or
failures. High level of introversion
also predisposes
adolescent and adult gymnasts to
listen to coach and accepts
constructive criticism without taking
it personally and becoming
upset (Kaplánová, 201). The
statement highlights the positive
effect of introversion to athletes,
whereas it stated that more introverted
people listens and accept criticism
from their instructors.
Kaplánová (201), also stated that
gymnasts who have a high level of
introversion and a high level of
openness to experiences are probably
able to be positively motivated and
works hard to improve their skills.
Although, it is mentioned that
introverted individuals are more prone
to stress, but the ability of introverted
individuals, together with openness to
experience is their edge.
College Student According to Munsell (20),
Stress: Investigating individuals high in Extraversion and
Personality and Openness were likely to use emotion-
Coping Strategy focused coping strategies such as
redefinition, religion, and catharsis.
Emotion focused coping strategies
could be defined as altering the way
you experience the stressful so that
the impact is different.
Also, according to Munsell (201),
extraversion was a strong indicator of
higher job satisfaction and better
physical health. Therefore extraverted
people have an advantage in acquiring
job.
Viewing stressful situations as
challenges, along with being flexible
in their ways of coping allows those
high in Extraversion to engage in
more problem-focused coping

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
26

strategies and handle their stressful


situations in an appropriate manner
related to the situation (Musell, 201).
Can a Stress According to Wellinger (20),
Mindset be personality dimensions have an
Changed? – A impact on the stress mindset one
Randomized holds, because personality is
Controlled Trial considered to be stable over the
lifespan, and neurotic individuals
have an elemental negative view of
stress, while extraverted individuals
rather perceive stress as a challenge
from which they can grow. The
personality trait of an individual
cannot be easily change, as such, the
mindset of extraverted people is to
think about stress as a challenge
rather than a problem, while more
neurotic people view stress in a
negative way.
Individual Personality and individual
Differences in Stress differences not only affect an
Reactivity: adolescent’s stress level but also their
Implications for performance and development
Adolescent Athletes’ towards their respective interest.
Performance and Individual differences play a
Well-Being significant role in the outcomes
experienced by adolescent athletes, in
what is a highly stressful period of
their development (Britton, 2018).
According to Britton (2018), stress
reactivity is a stable individual
difference underlying the broad
variability in responses to stress,
which has received very little
attention within sporting contexts.
As mention in earlier discussions,
neuroticism, and low extraversion
(introversion), greatly correlates to
the stress level an individual
experience. Perceived stress reactivity
was associated with higher
neuroticism and introversion, less
openness, greater perceived stress,
and lower life satisfaction (Britton,
2018).
The development a person
experience during their teenage life,
from a child-to-adolescent is
underlined by a stressful life which
affects their mental, physical and
behavior. Adolescence is understood
to be a complex period whereby an
individual transitions from a
dependent child into an independent
adult (Blakemore & Choudhury,
2006). It is an inherently stressful

PRACTICAL RESEARCH II
27

period of life; characterised by


dramatic physical, psychological, and
social changes (Compas, Connor-
Smith, Saltzman, Thomsen, &
Wadsworth, 2001). Adolescents must
contend with their burgeoning
physical and emotional development,
changing social roles and pressures,
their growing independence from
their parents, as well as academic
commitments (Compas et al., 2001;
van Rens, Borkoles, Farrow, Curran,
& Polman, 2016). This is all while
their reactivity to stress, plus their
ability to cope with stressors,
develops during adolescence
(Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006;
Nicholls, Polman, Morley, & Taylor,
2009; Romeo, 2010)
If the stress experienced by
adolescents is not properly handled
and mange it can cause various
implication on their development and
their shape as a human person. Stress,
if not coped with adaptively, can have
a significant impact upon the
outcomes experienced by adolescents,
with implications for their
performance well being, and
development. In terms of
performance, increased stress is
associated with unpleasant emotions
(such as anxiety, guilt, and shame)
and performance dissatisfaction in
athletes (Lazarus, 2000; Nicholls,
Polman, & Levy, 2012)
Adolescent athletes who are highly
reactive experience greater levels of
stress over time, feeling that their
lives are uncontrollable and difficult
to cope with. In other words, more
reactive adolescent athletes
experience more stress (Britton,
2018).
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PRACTICAL RESEARCH II