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General Chemistry 1

LECTURE UNIT No. 1


Introduction to Chemistry

Engr. Edgie Estopace


School of Chemical Engineering and
Chemistry
Outline
1. The Study Matter
2. States of Matter
3. Chemical and Physical Properties
4. Chemical and Physical Changes
5. Classification of Matter
6. Measurements

2
Matter - Vocabulary
 Chemistry
 Science that describes matter – its properties, the
changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that
accompany those processes
 Matter
 Anything that has mass and occupies space.

3
Natural Laws
 Law of Conservation of Mass
 Law of Conservation of Energy
 Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy
 Einstein’s Relativity
 E=mc2

4
States of Matter
 Solids

5
States of Matter
 Solids
 Liquids

6
States of Matter
 Solids
 Liquids
 Gases

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States of Matter

 Solid: particles maintain a regular ordered structure;


maintains size and shape.
 Liquid: particles remain close but no longer ordered; takes
shape of container.
 Gas: particles are widely separated and move independently
of one another; fills available volume of container.
States of Matter
 Change States
 heating
 cooling

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States of Matter
 Illustration of changes in state
 requires energy

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Chemical and Physical Properties
 Chemical Properties - chemical changes
 rusting or oxidation
 chemical reactions
 Physical Properties - physical changes
 changes of state
 density, color, solubility
 Extensive Properties - depend on quantity
 Intensive Properties - do not depend on
quantity

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Physical Change

 During a physical
change, chemical
composition does
not change.

 Heating liquid
water to make
gaseous water
(steam)
Chemical Change

 During a chemical change, a chemical reaction occurs that


changes the chemical composition of the matter involved.
 Using electricity to convert water into oxygen and hydrogen
molecules
Density and Specific Gravity

 density = mass/volume
 What is density?
 Why does ice float in liquid water?

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Density and Specific Gravity

 density = mass/volume
 What is density?
 Why does ice float in liquid water?

H C
H
H

H H2O(l) H2O(s) H

H C
H H

15
Density and Specific Gravity
 SP1: Calculate the density of a substance
if 742 grams of it occupies 97.3 cm3.

1 cm  1 mL  97.3 cm  97.3 mL
3 3

density  m
V

16
Density and Specific Gravity
 SP2: Suppose you need 125 g of a
corrosive liquid for a reaction. What
volume do you need?
 liquid’s density = 1.32 g/mL
You do it!

17
Density and Specific Gravity
 SP2 Suppose you need 125 g of a
corrosive liquid for a reaction. What
volume do you need?
 liquid’s density = 1.32 g/mL

m m
density  V 
V density
18
Density and Specific Gravity
 SP2 Suppose you need 125 g of a
corrosive liquid for a reaction. What
volume do you need?
 liquid’s density = 1.32 g/mL
m m
density  V 
V density
125 g
V  94.7 mL
1.32 g mL 19
Density and Specific Gravity

density(substance)
Specific Gravity 
density( water)
 Water’s density is essentially 1.00 at room T.
 Thus the specific gravity of a substance is
very nearly equal to its density.
 Specific gravity has no units.

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Density Density at 20°C
Substance d (g/mL)
mass ethanol 0.789
Volume water 0.998
magnesium 1.74
d= m aluminum 2.70
V
titanium 4.50
copper 8.93
lead 11.34
mercury 13.55
gold 19.32
Water, copper and mercury
Short Quiz 1:
A piece of metal has mass = 215.8 g. It is
placed into a measuring cylinder and it
displaces 19.1 mL of water. Identify the
metal. Density at 20°C
Substance d
(g/mL)
magnesium 1.74
aluminum 2.70
titanium 4.50
copper 8.93
lead 11.34
mercury 13.55
gold 19.32
Heat and Temperature
 Heat and Temperature are not the same thing
T is a measure of the intensity of heat in a body
 3 common temperature scales - all use water as
a reference

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Heat and Temperature
 Heat and Temperature
are not the same thing
T is a measure of the
intensity of heat in a
body
 3 common temperature
scales - all use water as
a reference

24
Heat and Temperature
MP water BP water
 Fahrenheit 32 oF 212 oF
 Celsius 0.0 oC 100 cC
 Kelvin 273 K 373 K

25
Relationships of the Three
Temperature Scales
Kelvin and Centigrade Relationships
K  C  273
o

or
o
C  K  273

26
Relationships of the Three
Temperature Scales
Fahrenheit and Centigrade Relationships
180 18 9
   1.8
100 10 5
o
F  1.8  o C  32
or
F  32
o
o
C
1.8
27
Heat and Temperature
 SP3: Convert 211oF to degrees Celsius.

F  32
o
o
C
1.8
211  32
o
C
1.8
28
Classification of Matter
 Substance
 matter in which all samples have identical
composition and properties
 Elements
 substances that cannot be decomposed into
simpler substances via chemical reactions
 Elemental symbols
 found on periodic chart

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Classification of Matter

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Classification of Matter
Name Symbol Name Symbol Name Symbol
Aluminum Al Fluorine F Oxygen O
Arsenic As Gold Au Phosphorus P
Argon Ar Germanium Ge Palladium Pd
Barium Ba Hydrogen H Platinum Pt
Bromine Br Iodine I Potassium K
Calcium Ca Iron Fe Silicon Si
Carbon C Lead Pb Silver Ag
Chlorine Cl Magnesium Mg Sodium Na

Chromium Cr Mercury Hg Sulfur S


Cobalt Co Nickel Ni Tin Sn
Copper Cu Nitrogen N Zinc Zn
31
Classification of Matter
 Compounds
 substances composed of two or more
elements in a definite ratio by mass
 can be decomposed into the constituent
elements
 Water is a compound that can be decomposed
into simpler substances – hydrogen and oxygen

32
Classification of Matter

33
Classification of Matter
 Mixtures
 composed of two or more substances
 homogeneous mixtures
 heterogeneous mixtures

34
Classifying Matter: Substances & Mixtures

Mixtures are either:


 homogeneous

 two or more substances in the same phase.


 completely uniform.

 heterogeneous
 properties vary from point to point.
 may need a microscope to see variation.
Classify each of the following as an
element or a compound:

a. Sodium chloride c. Alcohol


b. Helium d. Platinum
Separation and Purification
Mixtures can be separated by physical
methods.
e.g. magnetic separation of iron filings from
sulfur powder.
Classification of Matter
Matter (may be solid, liquid, or
gas): anything that occupies
space and has mass

Physically
Heterogeneous matter: separable into
Homogeneous matter:
nonuniform composition uniform composition throughout

Physically
Substances: fixed separable into Solutions: homogeneous
composition; cannot mixtures; uniform compositions
be further purified that may vary widely

Chemically
separable into
Compounds: elements Elements: cannot be subdivided
united in fixed ratios by chemical or physical changes
Combine chemically
to form
Measurements

Atoms are very small.


 1 tsp of water contains 3x as many atoms as
there are tsp of water in the Atlantic Ocean!
Impractical to use pounds and inches...

Need a universal unit system


• The metric system.
• The SI system (Systeme International) - derived
from the metric system.
© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Metric Units
 A decimal system.
 Prefixes multiply or divide a unit by multiples of ten.
Prefix Factor Example
mega M 106 1 megaton = 1 x 106 tons
kilo k 103 1 kilometer (km) = 1 x 103 meter (m)
deci d 10-1 1 deciliter (dL) = 1 x 10-1 liter (L)
centi c 10-2 1 centimeter (cm) = 1 x 10-2 m
milli m 10-3 1 milligram (mg) = 1 x 10-3 gram (g)
micro μ 10-6 1 micrometer (μm) = 1 x 10-6 m
nano n 10-9 1 nanogram (ng) = 1 x 10-9 g
pico p 10-12 1 picometer (pm) = 1 x 10-12 m
femto f 10-15 1 femtogram (fg) = 1 x 10-15 g
© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Metric Units
How many copper atoms lie across the diameter of a
penny? A penny has a diameter of 1.90 cm, and a
copper atom has a diameter of 256 pm.

1 pm = 1 x 10-12 m ; 1 cm = 1 x 10-2 m

1.90 cm x 1 x 10-2 m 1 pm = 1.90 x 1010 pm


x
1 cm 1 x 10-12 m

Number of atoms across the diameter:

1.90 x 1010 pm x 1 Cu atom = 7.42 x 107 Cu atoms


256 pm

© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Some Common Unit Equalities
Length 1 kilometer = 0.62137 mile
1 inch = 2.54 cm (exactly)
1 angstrom (Å) = 1 x 10-10 m

Volume 1 liter (L) = 1000 cm3 = 1000 mL


= 1.056710 quarts
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints

Mass 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10-24 g


1 pound = 453.59237 g = 16 ounces
1 ton (metric) = 1000 kg
1 ton (US) = 2000 pounds
© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Some Common Unit Equalities
Report the mass of a 5.0 lb bag of sugar in
kilograms.

1 lb = 453. g

5.0 lb x 453. g = 2265 g


1 lb
= 2.3 x 103 g

= 2.3 kg

© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Some Common Unit Equalities
A patient’s blood cholesterol level measured 165
mg/dL. Express this value in g/L
1 mg = 1 x 10-3 g ; 1 dL = 1 x 10-
1 L

mg 1 x10 x 1 dL
-3 g
165 x = 1.65 g/L
dL 1 mg 1 x10-1 L

© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Uncertainty and Significant Figures

All measurements involve some


uncertainty.
Reported numbers include one uncertain
digit.
Consider a reported mass of 6.3492 g
• Last digit (“2”) is uncertain
• Close to 2, but may be 4, 1, 0 …
• Five significant figures in this number.

© 2008 Brooks/Cole
Uncertainty and Significant Figures
Read numbers from left to right.
Count all digits, starting with the 1st non-zero digit.

All digits are significant except zeros used to


position a decimal point (“placeholders”).

0.00024030 significant
placeholders significant 5 sig. figs.
(2.4030 x 10-4)

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 46
Uncertainty and Significant Figures
Number Sig. figs. Comment on Zeros
2.12 3
4.500 4 Not placeholders. Significant.
0.002541 4 Placeholders (not significant).
0.00100 3 Only the last two are significant.
500 1, 2, 3 ? Ambiguous. May be placeholders or
may be significant.
500. 3 Add a decimal point to show they are
significant.
5.0 x 102 2 No ambiguity.

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 47
Significant Figures in Calculations
Addition and subtraction
Find the decimal places (dp) in each number.
answer dp = smallest input dp.

Add:
17.245 dp = 3
+ 0.1001 dp = 4
17.3451
Rounds to: 17.345 (dp = 3)

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 48
Significant Figures in Calculations

Subtract 6.72 x 10-1 from 5.00 x 101

Use equal powers of 10:

5.00 x 101 dp = 2
– 10=1 4
0.0672 xdp
4.9328 x 101

Rounds to: 4.93 x 101 dp = 2

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 49
Significant Figures in Calculations
Multiplication and Division
Answer sig. fig = smallest input sig. fig.

17.245 sig. fig. = 5


x 0.1001 sig. fig. = 4
1.7262245

Rounds to: 1.726 sig. fig. = 4

Multiply 2.346, 12.1 and 500.99 = 14,221.402734


Rounds to: 1.42 x 104 (3 sig. fig.)
© 2008 Brooks/Cole 50
Rules for Rounding
Examine the 1st non-significant digit. If it:
• > 5, round up.
• < 5, round down.
• = 5, check the 2nd non-significant digit.
 round up if absent or odd; round down if even.

Round 37.663147 to 3 significant figures.


2nd non-
last retained significant Rounds up to 37.7
digit digit
1st non-
significant digit

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 51
Rules for Rounding
Round the following numbers to 3 sig. figs.
1st non-sig. 2nd non-sig. Rounded
Number digit digit Number
2.123 2.123 - 2.12
51.372 51.372 51.372 51.4
131.5 131.5 - 132.
24.752 24.752 24.752 24.7
24.751 24.751 24.751 24.8
0.06744 0.06744 - 0.0674

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 52
Rules for Rounding
Answer dp = 3.
92.803 is the significant result.
dp = 5 dp = 3 (5 sig. figs).

99.12444 – 6.321 92.80344


= = 3.37153195571
27.5256 27.5256
6 sig. figs.

Significant figures? = 3.3715 (5 sig. figs.)

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 53
Rules for Rounding
To avoid rounding errors
Carry additional digits through a calculation.
Use the correct number of places in the final answer.

Note
Exact conversion factors:
(100 cm / 1 m) or (2H / 1 H2O)
Have an infinite number of sig. figs.

© 2008 Brooks/Cole 54
End of Lecture Unit No. 1

55
Outline
1. The Study Matter
2. States of Matter
3. Chemical and Physical Properties
4. Chemical and Physical Changes
5. Classification of Matter
6. Measurements

56
General Chemistry 1
LECTURE UNIT No. 1
Introduction to Chemistry

Engr. Edgie Estopace


School of Chemical Engineering and
Chemistry