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AMPLITUDE MODULATION - is a system of modulation in which the Frequency Modulation – a type of modulation wherein the frequency of the

amplitude of the carrier is made proportional to the instantaneous carrier is changed in accordance with the modulating signal.
amplitude of the modulating signal. Frequency deviation – is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier
- types of modulation wherein the amplitude of the carrier is being varied when it is acted on by a modulating signal.
in accordance with the modulating signal. Modulation index – used to describe the depth of modulation achieved for a
carrier - radio frequency signal, intelligence signal given amplitude and frequency modulating signal.
modulating signal – information signal, audio signal, modulating wave Carrier swing – peak-to-peak frequency deviation
modulation index – the extent to which amplitude of the carrier wave is mf = _____ f f
= ______ where  or  deviation or frequency
varied by modulating wave deviation
- modulation factor, coefficient of modulation fm fm fm is frequency of the modulating
% modulation – it is a measure of the extent to which a carrier voltage is signal
varied by the intelligence.

Forms of Amplitude Modulation %mf = _____

actual x 100
1. Double Sideband, Full carrier (A3E) – this is the Am used for max
maximum deviation = 75 KHz maximum fm = 15 Khz
2. Double sideband, Suppressed carrier deviation ratio – the shift in the carrier frequency from the resting point
compared to the amplitude of the modulating signal
3. Single sideband, Full carrier (H3E) – this could be used as a
compatible AM broadcasting system with A3E receivers. Distortion is maxfor FM broadcast, deviation ratio = 5
deviation ratio = _____
not exceeding 5% is claimed for H3E transmission received by an fmax for TV, deviation ratio = 1.67
A3E receiver.
carrier swing, cs = 2
4. Single sideband, Suppressed carrier- (J3E) – this is the system so unmodulated carrier : x = A sin (t + )
far referred to as “SSB” in which the carrier is suppressed by at least where x – instantaneous value  - angular velocity
45 dB in the transmitter. A maximum deviation  - phase
5. Independent sideband (B8E) – two independent sidebands, with a fH = fc + f fL = fc - f cs = fmax -
carrier that is most commonly attenuated or suppressed. It is used fmin
for HF point-to-point radio telephony, in which more than one channel
is required. It can simultaneously convey a totally different
f = fc ( 1 + KVmcos mt) instantaneous frequency of FM
transmission, to the extent that the upper sideband could be used for
fc – carrier frequency
telephony while the lower sideband carrier telegraphy.
K – proportionality constant
Vmcos mt – instantaneous modulating voltage at maximum value
6. Vestigial sideband – a system in which a vestige, i. e., a trace of the
unwanted sideband, usually with a full carrier. It is used for video
transmission in all the world’s various TV systems to conserve
bandwidth. eFM = Ec sin (ct + mf sin mt) ----- FM equation
OSC Buffer Modulated

Modulator Mixer


Audio Balanced Sideband

Amplifier Modulator Filter



Audio Balanced
Amplifier Modulator

RF 90 Balanced
Oscillator Phase Modulator

RF Mixer IF IF AM Audio
Amplifier Amplifier Amplifier Detector Amplifier


Audio FM Master Frequency Frequency Frequency Power

Amplifier Modulat Oscillat Multiplier Multiplier Multiplier Amplifier
or or X3 X2 X2


RF IF FM Audio
Amp Mixer Amp Limiter Detector Amp

Local SUPERHETERODYNE RECEIVER Receiver Specifications

Osc Sensitivity – is a measurement of a receiver’s ability to
receive weak signals
Selectivity – is a measure of a receiver’s ability to select
one signal while rejecting others
Image rejection – is a measure of the receiver’s ability to
reject a strong signal at the exact image frequency
IF rejection – is a measure of the receiver’s ability to
reject strong signal at its own intermediate frequency
Dynamic range – is a measure of the receiver’s ability to
receive both very weak and extremely strong stations
without introducing distortion to either