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Elena Kozharskaya Natalia Konstantinova

Kevin McNicholas J o a n n e Hodson


Angela Bandis J o a n n e Stournara

MACMILLAN
Guide to Science
Student's B o o k

MACMILLAN
Contents
Unit I 4 Unit 12 61
Biology Electricity and magnetism 61
An introduction 4
Michael Faraday 63
Biology today 6
Revision vocabulary Units 9 to 12 66

Unit 2 9
Unit 13 67
Germ theory 9
The Law of Universal Gravitation 67
Louis Pasteur N
Isaac Newton 69

Unit 3 14
Unit 14 72
The biosphere 14
Quantum mechanics 72
Vladimir Vernadsky 16
Niels Bohr 74

Unit 4 19
Unit 15 77
Cells 19
The General Theory of Relativity 77
Gregor Mendel 21
Albert Einstein 79
Revision vocabulary Units I to 4 24

Unit 16 82
Unit 5 25
Mathematics
The discovery of the structure and function of DNA . . . .25
An introduction 82
Cloning 27
Mathematics 84

Unit 6 30 Revision vocabulary Units 13 to 16 87

Chemistry
Unit 17 88
An introduction 30
Algebra 88
Chemistry today 32
Gottfried Leibniz 90
Unit 7 35
The atom 35
Unit 18 93

Robert Boyle 37 Geometry 93

Rene Descartes 95
Unit 8 40
The Law of Conservation of Mass 40 Unit 19 98
Antoine Lavoisier 42 Calculus 98

Revision vocabulary Units 5 to 8 45 Pierre de Fermat 10C

Unit 9 46 Unit 20 103


The periodicity of elements 46 Applied mathematics 103

Dmitri Mendeleev 48 Norbert Wiener 105

Unit 10 51 Unit 21 108


Chemical kinetics 51 The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) 108

Nikolay Semyonov 53 Russian Nobel Prize winners in Physics and Chemistry . . . I 1

Revision vocabulary Units 17 to 21 113


Unit II 56
Physics Translation work 114
An introduction 56

Physics - the new science fiction 58 Glossary 123

2 Macmillan Guide to Science Contents


Дорогие друзья!

Представляем вам учебно-методический комплект (УМК) «Macmillan Guide to


Science», который поможет вам приобрести навыки владения английским
языком в естественно-научной области.

Курс адресован учащимся старших классов общеобразовательных учреждений


и колледжей, увлекающимся естественными науками, а также студентам
младших курсов естественно-научных факультетов высших учебных заведений.

Тема курса - история знаменитых открытий и вклад известных учёных в


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В Книге для учащихся четыре раздела. Каждый раздел посвяшён одной из


четырёх естественнонаучных дисциплин - биологии, химии, математике и
физике, и включает в себя пять уроков (Unit). Первый урок каждого раздела
неизменно состоит из краткого исторического обзора данной дисциплины и
текста, который позволяет представить уровень и значимость данной науки в
наши дни. Следующие четыре урока каждого раздела посвящены наиболее
крупным научным открытиям в данной области. В целом в книге 21 урок - в 21
уроке рассказывается о российских учёных, ставших Нобелевскими лауреатами,
и о Российской академии наук.

Каждый урок включает в себя два текста (Reading), сопровождаемых


аудиозаписями (Listening). Аудиотексты, озвученные носителями языка,
относятся к различным стилям речи и позволят вам получить навыки
аудирования, необходимые для понимания как научных докладов, так и
разговорной речи. Кроме того, каждый урок содержит упражнения на
расширение и закрепление активной лексики - как обшего, так и специального
плана (Vocabulary), и на проверку понимания прочитанного (Comprehension).

Особенно хотелось бы отметить упражнения и материалы, нацеленные на


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составлять доклады и отчёты, писать письма, статьи, эссе, сочинения.
Глоссарий (Glossary) слов и терминов, который вы найдет в конце книги,
поможет вам при работе с курсом.

Надеемся, что УМК «Macmillan Guide to Science» будет вам интересен и


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Авторы УМК «Macmillan Guide to Science»

3 Macmillan Guide to S c i e n c e Contents


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What can you see around you that is living?
What can you see that is not living?
What can living things do that non-living
things can't?
Can you classify living things?

A Vocabulary
Match these words with their definitions.
1 life cycle A characteristic H Reading 1
2 observation В from birth to death
3 property
4 successor
С develop an idea
D what you see
Biology
5 formulate E sb who follows An introduction
6 pollen F a fine yellow powder
found in flowers Biology means the study of life and it is the
science which investigates all living things. For as
Z contribution G sth given to help
progress long as people have looked at the world around
them, people have studied biology. Even in the
8 foundation H what is passed down
days before recorded history, people knew and
from one generation to
the next passed on information about plants and animals.
Prehistoric people survived by learning which
9 treat I give medical help
plants were good to eat and which could be used
10 classify J process according to for medicine. Farming would not have developed
which only the strongest if they had not begun to understand which
species survive
animals could produce food like milk and eggs.
11 inheritance К academic
12 natural selection L put into groups In the past, more than 2000 years ago, people in
the Middle East understood the part that insects
13 field M basic idea
and pollen played in the life cycle of plants. The
14 principle N academic area ancient Egyptians studied the life cycle of insects
15 advance О improvement and were particularly interested in the changes
16 scholar P basis they went through as they grew from larvae to
17 genetics 0 the study of how adult insects. The ancient Mesopotamians even
characteristics are kept animals in what were the earliest zoological
passed from one gardens. The ancient Greeks, too, were greatly
generation to another interested in understanding the world around

4 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

them. Aristotle recorded his observations of plants


Pronunciation guide
and animals, and his successor, Theophrastus,
wrote the first books on plant life, which made Albertus Magnusfoibe'tss'masgnas/
a very important contribution to the study Al-Jahiz /el gAhazI
of botany. Aristotle teri'stofl/
Carl Linnaeus /ka:1 li'nias/
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the centre of van Leeuwenhoek /vaen leivanhuk/
the scientific world moved to the Middle East. Mesopotamian /messpa'tasmian/
The Arab scholar Al-Jahiz wrote the Book of Theophrastus /Sis'frasstas/
Animals in the 9 t h century. He was just one of a
great number of Arabic, Persian and Turkish
^ В Comprehension
scientists who set out the foundations for the
modern science of biology. Later still, in Europe, Read the t e x t and decide if the following
particularly in Germany, scholars such as statements are true or false.
Albertus Magnus discussed the properties of life. 1 The earliest people must have known T •
Magnus wrote seven books on plants and twenty- about plants or they would have died. F •
six on animals.
2 The Egyptians were interested T О
Modern biology really began in the 17 t h
century. in changing the way insects lived. F •
At that time, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, in 3 Europeans learnt all they knew T •
Holland, invented the microscope and William about biology from the Middle East. F П
Harvey, in England, described the circulation of
blood. The microscope allowed scientists to 4 The microscope allowed biologists T •
discover bacteria, leading to an understanding of to treat illnesses. F •
the causes of disease, while new knowledge about 5 Darwin's theory was one of the T П
how the human body works allowed others to most important in biology. F •
find more effective ways of treating illnesses. All 6 The study of biology hasn't changed T •
this new knowledge needed to be put into order
at all over the centuries. F •
and in the 18 t h century the Swedish scientist
Carl Linnaeus classified all living things into the
biological families we know and use today.
Before you listen
Discuss these questions with your partner.
In the middle of the 19 th ccntury, unnoticed by
anyone else, the Austrian monk Gregor Mendef, Do you know what a germ is?
created his Laws of Inheritance, beginning the What can you say about their size and shape?
study of genetics that is such an important part of What do you know about the classification
biology today. At the same time, while travelling of germs?
around the world, Charles Darwin was
formulating the central principle of modern И С Listening *)))
biology - natural selection as the basis of
Listen t o this lesson about germs.
evolution.
Circle the correct word or phrase t o
It is hard to believe, but the nature of viruses has make true statements.
become apparent only within the last half of the 1 The teacher believes people rightly /
20 t h century and the first step on this path of mistakenly / rarely think all germs are bad.
discovery was taken by the Russian botanist
Dmitry Ivanovsky in 1892. 2 Germs don't live on microbes / animals /
people.
In the 20 t h century, biologists began to recognise
3 Some / all / few germs are responsible
how plants and animals live and pass on their
for illnesses.
genetically coded information to the next
generation. Since then, partly because of 4 There are four basic types of fungi /
developments in computer technology, there have protozoa / germ.
been great advances in the field of biology; it is an 5 Germs are only round / mostly long and
area of ever-growing knowledge. thin / different shapes.

5 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What careers in biology can you think of?
Do you like any of them? Which ones and why?
Are there any areas of biology that you do not
find interesting?
What areas of biology do you consider
the most important for human society
nowadays? Why?

В D Vocabulary-
c o m p l e t e the sentences below with
words from the box.

mammal threatened
species adapt
cell diseases
environment crops
composition building blocks

1 Unfortunately, the growth of cities


H Reading 2
often means wildlife is

2A
with extinction.

is an animal that feeds its


Biology today
babies milk. Dear Students,

3 Farmers that grow like I am writing this letter to welcome all of you
cereals and vegetables normally have to who are about to begin your first year course in
work very hard. Biology here at the university. You might think
it is a little early for me to ask you to think
4 The smallest, basic structural and functional about what you will do when you leave here in
unit of life is a three years' time. However, our science, like
any other, has so many different areas it is
5 Serious illnesses are known as .. impossible for you to study them all. The first
thing you will need to think about is
6 What something is made of is its
specialising. This letter is to offer you some
Z It's amazing how animals can suggestions to think about for your future.
to changes in their living conditions. As you know, there are four main areas of
biology that we shall concentrate on in the
8 There are many different
coming years. Biology can be divided into
of butterfly.
zoology, the study of animal life, and botany,
9 Humankind's actions have often had a the study of plant life. We shall also study
molecular biology, the study of how the
negative effect on the
building blocks of living things, the cells, work.
10 The most basic parts of something can b e Another topic of interest is genetics, how
called biological information is passed on from one

6 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

generation to the next: that is, inheritance. You


Pronunciation guide
should specialise, but you will also need to
know about all of these four areas of study. career /кэ'пэ7
Plants and animals do not live separately from climatic /klai'maetik/
each other; all living things are made up of cells gene /d3i:n/
and one of the things genetics tells us is how genetics /d33'netiks/
plants and animals adapt to the conditions inheritance /m'heritsns/
around them. molecular /ira'lekjub7
species /spiijiizI
So what about after the course is over and you
have graduated in Biology? Can you have a
H E Comprehension
career in biology? For those who choose to
specialise in genetics or molecular biology Read the t e x t and answer the questions
there are important career opportunities in in your own words.
medicine. At the present time, there is a great 1 What four areas can biology be divided into?
deal of research going on in gene therapy where
biologists are working with doctors and 2 If you are interested in cells, which area
chemists to find new ways of treating diseases. should you study?
Other biologists are looking at ways of changing 3 How can zoologists help animals in the wild?
the genetic composition of the plants we grow
for food; of making them more able to fight 4 In what way can botanists protect people and
diseases and at the same time produce the environment?
more food. 5 What is astrobiology?
We are experiencing a period of climatic change
too, and this is having an effect on the way Before you listen
animals and plants live. The science of ecology
Discuss these questions with your partner.
is becoming more and more important;
biologists who specialise in zoology are working What do you know about climate change?
in many parts of the world. Some are working to How do you imagine plants and animals
protect species like the tiger, which are are affected by global climates
seriously threatened by climate change. Others becoming warmer?
are investigating wildlife from the smallest
insects to the largest mammals, trying to
В F Listening *)))
understand how they all live together. Botanists
are looking at the effect new types of food crops Listen to part of a TV p r o g r a m m e about
have on the environment and how changes in climate change.Then decide if the
that area can affect our general health. There is following s t a t e m e n t s are true or false.
even a new area of biology called astrobiology, The report suggests there are т •
which is looking at the possibilities of life on reasons for hope as well as worry. F •
other planets - but perhaps that is something
In the past, ice ages and droughts т •
for the more distant future.
killed off all life. F •
Whatever you specialise in, as long as there is
Temperatures are rising at т •
life on this (or any other) planet, there is work
five degrees every century. F •
for a biologist.
Some plants and animals move т •
Good luck and enjoy your studies!
as climates become warmer. FD
Jean Shearer
There are mountain animals that т •
Professor of Biology will die if temperatures rise. F •

7 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Speaking tips
^ G Speaking
• Speak from notes.
Discuss these questions with
your partner. • Don't write out everything you plan to say;
use key words.
How important do you feel the study of
• Introduce each new idea clearly.
biology is for our world today?
Would you prefer not to study it? Why?
Are there any areas of biology which you
think are more important than others?

Task
Prepare a short presentation
t o answer t h e question:
' W h a t is biology?'
Use the information in both texts.
Talk about:
• what the study of biology includes
• the four main areas of biology
• where biologists work
f / £
• what biology informs us about
H Writing
W r i t e a letter t o your t u t o r telling him
o r her which areas of Biology you would
First c o m p l e t e these notes. like t o specialise in and why. Use these
Use t h e m in your presentation. notes t o help you.
Dear Mr / Mrs (tutor's surname),
Biology: The study of
Writing to tell you choices I have made
There are four main areas:
Specialise in: (one or two of the main areas)
is about
Reasons for choosing: interested in (plants /
is about animals / laboratory work / latest ideas /
Molecular biology is about your own ideas)

is about inheritance. Possible career choices: what I hope to do


when I graduate (medicine / ecology /
Biologists work in .... agriculture / your own idea)
and Offer to meet and discuss choices: I would like
your advice and hope we can ...
In conclusion, biology is about
Yours sincerely,
(your full name: first name + surname)
R e m e m b e r to:
• read the texts again
• select information that is relevant
• add examples where you can W r i t e 100-140 words.

8 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
-» What is a microscope?
What can you do with one?
What kind of scientist uses a microscope?
What other tools/equipment do biologists use?

Й A Vocabulary
Choose the c o r r e c t definition of
these words.

1 state A deny H Reading 1


В say

2 weaken
С suggest
A reduce
Germ theory
В increase
In the past, germ theory was something that
С add
caused a lot of discussion and disagreement. Germ
3 decaying A breaking down theory, the idea that microorganisms or germs
В growing
were the cause of many diseases, was something
С sleeping
that took biologists and the medical profession a
4 trap A free long time to accept. Long before the invention of
В imprison the microscope, biologists were uncertain about
С move
the existence of microorganisms, forms of life too
5 maggot A egg of a fly small to be seen with the naked eye. Biologists
В larva of a fly knew that small life forms existed, but could not
С small fly say where they came from. The accepted scientific
6 jar A ceramic plate theory was what was known as spontaneous
В plastic cup generation (abiogenesis). Quite simply, this stated
С glass pot that living things appeared from nowhere, as if out
7 disprove A prove wrong of nothing, for no reason. According to scientists
В don't prove this happened in things that were decaying: that is,
С not approve in what remained of things that were dead.
8 microorganism A germ Spontaneous generation could take place in a dead
В small animal animal, for example, when the animal's flesh
С little plant decayed into maggots. These maggots would then
9 vacuum A a full space grow into flies or other insects. Mud or dead plants
В an empty space were other places where new life could come into
С a space with gas existence.

9 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Near the end of the 17 t h century the Italian Pronunciation guide


scientist Francesco Redi proved that maggots
abiogenesis /eibaiau'djenssis/
come from eggs that flies lay in the flesh of
germ /ёзз: г т/
dead animals. He carried out one of the first
Lazzaro Spallanzani tla:zsro spalsn'tjaim/
modern scientific experiments in this area. He
Louis Pasteur /lui pa:st3:/
put meat into three jars. One j a r he kept tightly
Needham /пЫэтI
closed so that air could not enter. Another he
spontaneous /spDnteiniss/
covered with cloth and the third he left open to
the air. Maggots appeared, but only in the open
jar. However, belief in spontaneous generation E В Comprehension
was not destroyed by his experiment and
Read the t e x t and answer the questions
almost 100 years later, the Englishman John
in your own words.
Needham carried out a similar experiment.
First, he boiled the meat to kill any living 1 Where did biologists believe living
organisms that were already there. He kept the things came from before the days of
air from outside out of his j a r and not maggots the microscope?
but microorganisms or germs grew in it.
Needham argued that this proved that life could 2 What was original about Redi's experiment?
be generated spontaneously from dead material. 3 What did people say about Spallanzani's
However, he did not know they were present in experiment?
the air already in the jar. When Lazzaro
4 What effect did the microscope have on
Spallanzani in Italy repeated Needham's
belief in spontaneous generation?
experiment but removed the air from the j a r
creating a vacuum with the result that nothing 5 How did Pasteur change Redi's experiment?
grew on the meat, people argued that he only
had proved that spontaneous generation could
not take place without air.
Before you listen
Discuss these questions with your partner.
The invention of the microscope did little to
weaken the belief in spontaneous generation. How many mammals can you name? Name as
The microscope opened up a new world of many mammals as you can.
microorganisms to biologists but they could not How many insects can you name?
explain where they came from and so claimed Can you name living things that you can only
it was by spontaneous generation. see under a microscope?
It was not until the middle of the 19 t h century What do you know about protozoa such
that the French biochemist, Louis Pasteur, as amoebas?
proved to the world that microorganisms were
present in the air and that the idea of
spontaneous generation had no place in biology.
В С Listening *)))
Pasteur changed Redi's experiment so that the Listen to this class discussion
jar was 's'-shaped at the opening. This let the air about protozoa and c o r r e c t the
in, but trapped any microorganisms in t h e ' s ' following s t a t e m e n t s .
bend. The meat in Pasteur's jars did not generate
1 The word protozoa means microorganisms.
microorganisms. Only when Pasteur moved
the jar, allowing the meat to touch the 2 One of protozoa's ecological functions is to
microorganisms in the trap, did microorganisms produce bacteria.
start to grow. In this way he showed that growth 3 Paramecium have a simple internal
only occurred when there was contact with the organisation and a fixed shape.
air. This time the scientist's conclusions could
4 All protozoa are parasites and live in humans
not be ignored. The idea of spontaneous
or animals.
generation was finally disproved and from that
time on biologists have recognised that 5 Protozoa can only feed by taking in nutrients
microorganisms are present in the air. through the cell mouth.

10 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Are germs dangerous?
How can we get rid of germs?
What dangerous diseases from the past are
now rare?

в D Vocabulary
a. Match these words with
their definitions.

1 application A give liquid through


a needle

2 harm В getting better

3 inject С hurt В Reading 2


4 recovery D use

5 sample E passing a disease from Louis Pasteur


one person or animal
Pasteur (1822-1895) began his scientific career as
to another
a chemist, but it is because of his applications of
6 vaccine F ability to avoid illness germ theory to the prevention of disease that he
became known as 'The Father of Microbiology'.
1 immunise G medicine that prevents
Pasteur did not create germ theory, but he proved
disease
it to be correct. Once he had achieved this, he set
8 resistance H protect from illness about finding ways to prevent germs, the
microorganisms present in the air, from infecting
9 infecting I something taken to make food and people.
tests on
He completed his famous experiment proving that
microorganisms were present in the air while
working for a wine company. He was trying to
b. Match the words t o make phrases.
discover why wine sometimes went bad as it was
1 become A vaccines being made. Once he had found the cause -
microorganisms - he began to develop the process
2 go В out a vaccination which carries his name - pasteurisation. It was
programme perfectly possible to kill all the microorganisms in
3 make С of a disease food by boiling it, a process known as sterilisation,
but this damaged the taste and the quality of the
4 develop D known as food. Pasteur's process killed not all, but most, of
the microorganisms, with the result that the food
5 die E a recovery
needed to be kept cool and eaten or drunk within
6 carry F bad a limited time. Most importantly, the quality of the
food was not harmed by the process. Much of the
food we eat today is pasteurised.

His next achievement was to build on the discover}7


of the British scientist Edward Jenner. Many years
earlier, Jenner had discovered a way of giving
people resistance to the deadly disease smallpox, by

M а с m i 11 a n G u i d e Co S c i e n c e Unit 2 I
Biology

injecting them with a similar disease that was found 2 Pasteurisation


among cows. The process became known as A kills only dangerous microorganisms.
vaccination. Pasteur applied germ theory to his В works for a limited time.
work and looked at samples of blood taken from С doesn't work with wine.
healthy and infected animals. He grew bacteria in D kills all the microorganisms.
his laboratory and used it to infect animals. By 3 Pasteur's vaccinated animals
chance, some of these germs failed to grow well in A recovered from the disease.
his laboratory; these weak germs were then used to В died from the disease.
infect some chickens. Although the chickens С didn't suffer from the disease.
suffered at first, they made a complete recovery and D didn't catch the disease.
could not be infected again. In this way, he
4 Pasteur became a hero when
discovered a way of increasing resistance to disease.
A he invented pasteurisation.
Pasteur developed vaccines for many serious
В a vaccine saved a boy's life.
diseases including cholera and anthrax. At that
С he discovered vaccines.
time, these illnesses were certain death for anyone
D a colleague developed a rabies vaccine.
who caught them.
5 Because of Pasteur,
Pasteur's discoveries revolutionised work on A we eat less tasty food.
infectious diseases. Pasteur's vaccines were different В there are no germs anymore.
from Jenner's in one important way. Jenner found a С many serious diseases are rare.
weak form of smallpox and transferred it to D we don't need to keep food cool.
humans. Pasteur weakened the disease in a
laboratory and immunised people with that
weakened form. His success allowed a colleague to Before you listen
develop the first vaccine for rabies, which Pasteur Discuss these questions with your partner.
used to save the life of a nine-year-old boy. By this
What vaccinations have you had?
act, Pasteur's position as a hero was assured.
Do you know of any diseases for which we
Thanks to the work of Pasteur, we now live longer, cannot be immunised?
our food stays fresh longer and we are less likely
What vaccines would you like to
to die of disease. Indeed, smallpox is no longer
see developed?
found anywhere in the world, due to a huge
vaccination programme carried out in the 20 t h
century. This could never have happened without
H F Listening Щ)
the scientific achievements of The Father Listen t o the e x t r a c t from a lecture about
of Microbiology. immunisation. Then listen again and fill in
^ the gaps in t h e tapescript.
Pronunciation guide Historically, being immunised against diseases
anthrax /asnQraeks/ is a relatively new thing but that doesn't mean
cholera /кэ1эгэ/ the idea hadn't been thought of before. If we go
pasteurisation /.paistsrai'zeijbn/ as far back as 429 ВС, the historian Thucydides
vaccine /'vasksi:nI • noted that after a (1) plague in
Athens, those who survived did not become
^ E Comprehension infected again. This was at a time before there
was even recognition of such things as
Read the t e x t and choose the (2) and viruses.
c o r r e c t answer. Nowadays, we take it for granted that we will
1 Pasteur used his work on pasteurisation to b e vaccinated and avoid diseases like polio
A move his specialisation to microbiology. but how many of us actually stop to ask
В find ways to protect food and people ourselves what is behind the (3)
from infection. we have? How does vaccination work?
С make a theory of germs. Basically, it is the process by which a person
D prevent microorganisms being in the air. is exposed, that is, made open to an agent so

12 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

that his or her immune system develops R e m e m b e r to:


against that agent. The immune system makes
• plan what you are going to say
antibodies which fight against infection.
Once the human immune system is exposed • give examples
to a disease, it is able to act against any future Speaking tips
infection. Vaccination exposes a person to an
immunogen - something which helps develop • Emphasise important points by repeating
immunity - in a controlled way by using the idea, not the words.
a (4) dose so he or she • Speak clearly and slowly.
doesn't become ill while being immunised. • Make sure everyone speaks using phrases
The good thing about a vaccination like: What do you think, (name)? Would you
programme is that it can limit the spread of a like to add to that, (name)?
disease among a population, reducing the risk
for people who have not been vaccinated so И H Writing
we have something which is known as herd W r i t e a short r e p o r t explaining what
(5) That means when the people used t o believe about the origins
number of non-immune people has dropped to a of living creatures.
certain level, the disease will disappear from the
whole population. This is how nowadays we have W r i t e about:
achieved the elimination of many diseases. spontaneous generation
how living things were created
H G Speaking
how deeply people believed this
Discuss these questions with
your partner. what proved the idea wrong

How do you think Redi's work Read t e x t I again and use these notes t o
helped Pasteur? write four paragraphs.
How do you think Jenner's work
PARAGRAPH 1
helped Pasteur?
Introduction Spontaneous generation: What
Do we need vaccination? Are there any is it? Why do you think people believed it?
negative aspects to it? Vocabulary: microorganisms, belief, fact

Task PARAGRAPH 2
In groups, discuss the work of Where did this happen? What did people
Louis Pasteur. see happening? What helped the idea
to survive?
Talk about:
Vocabulary: decaying, proof, appearance
• germ theory
PARAGRAPH 3
• vaccination
What experiments took place? Why were
• effects of his work today
they not all believed? Which was the most
successful? Why?
First c o m p l e t e these notes.
Vocabulary: deeply, air, present
Use t h e m in your presentation.
Pasteur proved that microorganisms were PARAGRAPH 4
present He improved on Conclusion Spontaneous generaration
Redi's experiment. finaly disproved. Experiments gave proof.
Vocabulary: scientific, conclusions,
Pasteur built on Jenner's work. He
disproved
developed vaccines for serious
W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.
Pasteur's work means we are more
and our is safer.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 5 13


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What different forms of life exist on Earth?
What effect do human beings have on
the planet?
How do you see the future of our planet?
Suggest some measures to improve it.

И A Vocabulary H Reading 1
Complete the definitions below with
words from the box.

с \
The biosphere
Я coin • evolve The biosphere is the layer of the Earth in which
• extinct • impact all life exists. The term biosphere was coined in
• inhabit • layer 1875 by the geologist, Eduard Suess, but it was
Vladimir Vernadsky who recognised its ecological
• approximately • permanent importance in 1929. He believed that all living
• predict organisms together with their environments make
V J up the biosphere. These environments include
1 To means to live in a the air (the atmosphere), land (the geosphere),
particular place. rocks (the lithosphere) and water (the
hydrosphere). The exact thickness of the
2 A(n) animal or plant no
biosphere on Earth is difficult to calculate, but
longer exists.
most scientists would agree that it is from about
3 To means to change 5000 metres above sea level to around 9000
metres below sea level. Thus, there is a
physically over a long period of time. 14-kilometre zone within which life exists.
4 A(n) is an effect. The biosphere is important because it is all of life.
5 To a term means to use a Without the biosphere, Earth would be a lifeless
planet like all the others in our solar system.
word or phrase that no one has used before. Also, the biosphere could not exist without water.
6 A(n) is a covering. Water is essential for all living organisms on Earth
and has played a very important role in the
7 means lasting forever. evolution of life on our planet. Life on Earth
began approximately 3.5 billion years ago in the
8 means not exactly.
oceans. At that time, Earth was very different
9 change
Scientists often from what it is todav.
will destroy our Earth. global

14 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

The earliest forms of life were very simple 3 The first living creatures on Earth т •
organisms similar to modern bacteria. Over were in the seas. FD
millions of years, more complex organisms
4 The only thing the biosphere T •
evolved and in time, many different forms of life
provides us with is food. F •
began to inhabit the land, the sky and the oceans.
They all depended on each other to survive. The 5 Many types of plants and animals т •
biosphere is like a ladder. This ladder is known as have disappeared. FD
the food chain, and all life depends on the first 6 Scientists can already predict т •
step of the ladder which is made up of plants. the future of the biosphere. F •
Animals eat the plants; bigger animals eat
the smaller animals, and so on. In this way,
b. Read the text and answer the
all organisms are closely connected to following questions.
their environment.
1 What is the biosphere?
The biosphere is what keeps us alive. It gives us
2 Why is it so important?
our food, water and the air that we breathe.
Everything we need in order to grow and survive 3 What layers does it consist of?
comes directly from the biosphere, so it is 4 What is a food chain?
important to protect it; however, humans have
5 What effect do we have on our planet?
not always done that. Humans have had a huge
impact on the biosphere. Sometimes this has
been good, but at other times it has been very
destructive. The growing human population on Before you listen
Earth means there is less room for other species Discuss these questions with your partner.
and by destroying their habitats we have made
many types of plants and animals extinct. 1 What is extinction?
2 Give examples of extinct animals.
As scientists learn more about our world, they
can help us to understand the biosphere, how it 3 Do you know of any animals that are in danger
evolved, and even try to predict how the of becoming extinct?
biosphere will respond to global change and 4 How can they b e saved?
human activities. Scientists are very concerned
about the future, particularly how people will
affect the environment in harmful ways. It is very В С Listening *)))
important to try to prevent any permanent Listen to the discussion between a
damage, or we will destroy ourselves. t e a c h e r and s o m e students about
extinction. Then listen again and fill in the
/ N gaps in the sentences.
Pronunciation guide
biosphere /baiausfiэ/ 1 The Tasmanian tiger looked like a dog
with a head.
Eduard Suess /edwsd susI
environment /in'vairenmsnt/ 2 It was called a tiger because it
geosphere tdyoshsl had on its body.

3 The who arrived in Tasmania


В В Comprehension killed it.
a. Read the t e x t and decide if the 4 The Tasmanian tiger was
following s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e o r false. a very animal.

1 The biosphere is made up of all T Q 5 The last one died in -


living things and their environments. F О in a zoo.
2 The biosphere is a 5 km layer T О 6 The Tasmanian tiger was declared extinct
around the Earth. F • in

15 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Are you interested in science?
What sort of discoveries would you like to make?
What do you imagine the world will be like in
50 years' time?

H D Vocabulary
Complete the sentences below with
words from the box.
с \
• source • deposits
• commission • contribution
• boundary • doctrine
• ore • required
• crust
v У
1 Vernadsky's particular beliefs led him to
develop his unique
2 Rich mineral were found He graduated from the Physics and Mathematics
in the area. Department of St Petersburg University in 1885.
From 1890 to 1911 he taught mineralogy and
3 Uranium is mined crystallography at the University of Moscow. In
in Australia. 1912 he was made a full member of the Russian
4 Vernadsky's development of the idea of the Academy of Sciences where he was actively
biosphere was an important involved for 33 years, until his death in Moscow
to science. on 6 t h January, 1945.
5 Oil is a of energy. Through his work in mineralogy, Vernadsky
6A was organised to look into became interested in the distribution of chemical
the position of the mine. elements in the Earth's crust, hydrosphere and
atmosphere - the field known as geochemistry.
7 The between the two
spheres has been defined. Vernadsky published many papers on the
geochemistry of various elements, including the
8 In the Earth's there are geochemistry of radioactive compounds.
many minerals.
Vernadsky was one of the first scientists to
9 What are the conditions for
suggest the possibility of using radioactive
a better future?
elements as sources of energy, and he organised a
special commission to look for uranium ores in
В Reading 2 Russia. In 1916, the first uranium deposits were
discovered. But Vernadsky was aware of the
Vladimir Vernadsky danger of putting atomic energy into the hands of
man. He said that scientists carried the huge
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky was a Russian
responsibility of making sure their discoveries did
scientist who was born on 12 th March, 1863 in
not lead to destruction.
St Petersburg. His most important contributions
to science were the development of the ideas of However, Vernadsky is probably best known for
the biosphere (from the Greek word bios his development of the idea of the biosphere of
meaning life) and the noosphere (from the Greek the Earth and his ideas on the evolution of the
word noos meaning mind). biosphere into the noosphere.

16 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

1 le defined the boundaries of the biosphere by 3 He was one of the first to suggest using
showing that the biosphere includes all the A atomic energy.
hydrosphere, part of the troposphere - the lowest В minerals.
aver of the atmosphere where most weather С the biosphere.
.hanges take place - and the upper part of the D various elements.
Earth's crust down to a depth of two or three 4 The biosphere is the layer of Earth where
kilometres, in short, everywhere that life exists. A only minerals are found.
For Vernadsky, the biosphere had existed since В living things are found.
:he very beginning of the Earth's history and it С only the troposphere is.
vas constantly evolving. Our present living world D its history began.
is the product of a long and complex evolution of
5 According to Vernadsky,
the biosphere.
A the noosphere is in the atmosphere.
Vernadsky believed that the technological В the biosphere developed from
activities of mankind were a stage in this the noosphere.
evolution. He believed that human reason and С the biosphere creates a negative
combined scientific efforts could overcome the environment.
negative results of technology and could lead to a D the noosphere would create a
-afe future for everyone. This positive better world.
evolutionary stage of the biosphere of the Earth is
Work in pairs. Make three questions on the text
for him the noosphere, the sphere of reason.
for your partner to answer. Then change roles.
In his paper, Several Words on the Noosphere
1944, the last paper he published before his
death), Vernadsky outlined the conditions that
Before you listen
were required for the creation of the Discuss these questions with your partner.
noosphere: equality for all people and an end to What do you know about uranium?
wars, poverty and hunger. Today, Vernadskv's
vision of the world is more important than Do you think atomic and nuclear power are
ever before. safe? Why / Why not?
Do you know any other radioactive elements?
Pronunciation guide Give examples of their application.
crystallography /krista'lografi/
g e o c h e m i s t r y /dsio'kemistri/ И F Listening Щ)
m i n e r a l o g y /ттэ'гае1эёзт/ Listen to the class discussion about
n o o s p h e r e /nauosfiэ/ uranium. Then decide if the following
uranium ores /ju'reiniam o:zl statements are true or false.
-

1 Uranium has been in the Earth's T •


^ E Comprehension crust for a very long time. F •
Read the t e x t and choose the 2 Uranium entered a star that T •
correct answer. had exploded. F •
1 Vladimir Vernadsky taught at 3 Uranium is lighter than oxygen. T •
A St Petersburg University. FD
В Moscow University.
4 Uranium is a source of energy. T •
С the Russian Academy of Sciences.
F •
D both St Petersburg and Moscow University.
2 Vernadsky's work in mineralogy led to 5 A small amount of uranium can T •
A his work in publishing. produce a great deal of oil. F •
В discovery of the Earth's hydrosphere. 6 Less carbon dioxide enters the T •
С his interest in geochemistry. atmosphere when we use F •
D a new field of geochemistry. nuclear power.

17 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

R e m e m b e r to:
H G Speaking
• read the texts carefully
Discuss these questions with
your partner. • locate the information you need

What do you understand by the • keep your information in a logical order


term biosphere? • discuss all parts of the question
In what sorts of different environments can • take part fully in the discussion
life exist? • ask for your partner's opinions and ideas
Think about humanity. How do we affect
Speaking tips
our environment?
• Briefly introduce your topic.

Task • Use terms such as 'in addition', 'according


to', and 'furthermore' to connect your ideas.
Discuss with your partner the idea of
the biosphere and a noosphere. Do you
believe it is possible for Earth to
develop a noosphere? Say what you H H Writing
think and find out if your partner
W r i t e an article for your school magazine
agrees or disagrees with you.
explaining what the biosphere is, who
Talk about: developed its meaning, and why it is
important that we protect it. Use these
• what the term biosphere means
notes t o help you.
• which environments are contained within it
PARAGRAPH 1
• the importance of the food chain
Introduction Briefly explain what the term
• human impact on the biosphere
biosphere means.
• the importance of the biosphere Vocabulary: Greek meaning, sphere of life
• what the noosphere is
PARAGRAPH 2
N Write about Vernadsky and his role in the
Read texts I and 2 again and use these
development of the idea of a biosphere.
notes to help you.
Include information about the different
Meaning: biosphere comes from the words environments in the Earth's biosphere.
and Vocabulary: geochemistry, evolution,
The biosphere has four environments: boundaries, hydrosphere, troposphere,
Earth's crust
air, known as the
land, known as the PARAGRAPH 3
rocks, known as the Write about the impact of human beings on
the biosphere. Give examples of both good
water, known as the
and bad effects.
The food chain is important Vocabulary: technology, scientific effort,
because human reason
Human impact: effect on plants
PARAGRAPH 4
and animals
Conclusion What do you think will happen
The biosphere is important
to the biosphere in the future? Can it
because
develop into a noosphere, as Vernadsky
The development of the noosphere is had hoped?
(im)possible because
W r i t e 200-250 words.

18 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Can you draw a cell and label its parts?
What part contains hereditary information?
Have you ever seen a cell under
the microscope?
Do you remember your impressions?

P A Vocabulary
Complete the sentences below with
words from the box. 8 The tissue stretches or
tightens to move the body.
• chromosomes • single-celled 9 The purpose of the cell is to
• multi-celled • tissues transmit nerve impulses.
• protoplasm • nucleus
10 Every single cell in the body is born
• lifespan • muscle
by a
• nerve • stem cell
• determined 11 Gender is by the presence
ч or absence of certain chromosomes.
1 are found in cells and pass
on information. В Reading 1
2 Bacteria are organisms.

3 organisms consist of more Cells


than one cell.
A cell is a tiny unit which constitutes the core of
4 Cells of the same structure and function all living things: human, animal, plant or
that are grouped together form microbe. It was an English mathematician and
physicist called Robert Hooke who, in 1665, first
recorded his observations of cells under a
5 is the jelly-like mass that fills
microscope and published them in a book
a cell.
entitled Micrographia. Hooke noted that there
6 The cell's hereditary material is stored are single-celled organisms, such as the amoeba,
in its and multi-celled organisms, such as man. In the
latter type of organism, it was revealed that the
7 The natural of a pig is cells are grouped together to form different types
10-12 years. of tissues, and the tissues then form organs.

19 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

The structure of a cell appears very simple. It is


Pronunciation guide
a jelly-like mass, called protoplasm, enclosed by
a wall, with a central nucleus. Although research amoeba to'miibs/
continued into the structure and function of chromosome /krsumssaum/
cells, it was not until the late 19 t h century that a microbe /maikreub/
process of staining and fixing tissues was microscope /maikraskaup/
developed. This made it possible for scientists to nucleus /nju:kliss/
preserve the cells for more detailed observation
under a microscope. It was then discovered that 0 В Comprehension
new cells are formed by the division of old ones,
Read the t e x t and answer the questions
and that each cell has its own lifespan. In other
in your own words.
words, a cell is born (created), feeds, produces
waste, grows, splits to create new cells or 1 How do organs form in multi-celled
disintegrates and dies. Each cell has a specific organisms?
function and specific characteristics, for
example, muscle cells stretch and nerve cells 2 What stages/processes does a cell's
carry information. lifespan include?
3 Why are stem cells important?
Stem cells are central to this infrastructure.
These cells provide a remarkable repair system 4 What happens to the two identical threads or
for the body, as they are able to develop into rods the nucleus splits up into?
any type of cell. They can continue to redivide
5 What are chromosomes?
as often as possible to replace damaged or dying
cells. The cells created from the division of a
stem cell can remain stem cells, or become any Before you listen
of the other specific cells (blood cells, brain
Discuss these questions with your partner.
cells or other) in the organism. The key to the
division process lies in the nucleus. The nucleus What do you know about genetic engineering?
splits into two identical parts in the shape of Do you think it is safe?
rods or threads, which break away in opposite
directions and form new nuclei. At this point
the cell itself divides and two new cells are born. И С Listening *)))
Listen to two students discussing their
The rods or threads are called chromosomes.
homework. Then answer the questions
Each chromosome is made up of links of
by writing one or two words in each gap.
protoplasm called genes joined together in a
chain. It is the genes that determine the essence 1 They will both write a report for
of each cell and its particular characteristics. their class.
The number of chromosomes found in a
particular organism always remains the same, 2 The boy may write about
but it will vary depending on the species; human
beings have 48, for example, and sugar cane 3 It is now possible for scientists to change
over 200. information in

4 watermelons have been


produced by scientists in their labs.

5 Scientists can use this new technology to


produce more

6 Plants can be genetically engineered


to make

20 M а с m i 11 a n G u i d e to Science Unit 4
Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you have plants at home? Do you have a
kitchen garden?
What do you know about selection of plants?
Have you ever conducted an experiment?

^ D Vocabulary-
Match these words with their definitions.

1 blend A changed
2 altered В children
3 hypotheses С combine
4 ratio D theories
5 offspring E relative amount
6 successive F element
7 particle G think of
8 trace H find
9 come up with I following
Biology. But his findings were so different from
the accepted views on heredity at the time that
his work was ignored until long after his death.
В Reading 2 His paper, Experiments in Plant Hybridisation,
in which he described how traits were inherited,
has become one of the most influential
Gregor Mendel publications in the history of science.

Gregor Mendel was born on 20 t h July, 1822, and Mendel was the first person to trace the
died on 6 t h January, 1884. He was a biologist characteristics of successive generations of an
and botanist whose scientific research showed organism. In Mendel's day, a number of
that inheritance proceeds according to certain hypotheses had been suggested to explain
scientific laws. heredity. The most popular one was the
so-called blending theory. According to this
Mendel was a brilliant student and his family theory, inherited traits blended from generation
encouraged him to study, but they were very to generation. For instance, a red rose crossed
poor so Mendel entered a monastery in 1843. with a white rose would, over time, produce a
There he taught Mathematics, Physics and pink rose. Another theory put forward by
Greek to high school students. Eight years later, Charles Darwin was called paiigenesis. This
in 1851, the monastery sent him to the stated that there were hereditary particles in our
University of Vienna where he was able to bodies, and that these particles were affected by
continue his education. In 1853, he returned to our actions. The altered particles could be
the monastery and began teaching and inherited by the next generation. These theories
researching again. were disproved by Mendel.

Mendel's theories of heredity based on his work The first thing he noticed when he began his
with pea plants are well known to students of experiments was that traits were inherited in

21 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

certain numerical ratios. This observation led D A modern science


him to come up with the idea of the dominance E An important paper
of genes and he tested it in peas. For seven F Different theories
years he crossed thousands of plants to prove
the Laws of Inheritance. From his experiments, G Gregor Mendel, the scientist
Mendel developed the basic laws of heredity. J- * - "

Those laws are the following: that traits do not


combine, but are passed whole from generation
to generation (which disproved the blending . У n /
theory and Darwin's theory); each member of
the parental generation passes on only half of its ж:-
hereditary information to each offspring (with
ни Hг f^Z^Z^c
certain traits dominant over others); and
different offspring of the same parents receive
different sets of hereditary information.
ССГ /КГ
Mendel's research formed the beginnings of the 2ZT
modern science of genetics. Genetic theory has ^^J^a. J7"/- - t.
had a huge impact on our lives. Many diseases,
t/u ^ '
for example haemophilia, are known to be
inherited, and family histories can be traced to
7 ' . , uA lL ^
determine the probability of passing on a /i_ сл+р— У f '
hereditary disease. Scientists can now design tzr / ^ YЛ-
plants that are easier to grow, or which can
produce more food. This practical side of the
results of Mendel's research is being used to
/
improve the way we live.
с N
Pronunciation guide
haemophilia /hims'filis/ к <77

hybridisation /.haibridai'zeijsn/
pangenesis /psn'dsenasis/ B M p r e .jfoujtoten.
ratio /reijau/ Discuss these questions with your partner.
Vienna /viens/
v У What does evolution mean?
Do you know anything about Charles Darwin?
В E Comprehension
What do you know about natural selection?
Read the t e x t and choose the best title
for each paragraph. There is one title
which you do not need to use.
H F Listening Ц)))
PARAGRAPH 1
Listen to a talk about Darwin. Then
PARAGRAPH 2 ... decide if the following sentences are true
PARAGRAPH 3 ... or false, according to the speaker.

PARAGRAPH 4 ... 1 Darwin wrote two famous books. T •


F •
PARAGRAPHS ...
PARAGRAPH 6 ... 2 Darwin's theory was very popular T •
in his time. F •
A The experiment
3 Differences between fossils and T •
В His studies modern animals helped him form F •
С Genetics today the Theory of Evolution.

22 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

4 Natural selection meant the T • Speaking tips


healthiest specimens would survive F • • Refer to your notes.
5 An adaptation was inherited T • • Do not read out a long monologue.
and decreased an organism's F •
• Express yourself clearly and concisely.
chances of survival.

H G Speaking б H Writing
Discuss these questions with W r i t e a letter to a science museum
your partner. applying for a part-time job. Use these
notes t o help you.
How are characteristics passed on from
generation to generation? Dear (Sir/Madam),
How does modern science change
this? Why? Writing to apply for a job:

I am writing to apply for the position of


Task
Prepare a short presentation on the
topic: 'Theories of inheritance'. Use the
information in both texts. Why you would be suitable: interested in
Talk about: science (physics / mathematics / biology
• Mendel's theory / your own ideas):
• Mendel's experiment I believe I would be suitable for the position
• theories that were disproved because
• cells, chromosomes and genes

( N Intend to study Science at university:


First c o m p l e t e these notes.
Use t h e m in your presentation. It is my intention to study Science at
Mendel's theory: Mendel stated university, and I believe this will
that

Mendel's experiment: Mendel conducted Previous work experience: (laboratory /


experiments on
library / your own ideas)
Disproved theories: The theories that
I (have) worked in a
Mendel disproved were
and for years/months.

What are cells? How is genetic information Say you are available for an interview:
passed on?
I am available for an interview
R e m e m b e r to:
• read the texts carefully Yours faithfully,
• underline the parts containing the
(your full name: first name + surname)
information you need
• use your own words; do not copy everything
from the texts
W r i t e 100-140 words.
• stick to the point

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 5 2 3


Revision vocabulary Units 1 to 4
0 A Use the clues to complete the crossword.
Across: 4 forever 7 not exactly 9 say what will happen in the future
10 one particular area

Down
1 live in
2 threadlike
structure with genetic
information
3 give a general idea of
5 characteristic
6 develop gradually
8 yellow powder from 10
flowers

| B Circle the correct answer. 0 С Complete the sentences with these


1 The life of insects starts phrases.
when they are larva.
A cycle В field С vacuum coined a term have an impact
2 In the 18th century living things were came up with threatened species
into biological families. Earth's crust uranium ore
A treated В stated С classified dominant gene chemical elements
3 The biological information passed on to us
from the previous generation is our 1 Mendel a theory.
2 Suess It was biosphere.
A inheritance В observation С principle
3 The panda is a but efforts
4 Charles Darwin is famous for
the idea of natural selection. are being made to save it.
A disproving В adapting С formulatinc 4 is found in the ground.
5 It was really small - a 5 When cells are making flowers, the
A pollen В microorganism С crop will decide what colour they are.
6 They'll take a of your blood 6 The outer layer is the
for testing. 7 You can find in
A sample В injection С vaccine
the atmosphere.
7 He was immunised to have
8 Usually advances in science
to diseases.
on our lives.
A recovery В application С resistance

I D Complete the sentences with words derived from the words in red.
1 The scientist recorded his during the experiments, observe
2 Vernadsky was interested in the of various elements in the atmosphere,
hydrosphere, etc. distribute
3 Pasteur's of germ theory to preventing disease led to pasteurisation, apply
4 Mendel followed the characteristics of an organism through generations.
succession
5 Fortunately the patient made a quick recover

24 Macmillan Guide to Science Revision Vocabulary


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you know about heredity?
What characteristics do you have in common
with people in your family?

В A Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the sentences below with
words from the box.
r N
U striking • strand
H Reading 1
• substance • bound


breakthrough
compound


revealed
organic base The discovery of
V
• coils • pattern
/ the structure and
1 What is the chemical
in paint?
used
function of DNA
2 A sprung seat is made up of Look around you and you will see people of all
of strong wire. different shapes and sizes, hair and eye colour.
3 An important discovery that helps us find a However, despite the differences that seem so
solution is called a striking, if you compare the genes of any two
human beings they will be 99.9% the same. This
4 A long length of something is a
similarity means we belong to the same species
5 We can find a if we watch while the 0.1% difference makes us individuals and
something and see if it acts in similar ways means we are different from each other.
over a period of time.
What exactly is a gene? To answer that we have to
6 It was quite how different the
look at the chromosomes inside the nucleus of a
children were.
cell. We get 23 of these from our mothers and 23
7 The sheets of paper were from our fathers. Found in almost even.- cell in the
together by string. body, these chromosomes consist of long strands of
8 Mendel's discoveries the the chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid which is
secret of heredity. known as DNA. Each cell contains about two
metres and if you put all the strands together they
9 A combination of two or more elements or
parts is called a could travel to the Moon and back many times.

10 A(n) is an organic compound Scientists have known that DNA exists since 1869
which acts as a base. when the Swiss scientist Johann Friedrich

25 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Miescher noticed something he had not seen


Pronunciation guide
before in the nuclei of cells. He called it 'nuelein'.
It was more than 70 years later that scientists adenine I'sedanhnl
examined his theory. cytosine /saitausi:n/
deoxyribonucleic /di:oksi,rarb9i:nju'kli:ik/
It was two researchers at Cambridge University, enzymes Aenzaimz/
England, who, in 1953, finally revealed the secret guanine /1gwa:ni:nI
of DNA and its role in the pattern of life. James thymine /Gartniai/
Watson, an American zoologist, and Francis Crick,
an English biologist, had already discovered that
DNA was made up of sugar and phosphates in the В В Comprehension
form of a chain. The whole structure was bound Read the t e x t and decide if the following
together by four compounds called guanine, statements are true or false.
adenine, thymine and cytosine. Each of these four
nucleotides, as they were known, had a different 1 A particular species shares almost T •
organic base. They knew that guanine and adenine all its genes. F •
were the larger of the four, and that thymine and 2 We get equal numbers of T •
cytosine were the smaller; what they did not know chromosomes from our parents. F О
was how they all fitted together.
3 Friedrich Miescher immediately T •
Returning from London one day, Watson hit on revealed the importance of DNA. F О
the idea of experimenting with different pairs. 4 The four compounds of DNA T •
The two men made cardboard models of the four are not the same size. F О
nucleotides and then tried systematically fitting
5 Watson and Crick did the computer T •
them together. Watson later described their
modelling for nucleotide bases. F О
breakthrough in this way: 'Suddenly I became
aware that an adenine-thymine pair was identical 6 A new helix chain is assembled at T •
in shape to a guanine-cytosine pair'. Thus the a comparatively slow speed. F П
men had discovered the relationship between the
organic bases, and could see how each of these Before you listen
pairs of nucleotides formed a single rung on the Discuss the following with your partner.
so-called DNA ladder (DNA is shaped like a long
ladder that is twisted into a spiral; this structure How is DNA useful to different people in
is known as the double helix). The discovery was different occupations?
the key to a much better understanding of the Talk about: archaeologists, doctors, the police
process of heredity.

There may be millions of these DNA ladder rungs В С Listening *)))


linked to form hundreds of thousands of coils Listen to a talk. Then complete the
which in turn make up the structure of a single information about DNA.
DNA molecule. In order for a cell to divide, all
these coils have to be unwound. Then all the new 1 Each strand has about
nucleotides have to be linked in the right order billion letters of coding.
and joined together by enzymes (enzymes are
2 We inherit the information from our
chemicals which we can find in all living
organisms; they cause changes to take place). The 3 DNA will be useful in the future
entire process has to take place at great speed; in for care .
fact, in the time it takes for a cell to divide. Since 4 The Y chromosome comes from our
bacteria cells split and form new cells in less than
20 minutes, this would mean that the DNA helix
has to unwind very fast (several hundred turns a 5 Archaeologists use DNA found in people's
second) and a new chain has to be formed at the
rate of several thousand nucleotides a second. At 6 The police get information from DNA found
such a speed, a car engine would blow apart. at a

26 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know anything about
genetic engineering?
Do you buy genetically modified food?
Would you like to clone something
or someone?
Have you read any books - scientific or fiction
- about cloning?
Are there any films where the issue of human
cloning comes up?
Is cloning a matter of technology, ethics
or politics?

В D Vocabulary
Match these words with their synonyms
and antonyms.

Words
1 endanger 1 identical
2 extract 8 create
3 unique 9 latest
В Reading 2
4 extinction
5 replica
10 brilliant
11 improve
Cloning
6 particular 12 move ahead It used to be only in science fiction that the
existence of a race of identical creatures could be
imagined: a group of people with exactly the
Synonyms same hair colour, the same features and the same
A copy G recent height. However, now this dream - or nightmare -
В special could actually become reality. In theory, the
H make better
process of creating replicas of any living being
С take out I progress seems quite simple. First, a body cell, which
D threaten J same contains the specific genes of a living organism,
E death К intelligent splits in two. The resulting new cells, each
containing the same genes, then grow into two
F exclusive L make new, identical organisms. This process is known
as cloning, and it can be applied to humans,
animals, insects and plants.
Antonyms
a survival g fall behind Early experiments with cloning took place using
the tadpoles of frogs. In 1968, Dr J.B. Gurdon of
b original h destroy
Oxford University, England, took an unfertilised
с protect i different frog's egg from a frog - let us call it frog number 1
d insert j stupid — and destroyed its nucleus. This meant that he
had removed all the genetic information which
e general к make worse
related to this frog. He then inserted a new
f common 1 old nucleus extracted from a cell from another frog -

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 5 27


Biology

frog number 2. The tadpole which developed /• - -4


Pronunciation guide
from the egg produced by frog number 1 was
identical to frog number 2, not to frog number 1! cloning /kteuniq/
It was not until 1996, however, in Scotland, that e m b r y o АешЬпэvl
a group of British researchers led by Ian Wilmut replicas Arepliksz/
achieved the successful cloning of an adult unfertilised /Arif3:tslaizd/
\ /
animal. The result was Dolly, who has taken her
place in the history books as the first lamb to be
cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep.
В E Comprehension
Following the birth of Dolly, both scientists and
a. Read the t e x t and choose the best title
ordinary people have begun to think about the
for each paragraph. There is one title,
possibilities of cloning. The latest technology now
which you do not need to use.
means that we can remove body cells from the
best of our race, the brilliant scientist, the musical CLONING OF LIVING BEINGS
genius, the child prodigy, and ensure that the same
BENEFITS OF CLONING
genes are reproduced in as many babies as we
wish. However, cloning does not mean copying. COPYING AND CLONING
The process actually takes its name from the
MORE DISADVANTAGES
Greek word clon which means a twig. A twig has
the same genetic information as the tree it comes ETHICAL PROBLEMS
from, but the two look very different. In the same
way, a clone shares the same genes as its donor, POSSIBLE FUTURE
but its behaviour and characteristics will be
different: personality will always be unique. b. Answer the following questions.
Science has provided us with knowledge which 1 When did the first attempt to create a clone
seems to have unlimited possibilities. We can not take place? What happened?
only make designer human beings, but we can also
use cloning to improve health. For example, 2 Who's Dolly? Why is she famous?
scientists predict that in the future, pigs with 3 In what ways is cloning different
organs that could be used in human transplants, from copying?
could be cloned. Cloning could also enable us to 4 Give one example of how cloning could be
learn more about the embryo and how organisms beneficial to humans.
develop. Cloning could put an end to the risk of
extinction of the endangered species on our planet; 5 What are the disadvantages of cloning from
if animals can be cloned, they need never die out. an ethical point of view?

However, the process is very controversial. Some


people have asked whether a cloned individual c. W o r k in pairs. Think of at least one
more question to the text your partner
would really be a human; would it have a soul?
should answer. Then change roles.
Would there be relationships and responsibilities
between donors and clones? What would be the
position of the children of donors in relation to
clones? These people are concerned that cloning, Before you listen
or genetic engineering, would interfere with the
Discuss these questions with your partner.
laws of religion or nature. Others are concerned
that it might lead to attempts to alter the features What does research involve?
of a particular race and result in a new kind of What kind of person would be good at
ethnic cleansing. The fact is that the new research in your opinion?
opportunities offered by science have always
meant that we are faced with new ethical
questions. These questions need to be discussed
and evaluated before we move ahead.

28 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 2


Biology

R e m e m b e r to:
В F Listening *)))
• use key words for your notes, not complete
Listen t o a talk about the scientist
sentences
Rosalind Franklin and choose the c o r r e c t
answer. • glance at your notes regularly

1 Perhaps Franklin didn't receive the Speaking tips


recognition she deserved because • Speak in a clear voice.
A she was the only woman. • Maintain eye contact with your audience.
В women were treated differently in
the past.
С she was only one of the people working
on DNA.
В H Writing
W r i t e an essay about the key events
2 Franklin's particular skills were
that led to the discovery of the structure
A being a researcher. and function of DNA and explain the
В interpretation and explanation of possible applications of these findings in
scientific results. today's world.
С photographing crystals and explaining
the photos. R e m e m b e r to:

3 Franklin's photo revealed • read the texts again


A a new technique of crystallography. • select information that is relevant
В the basic helix structure.
С the atoms in a crystal. Include s o m e of these useful phrases in
your writing:
4 Watson was interested in the photo because
A the structure of DNA had never been To begin with,...
seen before. Research began with ...
В it could be reproduced. Later on,...
С he wanted to identify the double-helix.
In addition to that,...
5 Today Franklin is
However, / On the other hand,...
A regarded by all as a genius.
Finally / In conclusion
В recognised as the most important
contributor to DNA. PARAGRAPH 1
С somebody whose role in DNA research
Introduction
is clear.
What is DNA?

H G Speaking PARAGRAPH 2
Give a two-minute presentation on the
Information about the scientists and their
benefits and problems of human being work (Miescher, Watson, Crick, Wilmut).
cloning. First read t e x t 2 again and make
notes on the following: PARAGRAPH 3
What is cloning? Cloning (benefits & problems)
How is cloning done?
PARAGRAPH 4
benefits: medicine, saving of endangered
Conclusion
species
problems: donors and clones, children of
donors, religion, ethnic cleansing
W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

29 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 2


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Can you name any famous chemists?
What are they famous for?
Where do chemists work?
What equipment do they use?

Г A Vocabulary

C o m p l e t e the sentences below with


words from the box.
В Reading 1

conservation of mass • matter Chemistry


combustion
accurate
• quantity
• breakthrough
An introduction
alchemists • properties Chemistry is often said to be the central
science, as it connects all other sciences. While
mathematicians calculate the world, physicists
1 It is a fact that substances cannot change
explain it and biologists say what lives in it,
their
chemistry looks at everything in the world and
2 means that no matter how a explains how it is made and what it can do.
substance is changed, what it is made up of
Chemistry began with fire. Burning changes
will always stay the same.
things and ancient man must have wondered
3 When scientists make a they what happened to the wood he burnt. It was by
succeed after trying very hard. burning things that ancient man discovered iron
and glass, combining different substances in the
4 Without oxygen there cannot b e fire and seeing how they combined. Once gold
- things cannot burn.
was found, the false science of alchemy was
5 is what physical objects are born. People believed they could change
made of. ordinary metals like iron into gold. Though the
idea was wrong, the alchemists discovered many
6 All classifications in chemistry need of the chemical processes that are in use today.
to be
The origin of modern chemistry comes from the
7 believed that they could
work of Antoine Lavoisier, an 18 l11 century
turn iron into gold.
Frenchman who was executed in 1794 during
8 Mendeleev's table classifies the elements the French Revolution. He formulated the idea
found in nature according to their of the conservation of mass: that is, even though

30 M а с m i 11 a n G u i d e to Science Unit 6
Chemistry

substances can be changed, their quantity of


mass remains the same always. Although H В Comprehension
Lavoisier was the first to publish his ideas, in Give a title t o each paragraph. Read t h e
Russia, Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov had t e x t again and c o m p l e t e t h e s u m m a r y .
reached the same conclusions some years Use words from t h e t e x t .
earlier. Both men were interested in the nature Chemistry is the science which
of combustion - what happens when things burn (1 ) all other sciences. Through
- and this was the first breakthrough in our chemistry, we can study how things are made
understanding of chemistry. and what they can do.
The second great development in chemistry Alchemists discovered a lot of chemical
came later and concerned the nature of matter (2) before chemistry
itself: how it was made up and what its parts developed properly. There are three main
were. In the early part of the 1 9 t h century, the areas of study in modern chemistry. The first
British scientist, J o h n Dalton stated that all is about how (3) change when
matter was made up of atoms of different something happens to them. The second is
elements and that these could not be broken about how things are made, and looks at
down into smaller parts. We know now that the atomic (4) of elements.
atoms exist and that they do have parts which The third is to look at the (5)
can be broken down, but at the time his ideas of elements.
divided chemists into those who accepted his
ideas and those who did not. There was a whole Before you listen
century of research to be done before the work
Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
of Marie Curie on radioactivity and of Ernest
Rutherford and Niels Bohr on atomic structure What is the difference between an element
finally proved that Dalton was correct after all. and a compound?
Even while chemists were divided on atomism, What is the difference between a liquid, a
it became necessary for someone to make sense solid and a gas? Name as many as you can.
of the growing list of elements that were being
discovered. That someone was Dmitri
И С Listening
Mendeleev. He took Dalton's theory of atomism
and arranged the elements by their atomic Listen t o a c h e m i s t talking a b o u t
weight and by their chemical properties. So chemical processes. Then listen again and
accurate was his classification of the elements, c o m p l e t e t h e s e notes. C h o o s e from t h e
that he was able to predict the properties of words in t h e box. T h e r e a r e m o r e words
undiscovered ones to fill the gaps in the table. in t h e box than you need.
Mendeleev's table is one of the most useful and
important generalisations of chemistry and of • solid • elements • liquid • bond
all science. • materials • compound • process

These three developments give us the definition • form • atoms • gas


of chemistry. It is the science of the
composition, structure and properties of For example, two (1) : hydrogen
substances and how thev can be transformed. and oxygen. Hydrogen has the atomic number
(2) and oxygen (3)
Two molecules of hydrogen and one of oxygen
Pronunciation guide = one (4)
alchemy /aelksmi/ Water can change its (5) but is
Antoine Lavoisier Aaentwan laevu0:33/ still H 2 0. Some chemical processes appear
Marie Curie /тэп kjusn/ complicated as they have different
(6) bonding in
Rutherford tr,\dokdl
different quantities.

31 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.

-» What do chemists produce?


Why do doctors need chemists?
Do you think chemists can do anything to
help pollution?

В D Vocabulary
Match these words and phrases with
their definitions.

1 preservation A to take out of


2 oil refining В watch carefully
3 waste С something added to
give taste
4 flavouring D process that keeps
something in the
same condition
5 meet the standard E very small strands
6 monitor F produce
1 cure G making oil purer
operate without the support they get from
8 manufacture H unwanted part of chemists. Chemists are the people who carry out
production process the research and develop new medicines. All over
9 fibre I be of the right level the country, chemists are working on new cures
10 extract J make healthy for diseases. There is always more work to be
done on antibiotics. Bacteria develop resistance
to these drugs and biochemists need to be
В Reading 2 constantly testing how well these medicines are
working as well as looking at new antibiotics to
Chemistry today replace the old ones. There are many illnesses
which have no cure at the present time and a
Careers in chemistry: great deal of research is going on, looking for new
and better treatments for cancer, HIV/AIDS
what can you do with and malaria.
a degree in Chemistry? There are career opportunities within hospitals,
This leaflet has been written to help you decide too. Doctors need the support of chemists
about your future. You have studied Chemistry at analysing samples from patients, conducting tests
university and have decided that you want to and measuring how well patients are responding
continue working in the science. What career to treatment. One quickly developing area is in
opportunities are available? There are two main the testing and recording of DNA samples.
areas where your knowledge of chemistry will be
called upon: medicine and industry. Industry
Chemists work in the food industry, creating
Medicine chemical flavourings and preservatives to improve
Many chemists work in medicine. In fact, it is the quality of what we eat or to help keep it
probable that our hospitals and doctors could not fresher for longer. Other people work in quality

32 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

control, sampling and testing the food products to "Л


Pronunciation guide
make sure that they meet the standards we expect
them to have. In recent years, the European antibiotic /aentibai'otik/
Union has revised its standards for quality and HIV/AIDS /.eitjaiv'i:/ /eidz/
health in all food products sold in the EU,
malaria /тэ'1еэпэ/
including both those made there and imported.
Chemists have their part to play in monitoring
these products as well as in developing new Я E Comprehension
methods of meeting these standards.
Read the t e x t and answer the questions
Another very important industry that our in your own words.
knowledge of chemistry has created is the oil
1 How do chemists help to treat and
refining industry. Oil is taken out of the ground
cure diseases?
and put through a chemical process which turns
it into many different products. From oil, we can 2 How can chemists support doctors working
make not only petrol, but also plastics, synthetic in hospitals?
fibres, paint and gases for fuel and other uses. A 3 What do chemists do to make sure we have
major concern in the industry today is the good quality food?
pollution resulting from these processes.
4 What part do chemists play in the
Industries are trying to reduce the impact of this
production of plastics?
by wasting less and by extracting more from the
waste products of the manufacturing process. 5 How are chemists working to
Chemists are working to filter harmful waste, reduce pollution?
preventing it from going into the atmosphere.

Almost all other industries depend in some way


on the work of chemists. Chemistry has given us
Before you listen
a huge range of plastics and colourings. In fact, Discuss this question with your partner.
there is a chemical process involved in How is life today different from life
everything we make. The whole manufacturing last century when medical drugs
process needs to be designed, managed and weren't available?
tested for safety by chemists.

Other choices H F Listening *)))


Listen to a chemist talking about his job.
Career opportunities for chemists also exist in
Then answer the questions.
journalism, the law and education.
1 What kind of a business does he work for?
2 How long does it take to test a
new compound?
3 Where does he spend his time working?
4 Can he usually predict the result of
his experiments?
5 What percentage of his experiments fail?

33 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

т G Speaking
Discuss t h e s e questions with
your partner.
Speaking tips
• You could choose a secretary to keep notes
of what you discuss and inform you of any
points you forget.
What are the main branches of
Make sure everyone is given plenty of
modern chemistry?
opportunity to speak. The secretary could
Do you know any recent inventions in the check this too.
field of chemistry?
Would you like to work as a chemist? Why /
Why not? H H Writing
Would you say it was one of the best jobs W r i t e a s h o r t essay with t h e t i t l e : ' W h a t
available? Give your reasons. is c h e m i s t r y and w h a t does it study?'

Task Read t e x t I again and use t h e s e notes t o


write four paragraphs.
W o r k i n g in a group, discuss t h e
opportunities for c h e m i s t s in today's PARAGRAPH 1
e c o n o m y . Use t h e information in t e x t 2 Introduction (how the essay is organised)
and any ideas of your own. • What do chemists do?
• What are they interested in?
Talk about:
• What are the main areas of the science?
• where chemists work Vocabulary: To begin with, chemists,
• what they do chemistry, etc

• what they are responsible for PARAGRAPH 2


Chemistry studies matter, how matter is
First c o m p l e t e t h e s e notes. Use t h e m made, what happens when matter changes
in your discussion. Vocabulary: moreover, matter, materials,
C a r e e r opportunities working structure, transform
in c h e m i s t r y PARAGRAPH 3
Main work areas: three important areas in chemistry:
Medicine • transformation - how chemical
Research, development and testing: changes occur
• atomic structure - how materials are
Offer support to doctors: made and how they are different from
sampling and recording (esp. DNA) each other
• elements of matter - what they are and
Industry
what their properties are, classified
Developing new products: food
by Mendeleev
Designing and organising chemical
Vocabulary: furthermore, atom, elements,
processes for industry
properties
Monitoring and improving processes (food
production, pollution control) PARAGRAPH 4
Conclusion Conclusion (summarise ideas)
Vocabulary: finally, to sum up, generally,
science
R e m e m b e r to:
• read the text again
• add any ideas of your own
• explain the general idea and then give details
• allow everybody to speak Write 200-250 words.

34 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
In chemistry and physics, what is an atom?
What is smaller than an atom?
What happens if you split an atom?

В A Vocabulary
В Reading 1
Match these words with their definitions.

1 subatomic A part of an atom which has


no charge
The atom
2 electron В two or more atoms The ancient Greeks coined the term atomos,
meaning the smallest possible separation of
3 neutron С smaller than an atom
matter. In ancient times, both the Greeks and
4 molecule D part of an atom that has a Indians had philosophised about the existence of
negative charge the atom but, as mentioned in unit 6, it was first
5 proton E a theory developed by hypothesised scientifically by the British chemist
physicists to explain John Dalton (1766-1844) in the early years of the
the atom 19 t h century, when he suggested it was the
smallest particle that could exist. Since then,
6 quantum F part of an atom which
smaller subatomic particles have been discovered
mechanics has a positive charge
and the part they play as the basic building
7 carbon G pulled together blocks of the universe is clear. We now know that
8 attracted H a chemical element atoms are made up of differing numbers of
electrons, neutrons and protons, and these too
9 helium I a chemical element that
are made up of even smaller particles.
is lighter than air
10 universe J the whole cosmos Dalton's theory about atoms was not immediately
accepted by chemists, though one reason for this
was Dalton's well-known carelessness in
experimental procedures. However, we know now
that Dalton was correct in almost everything he
said in his theory of the atom. He described an
atom, even though he had never seen one, as a
particle that cannot change its nature. It could,
he observed, combine with the atoms of other
chemical elements to create a compound. Almost
a century later the first subatomic particles were
discovered. By the 1930s, physicists were working

35 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

with new ideas which allowed them to investigate


the parts of the atom in great detail. In turn, И В Comprehension
these developments helped them to develop Read the t e x t and choose the
quantum mechanics - the basis of both modern c o r r e c t answer.
chemistry and physics. 1 Dalton believed the atom to be
In chemistry, the atom is the smallest part of an A an element.
element that can still be recognised. An example В made of smaller particles.
will explain best of all. Each element is identified С the smallest possible particle.
by the number of protons it has. An atom of D his own idea.
carbon has six protons. Those six protons without 2 Dalton's theories were
the neutrons and electrons, or the electrons A generally accepted.
without the other subatomic particles are simply В not tested very carefully.
subatomic particles; they are not carbon. A С accepted at once.
carbon atom can be combined with two atoms of D not correct.
oxygen to give the compound carbon dioxide, or
3 The number of protons in an element
C 0 2 . It is this difference in the number of
A is the same as the number of electrons.
subatomic particles that makes one atom
В is always six.
different from another.
С never changes.
Subatomic particles also have another purpose. If D characterises the element.
there is the same number of electrons and 4 Electrons help
protons in the atom, then the atom will be A protons to form elements.
electronically neutral. A difference between the В atoms to be neutral.
two means the atom has an electrical charge, in С molecules to become atoms.
other words, it produces electricity. This D atoms to form molecules.
electricity means the electrons can become
5 Hydrogen is
attracted to each other. In this way, atoms can
A the simplest atom there is.
bond together to form molecules, and when
В present in all atoms.
enough molecules are joined together we have
С the oldest atom.
matter that we can see.
D as common as helium.
The most recent theories of the origins of the
universe say that all the atoms in the universe Before you listen
were formed in the first few minutes of the
Discuss these questions with your partner.
universe coming into existence. The most
common element is the simplest, hydrogen, What fuels do people use to make power?
which has the atomic number 1. Seventy-five per Where does petrol come from?
cent of all atoms are hydrogen atoms. The next
most simple is the next most common, helium, И С Listening *)))
atomic number 2 making twenty-four per cent of
Listen to the conversation. Then for each
all atoms. All the other atoms add up to just one
s t a t e m e n t below, circle the c o r r e c t word
per cent of everything that exists in the universe.
o r phrase.
с N 1 Most / Some / Plenty of people are already
Pronunciation guide using hydrogen-powered cars.
carbon dioxide /к'а:Ьэп daioksaid/ 2 The waste from these cars is pollution /
hydrogen /haidradjsn/ water / fumes.
3 It's expensive because it is new / uses
hypothesise /hai'poBasaiz/
hydrogen / is not common.
molecule /'mDlikju:l/
4 Hydrogen is more / less / just as
neutron Mjuitron/ dangerous as petrol.
philosophise /fi'lossfaiz/ 5 Hydrogen will be used in gas / solid /
V У liquid form.

36 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you need to make a fire?
What happens to water at 100°C?
How do we create ice, water and steam? How
can steam be turned back into water?

В D Vocabulary
Choose the c o r r e c t answer А, В o r С
from the list below.

1 With an air you can take air


out of a container.
2 Another word for a space, empty or not is
a
3 A(n) is a substance that
increases the strength of hydronium if put
in water.
4 A(n) is a substance that
increases the strength of hydroxide ions if
put in water.
5 To make a(n) means you had
a try.
6 Somebody's is the way they И Reading 2
do something.
7 When a light it shines softly.
Robert Boyle
8 The jar can hold a large My dear Ilooke,
of liquid.
Your letter arrived yesterday. I think you are
9 As the pressure increases, the danger of right to write a book of memories of your
explosion increases in scientific work. I am delighted that you have
10 Scientists carry out experiments and asked me to remind you of your time as
... how matter changes its form. my assistant.

1 A pump В mixer С fan I asked you once to make an air pump for me. It
2 A jar В chamber С vacuum was then a new idea and allowed me to create a
vacuum by drawing out the air from a glass jar.
3 A alkali В acid С litmus It was then that my experiments began. Perhaps
4 A alkali В acid С litmus this is something I will be remembered for, but I
did not follow the scientific methods of the time.
5 A start В go С attempt The traditional way to prove a fact was to
6 A attempt В approach С start argue it logically, and the conclusion must
be the truth. Unfortunately, it was not always
7 A glows В dazzles С sparkles
so. My approach was to observe what
8 A volume В number С size actually happened.
9 A ratio В proportion С share I placed a number of different objects into the
10 A look В observe С see vacuum chamber. One of them was a burning

37 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

candle. The flame immediately went out.


Pronunciation guide
Another was a piece of coal, still glowing red
from the fire. Once in the chamber it stopped alkali Ааг1кэ1эг/
glowing. If the air was put back in, and the coal litmus /lamasI
was still hot, it would begin to glow again. From v a c u u m /vaskjuamI
these observations I concluded that air was
necessary for combustion to take place; nothing
could burn without air. On another occasion, I 0 E Comprehension
placed my watch into the jar. I could hear it Read the t e x t and decide if the following
ticking as I drew the air out. Astonishingly, as s t a t e m e n t s are true o r false.
the air was taken out of the chamber, the
ticking became quieter. My conclusion: sound Boyle reached conclusions т •
travels through air. If there is no air, sound after observation. FD
cannot be heard. He found air needed to b e present T •
to allow combustion. F •
As the air pump is actually taking something out
of the jar, I thought, then that air must be made The pressure in the jar т •
of something. My conclusion was that a gas is never changed. FD
made up of very small particles. I reached this He believed chemistry was all т •
conclusion by observing the pressure in the about combustion. F •
vacuum jar. As the volume of gas is reduced, so
He observed animals in a vacuum. т •
the pressure increases in proportion. This is
universally true and as you know, is now known FD
as Boyle's Law.

The work I did led me to the conclusion that


Before you listen
Discuss these questions with your partner.
chemistry is the science of the composition of
substances. We chemists are here to try to How do you know a medicine is safe?
understand how materials are made. In my How do people test medicines?
opinion, an element is the one substance which
cannot be broken down any further. We can
discover what elements are in compounds. H F Listening *)))
When investigating these compounds, I Listen t o the e x t r a c t from a talk by a
discovered a way of testing them to find out if scientist about the safety testing of
they are acid or alkali. I call it the litmus test. medicines. Then listen again and fill in
I realise that there is much more for us to learn. the notes.
I know that we can learn about the chemistry of
One tenth of animals used in UK medical
the human body by observing how animals'
research, are used to test the (1)
bodies behave in a vacuum. It is not work that I
of medicines.
have attempted. It would mean I would have to
kill the animals and dissect them afterwards to
The authorities may not carry out a safety
make my observations. I still cannot bring
study if identical results are (2)
myself to kill an animal, let alone cut it up
afterwards. This is work others will have to do. The liver or the (3) could be
Best wishes, badly affected by new medicines.

Bovle Safety testing is used for new chemicals


and (4) used in food.

Therefore, tests are for healthy people and


people receiving (5) care.

38 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

H G Speaking H Writing
Discuss these questions with W r i t e an article for a student magazine
your partner. with the title:'lnteresting facts about
the a t o m ' .
What important discoveries have chemists
made? Think about medicine, vaccines Read t e x t I again and make notes under
and industry. these headings:

What practical uses have these discoveries


History of discovery
had?

Task
Prepare a short presentation on Robert
Boyle's achievements.
Talk about:
Parts of the atom
• his experiments on: burning, sound
• his conclusions on: gases, pressure
• his approach to science

4
First c o m p l e t e these notes.
Use t h e m in your presentation. What the parts do

Experiment to look at burning in a vacuum.


Candle went out.
Therefore,

Experiment to look at sound in a vacuum:


Sound reduced.
How many atoms
Therefore

Observations on vacuum:
Boyle's Law

Approach to science:
from what happened.
Believe what he saw, not what he wants
to believe. Use the headings in your article. W r i t e
four paragraphs. Use s o m e of these words
and phrases:
R e m e m b e r to: • at first
• introduce each point • smallest particle (s)
• a number of
• give clear examples
• electrically charged
• bond
• let the audience know when you have finished • molecule
• hydrogen
Speaking tips R e m e m b e r to make your article as
• Make your notes as short as possible. interesting as possible!

• Speak from memory - don't read. W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.


• If you make a mistake, go back and correct it.
39 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10
Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know whether metals become lighter
or heavier when burnt?
What do you think causes this change?

P A Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the definitions below with
words from the box. H Reading 1
(
The Law of
\
• released • reaction
• state • concept
• distinguished • demonstrate Conservation of Mass
• flammable • contribute
The Law of Conservation of Mass is one of the
• trace • dominant most important concepts in chemistry. The law
V У
states that matter can neither be created nor
1 To means to show. destroyed. This means that in any chemical
2A is the condition of reaction, the mass of the reacting substances at
something at a particular time. the start of the reaction will be the same as the
mass of the products at the end of the reaction.
ЗА is a process in which a Matter can change its form in a reaction, for
chemical change happens. example from a liquid state to a gas, but the
4 Somebody is well regarded mass will remain the same.
in their field.
The Law of Conservation of Mass is also known
5A is an idea. as the Lomonosov-Lavoisier Law because, as we
saw in unit 6, both of these scientists contributed
6 To be is to be set free.
to its development. Lomonosov first described
7 matter is matter that the law in a letter to a friend and then published
can burn. his ideas in a dissertation dated 1760. Lavoisier
reached the same conclusions much later, in
8 To means to help somebody
1789, and was the first to formulate the law in
or something be successful.
clear scientific terms. For this reason the law
9 To something back means to takes its name from both these brilliant men.
discover how it developed.
The idea of conservation of mass, however, can
10 Something that is is very be traced back as far as ancient Greece. In the
important, successful or powerful. 5 t h century ВС, Anaxagoras, a philosopher and

40 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

scientist, said that nothing comes into existence


or is destroyed and that everything is a mixture H В Comprehension
of pre-existing things. Over the course of Read the text. Match the questions below
history, many other distinguished scientists also about the Law of Conservation of Mass
expressed their views on the conservation with the paragraphs. There is one
of mass. question which you do not need to use.

The dominant theory in the 18 t h century was PARAGRAPH 1


the phlogiston theory. According to this theory,
PARAGRAPH 2
all flammable materials (that is, materials that
can burn) contain a substance called phlogiston, PARAGRAPH 3
which is released during the burning process. PARAGRAPH 4
That means that when flammable materials
PARAGRAPH 5
burn, the new substance, without phlogiston,
should weigh less than the original substance. PARAGRAPH 6
But this theory was wrong. Experiments showed
A How was it discovered?
that some metals actually increased in weight
when they burnt. Lomonosov's experiment in В Which theory did it replace?
1756 demonstrated that the increase in weight С Can we create or destroy matter?
was due to air. Many years later, Lavoisier
D What is the name of the law?
proved that oxygen was required for combustion
(burning); without it, the mass of burnt matter E What has it made us consider?
remained the same. F What is mass?
The Law of Conservation of Mass was not G How long ago had other philosophers
discovered in the usual scientific way. Lavoisier thought about it?
did not reach his conclusions by generalising
from a large number of similar cases because, at
that time, there was not enough scientific
Before you listen
information for him to do so. Instead, Lavoisier Discuss these questions with your partner.
assumed that his theory was true and then he How important is it to study the past?
set about proving it. His belief was justified
because he did indeed prove the Law of -» Do you know of any philosopher-scientists
Conservation of Mass. from the past?

The fact that the total amount of matter in В С Listening Щ)


chemical reactions is always conserved and
never disappears even though the matter may be Listen to a class discussion about some
in an altered form, is not only important for famous people from the past. Then tick
science, but also for other fields of human the statements that are true.
knowledge, particularly philosophy. It has led us 1 In ancient times there were no strict
to think about the nature of existence, and separations between philosophy
where we trulv come from. and science. •
2 Thales rightly believed water was
the basis of all composition in nature.
Pronunciation guide 3 Thales' importance lies in his use
Anaxagoras tens'ksaegsras/ of science rather than mythology.
distinguished /di'stiqgwijt/ 4 Empedocles' theory of the four
elements included earth and water.
flammable /flasmatel/
5 Anaxagoras agreed with Empedocles'
phlogiston /flou'd^iston/
theory. •
substance /sAbstsns/
6 Anaxagoras also claimed things kept
the same form.

41 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Can you say what the chemical composition of
water is?
Do you know what part oxygen plays
in breathing and what part it plays
in combustion?

^ D Vocabulary
Choose the correct answer.

1 The word propose means


A observe
В accept
С suggest

2 The word absorb means


A take in
В remove
С lose

3 The word compose means


A dry
В make
С boil
И Reading 2
4 The word reflect means
A show
В prevent Antoine Lavoisier
С help
a)
5 The word mechanism means
A workings Lavoisier discovered oxygen and its role in
В parts combustion and respiration (breathing); he
С machinery disproved the phlogiston theory which was
popular at the time; he drew up a list of 33
6 The word respiration means elements or substances that could not be broken
A breathing in down further and formed the basis of the modern-
В breathing out day list of elements. Added to that, he proposed
С breathing in and out the Law of Conservation of Mass.
7 The phrase in line with means
A wishing to do something (2)
В be different from
His father was a lawyer, and in line with his
С according to
family's wishes, Lavoisier completed a law degree,
8 The word contain means but his main interest was in science. In 1764, at
A to have inside the age of 21. he published his first paper on
В to protect chemistry, and in 1768 when he was just 25 years
С to create old he was made a member of the French
Academy of Sciences, one of the most important
scientific institutions in the world.

42 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

(3) В E Comprehension
Lavoisier, too, was fascinated by combustion and Read t h e t e x t and then use t h e s e n t e n c e s
disagreed with the phlogiston theory, which he below t o c o m p l e t e t h e t e x t . T h e r e is o n e
set out to disprove. He did this by carefully s e n t e n c e which you do not need t o use.
weighing the reacting materials and the products
A Many scientists of the day were studying
that were made in a chemical reaction. This was
combustion, and the mechanisms of
a very important step in the development of
this process.
chemistry, and is now known as quantitative
chemistry, that is, chemistry that involves В Lavoisier was born into a wealthy and
accurate measuring. In order to accurately aristocratic family.
measure changes in mass that happened during С Known as 'The Father of Modern Chemistry',
his experiments, Lavoisier developed a balance Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) made many
that could weigh to 0.0005g. Measurement was important contributions to science.
important because Lavoisier strongly believed
D The method of quantitative chemistry
that matter was conserved through any reaction
helped him to understand many
and this belief led to the development of the Law
chemical processes.
of Conservation of Mass.
E Thus it appeared that oxygen was one of the
(4) most important elements.
F He examined his idea of the conservation of
Through this, he discovered that it did not
mass by studying the combustion of
support the phlogiston theory because after
phosphorous and sulphur.
burning, the mass of the material was greater
than it had been at the start. If the elements had
really contained phlogiston and lost it during the
reaction, they should have weighed less, not
Before you listen
more. Further experiments were required to find Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
out what was happening in these reactions, and Do you know how scientists name
Lavoisier discovered that air was absorbed as different elements?
these elements burnt. He realised that something
Which languages do most scientific words
(later identified as oxygen) was taken in during
come from?
combustion rather than being given out (the
phlogiston theory). If you discovered an element, what would you
name it?
(5)
One of these was that respiration was caused by
В F Listening *)))
chemical reactions with oxygen in the air. By
carefully composing and decomposing water, he Listen t o a t e a c h e r explaining how
discovered that it is made up of oxygen and chemical e l e m e n t s got their n a m e s t o a
hydrogen. He gave names to elements which class of high school students. Then
reflected their functions. For example, he came choose the correct answer.
up with the name oxygen because it means
1 Chlorine comes from a word meaning
acid-former, and that is what oxygen does. This
A silver
system of chemical nomenclature is still largely
in use todav. В fair
С green

Pronunciation guide 2 An element that can b e seen in the dark is


fascinate /fassineit/ A platinum
nomenclature /nau'meqktatJW В phosphorus
quantitative /kwontitstiv/ С oxygen

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 8 43


Chemistry

3 Four elements were named after a village in Helpful phrases:


A Sweden To begin with, I would suggest ...
В Russia
Would you go along with that?
С France
No, I rather think that ...
4 Iridium received its name from Well, you certainly have a point, but ...
A mythology Yes, I see where you're coming from.
В a range of colours
Don't you also think ... ?
С a rainbow
That's absolutely right.
5 The name for gold and its chemical symbol May I just break in there?
A are from two different languages. What about ... ?
В are both taken from mythology. Last but not least ...
С mean the same thing.
8 H Writing
P G Speaking W r i t e a short essay t o answer this
q u e s t i o n : ' W h a t are the main differences

Task between the phlogiston t h e o r y and the


Law of Conservation of Mass?'
Discuss with your partner which you
think are the most important scientific Read t e x t s I and 2 again and use these
discoveries of the past. Say what you notes t o write four paragraphs.
think and find out if your partner agrees
PARAGRAPH 1
or disagrees with you.
Introduction Name the two concepts. Say
Talk about: when (18th century) and where (Europe)
• the contributions of ancient scientists they were being discussed.
• the work of Lomonosov Vocabulary: During the ... , a subject of
much discussion ...
• the work of Lavoisier
PARAGRAPH 2
The phlogiston theory. Its main ideas
Read t e x t s I and 2 again and use these about mass.
notes t o help you.
Vocabulary: flammable, release, lighter
Ancient scientists: Names? Theories?
PARAGRAPH 3
Lomonosov: Ideas / Concepts?
The Law of Conservation of Mass. The main
Lavoisier: Discoveries?
idea behind it (matter is neither created or
destroyed). The people who worked to
R e m e m b e r to: prove it (Lomonosov, Lavoisier).
• use some of your own ideas Vocabulary: quantitative chemistry, mass of
the material, combustion, oxygen
• explain things clearly
• consider your partner's opinion PARAGRAPH 4
Conclusion The progress of science
through experimentation (phlogiston theory
Speaking tips
versus the conservation of mass).
• Remember it is a two-way discussion.
• Ask questions to check you have understood. Vocabulary: experiments brought about ...

• Don't interrupt your partner too often.


Write 200-250 words.

44 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Units 5 to 8
6 a kind of paper that shows if something is
Й А 1 Find the word or phrase in each acidic or not
group that does not fit.
7 take in liquid for example
1 DNA nucleus, strand, interpreter, 8 matter or material
filter
2 chemistry conservation of mass, matter,
б С Circle the c o r r e c t answer.
combustion, helix 1 The scientists made a remarkable
3 atom electron, X-ray, neutron, proton and solved the problem.
4 Law of matter, flavouring, A breakthrough
Conservation chemical reaction, В search
of Mass mass of the product С monitor
5 elements hydrogen, alkali, carbon, 2 In the Science class, the students were asked
helium to a frog.
A break
И A 2 Now write five sentences using one В dissect
word from each category. С manage

К В Read the clues t o help you find eight 3 Another word for amount is
words in the wordsearch connected with A waste
chemistry and physics. В state
С quantity
d w m e с h a n i s m с b a
4 If something follows a then it
к i d g с e X s t r e о q b acts in a similar way over a period of time.
v к s w г b e w s b n n s A concept
j
В proportion
u V w с b i d g u e d s к 0 С pattern
u n i V e r s e b с s u V r
5A is a part.
s V t u к i t w s b u m u b A component
В preservative
m о 1 e с u 1 e t к b P d e
С ratio
e 1 z z u j h i a u a t s b
6 She attended a(n) to meet
1 u u j h e z u n b t i о a other scientists and discuss her theory.
g m e X t r e w с a 0 0 e r A conference
В seminar
r e t a i 1 e r e V m n P g С experiment
t r e 1 i t m u s i i i i a
7 The air removed the air.
g с a u с t i о n s с g 0 i A pump
w r b j g с e X d g с e d n В chamber
С vacuum
8 To means to make or build.
1 the workings of a process
A attract
2 space, Earth, the cosmos В construct
3 smaller than an atom С attempt
4 two or more atoms
5 the amount that something can hold

Macmillan Guide to Science Revision Vocabulary 45


Chemistry

Unit Л
—•—
Before you read
Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you think chemistry is a difficult subject?
Give reasons.
Which chemical elements have you heard of?
Can you explain what the periodic table is
used for?

В A Vocabulary Й Reading 1
Circle the c o r r e c t word in the
definitions below.
The periodicity
of elements
1 If you are curious / strange / odd, you want
to find out information about something.
2 When a proper / strict / formal attempt is
The history of the periodicity of elements began
made, it is done officially.
with the first ideas concerning substances and
3 If something occurs gradually / suddenly / particles. It had been noticed by the earliest
rarely, it happens over some time. thinkers that things (different substances) are
4 When two things relate / interact / different from each other, and that each can be
reduced to very small parts of itself (the
determine, they react to one another.
beginnings of the atomic theory).
5 The word specific / detailed / thorough
means exact. Over the course of history, more and more
elements were discovered, and scientists were
6 If there is reappearance / occurrence / naturally curious about the relationships between
repetition, the same thing is done them. Lavoisier divided the elements known in the
many times. 1700s into four classes, the first formal attempt at
7 A shell / nucleus / atom is the hard outer grouping the elements. In 1869, unknown to each
part of something that protects what other, Julius Meyer and Dmitri Mendeleev devised
is inside. periodic tables in which the elements were
arranged by atomic weight. However, on the basis
8 If somebody predicts / notices / impresses
of his table, Mendeleev was able to do something
something, they say what they think will that Meyer could not; he predicted the properties
happen in the future. of elements that had not been discovered yet.
9 If you are discovered / based / impressed Chemists were highly impressed when these
by someone, you admire them. elements were later discovered.

46 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


.Chemistry

Mendeleev noticed that when all the elements were


arranged in order of their atomic weight, a certain
В Comprehension
repetition of properties was obvious. He had Read the t e x t and decide if t h e following
organised the chemical elements according to their s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e o r false.
atomic weights because he believed that the 1 Substances are the smallest parts
properties of the elements would gradually change of matter. F П
as the atomic weight increased, but in composing 2 Two scientists created periodic T О
his periodic table, he found that the properties of tables in the same year. F •
the elements suddenly changed at very clear
3 Modern periodic tables use T П
stages, or periods. To show where the changes
atomic weight. F •
were happening, Mendeleev grouped the elements
in a table that had both rows and columns. 4 Protons are found in shells. T П
FD
The modern periodic table of elements is based on
5 Sometimes we can find ten electrons T [J
Mendeleev's, but instead of being arranged by
in the second shell. F •
atomic weight, the modern table is arranged by
atomic number (the number of protons in the 6 The chemical make-up of an element T •
nucleus of the atom). Rows in the periodic table depends on the outer shell. F •
are known as periods. The chemical properties of
the elements in each period slowly change, but at Before you listen
the end of each row, a sudden change in these Discuss these questions with your partner.
properties is observed. The columns in
Are chemical experiments interesting? Why?
the periodic table are known as groups.
Elements within the same group have many Which kind do you enjoy the most?
similar properties. Do you know the English names for any
laboratory equipment?
The periodicity that Mendeleev discovered is
directly related to the arrangement of an atom's
electrons around its nucleus. Electrons are located
И С Listening 4)))
in specific electron shells (in simple terms this Listen to the conversation between a Chemistry
means that the electrons make a kind of shell teacher and a class of students. Then listen
again and choose the best answer А, В or C.
around the nucleus of the atom) and each shell can
contain only a certain number of electrons. The 1 To ensure safety in a lab students should
first shell can hold two electrons, the second shell A have short hair.
can hold up to eight electrons, and so on. For В wear special shoes.
example, neon has ten electrons, two in the first С protect their clothes and eyes.
shell, and eight in the second shell. Next is sodium, 2 If somebody spills a chemical on their skin, they
with eleven electrons, and here is one of the places A will definitely need a first aid kit.
in the table where a sudden change occurs. Sodium В should place it under cold, running water.
has three shells because it has eleven electrons, two С should use the emergency cupboard.
in the first shell, eight in the second, and one in the
3 Check chemical labels twice because
third. This extra shell is the reason for the big
A it's easy to choose the wrong one.
change in chemical properties. It is the electrons in В the names are basically numbers.
the outer shell that determine the chemical С the formulae depend on letters.
properties of the elements because it is these atoms
which interact with other atoms. 4 Dangerous substances
A are only bases and acids.
В can burn you.
Pronunciation guide С are easier to spill.
Julius Meyer Adjuilias таю/ 5 Another rule in the lab is
periodicity /piano'disati/ A avoid running unless necessary.
В the teacher must present all
sodium /saudiam/
experiments alone.
С clean and tidy up at the end of class.

M а с m i Man Guide to Science Unit 9 47


Chemistry

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know of any famous people who had to
struggle to succeed?
What did they achieve?
Do you think you could be so strong?

В D Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the sentences below with
words from the box.

• hardship • enroll
• resign • appoint
• confirmed • resulted
solution • expand
density • uniform

1 They are going to a new


professor in the Chemistry department.

2 Many famous people in the past suffered


a lot of to achieve their goals.
И Reading 2
3 The experiment proved that the gases had
a reaction, that is the
Dmitri Mendeleev
same reaction. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was born in
Tobolsk, in Siberia, on 7 t h February, 1834. As a
4 Most schools expect you to child he showed a great interest in Mathematics
before you begin your studies. and Physics and was a talented student. Despite
the hardships experienced by his family while he
5 The of a substance is how
was growing up. his mother was determined to
thick and compact it is. see him educated and to help him achieve his
dreams. After the family moved to St Petersburg,
6 If metal is heated you will see it she managed to enrol him as a student science
teacher on a full scholarship. Despite many more
2 It was a made up of water
and salt. problems, Mendeleev earned his degrees and
eventually, in 1863, was appointed Professor of
8 If somebody is unhappy in their job, they Chemistry at the Technological Institute and the
may University of St Petersburg.
9 The experiment in the lab Probably his greatest scientific achievement was
in a huge explosion. the discovery" of the periodic law and the
development of the periodic table of elements,
10 The outcome of the experiment lie left gaps in his table for undiscovered
his theory. elements and predicted the properties of the
elements that would fit these gaps. His
predictions were confirmed when, during his
lifetime, three predicted elements; gallium.

48 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

germanium and scandium, which he had named


Pronunciation guide
eka-aluminium, eka-silicon and eka-boron
respectively, were discovered. These discoveries eka-boron /екэЬэ:гэп/
gave him great respect among members of the germanium Мзз:'тет1эт/
scientific community. nitrocellulose /naitrau'seljutous/
pneumonia /nju'marnro/
However, Mendeleev made other important pyrocollodion /.pairai-kobudion/
contributions to science. He was involved in many Regnault /ге'пэ:/
areas including hydrodynamics, agricultural
chemistry, mineral recovery, meteorology and
chemical technology. One particular contribution В E Comprehension
involved solutions. He spent a lot of time studying Read t h e t e x t and answer t h e questions
how the nature of solutions could be determined, in your own words.
adding greatly to our understanding in that field.
In addition, he was involved in physical chemistry, 1 What position did Mendeleev achieve at the
looking at the expansion of liquids because of heat. University of St Petersburg?
He spent time in Paris with Henri Victor Regnault 2 Why did Mendeleev leave gaps in the
studying the densities of gases and came up with a periodic table of elements?
formula to explain how gases are uniform when
3 How were Mendeleev's predictions
expanding; in other studies he defined the absolute
proven correct?
boiling point of a substance. His studies of gases at
high and low pressures moreover, allowed him to 4 What contribution did Mendeleev make in
develop an accurate barometer and while working the area of solutions?
for the Russian navy, he came up with 5 What did Mendeleev's formula concerning
pyrocollodion, a smokeless powder based on gases explain?
nitrocellulose. The list of his achievements
is endless!

Despite his international reputation as one of


Before you listen
the world's most important scientists, the Tsar at Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
the time did not approve of Mendeleev's politics, What do you know about atoms and electrons?
resulting in his resignation from the University
What do you know about chemical reactions?
of St Petersburg in 1900. He died on 2 0 t h
January, 1907, from pneumonia.
H F Listening Щ)
ОПЫТЪ СИСТЕМЫ ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ!». Listen t o a t e a c h e r explaining t o a class
о е и т н и о * н« i n А Т о н и с т к v e t и дяяическоят. сиоцстп.
how e l e c t r o n s work. Then c o m p l e t e each
s e n t e n c e with one word.
Ti-So Zr i• 8 0 ? • .180.
V-5INb- • 8 4 T « - 182. 1 Mendeleev didn't know about
Cr-52Mo =» 9 6 W . 186.
Rh.•104,4 P U 197,1.
Mn = 55
Rn. • 104,4 LR- 198.
Fe= 56
H I - C O = 5S P I . • 10S,» 0- .199.
= 2 The periodic table arranged by Mendeleev
H- 1 Си-63,4 Ag- •108 Hg- 200. was based on atomic
Be- 9,4Mg-24 Zn-65,1 Ci- • 1 1 2
8«= 11 At «=27,1 ?-68 Ur< >116 Am- 197?
C=I2 Si — 28 ?=70 Sn== 118 3 Electrons are located in
N=14 P-31 As-75 Sb =• 122 81-210? around the nucleus of an atom.
0 = 16 S-32 Se-78,4 Te= .128?
F= 19 С1-35,»8г=80 I- 1 2 7 4 Valence electrons determine the
Li = 7 N« = 23 K = 39 Rb = 85^ Cs> азз T I - >204.
C«-40 Sr —87,1 Bi" 137 PB= 207. properties of an element.
?-45 Ct-92
?Er-56 U-94 5 Lithium and have only one
7YI-60 Di — 95
?ln-75,«Th-U8? valence electron.

6 Lithium and boron have.


3. MKAUtnt electron shells.

M а с m i llan Guide to Science Unit 9 49


Chemistry

0 G Speaking В H Writing
Discuss these questions with W r i t e a magazine article for your school
your partner. magazine about the history of the
periodicity of elements. Use these notes
Besides the nucleus and electrons, what
t o help you.
else is found in an atom?
Do you think scientists will discover any PARAGRAPH 1
more elements? Introduction
Briefly explain what periodicity is, and
Task where the concepts of electrons and atoms
Prepare a short presentation t o answer were first developed.
the q u e s t i o n : ' W h a t is the periodic Vocabulary:
table?' Use the information in both texts.
In ancient times ... , during the 18 th
Talk about: century ...
• who devised the periodic table
PARAGRAPH 2
• what is contained in the periodic table
Write about the work of Mendeleev;
• the role of electrons arrangement by atomic weight.
• how the modern periodic table works Vocabulary:
organised according to ... , grouped by ...
First c o m p l e t e these notes. Use t h e m PARAGRAPH 3
in your presentation.
The role of electrons; how electrons are the
Periodic table: An arrangement of basis of the modern periodic table.
Vocabulary:

The first periodic table proposed by the function o f . . . , is based on ...

PARAGRAPH 4
was based on Conclusion
Electrons determine If you think new elements will be discovered
in the future; the expansion of the
The modern periodic table is arranged
periodic table.
Vocabulary:
In the years to come, I would imagine ...
R e m e m b e r to:
• read the texts very carefully
• make sure you understand the W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.
scientific processes
• try to use your own examples and explain
them clearly

Speaking tips
• Use time markers such as 'firstly', 'next'
and 'then'.
• Don't speak too quickly; take your time.
• Refer to your notes.

50 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Before you read
Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know how chemical reactions occur?
What conditions are important to the speed of
the reaction?
Can any conditions b e altered during
the reaction?
What are the three different states of matter?

И Reading 1
A Vocabulary
T Match these words with their definitions.
Chemical kinetics
1 rate A decay
Chemical kinetics is the study of rates of chemical
2 consumed В spring back like a ball reactions. In the world around us billions of
3 rot С moment chemical reactions occur; some are incredibly slow
while others are amazingly fast. It can take years
4 collide D as if eaten up for wood to rot, while the lighting of a match takes
5 catalyst E the speed at which just an instant. Chemical kinetics attempts to
something happens understand the factors that control the rates of
within a particular chemical reactions. These factors are
period of time concentration, pressure, surface area, the nature of
the reacting substances, temperature and catalysts.
6 bounce F one moving object
crashes into another In general, increasing the concentration of the
reacting substances increases the reaction rate.
7 instant G strength and power This is because molecules must collide in order to
8 compressed H enough react. The more concentrated the reacting
substances, the more molecules there will be in
9 force I pushed hard together any given volume, and therefore, the greater the
10 sufficient J a substance that number of molecular collisions.
without being affected
If the substances involved in the reaction are
increases speed of
gases, pressure will have an effect on reaction rate.
chemical reaction
Solids and liquids can not be compressed, but gases
can, so pressure acts as a kind of concentration for
gases. The volume of a gas decreases as the
pressure increases. For a given amount of gas,

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10 SI


Chemistry

increasing the pressure means we are forcing the


same number of gas molecules to occupy a smaller
volume. In the smaller volume, the molecules will
collide more often, which means there will be a
f В Comprehension
Read the t e x t and choose the
c o r r e c t answer.
greater number of successful collisions in a 1 The rate of a chemical reaction
given period of time. Reaction rate increases A depends on different factors.
with pressure. В is very fast for metals.
If a chemical reaction takes place at a boundary С is always the same.
between two states (gas, liquid or solid), the 2 In order for a chemical reaction to occur
surface area will affect the reaction rate. Only the A the volume of a gas must increase.
molecules at the surface area are available to react, В solids must be compressed.
so increasing the surface area increases the С molecules must collide.
number of molecules that are able to react, and 3 Higher concentrations of reacting substances
this leads to a higher reaction rate. will lead to
A more chemical reactions.
Some substances are naturally more reactive than
В increased pressure.
others. For example, if the metals magnesium, zinc
С reactive products.
and copper are dropped into hydrochloric acid in
separate test tubes, three very different results are 4 The metal zinc
obtained. The magnesium is consumed within A is more reactive than magnesium.
seconds, the zinc is consumed but takes much В reacts more slowly than magnesium.
longer, and the copper shows no reaction. С is less reactive than copper.
Therefore, magnesium is more reactive than zinc 5 Higher temperature can make molecules
and copper. A travel faster with no increase in energy.
В travel at the same speed, but with
Temperature affects the rate of a chemical reaction
more energy.
in two ways. Firstly, molecules move faster in a hot
С travel faster, and with more energy.
system than in a cold one, so they will collide
more often if they are moving faster. Secondly,
increasing the temperature increases reaction rate Before you listen
through its effect on the collision energy (known as
activation energy) of the molecules. Molecules Discuss these questions with your partner.
must collide with sufficient force in order to What is salt made up of?
combine and produce a chemical reaction. Higher
What state does salt exist in?
temperatures give molecules the energy to collide
forcefully. If they collide with less than a certain
amount of energy, they simply bounce off of each В С Listening *)))
other unchanged.
Listen t o two students talking about
Finally, a catalyst is a substance that increases the chemical reactions. Then listen again and
rate of a chemical reaction without being decide if the following s t a t e m e n t s are
consumed in the reaction. It increases the reaction true o r false.
rate by reducing the activation energy, that is, the
minimum amount of energy that the reacting A chemical reaction begins т •
molecules must have in order to react. with reactants. F •
Weight is released in a chemical т •
reaction. FD
Pronunciation guide
Salt is a metal. T •
c a t a l y s t /kaetslist/
FD
hydrochloric /haidreuklorik/
Sodium and chlorine are solids. T •
m a g n e s i u m /masgnnziam/
FD
In a chemical reaction combined т •
substances make new ones. FD

52 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

Before you read ••• — —


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What is a chain made up of?
-> What do you think a chain reaction is?

P D Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the sentences below with *

words from the box.

f \
• thermal explosion • expertise
• by-product • field
• analysis • external
• transformation • phenomenon
• primary • sequence
• reactive • additional
V У
1 A(n) is what is produced as a

secondary result of a process.

2 means outer.

3 A(n) is an area where a

particular force has an effect.


H Reading 2
4 means added to.

5 something in order
is the process of examining
to understand it. Nikolay Semyonov
6 A(n) is a series of events, one
Nikolay Semyonov, a physicist and chemist, and a
after the other. leader of the Soviet nuclear weapons programme,
was born on 15 t h April, 1896, and died on 25 t h
2 A(n) is a complicated
September, 1986 in Moscow. His primary
chemical process involving heating which
scientific contributions are related to the
leads to exploding. quantitative theory of chemical chain reactions,
the theory of thermal explosion, and the burning
8 A(n) is any state or process
of gaseous mixtures.
understood according to the senses rather
than by reasoning. He was a Physics graduate of Petrograd
(St Petersburg) University, and in 1920 he was
9 Repairing the nuclear reactor is our put in charge of the electron phenomena
concern at the moment. laboratory of the Phvsico-Technical Institute in
Petrograd. It was at this time, while working with
10 The surgeon's medical
Pyotr Kapitsa, that he discovered a way to
saved the man's life.
measure the magnetic field of an atomic nucleus.
11 Not all chemical substances are In 1931, he became Director of the Institute of
Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of
12 How is the of wood into Sciences, and from 1944 he was a professor at the
ash explained? Moscow State University.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 8 53


Chemistry

For his work on the mechanism of chemical


transformation, he was awarded the 1956 Nobel В E Comprehension
Prize for Chemistry. Semyonov's work on the Read the t e x t and choose the best title
mechanism of chemical transformation includes for each paragraph. There is one title
an important analysis of the application of the which you do not need to use.
chain theory (a sequence of reactions where a
PARAGRAPH 1
reactive product or by-product causes additional
reactions) to different reactions, particularly PARAGRAPH 2
combustion processes.
PARAGRAPH 3
In chemistry and physics, a chain reaction is a
PARAGRAPH 4
reaction that, once started, continues without
further outside influence. Proper conditions for a PARAGRAPHS
chain reaction depend not only on various
external factors, such as temperature, but also on PARAGRAPH 6
the quantity and shape of the substance in the A Scientific career
reaction. A chain reaction can be of various
types, but nuclear chain reactions are the best В Lifetime recognition
known, and it was in this particular area that С Basic facts
Semyonov contributed his expertise to the
nuclear weapons programme. He also made D Famous author
valuable contributions to the field of molecular E The highest honour
physics and electron phenomena.
F The combustion process
Semyonov published his work in three important
books. The first was Chemistry of the Electron, G Explanation of a scientific process
published in 1927. This was followed by
Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions in 1934,
which was the first book in the USSR to propose
Before youJisten
Discuss these questions with your partner.
a theory of chain reactions in chemistry. Further
studies in chemical kinetics led to the -» How much do you know about atomic science?
publication, in 1954, of Some Problems of What do you think of it?
Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity, which was
translated into many languages.
В F Listening 4)))
Semyonov received many awards and honours in Listen to a lecture on atomic and nuclear
his lifetime, including five Orders of Lenin. He energy and keep notes. Then answer the
was a member of the Chemical Society in questions in your own words.
London, Foreign Member of the Royal Society
and Foreign Member of the American, Indian,
German, and Hungarian Academies of Sciences.
He held honorary doctorates from the University
of Oxford and Brussels University.

( \
Pronunciation guide
chain reaction /tjein rr'ackjon/
gaseous /gaesras/
laboratory /b'borefri/
phenomena Иэ'пэттэ/
thermal explosion /0з:гтэ1 iks'pbirjon/
V J

54 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 10


Chemistry

1 Where is energy contained?


H H Writing
2 What is nuclear fission?
W r i t e a report on the topic: 'Factors
3 What is used to split an atom? affecting chemical reaction rates.'
4 What is nuclear fusion?
Read texts I and 2 again and use these
5 When a uranium atom is split into two, what notes to write six sections. Use the title
particles are released? headings below for your sections.
6 How could a nuclear winter affect life REPORT:
on Earth?
Factors affecting reaction rates

By: (Your name)


P G Speaking Date: (The date)

Task INTRODUCTION
Discuss with your partner the dangers Say what the report is about, and briefly list
of nuclear war. Say what you think and the areas you will discuss.
find out if your partner agrees o r
disagrees with you.
SECTION 1
Talk about:
• the main idea behind nuclear energy Concentration Vocabulary: collide
• nuclear fission
• nuclear fusion
SECTION 2
• the future Pressure Vocabulary: compress, force

N SECTION 3
Read texts I and 2 again and your Surface area Vocabulary: reaction rate,
notes from listening exercise F. Use the molecules
following notes as well to help you.
The main idea: chemical kinetics and
chain reactions SECTION 4
Reactivity Vocabulary: metals, consumed
Nuclear fusion: what happens?
The future: what might happen?
/ SECTION 5
Temperature Vocabulary: hot system,
R e m e m b e r to: activation energy, bounce off
• try to use your own examples
• explain yourself clearly
SECTION 6
• listen to your partner Catalysts Vocabulary: increase rate,
minimum energy
Speaking tips
• Use expressions such as 'I agree / disagree',
CONCLUSION
'In my opinion'.
Sum up by giving an outline of the six
• Invite your partner to speak by asking 'What main areas.
do you think?'
• Don't say everything at once - remember, it
is a discussion not a lecture. W r i t e 200-300 words.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 8 55


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What does physics study?
How old is the science of physics?
Can you name any famous physicists?

В A Vocabulary
Choose the c o r r e c t answer А, В o r C.

1 Scientists use to
make measurements. В Reading 1
A calculations
В estimations Physics
С equations

2 The molecules are in


An introduction
A movement Ever since humankind first looked at the stars
moving about the sky, they have wondered how
В motion and why they do that. People have always
С activity wondered why things behave the way they do.
For thousands of years people have been asking
3 A(n) is a mathematical questions like why things fall to the ground, not
statement that shows two expressions away from it. Why are some types of stone hard
are equal. and others soft? Why does the Sun come up in
A estimation the east and go down in the west? These are all
questions that physics can answer.
В calculation
In the beginning, people answered questions like
С equation
these in philosophical or religious ways. In early
4 A machine is a mechanical descriptions of the world, philosophers such as
Aristotle reported what they believed to be true,
A gadget rather than what they saw to be true. Others,
В device however, such as astronomers from India, Egypt
С appliance and China, or the Greek thinker, Archimedes,
were able to use calculations to predict the
movements of the Sun and the Moon or to
describe and build machines.

56 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 12


Physics

The works of Eastern scholars reached Europe


Pronunciation guide
in the 12 t h and 13 t h centuries. There were
studies of planetary motion by Indian Buddhist /budist/
astronomers, the theories of light from Buddhist Copernicus /kai)'p3:nik3s/
and Persian thinkers and especially the work of Joule ld$u:\l
the Persian philosopher Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on Nasir al-Din al-Tusi /haisir el din el tusi/
the planetary system. Eventually, these ideas Persian Арз:зэп/
pushed Europe into a scientific revolution. Rontgen /r3:ntgan/
Galileo laid the foundations for this with his thermodynamics /03:rm3udainaemiks/
work on dynamics, that is, how things move.
Nicolas Copernicus and then Johannes Kepler ^ В Comprehension
described the solar system with the Sun at its Read the t e x t and choose the best title
centre. Later, building on their work, Isaac for each paragraph. There is one title
Newton set out his Laws of Motion and modern which you do not need to use.
physics was born. PARAGRAPH 1
The next great area of investigation was PARAGRAPH 2
electricity and in the 19 t h century Michael PARAGRAPH 3
Faraday first demonstrated an electromagnetic
PARAGRAPH 4
motor. Later, it was improved by James Clerk
Maxwell, whose equations were also used to PARAGRAPHS
describe light. In proving Maxwell's equations, A Early ideas about physics
Heinrieh Hertz discovered radio waves and В Mechanical devices
Wilhelm von Rontgen, Х-ravs. Maxwell's work
С Ideas that created the modern world
was also the starting point for Einstein's Theory
of Relativity. At the same time, other scientists D What we can learn from physics
were working on thermodynamics, that is, the E Atomic physics
study of changes of heat in matter. Physicists F The origins of modern physics
such as Robert Boyle, James Prescott Joule and
many others set out the theories that allow us Before you listen
today to make use of engines and other
Discuss these questions with your partner.
mechanical devices. Rontgen's discovery of
Х-ravs and the work of Pierre and Marie Curie Have people always believed that the Earth
on radioactivity led to the development of the goes round the Sun?
science of nuclear physics. Why do you think people would doubt this?
In the first half of the
20 t h century,
developments in physics were concerned with В С Listening Щ)
the structure of atoms. The parts of the atom Listen to a radio p r o g r a m m e about
were identified - its nucleus, protons and Copernicus. Then listen again and
electrons. Eventually in the 1940s, scientists in complete these notes.
the USA were able to split a nucleus and the
Copernicus provided a heliocentric
result was the world's first nuclear explosion.
Also at that time, scientists such as Max Planck (1) theory of the solar system.
were looking at the relationship between matter People used to believe the Sun went round
and wave motion. The field of quantum the (2)
mechanics, which explains not only how atomic Copernicus led the way for science to
particles move, but how the universe does, came (3) existing theories.
into being. Without physics to describe the way
things behave, wTe would have none of the Copernicus held that the Earth is not the
technology and machinery we take for centre of the (4)
granted today. He also explained the phenomenon of
(5) and gave the correct order
of the planets.

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit I I 57


Physics

Before you read


Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
What is lightning?
When do you see it?
Which travels faster, sound or light?

D Vocabulary
T a. Match these words with their definitions.

1 dark matter A carry out


2 survey В show
3 reveal С to increase in speed
4 spark D investigation
5 accelerate E quick flash
6 three-dimensional F best
2 leading G having height, width
and depth
8 perform H hypothetical, invisible
material which does not
take in or give out light
И Reading 2
b. C o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s below with
words from t h e box.
Physics - the new
• dark matter
• accelerate
• leading
• perform
science fiction
• three-dimensional • survey A speech by Professor Martin Brimble, who is
• spark • reveal retiring from his post as Professor of Physics at
the University of Solihull after more than 30 years
1 The scientist wanted to a has revealed not what we know about the
dangerous experiment in the laboratory. universe, but what we still don't know.
2 You have to wear these Science reporter Bob Hatton reports.
glasses to watch this film. You would expect that after 3 0 years as Professor of
3 He's a heart surgeon; the Physics at one of the country's leading research
operation is bound to b e successful. centres, Professor Brimble would know quite a lot
4 Usually trains after pulling about the way the universe works. So what was
out from the station. most surprising was his detailed survey of the great
unsolved problems facing physicists today.
5 The company carried out a very interesting
the results of which were For simplicity, he divided his talk into three
published in the newspaper. parts. First, he talked about those things which
6 Rub the two stones together until there is a happen in the world - and they happen every
day - but for which there is no scientific
explanation. He wasn't talking about ghosts or
2 What do you know about ? It's
magic, naturally, but there are events which
difficult to explain.
physicists have observed and which their
8 He's innocent and I'll do whatever it takes to theories and experiments have not yet been able
the truth. to explain. Then, there are theories and ideas

58 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 12


Physics

which scientists haven't been able to prove right


or wrong because no one has been able to H E Comprehension
perform an experiment to test the theory. And Read the t e x t and decide if the following
as if that weren't enough, there are ideas which s t a t e m e n t s are true o r false.
they know work and the science is right, but
Professor Brimble spoke about т •
they are still waiting for the technology to
how much physics has taught us. FD
be invented.
The universe is moving fast in т •
Well, what happens that can't be explained?
one direction. F •
One phenomenon is ball lightning. This is said
to be just like ordinary lightning, but instead of There are theories in physics т •
being a spark jumping from point A to B, it which have not been tested. FD
forms a ball of light, about the size of a
basketball. Scientists have been trying to Some physicists say there is т •
explain it since 1904, but without success. Their no such thing as ball lightning. FD
efforts have been unsuccessful partly because of
Physicists are very close to finding т •
the fact that some physicists don't even believe
dark matter. FD
the phenomenon exists. Another such
phenomenon is the accelerating universe.
Physicists know that everything in the universe
is moving away from everything else faster and Before you listen
faster. They've even measured the acceleration.
Discuss these questions with your partner.
But what they don't know is why it's happening.
One idea is that it's something to do with dark What do you know about the Big Bang?
matter, but that's another problem. Because it is Does it seem like a good explanation to you
dark matter, we can't see it and many physicists for the creation of the universe?
will say they don't even know where to look for
it - if it exists at all. The truth is there just isn't
enough matter in the universe to keep it in one
piece. Research is going ahead, but answers may И F Listening 4)))
take a long time to come. Listen t o a t e a c h e r and a student
discussing her project about the Big
Some things cannot be tested because they're
Bang. Then listen again and answer
just too big to test. These are ideas that sound
the questions.
like science fiction, but are actually theories
that may be true because other theories could 1 When did the Big Bang occur?
be wrong. For example, time travel: some say it's
possible, but to do it, would need more energy 2 In what two ways is the phrase
than there is in the universe. Big Bang used?
3 In which direction is all matter
And we'll have to wait for a three-dimensional
moving nowadays?
microchip to be made before we can build the
fastest possible computer. So according to 4 At one time, in the distant past in what form
Professor Brimble we've got a lot to look forward was all matter?
to in the future!
5 What chain of events did the Big Bang
set off?
6 After the Big Bang, why did hydrogen atoms
fuse together?
7 Can you describe the beginnings of
Pronunciation guide simple galaxies?
m i c r o c h i p /hiaikrautjip/
Solihull /ssulihaelI

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit II 59


Physics

В G Speaking В H Writing
Discuss these questions with W r i t e a short essay t o answer
your partner. this question:
What do you find the most fascinating ' W h a t are the main differences in
about physics? theories of physics before and after the
Which areas would you like to know scientific revolution?'
more about?
Read t e x t I again and use these notes t o
write four paragraphs.
Task PARAGRAPH 1
Discuss with your partner whether you
think physics will be able to find answers Introduction Scientific revolution changed
t o the unsolved problems in text 2. Say way of looking at the world. First describe
what you think and find out if your way of thinking before science. Then look at
partner agrees or disagrees with you. what modern scientists have achieved.
Vocabulary: first, then, explain, reasons
Talk about:
• ball lightning PARAGRAPH 2

• the accelerating universe Ancient world. Thinkers affected by religion


and superstition. Believed ideas without
• time travel
analysing them. Others found proof in
calculation and observation. Some found
Read t e x t 2 again and use these notes
right answers for wrong reasons. Thinkers
t o help you.
described world they lived in.
Ball lightning: Prove it is real? Possible
Vocabulary: philosophy, religion,
causes (electromagnetism and
mathematics, ideas moved slowly,
air temperature?)
description
Accelerating universe: Find dark matter,
find another possibility, check PARAGRAPH 3
measurements Modern world more open to change. Accept
Time travel: New source of energy, what they see, not what they want to see.
impossible for philosophical / religious Modern physicists had advantage of
reasons, theory is wrong knowing about mistakes of the past.
Test theories? Find new theories? Scientists look for answers to problems. Aim
V is to improve the world.
R e m e m b e r to: Vocabulary: proof, building on ideas,
• explain your ideas development
• give reasons for your ideas PARAGRAPH 4
• listen to other points of view
Conclusion Same in need for observation
Speaking tips and proof. Different in acceptance of belief
and wish to change world.
• Ask questions to find out reasons.
Vocabulary: finally, summary, analysis,
• Give your partner time to speak. belief
• Be prepared to change your mind.
• Useful words and phrases:
primarily; without a doubt; it cannot be
denied; quite probably; there's a slight
possibility; highly unlikely; would you agree?;
I'd have to disagree with you there. Write 200-250 words.

60 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 12


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What household appliances use electricity?
Where does electricity come from?
What does a magnet do?

В A Vocabulary
Choose the c o r r e c t word to c o m p l e t e
the sentences.

1 is something through which


electricity can pass. В Reading 1
2 An electrical
in our home.
supplies power
Electricity and
3 The electromagnetic field
force on the particles.
a
magnetism
4 To power you need a way to Electromagnetism is everywhere. It is a field that
control electricity. exists throughout space. When particles are
electrically charged, the electromagnetic field
5 Normally, electricity is carried through exerts a force on them. These particles then move
homes by and exert a force on the electromagnetic field. By
6 Is 6 o'clock a time for generating these fields when and where we want
your meeting? them and by controlling these forces we have
electricity. This gives us the power we use in the
1 A A conductor В A magnet С Static modern world. All our TVs, phones, street lights
and cars depend on electromagnetism.
2 A bulb В current С particle
So what is electromagnetism? Actually, it is two
3 A put В exerted С applied things, but they are so closely connected that it is
convenient for us to think of them as one, as two
4 A attract В exert С generate
sides of the same coin. There are two types of field:
5 A wires В charges С forces electric and magnetic. Electrically-charged particles
result in an electric field, static electricity. When
6 A comfortable В fitting С convenient
there is a conductor, a material which will allow
electric field to pass through it, then we can create
an electric current. In our homes, the conductors
are the wires that run through our house to the

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit II 61


Physics

light bulbs or the TV. A magnetic field results from 2 Electrical and magnetic fields
the motion of an electric current and is used to A are opposites.
generate the electricity we use. В are two very different things.
С are very closely related.
In the 19 t h century, James Clerk Maxwell, the D need a conductor.
Scottish physicist, produced the equations that
3 Maxwell's equations
proved the two forces acted as one. One effect of
A corrected the theory of motion.
this was for physicists all over the world to hurry
В caused scientists to rethink.
back to their libraries and laboratories to rewrite
С rewrote older theories.
the theories on the motion of objects. Maxwell's
D have completely ensured the theory of
equations showed that what physicists had
motion now.
believed for centuries was in fact not correct. It was
not until Einstein, in the 20 t h century, that the 4 Our modern knowledge of electromagnetism
theory of motion was put right - at least for now. comes from
A Ampere.
How do we know the two things are one? Well, В lightning.
sailors had known for centuries that lightning С Benjamin Franklin.
affected the magnetic compasses on their ships. No D experiments with magnets.
one, however, made the connection between
5 The electric battery
lightning and electricity until Benjamin Franklin,
A could operate a machine.
the American politician and scientist, flew a kite in
В could create an electric current.
a thunderstorm to attract the lightning. In other
С was invented by Faraday.
parts of the world, physicists were experimenting
D was invented in 1800.
with magnets and electricity. Most passed a
current across a magnetic needle and watched it
move. The Frenchman, Andre Marie Ampere
eventually applied mathematics to
Before you listen
electromagnetism. It is from his work that we have Discuss these questions with your partner.
our modern understanding of electromagnetism. Can you think of some different ways of
One piece of the jigsaw remained. No one had generating electricity?
discovered a way of generating electricity. True, What are the advantages and disadvantages
there were batteries, Alessandro Yolta invented the of each?
Voltaic pile in 1800, but it was of limited use.
Certainly no battery could provide enough
electrical power to operate a machine. For that the В С Listening *)))
world would have to wait for Michael Faraday to Listen to the extract from a lecture on
find a way of creating an electrical current, when generating electricity. Then listen again and
and where it was needed. complete the table.

Pronunciation guide Ways of generating electricity


Advantages Disadvantages
Ampere /аетреэ/
Fuel
Voltaic Pile /vol'tenk раг>1/
2

И В Comprehension Nuclear power


Read the t e x t and choose the 4
c o r r e c t answer. Hydroelectricity
1 We can make electricity by
6
A exerting a force.
В creating electromagnetic fields. Wind power
С charging particles.
D moving particles.

62 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 12


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you think is the most important
invention
A of all time?
В in the last century?
С in the last 20 years?

H D Vocabulary
a. Match these words with their
definitions.

1 loop A not proud


2 entirely В round shape
3 device С machine
4 modest D completely
5 coach E vehicle pulled by horse
6 status F revolve, go round
7 rotate G position

b. Match the words t o make phrases.


0 Reading 2
1 receive A experiments
2 attend
3 offer
В a job
С electricity
Michael Faraday
4 be D on a tour Faraday ( 1 7 9 1 - 1 8 6 7 ) was unusual among
famous men in the 19 t h century. His family did
5 go E to work not have a high status in Victorian society. He
6 carry out F an education was born in London to a poor family. He
7 set G of something received little more than a primary school
education, but educated himself. He did not
8 build H lectures have the support and encouragement of famous
9 generate I a device teachers. Instead, he worked making and
10 make use repairing the covers of books in the daytime
J low born
and attending public lectures at the Royal
Institution in the evenings.
c. Match the adjectives t o the nouns.
One series of lectures was given by Humphrey
1 leading A motor Davy, one of the leading physicists of the time,
and Faraday wrote to him, hoping to become
2 scientific В current
accepted into the scientific community. Davy
3 electrical С field wrote back, recommending that Faraday
4 electrical D physicist continue to be a bookbinder. Faraday's chance
came soon after that. Davy injured his eyes in
5 magnetic E community
an explosion in his laboratory, and offered
Faraday a job as his secretary. The years which
followed were not entirely happy ones for

63 M a c m i l l a n Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

Faraday. He was not considered to be a


Pronunciation guide
gentleman, his family were too low born for
that. Even when he went with Davy on a tour of dynamo Матэтэи/
Europe, Faraday had to wash Davy's clothes, encouragement /т'клпёзтэт/
eat with the servants and ride on the roof of the homopolar /Ьэитэи'рэиЫ
coach rather than inside it. For a time, Faraday honoured /э:пэё/
thought about giving up s c i e n c e altogether.
Humphrey flwmfn/
Now, however, Faraday had time to carry out injure /тёзэ/
experiments at the Royal Institution of Great
Law of Induction /b:rsv in'dAkJan/
Britain, though he was still Davy's assistant.
Davy tried and failed to make an electric motor
and discussed his failure with his assistant.
P E Comprehension
Faraday set to work, and produced what he
called a homopolar motor. It was simply a wire, Read t h e t e x t and answer t h e questions
rotating around a magnet when an electric in your own words.
current from a battery was applied. It seems 1 How did Faraday get his education?
though that somehow Faraday upset Davy, who
2 What was Faraday's second job?
had recently been honoured by Queen Victoria.
The following years saw Faraday working on 3 Why did Faraday experiment with glass?
Davy's experiments with glass. Whatever 4 How did Maxwell assist Faraday?
Faraday did, Davy seemed determined to
5 How were Faraday's achievements
prevent him from succeeding with electricity.
recognised?
In 1 8 2 9 Davy died, and soon after Faraday
began the series of experiments that would
make him one of the most important scientists
of all time. He managed to build a device which
Before you listen
moved a magnet through a loop of wire. This Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
motion of the magnet through the wire created
How does a candle work?
an electric current. He demonstrated that a
changing magnetic field produces an electrical How does a torch work?
field. He was helped by J a m e s Clerk Maxwell to
How does an electric light work?
state the process mathematically (maths had
always been Faraday's weakness), and this is
now known as Faraday's Law of Induction. It is H F Listening M)))
one of the foundations of electromagnetism and
Listen t o t h e conversation and fill in t h e
of modern technology. Later, Faraday built the gaps in t h e notes.
first dynamo, a way of generating electricity.
What Faraday did was to discover a way both of 1 A hairdryer works with
making electricity and of making use of it.
2 The electric operates a fan.
Without his discoveries we would not be able to
e n j o y the modern lifestyle that we have now. 3 The electric warms the
Although now famous, Faraday remained heating element.
modest. He was offered honours by the Queen,
but refused to accept them. Nearly 1 5 0 years 4 Air is the element.
after his death, however, he was honoured in 5A controls the heat in
another way. Between 1 9 9 1 and 2 0 0 1 his face the element.
appeared on a Bank of England £ 2 0 note.

64 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

H G Speaking И H Writing
Discuss these questions with W r i t e a short essay t o answer this
your partner. question: 'How did Faraday's personal life
affect his scientific work?'
Can you live without
First read t e x t 2 again and look at these
A TV? notes. Then plan your essay.
В a CD player? PARAGRAPH 1
С a fridge? Early life:
poor family, not educated at school, worked
with books
Task Vocabulary:
Discuss with your partner the following family background, bookbinder, no
topic.'How would life be different encouragement
without electricity?'
PARAGRAPH 2
Talk about:
Entry into science:
• things we use electricity for (lighting, evening lectures, wrote to famous scientist,
cooking, refrigeration, your ideas) assistant
• things we don't need electricity for (play
Vocabulary:
games, reading/writing, do sports,
your ideas) Royal Institution, scientific community,
secretary
• places that use electricity (homes,
hospitals, factories, your ideas) PARAGRAPH 3
• luxury items that use electricity (TV, Relationships:
music, video games, your ideas) not a gentleman, treated like a servant,
unhappy, problem with Davy
Vocabulary:
R e m e m b e r to:
status, unhappy, think about
• say what you think
I (don't) think/feel/believe (that); in my PARAGRAPH 4
opinion; as far as I'm concerned Private life:
• give your reasons modest, hard-working, refused honours
I say this because, due to, because of Vocabulary:
• agree/disagree politely discoveries, honours, banknote
Quite right. I'm not sure I agree ...

Speaking tips W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

• Ask questions.
• Let your partner finish their sentences.
• Ask for explanations if you
don't understand.

M а с m i llan Guide to Science Unit 12 65


Units 9 to 12
Use the words in the box t o c o m p l e t e i 1 С 1 Use the clues t o c o m p l e t e the
the sentences. crossword and find the hidden expression.
li
conductor • enroll
expand • convenient 2h
specific • resign 3r
catalyst • calculations
repetition • devise
4 Я

1 Metal is an example of a good -
6a
something through which electricity can pass.
7b
2 To plan and make is to
8a
3 If you are you are exact.
4 When writing an essay, try to avoid эе
of vocabulary.
юр
5 When you sign up or join a school, you
ИС

6 The bus stop is right outside our front gate; 12 1


that's very 13 s
7 Materials such as metal, when they are 14 U
heated, they
15 Г
8A is a substance that
increases the speed of chemical reactions. 16 a

9 If you decide you want to leave your job, you 1 immediate


2 two magnetic ends being the same
10 I need to make some before
I ask the bank for a loan. 3 make known, show
4 if it happens over a period of time, it
" В T h e words in green are in the wrong happens
sentences. Put each word into the c o r r e c t
5 as if eaten up
sentence.
6 give a job, a position to somebody
1 To rotate power you need to be able to
control electricity. 7 we put it in a lamp
2 A device is produced as the secondary 8 accomplishment.
result of a process. 9 to apply (force for example)
3 A mathematical statement showing two
10 do, carry out
expressions are equal is a(n) by-product.
4 Electricity passes around buildings through 11 crash, hit
dark matter. 12 a circle
5 Light is not absorbed or emitted by wires. 13 a flash
6 Compressed means having height, width 14 being the same
and depth.
15 decay
7 To generate means to turn around on an axis.
16 the process of examining something to
8 A(n) equation is a series of events.
understand it.
9 The material was three-dimensional as it
had been pushed tightly together.
10 This is the sequence we are going to use to C 2 W h a t does the hidden expression
carry out the experiment. T mean?

Macmillan Guide to Science Revision VocabularyI13


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What did early people commonly believe
about the relationship between the Earth, the
Sun and the other planets?
Is it important for scientists to discover laws
about the physical world? Why / Why not?

^ A Vocabulary
Match these words with their definitions.

1 elliptical A suppose, speculate


2 orbit В talk or write more
about something
3 expand on С a statement describing
a phenomenon in
science which is true at
all times
4 the heavens D having the Sun as В Reading 1
the centre
5 inertia E a path around another
object
The Law of Universal
6 gravity F effect Gravitation
7 geocentric G having the Earth as
the centre In ancient times, people believed that the Earth
was the centre of the solar system and tried to
8 heliocentric H the sky
understand and explain the movement of the
9 hypothesise I oval or egg-shaped Sun, the Moon, the stars and the planets around
10 revolve J what makes things fall the Earth. As scientific knowledge and technology
11 law К law of physics improved over time, this idea (called the
according to which a geocentric theory, from the ancient Greek words
body tends to maintain meaning Earth-centred) lost favour and new
its speed & direction theories about the solar system were put forward.

12 impact L move around Tvcho Brahe (1546-1601) and Galileo (1564-


1642) made accurate measurements of the
heavens, which were the basis for later theories.
Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) believed that the
Earth was not the centre of the solar system but
Physics

just another planet revolving around the Sun,


which itself never moved. This type of theory was
H В Comprehension
called heliocentric. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Read the t e x t and choose the correct
an assistant to Brahe, used Brahe's measurements title for each paragraph. There is one title
to support Copernicus' heliocentric theory. This which you do not need t o use.
led to his discovery of three laws relating to
planetary movement, including the fact that the PARAGRAPH 1
planets move in elliptical orbits around the Sun. PARAGRAPH 2
PARAGRAPH 3
It was left to Isaac Newton to expand on these
theories by testing and proving Kepler's laws. By PARAGRAPH 4
observing things around him, Newton realised PARAGRAPHS
several things. One was that objects can be in one
A Newton's discovery
place, without moving. This is called inertia.
Then, if the object moved, it moved toward В Early theories of heliocentrism
another object. The phenomenon causing this С The strength of Newton's Law
pull of one object towards another was the force D Geocentrism
of gravity (or little g). Newton found that the E Newton's observations
mass of the two objects and the distance between
F Einstein's theories
them determined the strength of the force of
gravity and developed an equation which
expressed this relationship. Before you listen
Continuing to test and expand his findings, Discuss these questions with your partner.
Newton hypothesised that this relationship Does all research lead to important
existed not only between objects on the Earth but discoveries? Explain your answer.
also objects in space. This led in 1687 to
What role does the work of earlier researchers
Newton's Pliilosophiae Naturalis Principia
play in scientific discoveries?
Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy, usually called Principia) in
which he wrote about his historic discovery of the И С Listening *)))
Law of Universal Gravitation (or big G). By You will hear five students talking about
calling his discovery a law, it meant that the famous scientists. Match each statement
relationships he had discovered were true with the speaker. There is one statement
everywhere and in all cases. which you do not need to use.
Newton's discovery had a huge impact on SPEAKER 1
scientific thinking for centuries afterwards. In
SPEAKER 2
fact, his findings were not improved upon until
1905, when Albert Einstein introduced his SPEAKER 3
Special Theory of Relativity. SPEAKER 4
SPEAKER 5

A He believed in a combination of the


geocentric and heliocentric theories.
В He used scientific methods to explain
Pronunciation guide planetary motion.
Galileo /gaeli'leisu/ С He believed in the heliocentric theory.
geocentric /d^i:oi!'sentnk/
D He believed nothing was accidental.
inertia Л'пз:|э/
Philosophiae Naturalis /fib'sofis naeturslis/ E He believed in the geocentric theory.
Principia Mathematica /prin'sipis тагВе'тагикэ/ F He was the first to measure the movement of
yTycho Brahe /'tarko bra:/ the stars.

68 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know anything about the scientist
Isaac Newton?
Is it a good idea for scientists to tell others
about their research results? Why / Why not?

H D Vocabulary
The words in green are all in the wrong
sentences. Put the words into the c o r r e c t
sentences.

1 My uncle worried so much about his work


that he had a mint

2 Our class visited the estate and we saw how


money is made

3 That crystal vase is very calculus and will


easily break

4 The branch of mathematics that is concerned


with limits and with the differentiation and
integration of functions is called a delay
When his stepfather died some years later,
5 The telescope had a huge old castle and Newton's mother returned to Woolsthorpe,
beautiful gardens together with the three children from her
second marriage. Even though Newton's family
6 A nervous breakdown has a large convex was wealthy, his mother did not want him to go
lens so that you can see things which are far to school. Instead, she wanted him to learn to
away be a farmer and to take care of the family's
estate. Newton did not like farming and was not
7 There was a fragile so we were late.
very good at it. Eventually, he was allowed to
return to school and then to attend university,
although he had to work to earn money to
H Reading 2 cover at least some of his expenses.

Despite the fact that Newton was studying Law


Isaac Newton at Cambridge, where the ideas of Aristotle
were greatly respected, he became more
Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day 1642, interested in modern philosophers like Rene
according to the calendar which was used in Descartes, Thomas Hobbes and Robert Boyle
England at that time, or, according to the modern and also explored the ideas of Nicolas
calendar, 4 t h January, 1643. His father was a Copernicus, Galileo and Johannes Kepler. At
wealthy farmer in the north of England, and the some point, he became interested in
owner of a large estate which included the family mathematics, including the work of Euclid and
home, called Woolsthorpe. Unfortunately, his Descartes, which eventually resulted in
father had died several months before Newton Newton's invention of calculus. In the field of
was born, so he never knew him. When he was optics, he made important discoveries about
two, his mother married again and moved to light and colour theory, as well as building the
another village, leaving him behind to be brought first reflecting telescope. He was also involved
up by his grandmother. in alchemy, religion and, of course, physics,

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15 6 9


Physics

where his discovery of the laws of planetary 2 Newton's mother


motion and gravity were great advances and A took him with her when she remarried.
also served as the basis for later work, such as В wanted him to go to school.
Albert Einstein's. He was also interested in С thought he should be a farmer.
politics, serving as a Member of Parliament and D covered all costs of his education.
in other governmental positions. 3 Newton was originally studying to be
Throughout his life, Newton was a fragile, A a physicist.
sensitive person, who did not take well to В a philosopher.
criticism. In fact, he often delayed publishing С a mathematician.
his work because he was afraid of being D a lawyer.
criticised, which led to many problems later 4 Newton was not particularly influenced by
on. He suffered two nervous breakdowns and A the ideas of Aristotle.
finally stopped doing research. However, he В the ideas of Descartes.
remained active by working for the С the ideas of Copernicus.
government as Warden, and later Master, of the D the ideas of Euclid.
Royal Mint, where his efforts produced
5 Newton had problems in his later
important results. He was made a knight by
life because
Queen Anne in 1705.
A he was so famous.
Newton died on 2 0 t h March, 1727. The epitaph В he was afraid of criticism.
for his tomb, which is in London's Westminster С he published his work.
Abbey, was written by the poet, Alexander Pope: D he stopped doing research.

Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night; Before


God said '.Let Newton be!' and all was light. Discuss these questions with your partner.
Can you explain why we see colours?

Pronunciation guide Do you know the famous story of how Newton


discovered gravity?
calculus /kaelkjubs/
D e s c a r t e s Adeika:t/ В F Listening 4)))
epitaph Aepita:f/
You will hear part of a radio programme
Euclid /'juiklid/ about great scientists. Listen and fill in
fragile /'fraedjail/ the notes.
t e l e s c o p e /teliskaup/
Optics is the branch of physics that studies the
W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y Awestminsts aebi/ physical (1) of light known
W o o l s t h o r p e /'wuls0o:p/ as optics.

Newton claimed that a prism could


(2 ) white light into a spectrum
^ E Comprehension of colours.
Read the t e x t and choose the A second prism and lens could recompose
c o r r e c t answer. the multi-coloured spectrum into
1 As a young child, Newton (3 ) light.
A lived on a small farm. Newton said (4) with coloured
В lived at Woolsthorpe with light caused us to see colours.
his grandmother.
С lived with his parents. Newton believed light is made up of particles
D lived with his mother and her connected to (5)
new husband.
Newton's calculations said gravity kept the
Moon in (6)

70 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

¥
R e m e m b e r to:
G Speaking
• present the facts in chronological order
Discuss these questions with
your partner. • use the full names of the scientists when
referring to them for the first time
Do you agree that Newton was one of the
most important scientists in world history?
Why/Why not? Speaking tips

What areas of science was Newton's • If you don't know a word, explain what you
contribution crucial to? mean using other words you know.
• Don't speak too quickly. It isn't a
conversation and the class may not catch
Task everything you say.

Read t e x t I again and give a two-


minute presentation on the Law of В H Writing
Universal Gravitation.
You have been asked to write a
Talk about: newspaper article about Isaac Newton.
• the geocentric theory W r i t e the article, giving biographical
information and an explanation of his
• heliocentric theories many achievements.
• Newton and his theory of gravity For your research take notes from t e x t s I
and 2 and exercise F listening.
Use this plan:
First c o m p l e t e these notes. Use t h e m Title (think of an eye-catching title)
in your presentation.
PARAGRAPH 1
To begin with, we need to discuss what was
Explain who you're writing about and why.
believed in ancient times. The geocentric
theory held PARAGRAPH 2
Give an overview of Newton's life.
PARAGRAPHS 3 AND 4
Give examples of his theories and how he
Later theories were based on
arrived at the conclusions.
and the theories said
PARAGRAPH 5
Sum up by briefly restating his life and
achievements and say what kind of
impression Newton made on you.
Isaac Newton added to these theories
by

W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.
Newton's theories are still important
because

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15 7 1


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Have you heard of quantum mechanics?
What are atoms made up of?

В A Vocabulary
Complete the sentences below with
words from the box.

• evidence • tiny
• back up • adequately

• duality • radiates H Reading 1


• distinct

1 There was a(n) amount of


Quantum
energy - it was separate from any other. mechanics
2 There has to be to prove
Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that
a theory. explains the behaviour of the tiniest matter such
3 Atoms are not just small. They're as atoms, molecules and nuclei. (1)
i Thanks to the ideas it put forward, scientists
managed to explain all the new experimental
4 If energy is given off, we say it evidence of the time that could not be explained
by classical physics (also known as Newtonian
physics, after Isaac Newton).
5 You will need to your theory
(2) A few years later, Isaac
with some kind of proof.
Newton suggested that light was made up of tiny
6 I think I have argued my point quite particles. Both of these theories were backed up
by experiments. But neither theory could
adequately explain on its own all of the
7 Some properties being best explained by phenomena associated with light.
wave theory and others by particle theory is
Nearly two hundred years later, in 1900, Max
known as
Planck assumed that hot things send out energy
in packets, and he named these packets quanta
(singular: quantum). (3) In 1905,
Albert Einstein published a paper based on

72 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

Planck's work to explain the photoelectric effect,


and called the energy packets of light photons.
И В Comprehension
According to this theory, when light shines on a Read the t e x t and complete with the
metal surface, the photons in the light can carry missing sentences below. There is one
enough energy to hit an electron in an atom in sentence which you do not need to use.
the metal and knock the electron out of
A Quanta were the modern answer to
the atom.
Newton's theories.
In 1920, while working on the idea that a В Electrons could not inhabit the space
moving particle had the property of a wave and between orbits.
thus could have a wavelength (that is, that there
was a specific length to the waves of light), Niels С Quantum mechanics is used for
Bohr decided to find the wavelength of an understanding the behaviour of systems at
electron moving around the nucleus of an atom. atomic length scales and smaller.
He found that an electron could have a stable D The foundations of quantum mechanics
orbit, which means that the electron in orbit is were laid in the late 1600s, when Christian
not radiating energy. He also found that an Huygens proposed that light was made up
electron absorbed or radiated a certain distinct of waves.
amount of energy only when moved to another
stable orbit. ( 4 ) E Then Albert Einstein began to wonder if
light also delivered its energy in packets.
It appears that quanta were being used by
F This is now known as the wave-particle
scientists to explain all sorts of phenomena that
duality concept.
they could not explain before. However, the
scientific community was divided on whether
light was a wave or a particle because it behaved Before you listen
as both in different experiments. So they began Discuss these questions with your partner.
to think of light as both a particle and a wave.
(5) This concept is true for both What physical phenomena are made up
matter (such as electrons) and energy (such as of waves?
light). We can only conclude that light is What things are we able to do because of
somehow both a wave and a particle, or it is these waves?
something else that we cannot quite understand
and which physicists of the future will be able
to explain. H С Listening *)))
Listen to a teacher and a student
In the final analysis, quantum mechanics
discussing the photoelectric effect. Then
explained two very important things: why atoms
complete each sentence with one word.
were stable and why atoms absorbed or released
energy in certain ways. 1 When light shines on a
surface, electrons can be released.
2 Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein both
believed that light was made
Pronunciation guide of
Christian Huygens /kristjan haigan/ 3 The role of science is to find out
Einstein /ainstain/ the
Newtonian /nju'toi:nion/ 4 In experiments with the photoelectric
nuclei /nju:kliai/ effect the agreed with
Einstein's predictions .
photoelectric /foutoui'lektrik/
5 Einstein didn't win the Nobel Prize for
quantum /kwnntom/
his of Relativity.
wavelength /weivleqB/
6 From different points of view
can be a particle or a wave.

M асmi llan Guide to Science Unit 12 7 3


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know what Bohr's model of the atom is?
Can you explain it?

^ D Vocabulary
a. Match the words to make phrases.

1 stable A properties
2 quantized В chain reaction
3 wave-particle С states
4 dual D bomb
5 atomic E atom
6 fission F duality

b. Match these words with their definitions.

1 spectral line A used about things that


have two parts
В Reading 2
2 in essence В using new methods or

Niels Bohr
achieving new results
3 groundbreaking С basically
4 dual D used about ideas or Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen in 1885, and
beliefs that disagree died there in 1962. He was one of the most
with each other and distinguished physicists of all time. He is best
cannot be both known for the development of the Bohr model of
5 contradictory E win the atom, his theory explaining the existence of
spectral lines, and the principle of
6 complementarity F light or dark band of
complementarity. His work won him the 1922
particular wavelength,
Nobel Prize in Physics.
used to identify
substances His interest in science began at an early age
1 gain G a basic principle of because his father was a professor of physiology.
quantum theory Specialising in Mathematics and Physics during
according to which a his final years of school, Bohr continued these
system may have either studies at university. He received his Master's
particle-like or wave- degree from the University of Copenhagen in
like properties 1909 and his PhD in 1911. Later that same year,
he went to England where he worked with Sir
8 significant H important Joseph Thomson (who had discovered the
electron), and Ernest Rutherford (who had put
forward the concept of a nucleus within the atom).

He worked on the structure of the atom using


quantum ideas from Max Planck and Albert
Einstein. In Bohr's model of the atom there is a
nucleus, and electrons move around the nucleus
in stable states (also known as orbits or energy

74 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

levels) without radiating energy. When an


Pronunciation guide
electron moves from one state to another, only
very specific amounts of energy are lost or Copenhagen /.kaupariheigan/
gained. If the atom gains energy, the electron fission №[эп/
jumps to a level further from the nucleus; if it quantized Akwontaizd/
loses energy, it drops to a level closer to the V /
nucleus. Whenever energy is lost or gained, a line
in a spectrum is produced. This model is now 0 E Comprehension
known as a quantized atom, from the term Read the t e x t and choose the
quantum introduced by Planck to describe small c o r r e c t answer.
packets of energy. 1 Bohr went to England
In 1927, Bohr put forward his principle of A in 1909.
complementarity, which refers to effects such as В to receive his PhD.
wave-particle duality. Bohr's principle was the С to work with Planck and Einstein.
most groundbreaking scientific concept of the D and worked with two famous scientists.
2 0 t h century. In essence, the principle states that 2 A quantized atom does not
things may have dual or contradictory properties, A have electrons moving in stable states.
but we can only experience one property at a В produce a spectrum.
time. For example, we can think of an electron as С have electrons moving, radiating energy.
a wave or as a particle, but we cannot think of it D have a nucleus.
as both at the same time, even though it may
3 Bohr's principle says
actually be both at once.
A properties can only b e experienced
In 1920, Bohr had been appointed director of the separately.
Institute of Theoretical Physics and he continued В electrons are definitely waves
to work there throughout the 1920s and 1930s. and particles.
However, during the German occupation in World С properties can only disagree.
War II, due to his having a Jewish mother, it was D an electron is actually a particle.
necessary for Bohr to avoid arrest by the police. 4 Bohr thought atomic weapons
He therefore escaped to Sweden. From there, he A should b e supported whatever
travelled to England and then to America, where the circumstances.
he became involved in the Atomic Energy Project В could only b e developed in cooperation
which aimed to build the first atomic bomb. lie with the USSR.
made a significant contribution by discovering С should b e developed in cooperation with
that only uranium-235 could produce the fission the USSR.
chain reaction required for an atomic explosion. D should make a significant contribution
However, he was concerned about the political to politics.
problems that the development of atomic
5 Niels Bohr
weapons could cause, and supported the idea of
A had a successful son.
sharing the new technology with other countries,
В won the Nobel prize in 1922 and 1975.
particularly the USSR.
С was president of many academies.
Niels Bohr held many important positions, and D worked for many important scientific
was honoured by many important scientific institutions.
institutions. He was President of the Royal Danish
Academy of Sciences, and a member of many
other famous Academies. Bohr was awarded
honorary doctorates by the world's greatest
Before you listen
universities. Interestingly, Bohr's son also became Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
a physicist and won the Nobel Prize for Physics Do you know what a prism is?
in 1975.
Do you know how a prism works?

M асmi llan Guide to Science Unit 12 7 5


Physics

R e m e m b e r to:
В F Listening Щ)
• read the texts carefully and underline the
Listen to a t e a c h e r explaining spectral
information you need
lines t o a class of physics students. Then
listen again and decide if the following • present your ideas in a logical order
s t a t e m e n t s are true o r false. • be concise

1 Atoms inside electrons produce light. T • Speaking tips


F •
• Use words like 'firstly', 'secondly' and 'finally'.
2 Elements that glow produce all T •
• Try to look at your audience as you are
the colours. FD
speaking to them.
3 Spectral lines are unique for т •
each element. FD
4 Stars are too far away to b e tested т •
В H Writing
through spectroscopy. F • W r i t e a composition t o answer the
question: 'How did quantum
5 A large number of atoms together т •
physics develop?'
will produce many lines. FD
Read t e x t s I and 2 again and use these
notes t o write four paragraphs.
^ G Speaking
PARAGRAPH 1
Task Introduction Say what quantum physics
deals with (atoms, electrons, etc).
Prepare a short presentation about
the history of quantum mechanics and Vocabulary: It is used to ...
the people who contributed t o
PARAGRAPH 2
its development.
The first scientists to work on or use the
Talk about: theory: Max Planck (quanta); Albert Einstein
(photons).
• why it was necessary
Vocabulary: At the beginning of the 20 t h
• how it got its name century,...
• what answers it gave
PARAGRAPH 3
• what it didn't explain
The scientist who used quantum mechanics
the most in his work: Niels Bohr (model of
the atom, complementarity, spectral lines).

Read t e x t s I and 2 again and use these Vocabulary: One very important
notes t o help you. figure was ...

New experimental evidence: needed to PARAGRAPH 4


be explained Conclusion The two important concepts it
Naming: Max Planck explained (stability and energy levels); what
it didn't give an answer to (wave-particle
Answers provided: Einstein and Bohr's work
duality).
Still a mystery: wave-particle duality Vocabulary: In conclusion,...

W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

76 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

3 The scientist was very keen to test her


theory.
4 The heliocentric theory was a(n) idea that
many people did not want to accept.

5 Unfortunately, he met many difficulties in his


research
6 Light can turn
2 It was obvious to scientists that more
Before you read research was needed
Discuss these questions with your partner. 8 The line was rounded
Why do scientists want to test and
prove theories? H Reading 1
Do you think there are general laws which can
explain the physical universe? Why / Why not?
The General Theory
В A Vocabulary of Relativity
Find a synonym in the box for the words
or phrases in green in the sentences. Isaac Newton's discovery of the Law of Universal
Then check your answers in the t e x t . Gravitation would seem to have definitively
с \ answered the question of planetary movement.
U an eclipse • apparent • notion And yet, it became apparent to scientists that a
number of phenomena which they observed did
• multi-dimensional • bend
not agree with those they expected to see based
• obstacles • eager • curved on Newton's predictions.
V J
One of the differences was the orbit of the planet
1 In science fiction films, space travel is often
Mercury, which did not quite match the orbit
talked about as being more than one
predicted by Newton's theory. Another problem
dimension since it involves both time and
resulted from James Clerk Maxwell's theory of
space
electromagnetism (about 1870), which indicated
2 When there is the phenomenon of the Sun that space was filled with matter that moved and
being covered by the Moon, it is observed was not empty and motionless, as Newton had
by millions of people believed. Finally, there was a problem with

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15 77


Physics

Newton's claim that light travelled at a constant


speed, whether the observer was moving toward
В В Comprehension
or away from it or not. Read the t e x t and decide if the following
statements are true or false.
These questions captured the interest of a
brilliant young physics student, Albert Einstein. 1 The orbit of the planet Mercury led T •
scientists to question Newton's Law F •
Einstein's first attempt to solve the problem was
of Universal Gravitation.
his 1905 paper on The Special Theory of
Relativity, a concept which had been noted by 2 Maxwell agreed with Newton that T •
Galileo in 1632. In this work. Einstein found space was empty and motionless. F •
that time and space are relative, not constant. 3 Einstein was the first scientist to talk T О
This means that time and space are different about the notion of relativity. F •
depending on where the observer is. This was
4 According to Einstein, gravity is not
proved by an experiment involving two clocks:
a force which moves matter. F П
one was put on an aeroplane which travelled
around the world and the other remained at the 5 Einstein's theories were never T •
starting point on the ground. When the first one proved by scientific testing. F •
returned, it was running slower than the one
which had been left behind, exactly as Einstein Before you listen
had predicted.
Discuss these questions with your partner.
Einstein continued to expand on this theory, Are scientists influenced by the work of earlier
and in 1916 presented a paper on a new theory, scientists? Explain your view.
The General Theory of Relativity, which took
into account the effect of gravitation on space 'Discovery is just a different way of looking at
something.' Do you agree or disagree with this
and time. It involved the notion of space time, a
statement? Explain why.
multi-dimensional phenomenon which is
constantly moving and bending as it meets
obstacles in its path. Everything in the universe
is part of this space time and is carried along
В С Listening *)))
with it. Furthermore, gravity is not a force You will hear five famous scientists
which moves things, but rather it is an element talking about research involving relativity.
which illustrates curved space and time. Match each statement with the speaker.
There is one statement which you do not
Einstein's theory was based on geometrical need to use.
calculations and principles and had to be proved
by scientific testing in the natural world, which SPEAKER 1
many scientists were eager to do. In 1919, SPEAKER 2
during a solar eclipse, a British team working in
two different locations measured the light of SPEAKER 3
several stars. They found that the light from SPEAKER 4
these stars was actually bent, just as Einstein's
theory had predicted. Needless to say, Einstein SPEAKER 5
immediately became internationally famous.
Scientists continued to apply Einstein's A He discovered one of the first principles
equations to other natural phenomena, all with of relativity.
positive results. В His work led to the discovery of the Theory
of Relativity.
С He discovered the two theories of relativity.
Pronunciation guide
D He disagreed with the Theory of Relativity.
eclipse /iklips/
E He supported the Theory of Relativity.
M e r c u r y /m3:kjuri/
F He tested the Theory of Relativity.

78 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you know about Albert Einstein's life?
What do you think Einstein is particularly
famous for?

^ D Vocabulary
Match these words with their definitions.

1 acknowledged A a legal document


which protects an
inventor's rights to
his/her invention
2 long-standing В bombs, etc for killing
large numbers
of people
3 patent С changed
4 dedicated D recognised
5 overturned E existing for many years
6 weapons of mass F committed to
destruction
7 expose G somebody who is
against war School in Zurich, from which he received a degree
and so was qualified to teach Physics and
8 admission H entry Mathematics. Unfortunately, however, he was not
9 pacifist I make open to able to get a teaching position but with the help of
his old classmate and friend, Marcel Grossman,
was able to get a job in the Swiss Patent Office in
И Reading 2 1902. In 1903, Einstein married his former
classmate, Mileva Marie. They had three children -

Albert Einstein a daughter and two sons.

While Einstein was working at the Patent Office,


Albert Einstein is widely acknowledged to be one he began to examine different problems in
of the greatest physicists of all time. Born in Ulm, physics and came up with some remarkable
Germany in 1879, his family soon moved to discoveries. In 1905 he published three papers,
Munich, where he lived until he was 15. He one of which was about his Special Theory of
attended the Luitpold Gymnasium and in 1894, Relativity, a concept which completely
wrote his first scientific work, The Investigation overturned Isaac Newton's long-standing Law of
of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields. Universal Gravitation.
Einstein's family moved to Italy in the same year, In the following years, Einstein and his family
but he stayed behind to finish school. However, moved from one European capital to another. In
one year later, he left school without telling his each city he held teaching positions at local
parents and went to Italy to be with them. Shortly universities or in scientific institutions. He
afterwards, he applied for admission to the Swiss continued researching a number of different
Polytechnic Institute but was not accepted; he had questions and published papers which had a great
not done well in the non-science part of the test. impact on the field of physics, including his work
He later attended the Swiss Federal Polvtechnic on the concept of relativity, which led to his Theory

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15 79


Physics

of General Relativity in 1915. He paid his price for 2 After completing his education at the Swiss
creativity, however, and due to the great stress he Federal Polytechnic School, Einstein
was under, he became seriously ill in 1917. A was not accepted at the Swiss

When Einstein's General Theory of Relativity was Polytechnic Institute.


proved to be true by British researchers in 1919, В got a job teaching Physics
he became world famous. He received the 1921 and Mathematics.
Nobel Prize for Physics in recognition of his work С got a job working with his friend,
(in 1 9 0 5 ) on the photoelectric effect (when Marcel Grossman.
electrons are produced if matter is exposed to D got a job working at the Swiss
electromagnetic radiation, for example, in Patent Office.
X-rays), which had been thoroughly tested and
widely accepted. 3 After the publication of his 1905
papers, Einstein
Einstein was very active in politics. He moved to A became an international celebrity.
the US from Europe just before the start of World
В stopped working on the Theory
War II, and advised the American President
of Relativity.
Franklin Roosevelt to start building an atomic
С continued working on the Theory
bomb before the Nazis produced one. However,
he later said that had he realised the Nazis would of Relativity.
not produce an atomic bomb, he would never D spent his time teaching rather than
have advised Roosevelt in this way. He never doing research.
personally worked on the bomb. In fact, he was
4 Einstein became an international celebrity
against war and weapons of mass destruction. All
A when his theories were proven to b e true.
his life Einstein had been a pacifist, only
В when he discovered the General Theory
recognising the need to fight against the Nazis
when it became apparent that they had to be of Relativity.
stopped. After the war, he dedicated himself to С when he discovered the Special Theory
working for nuclear disarmament. of Relativity.
D when he won the Nobel Prize.
Einstein believed that we should never stop
questioning things and keep searching for 5 Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize
answers about the natural world. On 18 t h April, A because of his discovery of relativity.
1955 he died of heart failure. В because his theories overturned
Newton's Law.
Pronunciation guide С because of his earlier work.
D because of his contributions to
A e t h e r tiifol
world peace.
Luitpold /'luitpold/
Munich Amju:nik/ 6 Einstein's attitude to war could be described as
pacifist Ipaesifist/ A tolerant in certain situations.
В totally opposed.
Zurich /zuarik/
V С supportive.
D undecided.
H E Comprehension
Read t h e t e x t and c h o o s e t h e
c o r r e c t answer. Before you listen
1 Einstein left Munich in Discuss t h e s e questions with your partner.
A 1879. Do you know anything about
В 1894. Einstein's childhood?
С 1895. Do you know what his hobby was?
D 1902.

80 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 15


Physics

R e m e m b e r to:
H F Listening И)))
• make sure as a group you consider
Listen t o part of a radio interview with a all points
historian talking about Einstein. Then
c o m p l e t e each sentence with a word o r • take everyone's point of view into account
short phrase.
Speaking tips
1 Einstein made his first scientific discovery • Don't try to talk about too many things.
when he was years old.
• Pick one or two facts you know well
2 He realised that something was causing the and give examples so people will
understand them.
needle of the compass in a
certain way. • Speak loudly enough so the whole group
can hear you.
3 He taught himself at the age
of 12. И H Writing
4 Einstein tried to get information about the A letter from Einstein
speed of by looking into Imagine you are Albert Einstein in 1919.
W r i t e a letter t o your old friend and
colleague, Marcel Grossman on the day
5 Recent research shows that there is no that Sir Arthur Eddington proved your
in the belief that Einstein General Theory of Relativity by measuring
had a learning difficulty. the way light was bent during a solar
eclipse. Use these notes t o help you.
H G Speaking PARAGRAPH 1
Discuss these questions with Why you are writing: after years of study
your partner. and research, theory originally written in
Which area of Einstein's work do you think is 1915 proved.
most important? Why?
PARAGRAPH 2
Do you agree with Einstein's statement that
Background information: up until now, Sun's
we should never stop questioning and
light too bright to measure, so not able to
looking for answers? Why / Why not?
prove theory. During solar eclipse, British
scientists observed and measured light in
two places, found the Sun's light bent
Task exactly as theory predicted.

In a group have a discussion about PARAGRAPH 3


Einstein's life. How you feel: too much attention, don't like
Talk about: being followed around by reporters, want to
get on with your work.
• his early life (childhood interest in
science, education)
Include s o m e of these words and phrases:
• his discoveries (special and general history was made today, most important day of
relativity) my life, finally, everyone says, don't really like
• why they were important (showed that
accepted theories like Newton's were not
true; provided scientists with important W r i t e 100-140 words.
new theories and directions for
future research)
• his interest in world peace

M асmi llan Guide to Science Unit 12 8 1


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Why do people study Maths?
When do you use it?

H A Vocabulary
a. Match these words with
their definitions.
1 division A a system of figures or symbols
representing numbers
2 knot В a written sign in maths or
music, for example, which В Reading 1
represents an operation, an

Mathematics
element, relation, etc
3 set up С a record of money spent

4 numeral
or received
D a separation
An introduction
5 symbol E make ready for operation The English word mathematics tells us something
6 tally F a symbol representing about the influence the Ancient Greeks had on
a number our knowledge. The word comes from the Greek
7 notation G tie, bond for science, learning and knowledge. It is usually
shortened to maths in British English and to
b. The words in green are all in the wrong math in the USA.
sentences. Put the words into the Mathematics developed from a series of ideas,
correct sentences. each new idea building on earlier ones. Each new
1 If you keep a division, you have a system to idea became more complex as mathematicians
note how much has been spent tried to explain how things in the world relate to
2 The Roman knots are still used as numbers one another. The first idea to have developed was
nowadays certainly that of number. People needed to count
3 There is a set up between science and art their belongings. As society developed, numbers
subjects became more and more important for business
dealings and taxation and it became especially
4 In maths we use numerals to show what kind
of problem we are solving important to be able to record numbers. A wide
variety of systems for recording numbers
5 Symbols in maths are things developed in different parts of the world. One
like numbers.
example is the tallies that were used by the Ineas
6 Some people tie notation to remember in South America. They used pieces of string of
something different lengths and by tying knots in different
7 She tally an experiment places along the string, they were able to keep tax
82 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21
Mathematics

records and business accounts throughout


their land. В В Comprehension
Read the t e x t and decide if the following
With writing, different ways of recording
statements are true or false.
numbers developed in different countries, too.
Roman numerals are a well-known example. In 1 Mathematics developed in complexity T •
this system I is one and X is ten, so IX is one due to a need to understand F •
before ten, that is nine, and XI is eleven. It was the relationships between things.
not until the 16 t h century that the system of
2 The Incas were the first to come up
mathematical notation that we use today finally
with a number system. F П
developed. It is a system that uses Arabic
numerals (1, 2, 3 and so on) with a set of 3 Mathematics is an international T П
symbols + (plus), - (minus), = (equals) for language because it uses F Q
example, along with letters, many of which are Arabic numerals.
taken from the Greek alphabet. It is a system
4 Opinions are divided over whether T О
which is used by all mathematicians all over the
mathematics is truly scientific. F О
world. In fact, it has been said that mathematics
is one of only two genuinely international 5 The development of mathematics T Q
languages; the other one is music. is dependent on other sciences. F •
Whether or not mathematics is a science is still a
matter of opinion in the mathematical Before you listen
community. Some say no, it is not because it does
Discuss these questions with your partner.
not pass the test of being a pure science. We know
that one plus one is two because that is how we What is an abacus?
count. No one can set up an experiment to prove What is a calculator?
that one plus one is two without counting.
Therefore, because it cannot be proved by How do you prefer to do arithmetic?
experiment, mathematics is not a science. Others
say yes, it is, because science is the search for
knowledge and that is what mathematics does.
H С Listening Щ)
Therefore, mathematics is a science. Listen to the e x t r a c t from a radio
programme about number systems.
X^atever your point of view, there is no doubt that Then listen again and choose the
mathematics is applied to all sciences. Many of the c o r r e c t answer.
most important developments in fields such as
1 The Arabic system
physics or engineering have led to further
developments in mathematics. The argument over A is a decimal system.
whether mathematics is a science or not appears В causes difficulties.
to be unimportant when you realise that it is С is only for multiplication.
impossible to separate mathematics from science 2 The decimal system
or science from mathematics. Many universities
recognise this. In many places of learning there are A is based only on hundreds.
divisions of study, often called Mathematics and В can express any figures simply.
Science. The unbreakable connection between С is complicated.
mathematics and all other sciences is recognised 3 Roman numerals
by the very way in which we study them.
A can be divided easily.
В are useful for complex maths.
С i л
Pronunciation guide С can't be easily multiplied.
e q u a l /iikwal/ 4 In Roman numerals С means
m i n u s /"mamas/
A two hundred.
plus /pLvs/
В fifty.
С one hundred.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 83


Mathematics

Before you read ab OOP


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you know the names of any important
people connected with Mathematics
in history?
What types of problems do you do in
Mathematics at school?
(f^J^^ 1 z0
P D Vocabulary - f ^ ^ r - 1
Match these words with their definitions.

1 natural number A the proof that


something is
mathematically true

2 integer В a number larger


than zero
4 <
3 operation С any number
(positive or H Reading 2
negative) or zero

4 function D a way numbers Mathematics


combine together
What mathematicians study can be summed up
5 right angle E the relationship as relating to four major fields. They look at
between argument quantities - how much or how many. There is
and result in calculus also the study of structure - how things are
arranged together and the relationship between
6 square F the result of the parts. Then there is the study of space,
combining numbers where mathematicians are interested in the
shape of things. Finally, there is change and
7 sum G an angle of 90
how things move, over time or through space.
degrees
Quantity is mostly concerned with numbers.
8 satellite navigation H system in orbit Mathematicians are interested in both natural
system around the Earth numbers and integers. Natural numbers are
for directions those which are greater than zero, while
integers may be zero itself or more or less than
9 theorem I the product of two zero. There are four ways these may combine
equal terms together; these are called operations. In
arithmetic, we know the operations as addition
10 axiom J principle
(+), subtraction (-), division (-r) and
multiplication (x). For a fuller, more
philosophical understanding of number and the
operations that can be applied to them,
mathematicians look to Number Theory.

The study of the structure of things is said to


have begun with the Greek mathematician,
Pythagoras, who lived from 582 to 507 BG. Every

84 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

mathematician has to learn his most famous


Pronunciation guide
theorem. A theorem is a proof of mathematical
truth. Pythagoras showed us that in a right- a l g e b r a /агЫзгЬгэ/
angled triangle, the square of the side of the geometry /d3iDm9tri/
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of h y p o t e n u s e /hai'pDt3nju:z/
the other two sides. The hypotenuse is the integer Атиёзэ/
longest side of such a triangle and that length, P y t h a g o r a s /pai'Oaegoros/
multiplied by itself is the same as the length of satellite /"saetslait/
one side multiplied by itself and added to the t r i g o n o m e t r y /trigg'nomstri/
other side multiplied by itself. Mathematicians
find it easier to write this as: a2+b2=c2, (a
squared plus b squared equals с squared) where
B E Comprehension
с is the hypotenuse. It is Pythagoras' Theorem Read the t e x t and complete the
which gives us algebra, a branch of mathematics summary. Use words from the text.
that originated in the Arab world.
A Maths studies four areas: quantities,
Another Greek mathematician laid the structure, space and (1)
foundations for our understanding of space. More В Natural numbers are larger than
than 200 years after Pythagoras, Euclid used a (2) but (3)
small set of axioms to prove more theorems. can be zero.
This, we know today as geometry. He saw the
world in three dimensions - height, width and С (4) was a Greek
length. Developments in other sciences, most mathematician who made the famous
notably in physics, have led mathematicians to theorem a2=b2+c2 which helps us find
add to Euclid's work. Since Einstein, the size of a (5)
mathematicians have added a fourth dimension, D Algebra came from (6)
time, to Euclid's three. By combining space with
number we have developed the trigonometry countries.
used in making maps both on paper and in E With (7) Euclid helped us
satellite navigation systems.
understand (8)
From algebra and geometry comes calculus.
F Trigonometry combines space with
This is the most important tool that (9)
mathematicians have to describe change, for
example, if you calculate the speed of a moving G Calculus describes (10)
car or analyse the way the population of a city and used in quantum mechanics allows us to
changes over time. The most significant area of study physics and (11)
calculus is function, which is concerned with H Statistics predicts results and analyses
the relationship between argument and result. (12)
Indeed, the field of functional analysis has its
most important application in quantum
mechanics, which gives us the basis for our Before you listen
study of physics and chemistry today. Discuss these questions with your partner.
There is more to maths than this. For example, How do you use mathematics outside
pure maths involves a more creative approach the classroom?
to the science. An important field of study is How is mathematics involved in cooking?
statistics which uses Probability Theory, the
mathematical study of chance, to predict results
and analyse information. Many statisticians В F Listening N)))
would say that they are not mathematicians, Listen to these people talking about
but analysts. However, without maths, mathematics in everyday life. Then listen
statisticians would all agree, there would be no again and match the activity to the area
statistics at all. of mathematics.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 85


Mathematics

T h e r e is one activity which you do not R e m e m b e r to:


need t o use.
• outline what you will say
1 estimating sizes A algebra
• make your points clearly
2 the arrangement В arithmetic
of parts • let the audience know you have finished

3 avoiding collisions С geometry Speaking tips


4 paying for goods D Probability Theory
• Speak from notes.
5 calculating wages E trigonometry
• Choose simple examples.
6 predicting lottery
• Make eye contact with your audience.
numbers

E H Writing
H G Speaking W r i t e a short essay to answer this
Discuss these questions with question: 'Mathematics is the science of
your partner. numbers. Discuss.'
What different areas of mathematics Read t e x t I again and use these notes t o
are there? write four paragraphs.
How did some ancient Greek thinkers PARAGRAPH 1
contribute towards mathematics?
Introduction Say what you will write about.
Maths about numbers, but also more. Maths
Task called a science, but opinion is divided. (Do
Prepare a short presentation on the not answer the question yet.)
four main areas of mathematical study. Vocabulary: concerned with, referred to,
matter of opinion
Talk about:
PARAGRAPH 2
• what the areas are
Maths developed from numbers. Counting,
• what they focus on recording. Different systems, for the same
• what mathematical developments are maths, eg Incas, Romans. Knowledge of
practised in different areas numbers gave more knowledge.
Vocabulary: firstly, number systems,
• how they might be of use in the real world
society, development
• N PARAGRAPH 3
Read the t e x t s again and use these
Development of maths gave method. Two
notes to help you.
points of view: maths a science, because
INTRODUCTION about learning, maths not a science because
Four areas. What are they? What does each not able to test. Normally called a science
one focus on? because is involved in all other sciences.
Vocabulary: experiment, knowledge,
POINTS 1-4 scientific, therefore
Number, Structure, Space, Change: for each PARAGRAPH 4
area give details and an example of
Conclusion Maths about numbers, but only
its usefulness.
part of maths. Maths may / may not be
CONCLUSION science, but in practice part of every
science. Maths is the science of numbers.
Sum up, restate the introduction. Point out
Vocabulary: in conclusion, important,
that there are other areas of interest too.
in addition

W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

86 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Units 13 to 16
1 Mathematicians are interested in natural
i A Match the words and phrases with numbers and numbers which are zero
their meanings. itself or more or less than zero.

I s a a c Newton 2 A legal document to protect an inventor's


rights ensures nobody steals the invention.
1 fragile A the tendency of a body
to maintain its speed 3 In maths you use systems to combine
and direction numbers together in different ways.
2 calculus В the natural force of attraction 4 We use these marks to indicate addition,
exerted by the Earth on objects subtraction, multiplication or division.
on or near its surface
5 Statements or rules are used
3 impact С easily broken
in mathematics.
4 inertia D branch of mathematics
concerned with limits, 6 We still use Roman numbers nowadays.
differentiation and integration
of functions

T
5 gravity- E effect
С Find ten words o r phrases in this word
Albert E i n s t e i n search using the clues.
1 pacifist A arms which can kill
many people d r i g h t a n g 1 e n b
2 weapons of В something that prevents к i d g r a d i a t e a q
mass destruction v к i w r b e w r b n
j t
3 notion С somebody who doesn't
u v s с b i e g с d a u к
believe in war
4 multi- D involving time and space d X t j X g v m e с P r V
dimensional
s 1 i u a X i 0 m b P a u
5 bend E idea
6 obstacle F curve о a n p v n d X r к a 1 d
e u с z u j e b z a r n s
Niels Bohr
1 z t j h e n i n b e u о
1 spectral line A basically
e с b i a r с t b a n m e
2 in essence В in disagreement
3 groundbreaking С light or dark band of r e t a i 1 e r s v t b P
particular wavelength, e с 1 i P s e w b 1 d e i
used for identifying
g с a d u a 1 i t У s X 0
substances
4 contradictory D revolutionary Clues
5 complementarity E a principle according to 1 principle
which things cannot be 2 an angle of 90 degrees
studied as having 3 a number larger than zero
contradictory properties 4 a path round a planet for example
at the same time 5 obviously separate from others
6 proof
BB Use the words in the box t o replace
7 to give off energy
the words in blue.
8 when for example, the Moon covers the Sun
9 obvious
I patent numerals operations
10 the quality of some things of having
I theorem symbols I integers
contradictory properties

Macmillan Guide to Science Revision VocabularyI13


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What is algebra?
Can you think of any ways that we use it in our
everyday lives?

H A Vocabulary
a. Match these words and phrases with
their definitions.

1 linear algebra A money gained or lost

2 reunion В rewriting

3 matrices С linear equations H Reading 1


4 profit and loss D coming back
together
Algebra
5 transposing E arrangement of Algebra originated in the Middle East. Earlier
mathematical than 1000 BG, the Babylonians developed an
arithmetical system for solving problems that
elements
could be written algebraically. This was in
6 operators F what goes into advance of other systems, notably that of the
something and what Ancient Egyptians, who were able to solve the
comes out same problems, but did so by using geometry.
The word algebra comes from Arabic and
Z input and output G signs used in maths translates into English as reunion. It describes a
system of mathematics which performs
calculations by firstly rewriting, that is,
b. Match the words to make phrases. transposing them, and then reducing them to
their simplest form.
1 arithmetical A quantities
Algebra is the branch of mathematics which
2 unknown В spaces studies the structure of things, the relationship
between things and quantity. It looks different
3 abstract С system from arithmetic when it is written. Arithmetic
uses numbers and the four operators (plus,
4 vector D algebra minus, multiply and divide). Algebra uses
symbols, usually letters, and the operators.
Actually, it is not verv different from arithmetic;

88 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

what can be done in algebra can be done in


arithmetic. There are good mathematical И В Comprehension
reasons, however, why algebra is used instead Read the t e x t and decide if the following
of arithmetic. statements are true or false.

Firstly, by not using numbers, mathematicians 1 Algebra is a mathematical system


are able to set out arithmetical laws. In this way which rewrites a problem making F П
they are able to understand the system of it as simple as possible.
numbers more clearly. Secondly, by using
2 Written down, algebra differs to T •
algebra, mathematicians are able to perform
arithmetic in the operators it uses. F •
calculations where unknown quantities are
involved. This unknown is usually represented by 3 Algebra has some advantages to offer T •
x. Solutions can then be applied not just to the the mathematician. F •
immediate problem, but to all problems of the 4 Algebraic formulae are primarily T •
same nature by the use of a formula. A common of use in businesses. F Q
algebraic problem to solve in school exams would
5 Universal algebra combines all the T •
be, for example: find x where 3x + 8 = 14. A
structures from the other three areas. F _
third reason for the use of algebra rather than
arithmetic is that it allows calculations which
involve change in the relationship between what
goes into the problem and what comes out of it, Before you listen
that is, between input and output. It is an Discuss these questions with your partner.
algebraic formula which allows a business to
4 Do you do arithmetic, algebra and geometry
calculate its potential profit (or loss) over any
at school?
period of time.
If so, which do you like best, and why?
It is possible to classify algebra by dividing it into
four areas. Firstly, there is elementary algebra in
which symbols (such as x and y, or a and b) are H С Listening Щ)
used to denote numbers. In this area, the rules
that control the mathematical expressions and Listen to a t e a c h e r talking to a class.
equations using these symbols are studied. Then, Then listen again and complete
there is abstract or modern algebra in which the sentences.
mathematical systems consisting of a set of 1 Algebra is a branch of mathematics that
elements and several rules (axioms) for the
uses mathematical to
interaction of the elements and the operations
describe variables.
are defined and researched. Thirdly, there is
linear algebra (linear equations) in which linear 2 In a mathematical statement, letters are often
transformations and vector spaces, including used to represent a(n) which
matrices, are studied. Finally, there is universal is not fixed.
algebra in which the ideas common to all 3 A(n) is a mathematical
algebraic structures are studied. statement containing letters or symbols to
Like all branches of mathematics, algebra has represent numbers.
developed because we need it to solve our 4 A term is a number or a(n) of a
problems. By avoiding the use of numbers we are number and one or more variables.
able to generalise both the problem and
5 An expression is a collection of numbers,
the solution.
variables and positive or
^ N
negative, of operations that make
Pronunciation guide mathematical and logical sense.
e q u a t i o n /ikweijon/
linear /linio/
m a t r i c e s Ameitnsi:z/

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 8 9


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What is the job of an engineer?
Why does an engineer need to know maths?

И D Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the sentences below with
words and phrases from the box.

• a c c u m u l a t i o n of quantities
• methodology • infinitesimal

• differential calculus • integral calculus

• vast • vital
• tangent • latter

• coordinate • chord
• sake • distinction

1 A line segment joining two points on a curve


is a
2A is a line or surface that
touches another.

3 The area of maths used to determine areas, H Reading 2


volumes and lengths is called

4 The area of maths relating to changes in


variable is called
Gottfried Leibniz*
5 If something is close to zero it is Gottfried Leibniz was born and lived most of his
life in Germany. He made visits to both Paris
6 You need to eat well for the and London, for the sake of learning and study,
of your health. but spent the vast majority of his working life as
an employee of German royalty, as a
7 There is a amount of
philosopher, engineer and mathematician. It is
knowledge to learn in sciences.
for the latter that he is best remembered. His
8 There are two theories - one from ancient greatest achievement was as an inventor of
times and a modern one. The calculus, the system of notation which is still in
the modern one, is widely accepted now. use today. Leibniz is remembered as an
inventor, not the inventor of calculus. In
9 She claimed the of having
England, Isaac Newton claimed the distinction,
solved the equation.
and was later to accuse Leibniz of plagiarism,
10 A is a number that identifies that is, stealing somebody else's ideas but
a position relative to a straight line. stating that they are original. Modern-day
historians however, regard Leibniz as having
11 is the system of methods
arrived at his conclusions independently of
followed in an area of study.
Newton. They point out that there are important
12 measures areas under a differences in the writings of both men. Newton,
curve, distance travelled, or volume displaced. it must be said, was very protective of his
13 If something is it is of the achievements and jealous of others' success. It
utmost importance. is important to mention that Leibniz published

90 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

his writings on calculus three years before


Pronunciation guide
Newton published his most important work.
Gottfried Leibniz /'gotfri:d laibnits/
Leibniz was the first to use function to represent infinitesimal /infinitesimal/
geometric concepts. Among other terms, Leibniz
used what is now everyday language in plagiarism /р1ек1зэпгэт/
mathematics to describe these concepts. Words
such as tangent and chord, were first used by В E Comprehension
Leibniz. He also saw that linear equations in
Read the t e x t and answer the questions
algebra could be arranged into matrices. It was
in your own words.
in this significant piece of work on calculus that
he introduced mathematics and the world to the 1 For what contribution to mathematics is
word coordinate. He also made important Leibniz best remembered?
advances in algebra and logic in ways that still 2 Who was Leibniz' main rival? About what did
today, three hundred years later, have an impact they disagree?
on mathematics. 3 Which important geometrical terms did
Leibniz invent?
Leibniz' importance for modern mathematics
4 What other areas of work also use
can be understood through his work. He was
Leibniz' calculus?
especially interested in infinitesimal calculus.
5 Who is considered more important for the
This is an area of calculus developed from
development of modern mathematics?
geometry and algebra. It is divided into two
parts. There is differential calculus, which is
concerned with measuring rates of change of
quantities. And there is integral calculus, which
Before you listen
studies the accumulation of quantities. That is, Discuss this question with your partner.
Leibniz was looking at ways of measuring the Can you remember what a matrix is? Tell your
speed and the distance travelled, for example. partner what you remember.
Today, calculations of this type are used not
only in mathematics but in every branch of
science and in many fields which apply a H F Listening Ц)))
scientific methodology, such as economics Listen t o the e x t r a c t from a lecture about
and statistics. matrices. Then listen again and tick the
statements which are true.
Despite the disagreements between Leibniz and
Newton, modern mathematicians recognise each 1 A matrix is a table of abstract quantities
of them as being vital to the development of that can be added or multiplied.
modern mathematics. Newton was certainly the
2 No form of matrix was used in
first to apply calculus to the problems of
prehistoric times. •
physics. In mathematics itself, it is to Leibniz
that we look for our system of writing equations 3 Matrices can be added, multiplied,
and for the language we use to refer to the and decomposed in different ways.
concepts. While both reached their
4 The horizontal lines in a matrix are
understanding without the benefit of reading
the columns.
each other's work, it remains a fact that Leibniz
was first to publish. 5 A matrix with m rows and n columns
is known as an m-by-л matrix.

®Leibniz is also sometimes spelt Leibnitz,


although Leibniz is more common.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 9 1


Mathematics

И G Speaking H H Writing
Discuss these questions with Imagine you have started an advanced
your partner. algebra course at school o r university.
W r i t e a letter t o a friend telling him/her
Who do you think made the most important
what you have learnt about it so far.
contribution to calculus?
What was that contribution? First read t e x t I again and then c o m p l e t e
the table.

Task Brief history


In a group, discuss the disagreement of algebra
between Leibniz and Newton.
Talk about: What algebra
is and the four
• invention of calculus areas of algebra
• worked independently
How algebra
• who published first is useful
• Newton's jealousy
• each man's contribution
Dear (first name),

First read t e x t 2 again and look at


these notes. Then use t h e m in
your presentation. PARAGRAPH 1
Hi! You asked me to tell you all about my
INVENTION:
studies. Last week we learnt about the
both active at same time history of algebra ...
INDEPENDENT:
Leibniz in Germany (visit to England),
PARAGRAPH 2
Newton in England
Now I'll briefly explain exactly what algebra
PUBLISH:
is and tell you what the different areas ...
Leibniz first

NEWTON:
PARAGRAPH 3
protective, accused Leibniz
Finaly you may wonder why we use algebra
CONTRIBUTION: Actually, it's very useful...
Leibniz notation, Newton physics

Best wishes,
R e m e m b e r to:

• give examples and your own opinion (your first name)

Speaking tips
• Look at the group, not your notes.
• Let your group know when you
have finished.

W r i t e 150-200 words.

92 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you think the word geometry means?
Do you know any other words associated
with geometry?
What are some ways geometry is used
every day?
What do you know about Euclid?

^ A Vocabulary
Match these words with their definitions.
knowledge - they had weights in definite
1 spatial A a way of drawing things so geometrical shapes and they made carvings with
that they look real concentric and intersecting circles and triangles.
2 roots В relating to physical space Gradually, over the centuries, geometrical concepts
3 perspective С beginning became more generalised and people began to use
geometry to solve more difficult, abstract problems.
4 concentric D with a common centre
5 intersect E limited However, even though people in those times knew
6 deduction F a conclusion that certain relationships existed between things,
they did not have a scientific means of proving how
7 finite G to cut across or why. That changed during the Classical Period of
8 radius H a free two-dimensional the ancient Greek civilisation (490 BC-323 ВС).
shape Because the ancient Greeks were interested in
9 plane I a straight line from the philosophy and wanted to understand the world
centre to the edge of a circle around them, they developed a system of logical
thinking (or deduction) to help them discover the
truth. This methodology resulted in the discovery of
В Reading 1 many important geometrical theorems and principles
and in the proving of other geometrical principles

Geometry that had been known by earlier civilisations. For


example, the Greek mathematician Pythagoras was
the first person that we know of to have proved the
Geometry (from the Greek geometria, the Earth's
theorem a 2 + b 2 = c 2 .
measure) has its roots in the ancient world, where
people used basic techniques to solve everyday Some of the most significant Greek contributions
problems involving measurement and spatial occurred later, during the Hellenistic Period (323
relationships. The Indus Valley Civilisation, for BC-31 ВС). Euclid, a Greek living in Egypt, wrote
example, had an advanced level of geometrical Elements, in which, among other things, he defined

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 9 3


Mathematics

basic geometrical terms and stated five basic


axioms which could be deduced by logical
^ В Comprehension
reasoning. These axioms or postulates, were: 1. Two Read the t e x t and choose the
points determine a straight line. 2. A line segment c o r r e c t answer.
extended infinitely in both directions produces a
straight line. 3. A circle is determined by a centre 1 Geometry was first used to solve
and distance. 4. All right angles are equal to one A common problems.
another. 5. If a straight line intersecting two straight В abstract problems.
lines forms interior angles on the same side and 2 During the Classical Period of
those angles combined are less than 180 degrees, Greek civilisation,
the two straight lines if continued, will intersect A the way problems were solved changed.
each other on that side. This is also referred to as В people were only interested in geometry.
the parallel postulate. The type of geometry based 3 The Greeks made important advances
on his ideas is called Euclidean geometry, a type in geometry
that we still know, use and study today. A only during the Classical Period.
With the decline of Greek civilisation, there was В during both the Classical and
little interest in geometry until the 7 t h century AD, Hellenistic Periods.
when Islamic mathematicians were active in the 4 After the decline of Greek civilisation,
field. Ibrahim ibn Sinan and Abu Sahl al-Quhi A mathematicians used geometry to solve
continued the work of the Greeks, while others other kinds of problems.
used geometry to solve problems in other fields, В nothing new was discovered.
such as optics, astronomy, timekeeping and map-
5 Between the 17 th and 19 th centuries,
making. Omar Khayyam's comments on problems
European thinkers
in Euclid's work eventually led to the development
A ignored the Greeks' ideas
of non-Euclidean geometry in the 19 t h century.
about geometry.
During the 17 th and 18 th centuries, Europeans В created new types of geometry.
once again began to take an interest in geometry.
They studied Greek and Islamic texts which had
Before you listen
been forgotten about, and this led to important Discuss these questions with your partner.
developments. Rene Descartes and Pierre de What relationship does geometry have to art?
Fermat, each working alone, created analytic
Which looks bigger: something that is closer
geometry, which made it possible to measure
to us or something that is far away? Why?
curved lines. Girard Desargues created projective
geometry, a system used by artists to plan the How many dimensions are there?
perspective of a painting. In the 19 t h century, Carl
Friedrich Gauss, Janos Bolyai and Nikolai В С Listening H)))
Ivanovich Lobachevskv, each working alone, Listen t o a conversation between two
created non-Euclidean geometry. Their work friends. Then c o m p l e t e the sentences
influenced later researchers, including with a word o r short phrase.
Albert Einstein.
1 The boy is learning about
• N geometry.
Pronunciation guide
2 Artists paint on a flat, one-
A b u S a h l a l - Q u h i Aasbu SAh'l el kuhiI surface.
G i r a r d D e s a r g u e s /3i'ro:r de'za: r g/
3 Objects that are nearer to us look
H e l l e n i s t i c /hele'nistik/ than objects that are further
i n t e r i o r /in'tiris/ away.
J a n o s Bolyai /'d3aenas boliai/ 4 Desargues invented a way to understand
p o s t u l a t e /postjubt/
spatial /'speijsl/ 5 Desargues' theorem said when two triangles
are in perspective the corresponding sides
lie on the same
94 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21
Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What developments in geometry do you know
about that occurred during the Renaissance
(c 15 th -17 th centuries AD)?
What differences and what similarities can you
think of between maths and philosophy?

H D Vocabulary
Find a synonym in the box for the words
o r phrases in green in the sentences.
Then check your answers in the t e x t .

knowledgeable tutor

prosperity synthetic g e o m e t r y

goal advance

on t h e continent analytic g e o m e t r y
harsh

1 The country was going through a time of


successfulness. И Reading 2

2 The climate was very cold and unpleasant. Rene Descartes


Rene Descartes was born in France on 31 s t
3 Her aim in life was to become a March, 1596, at a time of major change in the
philosopher world. The great wars which had been going on
throughout Europe had finally ended, creating an
4 He lived in Europe, not Britain.
atmosphere of peace and stability which
encouraged creative thinking, experimentation
5 She studied a kind of geometry that used and the questioning of old beliefs and ways. After
theorems and observations to reach the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Greek and
conclusions Islamic texts had been rediscovered and read by
learned men around Europe. Ideas of the great
6 He taught a kind of geometry involving Renaissance artists and thinkers had quickly
curves and understanding them. spread across the continent. What is more, with
the discovery of the New World by Columbus in
1492, a period of exploration, expansion and
7 She is very well-educated; she always beats
prosperity had begun.
me at Trivial Pursuit.
After completing his education at the Jesuit
College and the University of Poitiers, both in
8 Computer technology is expected to
France, Descartes began to work on his goal of
develop immensely in the next couple of
presenting a new way of looking at philosophy
years.
and mathematics. Although his first essays were
probably written earlier than 1628, the year he
9 She wants to find a Maths teacher to teach moved to Holland, he was not well known until
her children at home. 1637, when a collection of his essays appeared
and attracted the interest of the scientific world.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 9 5


Mathematics

His great work Discourse on the Method was one


Pronunciation guide
of the essays included in this collection.
Aquinas fo'kwainssI
Descartes was knowledgeable about the work of C a r t e s i a n /ka:'ti:zi3n/
Plato and Aristotle, as well as that of earlier C o n s t a n t i n o p l e /.konstasnti'naup5!/
European philosophers like Augustine and
Jesuit M3ezjuit/
Aquinas. Descartes' goal was to reach true
Poitiers /'pwa:tiei/
knowledge about things by applying
mathematical methodology to find answers to psychology /sai'kol3d3i/
philosophical questions. Starting with the R e n a i s s a n c e /ri'neisans/
principle that the only thing he could be sure of
was that he himself existed (Cogito, ergo sum И E Comprehension
meaning, I think, therefore I am), he reached his
Read the text and decide if the following
own conclusions about God and the physical
statements are true or false.
world. Because his ideas were very different from
traditional ideas of his time, he was often 1 Descartes' time was one of T •
criticised by religious leaders. His work had a major changes. F •
great influence on later philosophers, including
2 Descartes aimed to invent a new T •
Benedict de Spinoza, Blaise Pascal, John Locke
branch of mathematics and philosophy. F О
and Immanuel Kant.
3 Descartes had not been influenced T G
Another of his goals was to advance the field of by earlier philosophers. F О
mathematics, particularly geometry. Until that
time, Euclidean geometry was the type most well 4 Descartes' ideas often did not meet T •
known. Also known as synthetic geometry, with the approval of church authorities. F •
Euclidean geometry uses theorems and 5 Descartes' major contribution was T •
observations to reach conclusions. to calculus. F _
Building on the work of the ancient Greek,
Apollonius of Perga (262-190 BG), Descartes
realised that it would be useful and important to Before you listen
be able to measure curved lines in addition to Discuss these questions with your partner.
straight ones. This led to his invention of the
How do archaeologists know whether ancient
Cartesian coordinate system, a way of
civilisations used geometry?
algebraically measuring curves and understanding
things about them. This was the start of analytic What are some things ancient civilisations
geometry (also called coordinate geometry and used geometry for?
Cartesian geometry) and eventually led to the What is a compass used for?
invention of calculus. In addition to his work in
philosophy and geometry, Descartes contributed What is a magnetic compass used for?
to algebra, optics and even physiology
and psychology.
В F Listening
Descartes became one of the most important
You will hear part of a talk about the
figures of his time. Queen Christina of Sweden
history of mathematics. Listen and
invited Descartes to tutor her, which he did.
choose the correct answer.
However, he became ill in Sweden, possibly
because he was not used to the cold, harsh 1 The ancient Egyptians
climate, and died on 11 th February, 1650. To A didn't know a lot about geometry.
honour him for his many contributions, people В built small structures.
call him the 'Founder of Modern Philosophy' and С were quite knowledgeable regarding
the 'Father of Modern Mathematics'. geometrical ideas.

96 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

2 The Chinese Speaking tips


A may have had geometrical
• Listen to your partner's views.
measurement systems.
В certainly didn't have geometrical • Talk only about important points.
measurement systems. s/ Organise your points logically.
С had advanced measurement systems.
• Use past tenses.
3 A recovered object ancients used
for measuring
A was probably worn on the hand. И H Writing
В was found in the sea. W r i t e a short essay on 'The history of
С may have been a kind of compass. g e o m e t r y ' . Use these notes t o help you.
4 Ancient people from India may have Read t e x t I again and underline the
A known a lot about astronomy. important points.
В taught the Greeks astronomy.
С measured the seas. PARAGRAPH 1
5 Most ancient civilisations used geometry Introduction One-two sentences to say
A in their architecture. what you are writing about.
В in some way. Vocabulary: long history, dates back to
С to plan their cities. ancient times, has changed a lot since then

PARAGRAPH 2
H G Speaking Ancient world.
Discuss these questions with Vocabulary: In the beginning, was used to
your partner. solve general, everyday problems,
measurements for building (give 1-2
What was the world like when Descartes
examples), not scientific, contributions of
was born?
the Greeks - understand the physical world,
Who was Descartes influenced by? logical thinking discovery of many
Why was Descartes' methodology special? important theorems, proof of older theorems
for the first time (give an example),
Euclidean geometry - still used today
Task PARAGRAPH 3
Discuss Descartes' achievements with
Geometry after the Greeks.
your partner.
Vocabulary: Centuries later, Islamic
Talk about: mathematicians built on Greek ideas ...
• his goals - to reach true knowledge by applied them to other fields (give
using mathematical methodology to find examples), Europeans became interested in
answers to philosophical questions 17 th -18 th centuries - new advances, new
fields of geometry (give 1-2 examples)
• his contributions - philosophy, Cartesian
coordinates, analytic geometry, algebra, PARAGRAPH 4
optics, physiology and psychology
Conclusion
• conclusion - his death, honours he Vocabulary: It can be concluded that ...
had earned today people still use geometry every day:
engineering, construction, city planning, art
R e m e m b e r to: (paintings/drawings and decorations/
• revise maths terminology jewellery, etc)

• use it correctly

W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 9 7


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
What do you know about calculus?
Can you think of a problem calculus could be
used to solve?

В A Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the definitions below with
words from the box.

slope approximation

embrace acceleration

diverse indispensable

sphere cube

rectangle

1 If something is a(n) it В Reading 1


isn't exact.
2 An increase in speed is called Calculus
3 If something is you can't Calculus is the branch of mathematics that deals
manage without it. with the rates of change of quantities as well as
the length, area and volume of objects. It grew
4 If you an idea, you accept it. out of geometry and algebra. There are two
5A is a three-dimensional, divisions of calculus - differential calculus and
square shape. integral calculus. Differential calculus is the form
6 Something which is is concerned with the rate of change of quantities.
different or of many kinds. This can be illustrated by slopes of curves.
Integral calculus is used to study length, area
7 If you place two squares side by side, you and volume.
form a(n)
The earliest examples of a form of calculus date
8A is a three-dimensional back to the ancient Greeks, with Eudoxus
surface, all the points of which are the same developing a mathematical method to work out
distance from a fixed point. area and volume. Other important contributions
9A is also known as a fall. were made by the famous scientist and
mathematician, Archimedes. In India, over the

98 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

course of many years - from 500 AD to the 14 t h 4


Pronunciation guide
century - calculus was studied by a number of
A r c h i m e d e s /a:ki'mi:di:z/
mathematicians. In fact, the first text on calculus
e m b r a c e /imbreis/
was written in India. However, it was not until
Eudoxus /ju'doksss/
the end of the 1600s that calculus was taken up
^indispensable /mdi spensab l/
in Europe. There was much scientific activity at У
the time, and calculus was able to answer many
questions, particularly in the field of physics. В В Comprehension
Many great mathematicians of the time embraced
Read the t e x t and decide if the following
calculus and furthered its development, including
statements are true o r false.
Rene Descartes and Pierre de Fermat, but the
most important contributions were made by 1 Calculus and geometry led to T •
Gottfried Leibniz and Isaac Newton. Newton was the development of algebra. F •
the first to use calculus in his studies of physics 2 India was using calculus TП
and Leibniz developed many of the symbols that before Europe. F•
T•
we use in calculus.
3 In the 17th century, calculus was
The starting point of calculus is the idea that you applied to physics. F•
can use an approximation and keep increasing 4 Integral calculus can calculate the rate T•
О
the accuracy until an exact answer is found. An at which a population increases. F•
example of this would be to calculate the volume
or area of a sphere by using shapes such as 5 Differential calculus has to do with T•
rectangles or cubes that become increasingly systems that are undergoing change. F•
smaller until the exact volume or area is
determined. In calculus, this final result is called Before you listen
a limit.
Discuss these questions with your partner.
Differential calculus describes processes that are Do you know who coined the term calculus?
in flux - which means they are constantly
Can you think of another word that comes from
changing. Examples of this are temperature
the word calculus?
variations or the speed of a moving object. By
using differential calculus, it is possible to
determine the rate at which the temperature И С Listening *)))
changes and the rate of acceleration of the Listen to a teacher and students
moving body. Integral calculus begins with a discussing some of the history of calculus.
known rate of change and, working backwards, Then answer the questions in your
finds certain values. For example, if you know the own words.
rate of acceleration of a car, you can find out its
1 What was the original meaning of the
speed at a given point.
word calculus?
Today, both forms are used in every area of 2 Who named the branch of mathematics
science and knowledge. Fields as diverse as known as calculutf?
engineering, medicine, business and economics
make use of calculus. Calculus is such an 3 Why did Newton name it the science
indispensable tool that it is applied whenever of fluxions?
we have a problem that can be solved 4 What did Newton accuse Leibniz of doing?
by mathematics. 5 Leibniz and Newton had different starting
points in their work on calculus - what
were they?

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 9 9


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Who do you think were the greatest
mathematicians in history?
Which kinds of mathematics were they
involved in?
What do you know about Pierre de Fermat?

В D Vocabulary
a. Match these words with their definitions.
1 devotion A don't pay attention to
2 astounding В somebody working in
the same field
3 councillor С top judge
4 fellow D amazing
5 neglect E commitment
6 chief magistrate F member of an
administrative body

b. C o m p l e t e the sentences below with


words from the box.
с N
• devotion • astounding
v
• fellow • neglect

• councillor В Reading 2
V
1 She shows great
2 Please don't
to her family.
to pay the
Pierre de Fermat
phone bill. Pierre de Fermat was born in Toulouse, France
3 Meet Peter. He's a(n) film on 17 t h August, 1601, and died on 12 t h January,
enthusiast! We love watching films! 1665. lie came from a wealthy family, and he
studied law in Orleans. After graduating, he
4 What a(n) speech he gave began to practise law and later he became a
at the conference. It was amazing! councillor in parliament. By 1652, he had
5 He's been a town for over become the chief magistrate of the criminal
five years now. court - a very important and highly
respected position.
c. Match the words to make phrases. In 17 t h century France, magistrates spent large
1 practise A theory amounts of time on their own. It was during this
time that de Fermat worked in the field of
2 criminal В coordinates
mathematics. In fact, his devotion to this
3 remarkable С law science was so great that he spent as much free
4 number D geometry time as he could working on mathematical
5 probability E achievements problems and solutions. Although de Fermat
published very little in his lifetime, he is still
6 Cartesian F court
considered to be one of the greatest
2 analytic G recognition mathematicians of all time. His achievements in
8 receive H theory mathematics are quite astounding.

100 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

De Fermat's most important work was done in


Pronunciation guide
the development of modern number theory,
which was one of his favourite areas of m a g i s t r a t e Amaed3istreit/
mathematics, and which had an important Orleans hi\i?azl
impact on the study of calculus. Sir Isaac Toulouse /tu:lu:z/
Newton said that his own invention of calculus
- differential calculus in particular - was based B E Comprehension
in large part on the work of de Fermat, who had
done his studies on calculus well before Isaac Read the t e x t and choose the
Newton and Gottfried Leibniz were born. In correct answer.
1654, Blaise Pascal wrote a letter to de Fermat 1 Despite having little of his work published
asking about the latter's views on probability. while alive, de Fermat
Thus began a correspondence that became A had a successful career in law.
the foundation of Probability Theory, with В is seen as a great mathematician.
de Fermat and Pascal considered to be the С held an important position.
founders of this theory. Rene Descartes is
2 De Fermat's work on modern numbers
famous for his invention of Cartesian
A was influenced by Newton's work.
coordinates and his important work La
В helped him develop a branch of calculus.
Geometrie. De Fermat had independently come
С had an effect on calculus.
up with his own three-dimensional analytic
geometry, which was more complicated and 3 Pascal and de Fermat
advanced than Descartes'; Descartes' work A are recognised as the fathers of
became more popular, however, because its Probabality Theory.
notation was more convenient. Today, both В communicated about analytical geometry.
scientists are seen as the fathers of С produced work more advanced
analytic geometry. than Descartes'.
4 De Fermat's methods and results
De Fermat also made contributions in the field
A were never proven in his lifetime.
of optics, formulating a law on the way light
В were ahead of their time.
travels. His methods were so advanced that
С suffered as he never provided proof.
many of his results were not proved for a
century after his death, and de Fermat's Last 5 We know about de Fermat's work
Theorem took more than three hundred years nowadays because
to prove. De Fermat rarely provided his proofs, A his work was published.
that is, evidence or procedures for reaching В learned people researched his claims.
conclusions, to explain how he got his answers. С he left behind a correspondence.
In his letters to fellow mathematicians, he
stated theorems but neglected the proofs, which
was very annoying for them. Since he never
Before you listen
wanted anything to be published (as he Discuss these questions with your partner.
considered mathematics to be his hobby), there What do you know about de Fermat's
was nowhere for scholars to check his claims Last Theorem?
and consequently during his lifetime, he
Do mathematical puzzles interest you?
received very little recognition as a
mathematician. If the people he wrote to had What do squared and cubed mean?
not saved his papers and letters, we may
never have heard of de Fermat and his
remarkable achievements. В F Listening H)))
Listen to a t e a c h e r talking t o a class
about Fermat's Last T h e o r e m . Then
complete the sentences below.
1 Fermat's Last Theorem was the world's most
puzzling problem.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 101


Mathematics

2 Fermat left no of the proof R e m e m b e r to:


he had found.
• use simple examples that everyone
3 Fermat claimed there was no solution for can understand
any equation beyond the
• speak slowly and clearly
4 Proof is a line of reasoning that consists of
many
Speaking tips
5 Andrew Wiles published a proof to the Last
Theorem in • Speak to your audience, not your notes.
• Pause between sections.
0 G Speaking • Speak calmly, but not too softly.
Discuss these questions with В H Writing
your partner.
W r i t e a composition on the topic: 'The
Is calculus only useful in mathematics and greatest mathematical puzzle of t h e m all.'
sciences such as physics? Use the information from t e x t 2 as well
How can calculus be used in other branches as your notes from exercise F. You can
of knowledge? listen t o the class discussion again if you
want t o take n o t e s . T h e r e is a plan here

Task t o guide you.

Prepare a short presentation t o answer PARAGRAPH 1


t h e question: ' W h a t is calculus?' Use Introduction Say what this puzzle is, and
t h e information in t e x t I. give a very brief outline of its history
Talk about: (include information about how long it took
to solve it).
• what calculus deals with Vocabulary: Briefly ... / in brief ...
• the two divisions of calculus
• who developed calculus PARAGRAPH 2
Discuss what de Fermat claimed to have
• how it is used today
discovered (the proof for a difficult
equation); say where he wrote this claim.
First, c o m p l e t e these notes. Vocabulary: Basically the theorem was ...
Use t h e m in your presentation.
PARAGRAPH 3
Calculus: The study of
There are two divisions of calculus: Say why mathematicians were so fascinated
by the problem (it looked simple, but was very
Calculus is about rates of difficult; they believed that de Fermat had
found the proof, so they wanted to find it too).
Integral calculus is about Vocabulary: Despite appearing ...
Appearances were deceptive because ...
Two mathematicians made the
biggest contributions: PARAGRAPH 4
Isaac Newton, who mainly dealt with Conclusion Say when it was solved, and
who solved it. Say something about the fact
Gottfried Leibniz, who mainly dealt with that de Fermat's proof has not been
discovered yet.
Some modern-day applications are
Vocabulary: After his death ... .Not until ...

V у
W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.

102 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
In what fields do you think mathematics is
useful?
How many kinds of mathematics can you
think of?

^ A Vocabulary
a. Match these words with their definitions.
H Reading 1
1 enable A to make something
easier to do
or understand
Applied mathematics
2 arise В to make better Most of the major developments in mathematics
3 refine С to allow were the result of trying to solve a particular
problem. When faced with a problem, people
4 exclude D to occur would ask themselves 'How can we do this?'
5 simplify E to leave out 'What's the best way of doing that?' Thus,
mathematics arose. Today, we have many different
6 adjustments F understandable
branches of mathematics, all of which can be used
2 comprehensible G small changes to answer questions like the ones above.

When mathematics is used to solve problems in


b. Match the words t o make phrases. other related areas of life, it is known as applied
mathematics. Mathematics is applied, that is, used,
1 applied A of mathematics to provide us with answers and solutions. It is used
2 branch В developments in numerous ways. A few examples are numerical
analysis, engineering and programming. In these
3 mathematical С variety
and other areas, applied mathematics takes
4 final D mathematics problems from real life, and gives us successful and
5 second E terms creative tools for solving them. Often, the first step
when using applied mathematics is to create a
6 knowledgeable F model mathematical model. This is a description of the
7 real G solution problem in mathematical terms. This model is then
H stage studied to obtain exact or approximate solutions. If
8 major
the solution is exact, the model is applied to the
9 mathematical I life problem; if it is approximate, the model is refined
10 wide J mathematician until it is exact. Then, the conclusions are

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 103


Mathematics

interpreted and explained in comprehensible


terms. Often the model is changed to be more В В Comprehension
realistic or to include more features of the problem. Read the text. Then put the events (A-F)
Thus, the modelling process may involve many below in the correct order, from first
adjustments. The second stage is the final solution to last, to show the procedure for using
to the problems mathematically formulated in the applied mathematics.
first stage. Mathematics is used or applied to other
fields to solve problems in these fields. EVENT 1 A The revised model
is applied.
It is often not clear which mathematical tools will
be useful in the study of a new problem, for EVENT 2 В The model is
example, algebra or differential calculus. For this adjusted.
reason, applied mathematicians need to be well EVENT 3 С A mathematical
trained in a range of mathematical areas so they
model is created.
will have a wide variety of mathematical tools
available to them. They must not only be skilled EVENT 4 D A problem arises.
mathematicians but must also be knowledgeable
EVENT 5 E A solution is found.
in the specific area to which mathematics is
being applied. For example, in dealing with EVENT 6 F Approximate solutions
business and industry, a knowledge of economics are obtained.
is necessary. In this way, a good applied
mathematician can then create and interpret
appropriate models. A good applied
Before you listen
mathematician must therefore be knowledgeable Discuss these questions with your partner.
in both mathematics and the field of application Does applied mathematics sound interesting
in order to successfully deal with a problem. to you? Why? Why not?
\\Ъеп it comes to creating models, the Would you like to study it at university? Why? /
mathematician will make choices about which Why not?
factors to include and which to exclude. The goal is
to produce a model that is realistic enough to reflect
the main aspects of the problem being studied, but В С Listening *)))
simple enough to be treated mathematically. Listen to a course director giving some
information t o a group of potential maths
Sometimes the mathematician has to either students.Then decide if the following
simplify this model so it can be analysed, or statements are true or false.
devise new mathematical methods that will
allow the model to be analysed. The modelling 1 Mathematics is an expanding area T •
process may involve a sequence of models of with good job prospects. F О
increasing complexity. Problems sometimes lead 2 The difference between pure and T •
to new mathematical methods, and existing applied mathematics lies in the F •
mathematical methods often lead to a new content of the studies.
understanding of the problems.
3 An applied mathematician finds T О
Mathematics in its most useful, practical form answers to questions raised by F Q
becomes a tool with which we can improve our mathematics.
world. That is exactly what applied mathematics
4 A pure mathematician's answers T Ц
is and what it does.
N
take the form of general propositions F О
Pronunciation guide with exact, formal proof.

adjustments fodjAStmants/ 5 The two kinds of mathematics can T •


a p p r o x i m a t e fo'proksimcu/ come to the same conclusions. FQ

n u m e r o u s /njuimsras/

104 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Do you think a scientist should have an all-
round education?
What benefits could scientists derive from
involvement in other fields apart from science?

В D Vocabulary
C o m p l e t e the definitions below with
words from the box.

• cybernetics • collaborative

• insight • tend
• d r a w on • elect

• via • established

• imitate • aspect

1 A feature or a side of something is


a(n)

2 To means to copy.

3 The field of studies


people and machines' practices and
procedures to understand where they differ.

4 If work is it is done
by cooperating.
H Reading 2
5 means by the use of.

6 If you have into something, Norbert Wiener


you have special understanding.
Norbert Wiener, the famous applied mathematician,
7 To means to choose, was born in 1894 in the USA and died in
perhaps for a position of responsibility. Stockholm, Sweden, in 1964. His father was a
professor of Slavonic languages at Harvard.
8 If you something, you make Norbert was a very intelligent child and his father
use of a resource. was determined to make him a famous scholar.
This is indeed what he became, being awarded a
9 When you to do PhD by Harvard at the age of 18. He also studied
something, it is a habit you have. Philosophy, Logic and Mathematics at Cambridge
and Gottingen.
10 If something is it is
made certain. His first important position was that of Instructor
of Mathematics at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of
Technology) in 1919, followed by that of Assistant
Professor in 1929 and of Professor in 1931. Two
years later, in 1933, he was elected to the
National Academy of Sciences (USA), from which

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 105


Mathematics

he resigned in 1941. In 1940 he started to work


Pronunciation guide
on a research project at MIT on anti-aircraft
devices, a project which played an important part cybernetics Asaibs'netiks/
in his development of the science of cybernetics. via /vaia/

The idea of cybernetics came to Wiener when he


began to consider the ways in which machines
and human minds work. This led to the
development of the idea of cybernetics, which is
the study of the ways humans and machines
T E Comprehension
Read the t e x t and choose the
correct answer.
1 Norbert Wiener's father
process information, in order to understand their
A was awarded a PhD.
differences. It often refers to machines that
В taught intelligent children.
imitate human behaviour. The term was coined
С was a language instructor.
from the Greek kubernetike which means the art
of the steersman (the skill of a captain when 2 Norbert Wiener began to think seriously
controlling the ship). This idea made it possible about cybernetics
to turn early computers into machines that A when he was at MIT.
imitate human ways of thinking, particularly in В when he was a science instructor.
terms of control (via negative feedback) and С after he resigned.
communication (via the transmission 3 An example of cybernetics in action
of information). would be
Norbert Wiener was also deeply attracted to A a television
mathematical physics. This interest originated in В a computer
the collaborative work that he did with Max Born С a ship
in 1926 on quantum mechanics. But Wiener's 4 Wiener wrote a book about
interests were not limited to logic, mathematics, A himself
cybernetics or mathematical physics alone, as he В childhood
was also familiar with every aspect of philosophy. С philosophy
In fact, he was awarded his doctorate for a study 5 According to the text, most scientists
on mathematical logic that was based on his A know a lot about many different subjects.
studies in philosophy. In addition to that, in a В are familiar with applied science.
very different field, he wrote two short stories С deal with certain fields only.
and a novel. Wiener also published an
autobiography in two parts: Ex-Prodigy:
My Childhood and Youth and I Am Before you listen
a Mathematician. Discuss these questions with your partner.

Norbert Wiener was an amazing mathematician, How important have computers become in the
who was gifted with philosophical insight. In an modern world?
age when scientists tended, and still tend, to Do you use a computer?
specialise in their own very specific fields, this What do you use it for?
man was interested and involved in many
different disciplines. Due to this, he was able to
draw on many resources in his varied research,
thus making him an incredibly successful applied H F Listening *)))
scientist. Wiener was one of the most original and Listen to a t e a c h e r talking about a
significant contemporary scientists and his famous mathematician. Then listen again
reputation was securely established in the new and correct the statements which
sciences such as cybernetics, theory of are wrong.
information and biophysics.
1 Wiener enjoyed the fine arts.
2 Wiener was only ever taught at home.

106 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

3 Wiener got his undergraduate degree at the


age of 18.
4 Wiener's working life was 50 years long.
w
H Writing
W r i t e a letter t o your friend telling him
or her all about your university course in
5 Only a few cyber terms have been coined. applied maths I cybernetics. Use these
notes, your own ideas and information
from t e x t s I & 2 and exercise С t o help
В G Speaking you.
Discuss these questions with
your partner.
Hi (friend's name),
When you think of a scientist, what image
comes to mind?
PARAGRAPH 1
Do you think scientists are unusual in any Opening remarks:
way? If yes, in what way?
Ask how your friend is. Apologise for taking
so long to write back. Say how you are and

Task what you have been doing.

Discuss with your partner the PARAGRAPHS 2 AND 3


advantages and disadvantages of Main body:
computers. Say what you think and find
out if your partner agrees o r disagrees Tell your friend about your university and
with you. your studies. Tell him/her what degree you
are doing (applied mathematics /
Talk about: cybernetics).
• what computers can do
• what computers can't do Explain what applied mathematics is and
how it differs from pure maths.
• advantages of having/using a computer
• disadvantages of having/using Explain what cybernetics is.
a computer
PARAGRAPH 4
R e m e m b e r to: Closing remarks:

• listen to your partner Invite your friend to visit you for a few days.
Say you are looking forward to seeing
• support your point of view with examples
him/her.
• ask for your partner's opinion
Sign off (Bye for now, All the best, Love, etc)
Speaking tips
(your first name)
• Use expressions such as 'In my opinion', 'I
strongly believe', 'As far as I'm concerned'
W r i t e 100-140 words.
to express your view.
• Ask questions such as 'What do you mean?'
to clarify meaning.
• If you have to interrupt, say 'I'm sorry to
interrupt, but ... ' .
Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss these questions with your partner.
Is it important to study physics, chemistry and
В Reading 1
biology? Why / Why not?
How do scientists in your country get support The Russian Academy
to conduct their research?
of Sciences (RAS)
В A Vocabulary In 1724, Peter the Great established the Academy
Find a synonym in the box for the words of Sciences as part of his push for reform to
or phrases in green in the sentences below. strengthen Russia. He wished to make the country
as economically and politically independent as
establish reform
possible and he was aware of how important
scientific thought, along with education and
expedition atlas
culture, was to this. However, unlike other foreign
naturalist headquarters organisations at that time, the Academy was a
prestigious supervise state institution, which Peter intended should offer
scientists from any country the opportunity to do
their research in complete freedom, as well as
1 The researchers need to start a new providing the opportunity for students to study
laboratory. under these famous people. The Academy officially
2 A scientist's job is often considered to have opened in 1725.
respect and give you influence.
Over the next three decades, work was done in
many fields, among them, work on electricity and
3 There is a need for improvements in our magnetism theory. Research enabled the
society. development of mining, metallurgy, and other
4 The journey to explore and do scientific branches of Russian industry. Work was done in
research was made in 1872. geodesy and cartography and 1745 saw the first
atlas of Russia created.
5 Look up this city in the book of maps. From its earliest days, the Academy carried out
mathematical research, which added greatly to the
6 Could you manage the people on this development of calculus, hydrodynamics,
project? mechanics, optics, astronomy, and made
discoveries in various fields, such as chemistry,
Z He's a person who studies animals and physics and geology. In addition, expeditions in
plants 1733-1742 and 1760-1770 helped contribute to the
8 The central office can be found in Moscow. discovery of Russia's natural resources.
The 19 t h century was a time of many more
contributions from the Academv. The Academv's

108 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

naturalists were involved in voyages of discovery,


Pronunciation guide
including that of F.F. Bellingshausen and M.P.
Lazarev in 1820, when Antarctica was discovered. g e o d e s y /d^i:lai:desi/

In the fields of mathematics and physics, progress h y d r o d y n a m i c s /.haidrodai'nasmiks/


was furthered by N.I. Lobachevskv and his theory m e t a l l u r g y /me'tasl3d3i/
of non-Euclidean geometry as well as by P.L.
Chebyshev who made progress in the field of
probability, statistics and Number Theory. Other
В В Comprehension
notable achievements were the invention of the Read the t e x t and decide if the following
radio, the creation of the periodic table of the s t a t e m e n t s are true o r false.
chemical elements, the discovery of viruses and 1 Peter the Great set up educational T •
the cell mechanisms of immunity. In the 1890s and cultural centres. F •
and early 1900s, I.P. Pavlov carried out
experiments which resulted in the discovery of 2 The Academy was unusual in TO
classical conditioning or conditioned reflexes. not being a private interest. F О
Clearly, throughout the 18 t h and 19 t h centuries 3 The 19th century was a time T •
and into the 20 t h century, the Russian Academy of numerous expeditions to FQ
led the way in Russian science. find Antarctica.

In 1925, the name of the Academy changed to the 4 In the 20 th century, the Academy T •
Academy of Sciences of the USSR. One of the changed name several times and F •
achievements of the Academy was to help set up moved its central office.
scientific research centres in all Soviet republics. 5 Nowadays, members are obliged to TO
The Academy also gave scientists the opportunity communicate via the Internet. F •
to work and study in different parts of the USSR
and abroad. In 1934, its headquarters were moved
to Moscow. At that time, it had 25 member
institutions. The Academy continued to grow,
Before you listen
reaching a high point of 260 member institutions. Discuss these questions with your partner.
In 1991, after the breakup of the USSR, the What do scientists do?
Academy's name was changed to the Russian
Do you think it is difficult to be a scientist?
Academy of Sciences (RAS).
Why / Why not?
Today, the RAS supervises the research of a large Would you like to b e a scientist? Why /
group of institutions within Russia which focus on Why not?
different research areas, including philosophy,
botany, anthropology, palaeontology and
archaeology as well as nuclear physics, В С Listening *)))
astrophysics, mathematics, computer engineering You will hear part of a talk about a
and many others. A special Internet system, called famous Russian physicist. Listen and
the Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI), which c o m p l e t e the sentences.
links over 3000 members, has also been set up.
1 As a child, Dr Landau was a mathematical
Becoming a member of the RAS is not easy. Only
scientific researchers who have done outstanding
2 He became a university student when he
work or who have great potential are chosen to
was years old.
become members.
3 Dr Landau worked both in Russia and
Last but not least, the RAS gives awards to members
who have made significant discoveries. Its highest
award is the Lomonosov Medal, named after the 4 Dr Landau won the Nobel Prize in
outstanding Russian scientist, writer and polymath
of the 18 th century. Many RAS award winners have 5 One of the Moon's, . is named
later gone on to be awarded prestigious Nobel Prizes. after him.

Macmillan G u i de to Science Unit 16 109


Mathematics

Before you read


Discuss this question with your partner.
Do you think it is a good idea to award prizes
to scientists for their work? Why / Why not?

В D Vocabulary
Match these words with their definitions.

1 superfluidity A being able to transmit


electrical current without
resistance at very low or
high temperatures
2 laser В something which does
not follow the
normal pattern
3 violence С material that can transmit The Russian Academy of Sciences (or the USSR
electricity but not as well Academy of Sciences, as it was called before
as metal 1991), played a major part in all their careers.
4 exception D branch of electronics With one exception, all were members of the
involving devices dealing Academy, carrying out their research and
with electromagnetic publishing their findings with the
radiation Academy's support.

5 semiconductor E characteristic of matter 1 9 5 6 In 1956, Nikolay N. Semyonov was the


which can flow endlessly first Russian to receive a Nobel Prize for
without resistance Chemistry for his research into the mechanism of
chemical reactions. He was trained as a physicist
6 heterostructure F when there is just one
and chemist. During his career, working alone or
boundary between
with other distinguished scientists like Pyotr L.
material that can Kapitsa, he made many important discoveries and
transmit electricity contributions to chemistry and physics. In 1931,
Z optoelectronics G angry physical force Semyonov became the first director of the
8 superconductor H device that produces Institute of Chemical Physics of the Academy and
intense, concentrated was also one of the founders of the Moscow
Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT).
beam of light
1 9 5 8 The collaboration of Pavel A. Cherenkov,
Igor Y. Tamra and Dya M. Frank resulted in the
В Reading 2 discovery and description of the Cherenkov-
Vavilov effect, a phenomenon which is very
Russian Nobel Prize important in nuclear physics. For their work they
received the Nobel Prize in 1958. All three of the

winners in Physics scientists were professors at universities and the


Academy's institutes and greatly influenced future

and Chemistry generations of scientists.

1 9 6 2 After receiving his doctoral degree from


Because of its long history of supporting scientific Leningrad University at the exceptionally young
research and education, Russia has produced a age of 19, Lev D. Landau went on to study abroad.
number of internationally recognised leaders in When he returned to Russia, he became head of
physics and chemistry. two of the Academy's institutes. Like Semyonov,

NO Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Mathematics

he was also involved in founding the MIPT. He


Pronunciation guide
received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1962, for
his phenomenological theory of superfluidity in helium Ahi:liam/
helium. h e t e r o s t r u c t u r e s /hetsrsu'strAktJbz/
superfluidity /suipafluidsti/
1 9 6 4 Nikolay G. Basov and Aleksandr M.
Prokhorov worked together on a project which led
to the development of the laser and their
B E Comprehension
receiving the 1964 Nobel Prize. Both worked at Read the t e x t and answer the questions
the Lebedev Institute of Physics (Basov was the in your own words.
Director from 1973-1988) and also taught at
1 How many Nobel Prize winners were
universities. Even though Prokhorov never
members of the Academy?
became a member of the Academy, the Academy's
General Physics Institute was renamed the 2 Which scientists were among those who
A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute in founded the Moscow Institute of Physics
his honour. and Technology?
3 Which scientists, apart from Lev Landau, had
1 9 / (S Pyotr L. Kapitsa went to England after he
things or places named after them?
had completed his studies at Petrograd
Polytechnic Institute. He studied at Cambridge 4 Which scientists left the country to further
and also worked on various projects there. He their studies?
returned to Russia in 1934 and continued his
5 Who was the director of the Academy's
career there. He was also one of the founders of
Physics Institute before Vitaly Ginsburg?
the MIPT. In addition, Kapitsa was a member of
the Soviet National Committee of the Pugwash
movement, a group of international scientists who Before you . listen
wanted to use science for the good of humankind Discuss these questions with your partner.
and not for violence and war. Kapitsa won the
Nobel Prize for Physics in 1978, for his work on What does the Nobel Prize represent?
low-temperature physics. Why do you think it's such a prestigious
award?
2 0 0 0 Zhores I. Alferov has been active in
physics since graduating from the
H F Listening H)))
Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. He
received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000, for Listen to an interview where a
the development of the semiconductor c o m m e n t a t o r is talking about the Nobel
Prize. Then answer the questions.
heterostructures used in high-speed electronics
and optoelectronics. 1 According to Bradford, what is the greatest
reward for winning a Nobel Prize?
2003 More recently, Russian Nobel Prize A the money
winners in 2003 were Vitaly L. Ginsburg and В the medal
Alexei A. Abrikosov. Ginsburg, who holds a С the certificate
doctoral degree from Moscow State University, D the honour
became the director of the Academy's Physics
Institute after Igor Tamm. Ginsburg was 2 How are people nominated for the Prizes?
influenced by Landau, with whom he had worked, A Alfred Nobel chooses them.
and by Tamm, who had been his teacher. Alexei В The committee chooses one of
Abrikosov was educated at Moscow State their friends.
University. He worked at the Landau Institute for С Institutions suggest people who have
Theoretical Physics for over 20 years (1965-1988) done outstanding work.
and also taught at Moscow State University during D They are voted for.
that time. They received the Nobel Prize for 3 Why did Alfred Nobel decide to set up the
Physics for pioneering contributions to the theory Nobel Prizes?
of superconductors and superfluids. A He didn't know what to do with his money.

Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21 I


Mathematics

В He wanted to do some good with R e m e m b e r to:


his money.
• maintain eye contact with your audience
С He wanted to help scientists only.
D He wanted to show people how rich l glance at your notes, don't read from them
he was. • take your time
4 How much money did Alfred Nobel give to
set up the Prizes? Speaking tip
A more than $400,000
• Focus on important information.
В more than $400,000,000
С more than $40,000
D more than $4,000,000
5 Which is true about the Nobel Prize winners?
A Most of them are women. 0 H Writing
В Most of them are men. W r i t e an article on the history of the
С They must be European. Nobel Prize and give s o m e examples of
D They must be young. scientists who have won it. Read t e x t 2
6 There is NO Nobel Prize for again and listen t o exercise F again if
A literature necessary. Use this plan t o help you.
В physics
С peace
D mathematics PARAGRAPH 1
Explain what the Nobel prize is and give a
brief history of it.
В G Speaking
Discuss these questions with PARAGRAPH 2 / 3
your partner. Give two or three examples of Russian
scientists who have won the Nobel Prize for
What are some of the goals of the Russian
physics and chemistry and explain why they
Academy of Sciences?
won it. Which achievement do you consider
Has the Academy of Sciences been to be the most important one? Why?
successful in achieving its goals? Give
examples to support your view. PARAGRAPH 4
Sum up by saying what the prize represents

Task and that many Russian scientists have been


proud receivers.
Give a two-minute s u m m a r y of the
history, goals and achievements of the Use a formal register (no short forms).
Russian A c a d e m y of Sciences. Use the Use conjunctions (eg furthermore, however,
information in both texts. because of, etc).
Talk about:
• the history of the RAS - when founded /
where / by whom; growth throughout W r i t e 2 0 0 - 2 5 0 words.
USSR; work now continued by the RAS
• goals of the RAS - support scientific
research; share knowledge with others, etc
• examples of the Academy's success - talk
about one or two of the Nobel Prize
winners: name / prize won and year /
scientific achievements / education / where
he worked / something special about him

112 Macmillan Guide to Science Unit 21


Units 17 to 21
S 111 с 0

L A Use the clues t o c o m p l e t e


a
the crossword.
1 v
Across
1 material that can transmit
electricity but not as well С
as metal
6 a laser is a that i n
produces a beam of light
10 not pay attention to с
11 something which can
be understood m
12 a system of rules and procedures
followed in a field of study 3 a science involved with the practices of
machines and living things
4 signs used in maths
Down 5 amazing
1 material that can transmit electricity without 7 the most important
resistance at very low or high temperatures 8 a three-dimensional, square shape
2 the science and technology of metals 9 and output

wВ C o m p l e t e the sentences with words


from the box.
1 С
1
Circle the c o r r e c t answer.
is a branch of
electronics involving devices for
matrices infinitesimal electromagnetic radiation.
spatial goal A Optoelectronics В Cartography
acceleration vast С Hydrodynamics
approximation palaeontology 2 is the quality of matter
I coordinate tangent
which allows it to flow easily even at
temperatures close to zero.
1 Leibniz realised linear equations in algebra A Geodesy В Superfluidity С Prosperity
could be arranged into
3 Work that is done jointly is
2 One kind of line that touches another is A transversal В collaborative
a С indispensable
3 means being close to zero. 4 A person who studies plants and animals is a
4A amount of knowledge
exists in the sciences. A councillor В chief magistrate С naturalist
5 Geometry helps people solve 5A job gives you respect
problems - those which relate to and influence.
physical space. A prestigious В diverse С established
6A is a number that identifies 6 in a drawing makes it
a position relative to a straight line. look real.
A Aspect В Perspective С Culture
Z If you have a you need to
2 calculus is the area of
work hard to achieve it.
maths used to determine areas, volumes
8 It was (a)n it wasn't exact. and lengths.
9 The rate of was very fast. A Differential В Integral С Chord
10 She studies - the forms of 8 You can make a(n) or a loss.
life in prehistoric times. A adjustment В exception С profit

Macmillan Guide to Science Revision Vocabulary I 13


Translation Work
Unit О 4 At the end of the 171'1 century, the Italian scientist
Redi conducted some experiments with maggots.
• Reading 1 5 John Needham did not know that germs were
Biology present in the air.
An introduction 6 The invention of the microscope did not help to
1 Biology studies all living things on our planet. explain the appearance of microorganisms.
2 In the past people were interested in 7 In a series of carefully planned experiments,
understanding the world around them and Louis Pasteur showed that microorganisms were
learning about plants and animals. not contained in food but were generated as a
3 Modern biology began to develop in the 17 th result of food coming into contact with the air.
century. • Reading 2
4 The microscope was invented by van Louis Pasteur
Leeuwenhoek and allowed scientists to discover 1 The French chemist Louis Pasteur devoted his life
the world of microorganisms. to solving practical problems in industry,
5 In the 18" 1 century, Linnaeus set the foundations agriculture and medicine.
of the modern system of the classification of 2 Sterilisation killed all the microorganisms but
living things. spoilt the taste and quality of the food.
6 The Laws of Inheritance and the principle of 3 Pasteurisation did not destroy all the
natural selection were formulated in the 19 th microorganisms but it did not spoil the taste
century. of food.
7 Nowadays our knowledge in the area of biology is 4 Edward Jenner, an English doctor, discovered a
increasing rapidly due to computer technology. way of protecting people against smallpox by
• Reading 2 injecting them with cowpox. The process became
Biology today known as vaccination.
1 Nowadays biology has so many different areas that 5 Pasteur applied germ theory to Jenner's discovery
it is impossible for one person to study them all. and developed vaccines for other serious diseases.
2 Students should study the four main areas of 6 Among Louis Pasteur s discoveries are the
Biology: zoology, botany, molecular biology pasteurisation process and ways of preventing
and genetics. diseases such as anthrax, cholera and rabies.
3 Genetics studies inheritance and how living things 7 Nowadays, Pasteur's discoveries affect all our lives:
adapt to their surroundings. we eat pasteurised food and we carry out
4 There are plenty of career opportunities for those vaccination programmes regularly.
with a degree in Biology.
5 Medicine needs talented scientists to carry out Unit Q
research in areas such as gene therapy and
virus infections. • Reading 1
6 The world is experiencing a period of climatic The biosphere
change and it is the work of scientists to predict 1 All living organisms, together with then-
the consequences of this. environments, make up the biosphere.
7 Ecology studies the environment and the way 2 The thickness of Earth's biosphere is
plants, animals and humans live together and approximately 14 km.
affect each other. 3 Life evolved in the oceans 3.5 billion years ago.
4 Scientists think that simple organisms like
Unit Q bacteria were among the first inhabitants of
the Earth.
• Reading 1 5 All organisms in the biosphere depend upon
Germ theory each other; the food chain is an example of
1 Many biologists in the past did not believe in the such dependence.
existence of microorganisms because they were 6 Humans have affected the biosphere immensely,
too small to be seen with the naked eye. both positively and negatively.
2 After germ theory had been accepted by doctors 7 Scientists study the biosphere and try to
and biologists, the next question arose: where did predict further changes and prevent
germs come from? permanent damage.
3 The theory of spontaneous generation
(abiogenesis) was very popular among scientists.

I И Macmillan Guide to Science Translation Work


Translation W o r k

• Reading 2 3 According to blending theory, inherited traits


Vladimir Vernadsky blend from one generation to the next.
1 The Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky made a 4 Charles Darwin also put forward the theory of
very important contribution to science when he pangenesis in an effort to explain heredity.
developed the idea of the biosphere. 5 Mendel described his theory in his paper
2 Vernadsky taught mineralogy and crystallography Experiments on Plant Hybridisation, in which he
at the University of Moscow and became developed the Laws of Inheritance known today as
interested in geochemistry. Mendel's Laws.
3 Vernadsky understood the possibility of using 6 Mendel's Laws are the following: hereditary traits
radioactive elements, but he also warned people do not mix but remain separate; each parent passes
that these elements were very dangerous. on only half of their hereditary factors to each
4 The first uranium deposits were discovered in offspring (with certain traits dominant over others);
Russia in 1916 through Vernadsky's efforts. finally, different offspring from the same parents
5 For Vernadsky, the biosphere had existed since receive different sets of hereditary information.
the very beginning of the Earth's history and it Z MendeFs research formed the basis of the science
was constantly evolving. of genetics and genetic theory has had a great
6 Vernadsky believed that human reason, activity impact on our lives.
and scientific thought could lead to the evolution
of the biosphere into the noosphere, the sphere Unit О
of reason.
Z Vernadsky outlined the conditions that were • Reading 1
required for the creation of the noosphere: The discovery of the structure and function
equality for all people and an end to war, poverty of DNA
and hunger. 1 A human being takes 23 chromosomes from his or
her mother and another 23 from his or her father.
Unit О 2 Chromosomes include strands of the chemical
called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
• Reading 1 3 In the 19 th century the Swiss scientist, Johann
Cells Friedrich Miescher noticed an unknown chemical
1 The smallest unit of living matter that can exist by in the nuclei of cells, which he called nuclein.
itself is the cell. 4 James Watson and Francis Crick discovered that
2 Robert Hooke, an English mathematician and DNA was made up of sugar and phosphates in the
physicist, was the first to see cells under a form of a chain which was bound together by four
microscope and noted that there are single-celled nucleotides called guanine, adenine, thymine
and multi-celled organisms. and cytosine.
3 In multi-celled organisms, cells similar in form 5 The DNA chain looks like a long ladder that has
and structure are usually grouped together into been twisted into a spiral and is known as the
different types of tissue. double helix.
4 A cell contains a nucleus; this is found in the 6 Watson and Crick discovered how each pair of
protoplasm, which is enclosed by a wall. nucleotides formed a single rung on the so-called
5 Every cell goes through the same stages of a life DNA ladder.
cycle: it is born, feeds, grows, splits to create new Z When stretched out, the DNA in one human cell is
cells and dies. approximately two metres long.
6 Stem cells are cells that have the remarkable
potential to develop into many different cell types • Reading 2
in the body. They can continue to redivide as often Cloning
as possible to replace damaged or dying cells. 1 Cloning is the process of growing two or more
Z Genes are the units of heredity found in identical organisms from one cell.
chromosomes, which are found in the nucleus. 2 Early successful experiments with cloning, using
the tadpoles of frogs, took place in 1968.
• Reading 2 3 The technique of tadpole cloning consisted of
Gregor Mendel transplanting a frog's DNA, contained in the
1 Mendel, who was a brilliant but poor student, nucleus of a body cell, into an egg cell whose own
entered a monastery in order to study. genetic material had been removed.
2 Mendel was sent to University of Vienna by the 4 Cloning does not mean copying: a clone shares
monastery, in order for him to continue the same genes as its donor, but its behaviour and
his education. characteristics will be different.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation Work I 15


Translation W o r k

5 The technology of cloning is of value to science, 7 One of the major tasks of chemists today
medicine, agriculture and industry. is to reduce the impact of pollutants on
6 Cloning could be beneficial to humans. For our environment.
example, we could use cloning to improve health;
we could learn more about how organisms develop Unit О
and we could put an end to the risk of extinction
of endangered species. • Reading 1
7 The practical applications of cloning are financially The atom
promising but many ethical questions remain. 1 The term atom is Greek in origin and means 'the
smallest particle of a chemical element'.
Unit 0 2 The first scientific hypothesis about the atomic
structure of matter was put forward by the British
• Reading 1 chemist John Dalton.
Chemistry 3 Dalton considered the atom to be a small particle
An introduction that could combine with the atoms of other
1 Chemistry is said to be the central science, as it chemical elements in order to form compounds.
connects all other sciences. 4 In modern scientific usage the atom is considered
2 Alchemists discovered many of the chemical to be composed of smaller particles such as
processes while trying to change ordinary metals electrons, neutrons and protons.
into gold. 5 By the 1930s quantum mechanics had been
3 The origin of modern chemistry comes from the developed and it became the basis of modern
work of the 18111 century French scientist Antoine chemistry and physics.
Lavoisier who formulated the idea of the 6 Atoms differ from one another in the number of
conservation of mass. subatomic particles they contain.
4 Although Lavoisier was the first to publish this 7 An electrical charge causes electrons to attract.
idea, the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov had In this way, atoms can bond together to
reached the same conclusions some years earlier form molecules.
than Lavoisier. • Reading 2
5 In the 19 th centurv the British scientist John Robert Boyle
Dalton stated that all matter was made up of 1 Robert Boyle, an Irish scientist noted for his work
atoms and that these could not be broken down in chemistry and physics, is best known for the
into smaller parts. formulation of Boyle's Law.
6 The Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev arranged 2 The air pump allowed Boyle to create a vacuum in
all the known elements by their atomic weight a glass jar.
and chemical properties thus creating the 3 A burning candle and a piece of coal stopped
Periodic Table. burning when placed in a vacuum, leading Boyle
7 Chemistry is the science that deals with the to the conclusion that air was necessary for
properties, composition and structure combustion to take place.
of substances. 4 He also came to the conclusion that sound travels
through air and cannot be heard in vacuum.
• Reading 2 5 Observing the change of pressure in a vacuum,
Chemistry today Boyle suggested that even gas was made up of very
1 There are many areas of science and industry small particles.
where the knowledge of chemistry is called upon. 6 As the volume of gas is reduced, its pressure
2 In medicine, chemists work on new cures for increases in proportion.
diseases, develop new antibiotics and carry out 7 While investigating some compounds, Boyle
other important research. discovered a way of testing them to find out if
3 Chemists work in the food industry; they monitor they were acid or alkali.
quality of food products to make sure that they
meet certain standards, for instance. Unit Q
4 Nowadays, some chemical processes are involved
in nearly every industry. • Reading 1
5 Knowledge of chemistry was fundamental to the The Law of Conservation of Mass
development of the oil refining industry. 1 According to the Law of Conservation of Mass, the
6 Oil, taken out of the ground and put through a mass of the reacting substances at the start of the
chemical process, could be turned into many reaction will be the same as the mass of the
different products. products at the end of the reaction.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation WorkI15


Translation W o r k

2 Lomonosov first described the Law of Conservation 6 The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
of Mass and published his ideas later, in 1760. is known as the atomic number, and the modern
3 Lavoisier formulated his conclusions into a table is arranged by atomic number.
scientific theory in 1789. 7 The numbers in each period that is, row in the
4 The idea of conservation of mass itself was not periodic table, correspond to the number of
actually new. In the 5 t h century ВС, the Greek electrons contained in the outermost electron
philosopher Anaxagoras said that nothing comes shell of an atom of a specific element.
into existence or is destroyed and that everything
is a mixture of pre-existing things. • Reading 2
5 Experiments showed that some metals increased Dmitri Mendeleev
in weight when they burned. 1 Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev was born in 1834 to a
6 Lavoisier proved that oxygen was required for large family - his mother gave birth to 14 children.
combustion to take place. 2 In 1863, Mendeleev was appointed Professor of
2 The fact that matter in a chemical reaction can Chemistry at the Technological Institute and the
change its form, but always conserves its mass, University of St Petersburg.
was very important not only to science but to 3 The periodic table was Mendeleev's greatest
philosophy, too. achievement. He was even able to predict the
existence of elements that had not been
• Reading 2 discovered yet.
Antoine Lavoisier 4 Mendeleev was involved in many areas including
1 Antoine Lavoisier made a great contribution to hydrodynamics, agricultural chemistry,
the science of chemistry: he discovered oxygen, meteorology and chemical technology.
disproved the phlogiston theory and formulated 5 Mendeleev defined the absolute boiling point of a
the Law of Conservation of Mass. substance (the critical temperature).
2 Lavoisier discovered oxygen and its role in 6 He spent a lot of time studying solutions, adding
combustion and respiration. greatly to our understanding of them.
3 Lavoisier, whose father wanted him to be a lawyer, 7 His studies of gases at high and low pressures
belonged to a wealthy aristocratic family. allowed him to develop an accurate barometer.
4 At the age of 25 Lavoisier was made a member of
the French Academy of Sciences. Unit gj)
5 Lavoisier assumed that matter was conserved
through any chemical reaction and he set about • Reading 1
proving it. Chemical kinetics
6 Lavoisier developed a very precise balance and 1 The study of reaction rates and reaction
weighed the reacting materials and the products mechanisms is known as chemical kinetics.
that were made. 2 The rate of a reaction depends on the
2 Lavoisier placed chemistry on a solid foundation concentration of the reacting substances, the
by experimenting with the weight of substances temperature, the presence of catalysts and the
involved in chemical reactions. nature of the reactants.
3 A change in the concentrations of the substances
Unit О will change the number of molecular collisions.
4 If the substances involved in the reaction are
• Reading 1 gases, pressure will have an effect on reaction
The periodicity of elements rate. Reaction rate increases with pressure.
1 With the development of science, scientists 5 Increasing the surface area where a chemical
discovered more and more elements. reaction takes place, increases the reaction rate.
2 The first formal attempt to group the elements 6 An increase in temperature generally increases
was made by Lavoisier in the 1700s. the rate of reaction.
3 The Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev created a 7 A catalyst is a substance that influences the rate
periodic table where the elements were arranged of the reaction.
according to their atomic weight.
4 Mendeleev predicted that empty spaces between • Reading 2
elements in the periodic table would be filled after Nikolay Semyonov
the discovery of new elements. 1 Nikolay Semyonov was a Soviet physicist and
5 Mendeleev predicted the physical and chemical chemist who, together with Sir Cyril Hinshelwood,
properties of elements that had not been was awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
discovered yet. for research into chemical kinetics.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation Work I 15


Translation W o r k

2 Semyonov had a successful career and became a 6 Physicists have discovered that the universe is
Professor at the Moscow State University and expanding at an accelerated rate but they do not
Director of the Institute of Chemical Physics of know why this is happening.
the USSR Academy of Sciences. 7 To explain phenomena they had observed in the
3 Semyonov conducted research into the universe scientists had to assume the existence of
mechanisms of chemical chain reactions. what is called dark matter.
4 A chain reaction is a reaction that, once started,
continues without further outside influence. Unit @
5 A chain reaction can be of various types, but
nuclear chain reactions are the best known.
• Reading 1
6 Semyonov contributed much to the study of
Electricity and magnetism
chemical chain reactions, the theory of thermal
1 Electromagnetic fields exist throughout space.
explosions and the burning of gaseous mixtures.
2 An electromagnetic field exerts a force on
7 Professor Semyonov received many awards
electrically charged particles.
and honours from foreign universities and
3 An electromagnetic field is used to generate
scientific societies.
electricity, which home appliances depend on
for operation.
Unit g > 4 It is widely known that Andre Marie Ampere
was the first to apply mathematics to
• Reading 1
electromagnetism.
Physics
5 The electrical batteries invented by Alessandro
An introduction
Volta were of limited use and could not provide
1 A lot of questions which used to be asked, such as
enough electrical power to operate a machine.
why does the Sun come up in the east or why
6 The discovery of electromagnetism enabled
does it go down in the west, have been answered
scientists to create TVs, phones and
by physics.
electrical motors.
2 The idea that the Sun was the centre of the
7 Maxwell's equations showed that what physicists
universe pushed Europe into a scientific
had believed in for centuries was wrong.
revolution.
3 Isaac Newton, building on Copernicus' and
• Reading 2
Kepler's work, set out his Laws of Motion and
modern physics was born. Michael Faraday
4 Thermodynamics is the study of changes of heat 1 Michael Faraday came from a poor family; because
in matter. he could not get a good school education he
educated himself.
5 James Maxwell's equations were used to
describe light. 2 Faraday had to work so hard to support himself
6 The discovery of X-rays and the work of Marie that he even thought about giving up science at
one point.
Curie on radioactivity led to nuclear physics.
7 Successful experiments in the 1940s resulted in 3 When Faraday worked as Humphrey Davy's
the splitting of a nucleus and led to the world's assistant he built a homopolar motor.
first nuclear explosion. 4 Because mathematics had always been Faraday's
weak point, he worked together with Maxwell.
• Reading 2 5 Faraday managed to build a device which moved a
Physics - the new science fiction magnet through the loops of wire, thus creating an
electric current.
1 Professor Brimble indicated that we still did not
know much about the universe. 6 Faraday's Law of Induction is the foundation of
2 Brimble mainly talked about things that happened electromagnetism and modern technologies.
7 Faraday discovered a way both of making
in the world every day for which there was no
electricity and of making use of it.
scientific explanation.
3 There were theories and ideas which scientists
could not prove because it was very hard to Unit g )
test them.
4 There exist some theories which are definitely • Reading 1
correct, but which are still waiting for new The Law of Universal Gravitation
technologies to develop before they can be applied. 1 The belief in ancient times that the Earth
5 Ball lightning is a mysterious phenomenon which was the centre of the solar system led to
has not been explained yet. incorrect theories.

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Translation W o r k

2 The fact that planets move in elliptical orbits 5 Light is considered to be both a particle and a
around the Sun was explained by Copernicus' wave at the same time.
heliocentric theory. 6 Quantum mechanics explains why atoms are
3 Johannes Kepler tested and proved Copernicus' stable and why they absorb or release energy only
heliocentric theory. in certain ways.
4 It was Isaac Newton who, while observing 7 Scientists have used quantum mechanics to
things around him, realised that objects could be explain a number of phenomena that could not be
in one place without moving. He called this explained before.
phenomenon inertia.
5 The force of gravity is the attraction of one object • Reading 2
towards another. It is determined by the mass of Niels Bohr
the two objects and the distance between them. 1 Niels Bohr is best known as one of the founders of
6 The Law of Universal Gravitation is true quantum mechanics and spectroscopy and as a
everywhere and in all cases, not only on Earth but scientist who suggested his own model of the atom.
also in space. 2 Bohr's father was a professor of physiology so
7 The discovery of the Laws of Gravitation had a Niels became interested in science while he was
strong influence on scientific thinking still very young.
for centuries. 3 In England, Bohr worked with famous scientists
such as Sir Joseph Thomson, who discovered the
• Reading 2 electron, and Ernest Rutherford, who conceived
Isaac Newton the notion of a nucleus within the atom.
1 Newton's mother wanted him to be a farmer but 4 The discover}.' that only uranium-235 could
he was not very good at it. produce the fission chain reaction was a
2 While studying Law at Cambridge, Newton significant contribution towards building the first
became interested in modern philosophy. atomic bomb.
3 Newton's interest in mathematics eventually 5 It is important to mention that Bohr supported
resulted in the invention of calculus. the idea of sharing new technologies with other
4 While working in the field of optics, Isaac Newton countries, including the USSR.
made some important discoveries about light and 6 The world's greatest universities awarded him
colour and built the first reflecting telescope. honorary doctorates.
5 The laws of planetary motion and the Law of 7 Bohr created the theory of spectral lines and
Universal Gravitation discovered by Newton were formulated the principle of complementarity,
of paramount importance. Later they were used which refers to a wave-particle duality.
by Albert Einstein in his scientific work.
6 It is interesting to note that Newton was involved Unit ( B
in politics as well. He was even a Member
of Parliament. • Reading 1
7 Newton is known to have been intolerant to The General Theory of Relativity
criticism. I lis intolerance caused many conflicts 1 Newton claimed that light travels at a constant
and finally he stopped doing research. speed regardless of the observer moving toward or
away from the radiating source.
Unit ( B 2 Albert Einstein tried to solve the problem of light
in his paper The Special Theory of Relativity.
• Reading 1 3 Einstein found that time and space are not
Quantum mechanics constant but relative.
1 As had been suggested by Newton, experiments 4 Einstein's theory was proved experimentally by
proved the idea of light being made up of means of two clocks. The clock that was put on a
tiny particles. flying aeroplane ran slower than the one that had
2 In 1900, Max Planck assumed that hot bodies been left on the ground.
radiated energy in packets called quanta. 5 During a solar eclipse it was found that the light
3 The theory of photoelectric effect explains how coming from stars was bent. This discovery
photons can knock an electron out of an atom. brought international fame to Einstein.
4 It has been found that the electrons in atoms can 6 Einstein assumed that gravity was not a force but
absorb and radiate a certain amount of energy an illustration of curved space and time.
only when moved from one stable orbit to 7 Many scientists used Einstein's equations to
another. In a stable orbit, electrons do not describe other phenomena and got
radiate energy. positive results.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation Work I 15


Translation W o r k

• Reading 2 2 The proof of a mathematical truth is called


Albert Einstein a theorem.
1 Albert Einstein is known as one of the greatest 3 There are four operations that are used in
physicists of all time. arithmetic: addition, subtraction, multiplication
2 While still at Luitpold Gymnasium, Einstein wrote and division.
his first scientific work The Investigation of The 4 A branch of mathematics that originated in the
State of Aether in Magnetic Fields. Arab world is called algebra.
3 Einstein was qualified to teach Physics and 5 We see the things around us in three dimensions:
Mathematics but could not get a teaching height, width and length. That is why Euclidean
position then. geometry is three-dimensional. Einstein added
4 While working at the Patent Office, he began to do time as the fourth dimension.
research in the field of physics and made some 6 Calculus uses functions that set the relationship
outstanding discoveries. between argument and result.
5 Einstein's Theory of Relativity caused an upheaval 7 Probability Theory7 is the mathematical study of
in the scientific world as it completely overturned chance and is used to predict the results of tests
the long-standing Law of Universal Gravitation. and to analyse information.
6 The Nobel Prize for Physics was given to Einstein in
1921 for his work on the photoelectric effect. He Unit ©
proved that when matter was exposed to
electromagnetic radiation, electrons were produced. • Reading 1
7 Einstein never worked on the atomic bomb Algebra
because he had always been against war and 1 The branch of mathematics which studies the
weapons of mass destruction. structure of things, the relationship between
things and their quantitative characteristics, is
Unit a t called algebra. It uses symbols, usually letters,
and operators.
• Reading 1 2 To understand the system of numbers more
Mathematics clearly, mathematicians stopped using numbers.
An introduction 3 The advantage of not using numbers is the
1 The word mathematics comes from Greek and generalisation of both the problems and
means science, learning and knowledge. the solutions.
2 As society developed, it became necessary for 4 Algebra is divided into four areas: elementary,
people to be able to count their belongings, so abstract or modern, linear and universal.
numbers became significant. 5 Linear algebra studies linear transformations and
3 Several systems for recording numbers developed vector spaces including matrices.
in different parts of the world. One example is the 6 The ideas common to all algebraic structures are
tallies that were used by Incas: they tied knots studied in universal algebra.
along a string to keep tax records. 7 By using algebra, people are able to perform
4 The idea of number was the first to have been calculations with unknown quantities.
developed in mathematics. Since then
mathematics has developed immensely becoming • Reading 2
much more complex. Gottfried Leibniz
5 Nowadays, Arabic numbers are used by 1 Gottfried Leibniz is said to be the inventor
mathematicians all over the world. of calculus.
6 Whether or not mathematics is a science has been 2 He published his works on calculus three years
debated for years. However, since mathematics is before Newton did.
applied to all sciences, this debate is of no 3 It is important to mention that Leibniz was the
real importance. first to use words such as tangent and chord.
7 It is said that mathematics is as international a 4 Leibniz was the first to introduce a system
language as music is. for writing equations and the modern
mathematical language.
• Reading 2 5 Leibniz's work in the field of infinitesimal calculus
Mathematics is of paramount importance.
1 The great Greek scientist Pythagoras proved that 6 Differential calculus is concerned with
in a right-angled triangle, the square of the side of measuring the rates of change of quantities,
the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares while integral calculus studies the accumulation
of the other two sides. of quantities.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation WorkI15


Translation Work

7 It was Gottfried Leibniz who made the most Unit Щ


important contribution to calculus and who
ascertained that linear equations in algebra could • Reading 1
be arranged into matrices. Calculus
1 The branch of mathematics that deals with the
Unit flj) rates of change of quantities, the length, area and
volume of objects is called calculus.
2 Length, area and volume are studied by integral
• Reading 1
calculus while differential calculus describes
Geometry
processes that are in flux.
1 The roots of geometry go back to ancient times
3 It is interesting to note that the first forms of
when people tried to solve practical problems,
calculus were used by the ancient Greeks to
using geometrical knowledge. They measured
measure area and volume.
weight for example, by using definite
4 Newton was the first to use calculus in his studies
geometrical shapes such as the cone, the
of physics.
cylinder and the cube.
5 Calculus has proven to be an indispensable
2 The ancient Greeks wanted to find the truth
tool in medicine, engineering, economics
about the world around them and developed a
and business.
system of logical thinking called deduction.
6 Thanks to integral calculus, it is possible to
3 It has been proved that even earlier civilisations
calculate the speed of a car at any given moment
knew about some geometrical principles
if you know its acceleration rate.
and theorems.
7 You can use differential calculus to calculate the
4 Euclid, a Greek living in Egypt, defined basic
rate at which temperature changes as well as the
geometrical terms and five basic axioms. Thus,
acceleration of a moving body.
Euclidean geometry, which is still successfully
used today, was born. • Reading 2
5 It is a well-known fact that you can join any two Pierre de Fermat
points with a straight line. 1 Pierre de Fermat started his career practising
6 In the 17 t h and 18 t h centuries analytic geometry law and even became the chief magistrate of
was created and it became possible to measure the criminal court, which was a highly
curved lines. respected position.
7 Non-Euclidean geometry' was founded by 2 Fermat achieved astounding results in the field of
Lobachevskv, Gauss and Bolyai in the 19 t h mathematics. However, he did not receive much
century. recognition during his lifetime.
3 Fermat's ideas in mathematics were so advanced
• Reading 2 that it took more than three hundred years to
Rene Descartes prove his last theorem.
1 Rene Descartes was born at a time when the great 4 The way Pierre de Fermat presented his work
wars in Europe had ended and the peaceful was quite annoying for fellow mathematicians
atmosphere encouraged creative thinking and the as he stated the theorems but neglected
questioning of old beliefs. the proofs.
2 In the middle of the 15 t h century the ideas of the 5 Fermat formulated a law on the way light travels
great Greek and Islamic thinkers spread thus making a great contribution to optics.
around Europe. 6 Fermat independently came up with a
3 Descartes began to work both in the field of three-dimensional analytic geometry, a system
mathematics and philosophy after completing which was more complex than Descartes'
his education. Cartesian coordinates.
4 He tried to find answers to philosophical 7 Fermat and Blaise Pascal are both considered to
questions by applying mathematical methodology. be the founders of Probability Theory.
5 The only thing Descartes was sure of was that he
himself existed. Unit @
6 Religious leaders criticised Descartes for
his ideas, which were very different from • Reading 1
traditional ones. Applied m a t h e m a t i c s
7 Descartes realised the importance of measuring 1 People have always been faced with a lot of
curved lines and created the Cartesian practical problems. Mathematics came into being
coordinate system. as they tried to solve them.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation Work 121


Translation W o r k

2 One of the most remarkable achievements ever 2 The Academy offered scientists from any
was the creation of applied mathematics, which country the opportunity to do their research in
provides us with answers and solutions to many complete freedom.
different problems. 3 From its earliest days, the Academy carried out
3 The first step when using applied mathematics is mathematical research, which added greatly to
the creation of a mathematical model. This is a the development of calculus, hydrodynamics,
description of the problem in mathematical terms. mechanics, optics, astronomy, and made
4 If there is an exact solution, the model is applied discoveries in various fields, such as chemistry,
to the problem. However, if the solution is physics and geology.
approximate, the model is refined until the 4 The 19 t h century was a period of numerous
solution is exact. significant developments and discoveries; the
5 A mathematical model should be realistic members of the Academy played a leading role in
enough to reflect the main aspects of the problem developing science in Russia.
being studied, but simple enough to be 5 Among notable achievements were the invention
treated mathematically. of the radio, the creation of the periodic table of
6 Problems sometimes lead to new mathematical chemical elements, the discovery of viruses and
methods, and existing mathematical methods often the cell mechanisms of immunity.
lead to a new understanding of the problems. 6 Today, the Russian Academy of Sciences
7 To successfully deal with a problem, an applied supervises the research of a large group of
mathematician needs to be skilled in mathematics institutions within Russia which focus on different
as well as knowledgeable about the field to which research areas.
mathematics is being applied. 7 The Space Research Institute of the Russian
Academy of Sciences has set up a network, called
• Reading 2 the Russian Space Science Internet, which links
Norbert Wiener over 3000 members.
1 Norbert Wiener was a very gifted student and at
the age of 18 he was awarded a PhD for a • Reading 2
dissertation on mathematical logic. Russian Nobel Prize winners in Physics
2 In the 1940s, Wiener did research on anti- and Chemistry
aircraft devices at Massachusetts Institute of 1 Nikolay Semyonov was the first Russian to
Technology (USA), a project which played an receive a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1956
important part in his development of the science for his research into the mechanism of
of cybernetics. chemical reactions.
3 The idea of cybernetics came to Wiener when he 2 In 1958 Pavel Cherenkov, Igor Tamni and Ilva
began to consider the ways in which machines Frank won the Nobel Prize for Physics for
and human minds work. discovering and describing the phenomenon known
4 Cybernetics is the study of the ways living as the CherenkovAavilov effect, a phenomenon
organisms and machines process information. which is very important in nuclear physics.
5 Wiener's works concern mainly logic and 3 Lev Landau was awarded the Nobel Prize for
mathematics, cybernetics, mathematical physics Physics in 1962 for his theory of superfluidity in
and philosophical issues. helium.
6 Due to his involvement in many different 4 Nikolay Basov and Alexandr Prokhorov won the
disciplines, Wiener was able to draw on many Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 for their
resources in his varied research, thus making him pioneering work in quantum electronics that led
an incredibly successful applied scientist. to the development of the laser.
7 Creating a machine that imitates the human way 5 For his fundamental inventions and discoveries in
of thinking was a remarkable achievement of the the area of low-temperature physics Pvotr Kapitsa
20 t h century. was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978.
6 Zhores Alferov received the Nobel Prize for
Unit Щ Physics in 2000 for the development of the
semiconductor heterostructures used in high-
• Reading 1 speed electronics and optoelectronics.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) 7 Vitaly Ginsburg and Alexei Abrikosov shared the
1 Founded in St Petersburg in 1724 by Peter the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2003, which they
Great, the academy was opened in 1725 by his received for pioneering contributions to the
widow, Catherine I, under the name of the St theory of superconductors and superfluids.
Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

Macmillan Guide to Science Translation WorkI15


Glossary
г
A
abacus /asbakasi счёты to calculate /kaslkjuleit/ вычислять
abiogenesis /eibaiai'djenasis/ абиогенез (самозарождение calculus (мн. ч. calculi, calculuses) /kaelkjulas/ мат.
живых организмов, или возникновение живого из исчисление
неживого) cancer /ka;nsa/ рак
to absorb /ab'zo:b/ поглощать carbon /ка:Ьэп/ углерод
to accelerate /akselareit/ ускорять catalyst /kaetalist/ катализатор (вещество, ускоряющее
accelerating universefek'setareitn)ju:niv3:s/ химическую реакцию, но само при этом не
расширяющаяся Вселенная изменяющееся)
accountfok'aunt/счёт; расчёт cell /sel/ биол. клетка
acid /assidI кислота chain reaction /tjein riaekjan/ цепная реакция
to adapt I /adaspt/ приспосабливать, адаптировать to charge /tjaidb/ заряжать
to add ted/ 1. прибавлять, присоединять (/с чему-либо) chemical /kemikal/ химическое соединение
2. прибавлять, добавлять (к сказанному) 3. мат. chord Ikxdl мат. хорда (прямолинейный отрезок,
складывать; прибавлять соединяющий две произвольно выбранные точки
adenine /aedani:n/ аденин (азотистое основание, кривой)
входящее в состав ДНК) circle /s3:k9l/ 1. круг; окружность 2. круг (круг
adjustment /adjAstmant/ коррекция, исправление общения и т. п.)
to advance /ad'va:ns/ 1. продвигаться вперёд 2. circulation of blood /seikju'leijan av bl,\d/
(быстро) развиваться, делать (большие) успехи кровообращение
aether /i:9а/ эфир (летучее вещество) cloning /klaumi]/ клонирование
to affectfo'fekt/влиять, воздействовать coil /kort/ виток
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) /eidz/ to coin a term /кэш a t3:m/ вводить термин, создавать
СПИД /akwaia'd imju:n di'fijnsi 'sindraum/ (синдром новый термин
приобретённого иммунодефицита) to collide /kalaid/ сталкиваться; соударяться
alkali /aelkolai/ щёлочь combustion /кэт'Ьфэп/ горение
to alter /o:lta/ изменять complex organism /kompleks a:ganiz3m/ сложный
amoeba (мн. ч. amoebas, amoebae) /ami:ba/ амёба организм, многоклеточный организм
angle /'aer)g3l/ угол complicated /kompli'keitid/ сложный
anthrax /'aenBraeks/ сибирская язва compound /kam'paund/ хим. соединение
applied mathematics /э plaid mste'maetiks/ прикладная conclusion /капк1и:зэп/ вывод, заключение
математика conditioned reflexes /kan'dijand riifleksiz/ условные
approximation /aproksi'meipW приближённое значение рефлексы
area /еэпэ/1. площадь, пространство; мат. площадь conductor /kondAkto/ физ. проводник (вещество с очень
2. область, зона, район 3. область, сфера деятельность малым удельным сопротивлением, хорошо проводящее
argument /aigjumant/ мат. аргумент, аргумент электрический ток благодаря наличию большого числа
функции (независимая переменная, от значений свободных электронов)
которой зависят значения функции) cone /кэип/ конус
axiom /'aeksiam/ аксиома consequence /kansikwansI (по)следствие, результат
(чего-либо)
to constitute /konstitjuit/ составлять
to consume /kan'sju:m/ поглощать; потреблять,
balance /'baelons/ зд. весы расходовать
ball lightning /Ьэ:1 laitniq/ шаровая молния copper /кэрэ/ медь
to bend /bend/ сгибать(ся) core /ко:/ сердцевина; суть, сущность
biological family /baiabdjik'l faemli/ биол. семейство creature /kri:tja/ создание, творение; живое существо
to blend /blend/ смешивать(ся) crop /кгэр/ сельскохозяйственная культура
'blending theory' /blendn] 'tenI теория независимого to cross /kros/ 1. пересекать 2. биол. скрещивать
наследования признаков crust /kr\st/ корка (Earth's crust земная кора)
boiling point /bailir) point/ точка кипения cube /kju:b/ куб
to bound together /baund tagебэ/ связывать; объединять cubed /kju:bd/ мат. в кубе, в третьей степени,
boundary /'ЬашкРп/ граница, предел возведённый в куб
breakthrough /'breikQru:/ достижение, открытие, curve 1кз:\1 кривая
победа, прорыв (в развитии науки или технологии) cytosine /saitausi:nI цитозин (азотистое основание,
входящее в состав ДНК)

Macmillan Guide со Science Glossary 123


Glossary

приравнивать; ставить знак равенства 2. равняться)


Г) equation /ikweison/ уравнение
to establish /i staeblrj/ учреждать, основывать, устанаативать
to damage /daemsd3/ повреждать, портить,
to estimate /estimeit/ приблизительно оценивать,
наносить/причинять ущерб
давать приближённую оценку
to decay /dikei/ гнить, разлагаться
to evolve /I'VOIV/ эволюционировать, развиваться
decimal system /desamsl sistgm/ десятичная система
to exclude /iksklu:d/ исключать
deduction /didAkJsn/ логический вывод, дедукция;
to expand /ik'spaend/ 1. расширять(ся); увеличивать(ся)
вывод, заключение
в объёме, в размерах 2. развивать(ся)
to denote /di'nsut/ обозначать
explosion /ik'spbu39n/ взрыв
density /densati/ плотность
extinct /ik'stiqkt/ исчезнувший; вымерший
deposit /di'pozit/ зд. месторождение (угля, железной
руды, газа и т. п.); залежь
to destroy /di'stroi/ уничтожать, разрушать F
А
destructive /di'strAktiv/ разрушительный
to fertilize /f3:tslaiz/ биол. оплодотворять; опылять
device /di'vais/ устройство, приспособление; механизм;
fibre /faibs/ волокно
аппарат, прибор, машина
finite /fainait/ ограниченный, имеющий предел; мат.
to devise /di'vaiz/ придумывать; изобретать
конечный
differential calculus /difs'renjal kaelkjulas/
fission №f п/ физ. деление атомного ядра;
дифференциальное исчисление
расщепление атомного ядра
disease /dizi:z/ болезнь
flammable /flaemsb9!/ легковоспламеняющийся
to disintegrate /di'sintigreit/ разрушать(ея); распадаться;
flavour /fleivs/ 1. вкус 2. вкусовая добавка
расщеплять
flesh /flej/ тело, плоть
to disprove /dis'pruiv/ опровергать; доказывать ложность,
flax /fkks/ 1. поток 2. постоянное движение;
ошибочность, несостоятельность (чего-либо)
постоянное изменение
to dissect /disekt/ мед. анатомировать, вскрывать,
fluxion /flAkfn/ производная (одно из основных
препарировать
понятий дифференциального исчисления,
diverse /dai'v3:s/ разнообразный
характеризующее скорость изменения функции)
to divide /di'vaid/ 1. делить(ся); распределять(ся) 2. мат.
food chain /fu:d tjein/ цепь питания
делить; делиться нацело, без остатка
force of gravity /fo:s s\ 'graevoti/ сила гравитации
division /di'vi33n/ 1. деление, разделение 2. мат. деление
foundation /faundeipW основание, основа
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) /diien'ei/ /,di:oksiraib3unjukli:ik
fuel /1]и:э1/ топливо
aesidI ДНК (дезоксирибонуклеиновая кислота)
double helix /dAb'l hi:liks/ двойная спирать, двойная functional analysis /fAijkJsrfl s'naelasiz/ функциональный
спираль ДНК анализ
to drop /drop/ падать; опускать(ся) Г
drug /drAg/ лекарство
duality /dju'aebti/ 1. раздвоенность, раздвоение 2. дуализм gadget /gaed3it/ штучка, игрушка; приспособление
gene therapy /d3i:n Oerapi/ генная терапия
С to generate Мзетагеп/ генерировать, производить
generation Мзепэге^п/ поколение
electric current /ilektrik клгэт/ электрический ток
genetic composition йзе'пеик komp3'ziJ3n/генетичесюшсостав
electric forces /ilektrik fo-.sizI электрические силы
gene /d3i:n/ ген
electrical bulb /i'lektnk3l Ьл1Ь/ электрическая лампа,
лампа накаливания geocentric theory /d3i:3u'sentnk 'бгэпI геоцентрическая
теория
electrical charge Mektrik'l tjaidj/ электрический заряд
germ Мзз:т/ бактерии, микробы, микроорганизмы
electromagnetic field /ilektreumaeg'netik fir'ld/
germ theory (of disease) Мзз:т бгэп I микробная теория
электромагнитное поле
инфекционных заболеваний
electromagnetic motor /ilektrsumaag'netik mnuta/
goal /gaul/ цель
электродвигатель с постоянными магнитами,
gravity /graevsti/ тяготение, гравитация,
магнитоэлектрический двигатель
гравитационное взаимодействие
elliptical /rliptik9l/ эллиптический
guanine /gwa:ni:n/ гуанин (азотистое основание,
to emerge Л'тз^з/ появляться; возникать (о вопросе)
входящее в состав нуклеиновых кислот; одно из 4-х
endangered /m'deind33d/ исчезающий; находящийся под
азотистых оснований, входящих в состав ДНК)
угрозой исчезновения; вымирающий
engine /епёзт/ двигатель
environment /mvairemmnt/ окружающая среда н
1 1
enzyme /enzaim/ энзим, фермент (белковые молекулы
habitat /hasbitast/ среда обитания
или их комплексы, ускоряющие химические реакции в
haemophilia /hiimafilia/ гемофилия (наследственное
живых системах)
заболевание, выражающееся в склонности к
equal /i:kwsl/ равный; одинаковый (to equal мат. 1.

124 Macmillan Guide to Science Glossary


Glossary

кровотечениям вследствие несвёртывания крови) электромагнитной индукции


headquarter /hed,kwa:ta/ штаб-квартира the Law of Universal Gravitation /бэ b: r av ju:m'v3:sal
helium /hi:liam/ гелий graeviieijan/ Закон всемирного тяготения
helix /hiiliks/ спираль the laws of motion /бэ b:z av maujan/ законы Ньютона,
heredity /haredati/ наследственность законы движения
heterostructure /hetarau'strAktJa/ гетероструктура layer /leia/ слой
(комбинация нескольких гетеропереходов (контактов lead /led/ свинец
между двумя различными по химическому составу life span /laif spaen/ продолжительность жизни
полупроводниками), применяемая в полупроводниковых linear algebra /lima аеМзЛгэ/ линейная алгебра (часть
лазерах, светоизлучающих диодах и т. п.) алгебры, изучающая векторы, векторные (линейные)
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) /eitjai'vi:/ ВИЧ пространства, линейные отображения и системы
Овирус иммунодефицита человека) линейных уравнений)
homopolar motor /.Ьэшпэи'рэиЬ тэшэ/ униполярный linear transformation /lima traensf9pmeij3n/ линейное
электродвигатель преобразование
household appliances /haushauld op'laionsiiz/ бытовые liquid /likwid/ жидкий
приборы litmus /litmas/ лакмус (красящее вещество, добываемое
hydrochloric acid /haidraukbrik aesidI соляная кислота из некоторых лишайников; применяется как
hydrogen /haidraudjsn/ водород индикатор для определения реакции среды, имея
hypotenuse /harpotanjuiz/ гипотенуза красную окраску в кислой среде и синюю в щелочной)
to hypothesize /hai'poBasaiz/ предполагать; вьщвигать long-standing /10:13 staendir)/ зд. устоявшийся
гипотезу loop of wire /1и:р av waia/ виток провода

I М
to immunise /'imjunaiz/ иммунизировать, прививать от maggot /msgat/ личинка
чего-либо magnetic needle /maegnetik 'nixPl/ магнитная стрелка
impact /impaekt/ влияние (напр. компаса)
inertia /г'пз:|э/ инерция mammal /maem'l/ млекопитающее
to infect /m'fekt/ заражать, инфицировать mathematical notation /тге0э'тагикэ1 nauteijan/
infinitesimal calculus /infinitesimal kaelkjubs/ анализ математическое обозначение; математическая запись
бесконечно малых величин matrix (мн. ч. matrices) /meitriks/ матрица
infinity /irifinati/ бесконечность matter /тала/ материя; вещество
to inhabit /m'haebit/ населять to measure /теза/ измерять
inheritance /mheritons/ наследие mineral recovery /ттэгЧ ri'kAvari/ добыча полезных
to inject /in'd3ekt/ делать укол ископаемых
input /'input/ 1. ввод (данных, информации) 2. вход mint /mint/ монетный двор
integer /intid3a/ целое число modelling process /'modalnj prauses/ процесс
integral calculus /intigral kelkjubs/ интегральное моделирования
исчисление multi-celled organism /тл1и seld aigamzam/
interior angle /in'tiaria asrig0!/ внутренний угол многоклеточный организм
to intersect /inta'sekt/ пересекать multidimensional /mAltidaimenJan3i/ многомерный
iron /aian/ железо to multiply /mAltiplai/ умножать
muscle cell /'niAsnl selI мышечная клетка
-О N
jar Мза:/ стеклянный сосуд
to join Мзэт/ присоединяться; вступать natural numbers /nstjaral плтЬаг/ натуральные числа
(целые положительные числа 1, 2, 3... и т. д.,
образующие натуральный ряд)

К natural selection /naetjaral sa'lekjan/ естественный отбор


nerve cell /n3:rv selI нервная клетка
to keep tax records /ki:p tasks rekoidz/ вести учёт notion of space-time /'naujan av speis an taim/ физ.
налогов понятие пространства-времени (понятие,
отображающее единство реального существования
T пространства и времени)
L nuclear disarmament /njuiklia disa:mamant/ ядерное
larva /la:va/ личинка разоружение
the Law of Conservation of Mass /бэ b: r av kansa'veijon av nuclear fusion /njuiklia fju^an/ термоядерный синтез;
massI Закон сохранения массы слияние ядер
the Law of Induction /бэ b: r av mckkjan/ Закон nucleotides /nju:klia,taidz/ нуклеотиды (фосфорные эфиры

Macmillan Guide to Science Glossary 125


Glossary

нуклеозидов, состоящие из азотистого основания, используется неточный термин «теория вероятности»)


углевода и одного или нескольких остатков фосфорной progenitor /praud3enit3/ предшественник
кислоты; играют важную роль в энергетических и property /•ргэрэи/ 1. свойство; качество 2.
информационных внутриклеточных процессах, являясь собственность
составными частями нуклеиновых кислот, коферментов protozoa /ргэшэигэиэ/ простейшие животные
и других биологически активных соединений) организмы
nucleus (мн. ч. nuclei) /njuiklias/ ядро pump /рлгпр/ насос
numeral /nju:rmral/ цифра (Arabic numerals арабские to put forward /put fo:rw3d/ выдвигать, предлагать (идею)
цифры; Roman numerals римские цифры) put in charge /put in tja:d31 назначать ответственным

О Q
offspring /ofspru]/ потомок quality /kwobtiI качество
oil bi'l/ нефть quantitative chemistry /kwontitstiv kemistri/
oil refining industry /oisi rifainii] indastri/ количественная химия
нефтеперерабатывающая промышленность quantity /kwontsti/ количество
operator /opo.reito/ мат. оператор (символ /знак quantum mechanics /kwontsm mikasmks/ квантовая
операции) механика
optics /'optiks/ оптика
ore loil руда
organic base /o:'ga2nik beisI органическое основание
origin /orid3in/ происхождение rabies /reibi:z/ бешенство (вирусная болезнь человека и
output /'autput/ 1. вывод (данных, информации) 2. выход животных)
3. выходная информация to radiate /reidieit/ излучать
oxygen /oksid33n/ кислород radio wave /'reidisu weiv/ радиоволна
р radioactivity /reidisu aek'tivsti/ радиоактивность
radius /rerdias/ радиус
rate /reit/ скорость (at the rate со скоростью)
pangenesis /paen^enssiz/ пангенезис, пангенез rectangle Arektaei]gsl/ прямоугольник
(выдвинутая Ч. Дарвином гипотеза наследственности,rectangular /rek'teqjub/ прямоугольный
согласно которой признаки и свойства родителей to reduce /ridju:s/ сокрашать(ся)
передаются потомству посредством мельчайших to refer to /пТз: tu/ относиться к чему-либо
зародышей, поступающих в половые клетки из всех to refine /ri'fain/ зд. усовершенствовать/построить
других клеток организма; позднее сам Ч. Дарвин более совершенную (математическую модель)
признал её неудовлетворительной) reflecting telescope /riflektii] teliskaup/ зеркальный
particle /ра:пкэ1/ частица телескоп
patent office /peitsnt ofis/ патентное бюро relative /rebtiv/ относительный
pattern /paetsn/ 1. образец, модель; шаблон, структура to release /n'li:s/ 1. выпускать 2. освобождать
2. характер; особенность replica /repliks/ реплика, точная копия (напр. генная
phenomenon (мн. ч. phenomena) /fs'nominanI мат. реплика, т. е. точная копия гена)
явление, фенёмен resistance /ri'zistsns/ устойчивость, сопротивляемость
plagiarism /'pleid^ariz^m/ плагиат respiration /respsreijon/ дыхание
plane /plein/ мат. плоскость to reveal /rivi:sl/ открывать, раскрывать; обнаруживать
pollen /рэЬп/ пыльца to revolve /ri'valv/ вращаться (вокруг чего-либо)
pollution /рэ'1и:/эп/ загрязнение right-angled triangle /rait ®i]g3ld 'traiasqg'l I
polygon /poligsn/ многоугольник прямоугольный треугольник
polymath /рзктагб/ человек с энциклопедическими RNA (ribonucleic acid) /a:renei/ /'raibsunjuikleik sesid/
знаниями;эрудит РНК (рибонук,1еиновая кислота)
potassium /ps'taesism/ калий rod /rod/ палочка
powder /pauda/ 1. порошок 2. порох rot /rot/ гнилой
power /раиэ/ 1. сила; мощность 2. энергия to rotate /rau'teit/ вращаться
to predict /pri'dikt/ предсказывать
preservative /priz3:vativ/ консервант
to preserve /priz3:v/ сохранять; консервировать
s
pressure /рге/эI давление satellite navigation system /sastalait naevi'geijon sistsm/
to prevent /pri vent/ предотвращать спутниковая навигационная система
principle of complementarity /'pnnsap^l э\< komplimentaereti/ semiconductors /semikandAktsz/ полупроводники
принцип дополнительности (вещества, электрическая проводимость которых при
Probability Theory /prabs'bibti бюп/ теория комнатной температуре занимает промежуточное
вероятностей (в популярной литературе нередко положение между проводимостью металлов и

126 Macmillan Guide to Science Glossary


Glossary

диэлектриков, причём с повышением температуры их внимание, учитывать


проводимость резко возрастает) tally /taeli/ 1. итог, итоговый результат 2. палочка с
sequence /siikwans/ ряд, последовательность зарубками или веревочка с узелками,
shell /JelI 1. оболочка 2. раковина обозначающими сумму долга
to shrink /Jriqk/ 1. уменьшаться 2. уменьшать, сокращать tangent /taend3ant/ 1. касательная 2. тангенс
to simplify /simplifai/ упрощать, облегчать theory of relativity /6iari av reb'tivati/ теория
single-celled organism /siqg'l seld oiganizam/ относительности
одноклеточный организм thermodynamics /03:maudai'nasmiks/ термодинамика
slope /slaup/ уклон, наклон three-dimensional microchip /Gri: daimenjanal maikrautjip/
smallpox /smo:lpoks/ оспа трёхмерный микрочип
sodium /saudiam/ натрий thymine /0aiami:n/ тимин (азотистое основание,
solar eclipse /saula i klips/ солнечное затмение входящее в состав ДНК)
solar system /saula sistam/ солнечная система tissue /tiju:/ биол. ткань
solid /solid/ твёрдый trait /treit/ признак; характерная черта, особенность
solution /saluijan/ раствор transformation /trasnsfa'meijan/ превращение
source /so:s/ источник transmission of information /traenZmiJan av infa'meijan/
spatial /speijalI пространственный передача информации
species /spi:Ji:z/ биол. вид (мн. ч. также species) to transpose /trasns'pauz/ преобразовывать
spectral line /spektral lain/ спектральная линия (узкий transversal /traenz'v3:sal/ поперечный
участок спектра излучения, соответствующий triangle /traiaeqg9l/ треугольник
определённой частоте (длине волны) trigonometry /triga'nomatri/ тригонометрия
to split up /split лрI расшеплять(ся) twig /twig/ веточка
spontaneous generation /spon'teinias djenareijan/
самозарождение
square root /skwea ru:t/ квадратный корень

squared /skwead/ в квадрате, во второй степени universe /ju:niv3:s/ Вселенная
stable orbit Isteib'l D i b i t / стационарная орбита to untwist /An'twist/ разматывать(ся)
static electricity /'staetik ilektrisati/ статическое upheaval /Aphiival/ перен. переворот, потрясение
электричество (явление, при котором на поверхности (в обществе)
и в объёме диэлектриков и полупроводников возникают
и накапливаются свободные электрические заряды) Vv
stem cells /stem selzI стволовые клетки
strand /straend/ биол. цепь, нить vacuum chamber / vaekjuam tjeimba/ вакуумная камера
to stretch /stretj/ растягивать(ся) value /vaelju:/ величина; значение
subatomic particle /.sAbatomik 'puitik3!/ элементарная variable /veariabal/ переменная
частица vector space /vekta speis/ векторное пространство,
substance /'sAbstans/ вещество линейное пространство
to subtract /sabtraekt/ вычитать vision /vi3an/ зд. концепция
successive generation /sak'sesiv d3ena'reijan/ последующее volume /voljuim/ объём
поколение
successor /sak'sesa/ преемник — Q
sum ls\ml сумма
superconductor /,su:pakaridAkta/ сверхпроводник wall /wo:l/ стенка; оболочка
(вещество, переходящее в сверхпроводящее состояние waste /weist/ отходы
при охлаждении его ниже определённой критической wave motion /weiv maujan/ движение волны
температуры) wave particle duality /weiv pa:tik3l dju'aebti/
superfluidity /,su:pafluidati/ сверхтекучесть (особое корпускулярно-волновой дуализм (представление о
состояние квантовой жидкости, при котором она природе элементарных частиц, в соответствии с
способна протекать через узкие щели и капилляры без которым они обладают свойствами и частиц, и волн)
внутреннего трения) wavelength /weivlet]6/ длина волны
superstition /,su:pa'stijan/ предрассудок weapons of mass destruction /wepanz av mass di'strAkJan/
surface /s3:fis/ поверхность оружие массового поражения
to surround /sa'raund/ окружать width /wide/ ширина
system of notation /sistam av nau'teijan/ система wire /waia/ провод
обозначений wireless /waialas/ беспроводной
Mb
I
1 X
tadpole /tffidpaul/ головастик X-rays /eksreiz/ рентгеновское излучение,
to take into account /teik intu akaunt/ принимать во рентгеновские лучи

Macmillan Guide to Science Glossary 127


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