Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

MT30001

MATERIALS ENGINEERING (30001)

Tapas Laha, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur - 721302, India Phone: 913222-283242 Email: laha@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

Chapter 12 - 1

Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur - 721302, India Phone: 913222-283242 Email: laha@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in Chapter 12 - 1

Chapter 12: Applications and Properties of Ceramics

This handout is a summarized version of the materials taught in the classes. Students must read the references books along with this handout.

Adopted from Material Science and Engineering: An Introduction By William D. Callister, Jr. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 12 - 2

Science and Engineering: An Introduction By William D. Callister, Jr. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter

MATERIALS

METALS CERAMICS POLYMERS COMPOSITES
METALS
CERAMICS
POLYMERS
COMPOSITES

Chapter 12 - 3

MATERIALS METALS CERAMICS POLYMERS COMPOSITES Chapter 12 - 3

APPLICATIONS OF METALS

Chapter 12 - 4
Chapter 12 - 4

APPLICATIONS OF POLYMERS

Tires and wheels Container and career Bottles and flasks Chapter 12 - 5
Tires and
wheels
Container and
career
Bottles and flasks
Chapter 12 - 5

APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS

Chapter 12 - 6
Chapter 12 - 6

APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSITES

Graphite reinforced aluminum alloy parts Composites used in aircrafts Chapter 12 - 7
Graphite reinforced
aluminum alloy parts
Composites used
in aircrafts
Chapter 12 - 7

ISSUES TO ADDRESS

• What are ceramics

• Types

• What are some applications of ceramics?

• Mechanical Properties: What special provisions/tests are made for ceramic materials?

Chapter 12 - 8

of ceramics ? • Mechanical Properties: What special provisions/tests are made for ceramic materials? Chapter 12

• Properties:

-- Mech, electrical, thermal

• Applications:

-- High T, wear resistant, novel uses from charge neutrality

• Fabrication

-- some glasses can be easily formed -- other ceramics can not be formed or cast

Chapter 12 - 9

• Fabrication -- some glasses can be easily formed -- other ceramics can not be formed
Chapter 12 - 1 0

Chapter 12 - 10

Chapter 12 - 1 0

Glass

Glass Chapter 12 - 1 1

Chapter 12 - 11

Glass Chapter 12 - 1 1
Chapter 12 - 12
Chapter 12 - 12

Application: Refractories

• Need a material to use in high temperature furnaces.

• Consider the Silica (SiO 2 ) - Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) system.

• Phase diagram shows:

mullite, alumina, and crystobalite as candidate refractories.

2200 3Al 2 O 3 -2SiO 2 T(°C) mullite 2000 Liquid alumina + L (L)
2200
3Al 2 O 3 -2SiO 2
T(°C)
mullite
2000
Liquid
alumina + L
(L)
1800
mullite
crystobalite
+ L
alumina
+ L
+
1600
mullite
mullite
+ crystobalite
1400
0
20
40
60
80
100

Composition (wt% alumina)

Chapter 12 - 13

+ L + 1600 mullite mullite + crystobalite 1400 0 20 40 60 80 100 Composition
t01_12_pg433 Chapter 12 - 1 4

t01_12_pg433

Chapter 12 - 14

t01_12_pg433 Chapter 12 - 1 4

Application: Die

Die:

-- Need wear resistant properties!

die A d die
die
A d
die

tensile

force

A o

wear resistant properties! die A d die tensile force A o • Die surface: -- 4
wear resistant properties! die A d die tensile force A o • Die surface: -- 4
wear resistant properties! die A d die tensile force A o • Die surface: -- 4
wear resistant properties! die A d die tensile force A o • Die surface: -- 4

• Die surface:

-- 4 μm polycrystalline diamond particles that are sintered onto a cemented tungsten carbide substrate. -- polycrystalline diamond helps control fracture and gives uniform hardness in all directions.

-- polycrystalline diamond helps control fracture and gives uniform hardness in all directions. Chapter 12 -

Chapter 12 - 15

Application: Cutting Tools

• Tools:

-- for grinding glass, tungsten, carbide, ceramics -- for cutting Si wafers -- for oil drilling

• Solutions:

-- manufactured single crystal or polycrystalline diamonds in a metal or resin matrix. -- optional coatings (e.g., Ti to help diamonds bond to a Co matrix via alloying) -- polycrystalline diamonds resharpen by microfracturing along crystalline planes.

resharpen by microfracturing along crystalline planes. oil drill bits blades coated single crystal diamonds
resharpen by microfracturing along crystalline planes. oil drill bits blades coated single crystal diamonds

oil drill bits

by microfracturing along crystalline planes. oil drill bits blades coated single crystal diamonds polycrystalline
by microfracturing along crystalline planes. oil drill bits blades coated single crystal diamonds polycrystalline

blades

coated single crystal diamonds

polycrystalline diamonds in a resin matrix.

Chapter 12 - 16

oil drill bits blades coated single crystal diamonds polycrystalline diamonds in a resin matrix. Chapter 12

Application: Sensors

• Example: Oxygen sensor

• Principle: diffusion of ions

• Approach:

Add Ca impurity to ZrO2:

-- increases O 2- vacancies -- increases O 2- diffusion rate

• Operation:

-- voltage difference produced when O 2- ions diffuse from the external surface of the sensor to the reference gas.

ZrO2

external surface of the sensor to the reference gas. ZrO 2 Ca 2 + A Ca
external surface of the sensor to the reference gas. ZrO 2 Ca 2 + A Ca
external surface of the sensor to the reference gas. ZrO 2 Ca 2 + A Ca

Ca 2+

surface of the sensor to the reference gas. ZrO 2 Ca 2 + A Ca 2

A Ca 2+ impurity

removes a Zr 4+ and a O 2- ion.

sensor O 2- diffusion
sensor
O 2-
diffusion

gas with an unknown, higher oxygen content

reference gas at fixed oxygen content

+

-

voltage difference produced!

Chapter 12 - 17

higher oxygen content reference gas at fixed oxygen content + - voltage difference produced! Chapter 12

Applications: Advanced Ceramics

Heat Engines

Advantages:

– Run at higher temperature

– Excellent wear & corrosion resistance

– Low frictional losses

– Ability to operate without a cooling system

– Low density

Disadvantages:

– Brittle

– Too easy to have voids- weaken the engine

– Difficult to machine

• Possible parts – engine block, piston coatings, jet engines Ex: Si 3 N 4 , SiC, & ZrO 2

Chapter 12 - 18

Possible parts – engine block, piston coatings, jet engines Ex: Si 3 N 4 , SiC,
Chapter 12 - 19
Chapter 12 - 19

Applications: Advanced Ceramics

• Ceramic Armor – Al 2 O 3 , B 4 C, SiC & TiB 2 – Extremely hard materials

• shatter the incoming projectile

• energy absorbent material underneath

• Optical Fiber - material: SiO2

Chapter 12 - 20

the incoming projectile • energy absorbent material underneath • Optical Fiber - material: SiO2 Chapter 12

Applications: Advanced Ceramics

Electronic Packaging

• Chosen to securely hold microelectronics & provide heat transfer

• Must match the thermal expansion coefficient of the microelectronic chip & the electronic packaging material. Additional requirements include:

– good heat transfer coefficient

– poor electrical conductivity

• Materials currently used include:

• Boron nitride (BN)

• Silicon Carbide (SiC)

• Aluminum nitride (AlN)

– thermal conductivity 10x that for Alumina

– good expansion match with Si

Chapter 12 - 21

Aluminum nitride (AlN) – thermal conductivity 10x that for Alumina – good expansion match with Si

Ceramic Phase Diagrams

MgO-Al 2 O 3 diagram:

°
°

Chapter 12 - 22

Ceramic Phase Diagrams MgO-Al 2 O 3 diagram: ° Chapter 12 - 2 2

Chapter 12 - 23

Chapter 12 - 2 3

ISSUES TO ADDRESS

I. Mechanical Property

- Mode of fracture

- Fractography

- Strength and modulus measurement

- Mode of plastic deformation

- Effect of flaws

II. Glass Properties

III. Heat treatment: Strengthening

Chapter 12 - 24

- Mode of plastic deformation - Effect of flaws II. Glass Properties III. Heat treatment: Strengthening

Mechanical Properties

We know that ceramics are more brittle than metals. Why?

1. Bonding

2. Slip system

3. Dislocation structure

- Type of brittle fracture

- Measured fracture strength and interatomic bonding

- Flaw/crack: Effect

- Plain-strain fracture toughness

- Delayed fracture: Critical stress for crack propagation in brittle fracture

Chapter 12 - 25

fracture toughness - Delayed fracture: Critical st ress for crack propagation in brittle fracture Chapter 12
Chapter 12 - 2 6

Chapter 12 - 26

Chapter 12 - 2 6
Freq distribution of fracture strengths for SiN Chapter 12 - 2 7

Freq distribution of fracture strengths for SiN

Chapter 12 - 27

Freq distribution of fracture strengths for SiN Chapter 12 - 2 7
Common Loading Schemes Chapter 12 - 2 8

Common Loading Schemes

Chapter 12 - 28

Common Loading Schemes Chapter 12 - 2 8

Fracture Schematic

Fracture Schematic Rad is fn of acceleration rate σ f = 1 r 0 . 5

Rad is fn of acceleration rate

σ f

=

1

r

0 . 5

m

Chapter 12 - 29

Fracture Schematic Rad is fn of acceleration rate σ f = 1 r 0 . 5
Fracture surface of a 6 mm dia fused silica rod Chapter 12 - 3 0

Fracture surface of a 6 mm dia fused silica rod

Chapter 12 - 30

Fracture surface of a 6 mm dia fused silica rod Chapter 12 - 3 0

Elastic Modulus & Flexural Strength

3-Point Bend Testing

cross section d R b rect. circ.
cross section
d
R
b
rect.
circ.

F

L/2 L/2
L/2
L/2
F x F slope = δ δ
F x
F
slope =
δ
δ

linear-elastic behavior

Typ. values:

Material

σ fs (MPa) E(GPa)

Si nitride

250-1000

304

Si carbide

100-820

345

Al oxide

275-700

393

glass (soda)

69

69

Chapter 12 - 31

304 Si carbide 100-820 345 Al oxide 275-700 393 glass (soda) 69 69 Chapter 12 -
Al2O3 Chapter 12 - 3 2

Al2O3

Chapter 12 - 32

Al2O3 Chapter 12 - 3 2
Chapter 12 - 33
Chapter 12 - 33

Al2O3

Glass Structure

• Basic Unit:

4- Si0 4 tetrahedron Si 4+ O 2-
4-
Si0 4 tetrahedron
Si 4+
O 2-

• Quartz is crystalline

SiO2:

tetrahedron Si 4+ O 2- • Quartz is crystalline SiO 2 : • Glass is amorphous

Glass is amorphous

Amorphous structure

occurs by adding impurities (Na + ,Mg 2+ ,Ca 2+ , Al 3+ )

Impurities:

interfere with formation of crystalline structure.

Impurities: interfere with formation of crystalline structure. Na + Si 4 + O 2- (soda glass)

Na +

Si 4+

O 2-

(soda glass)

Chapter 12 - 34

Impurities: interfere with formation of crystalline structure. Na + Si 4 + O 2- (soda glass)

Glass Properties

Specific volume (1) vs Temperature (T):

Crystalline materials:

Specific volume

( T ): • Crystalline materials : Specific volume -- crystallize at melting temp, T m

-- crystallize at melting temp, Tm -- have abrupt change in spec. vol. at Tm

Supercooled Liquid
Supercooled
Liquid
Supercooled Liquid Liquid Crystalline (i.e., ordered)
Supercooled Liquid Liquid Crystalline (i.e., ordered)

Liquid

Supercooled Liquid Liquid Crystalline (i.e., ordered)
Supercooled Liquid Liquid Crystalline (i.e., ordered)

Crystalline (i.e., ordered)

(disordered)

T g

T m

Glass (amorphous solid)

Glasses:

-- do not crystallize -- change in slope in spec. vol. curve at glass transition temperature, Tg

solid

vol. curve at glass transition temperature , T g solid T -- transparent - no crystals

T -- transparent - no crystals to scatter light

Chapter 12 - 35

curve at glass transition temperature , T g solid T -- transparent - no crystals to

Heat Treatment

Annealing:

--removes internal stress

Tempering:

-- Improving the strength -- Heated above glass transition temp, below softening point

before cooling

hot

surface cooling

cooler

hot

cooler

further cooled

hot surface cooling cooler hot cooler further cooled compression tension compression Result: surface crack growth
hot surface cooling cooler hot cooler further cooled compression tension compression Result: surface crack growth

compression

tension

compression

cooler further cooled compression tension compression Result: surface crack growth is suppressed. Chapter 12 - 3
Result: surface crack growth is suppressed.
Result: surface crack growth is suppressed.

Chapter 12 - 36

cooler further cooled compression tension compression Result: surface crack growth is suppressed. Chapter 12 - 3

Heat treatment cycle for Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic

Heat treatment cycle for Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic Chapter 12 - 3 7

Chapter 12 - 37

Heat treatment cycle for Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic Chapter 12 - 3 7

Measuring Elevated T Response

• Elevated Temperature Tensile Test (T > 0.4 Tm).

creep test

σ

Tensile Test ( T > 0.4 T m ). creep test σ σ ε x time
Tensile Test ( T > 0.4 T m ). creep test σ σ ε x time

σ

ε

Tensile Test ( T > 0.4 T m ). creep test σ σ ε x time
x
x
Tensile Test ( T > 0.4 T m ). creep test σ σ ε x time

time

.

slope = ε ss = steady-state creep rate

Chapter 12 - 38

0.4 T m ). creep test σ σ ε x time . s l o p