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Concept Paper

Project Number: 43309


November 2010

Royal Government of Cambodia: Provincial Roads


Improvement Project
I. THE PROJECT

A. Rationale

1. The project aims to rehabilitate 87 kilometers (km) of provincial roads in Prey Vang and
Svay Rieng provinces to paved condition to provide a safer, cost-effective provincial road
network with all-year access to markets and other social services for provincial centers of
southeastern Cambodia. A new cross border facility (CBF) will be constructed at Prey Var-
Mocva to facilitate efficient cross border transport and trade between Cambodia and Vietnam.
The project will support a sustainable road maintenance regime in the Ministry of Public Works
and Transport (MPWT), HIV/AIDS and human trafficking prevention program, and climate
change adaptation measures.

2. Roads are the principal mode of transportation in Cambodia. The road network of
approximately 39,600 km includes: (i) national roads (primary national highways) with a total
length of about 2,100 km; (ii) provincial roads (secondary national highways) with a total length
of about 9,500 km; and (iii) about 28,000 km of rural roads. Management of national and
provincial roads is the responsibility of MPWT, whereas management of rural roads is the
responsibility of the Ministry of Rural Development.

3. The remote rural economy is becoming increasingly dependent on the improved national
road network, yet the provincial road network, with a paved ratio of 11%, continues to
deteriorate because of the rapid growth in traffic, combined with a lack of maintenance
financing, and poor road maintenance standards. National Road (NR) 13 that links NRs 1 and 8
in north-south direction and NR 314D linking NR 1 with CBF at Prey Var-Mocva are two such
provincial roads 1. Though vital for transport within Prey Vang and Svay Rieng provinces and to
cross-border transport and trade, these roads are unpaved with no all-year accessibility.

4. To enhance the regional transport and trade activities in Greater Mekong Subregion
(GMS) corridors, Cambodia acceded to the GMS Cross-Border Transport Agreement (CBTA) in
November 2001. One forward initiative to implement CBTA in Cambodia was the pilot
implementation of a CBF at Bavet through a bilateral agreement between Cambodia and
Vietnam in 2003. Furthermore, the two Governments agreed on expanding the quota for
vehicles for cross border transport from 40 to 150 on 17 March 2009. It is expected that the CBF
planned for Prey Var-Mocva will further supplement cross border transport and trade in
southeastern Cambodia.

5. As a consequence of relatively rapid economic development, overloading of cargo


vehicles has become a severe cause of road damage in Cambodia in the past 5 years. This is
also an issue on provincial roads as a result of overloaded trucks that haul agricultural products
and carry quarry materials for construction. While the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is
currently supporting an axle load control program for national roads, the project will expand its
coverage, including axle load control on some provincial roads.

6. Cambodia has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world with 12
fatalities per 10,000 vehicles in 2009. This is a 30% decrease from 2007, but still represents the
highest accident rate in Southeast Asia. Thus, road safety continues to be a major sector
concern, especially with the increasing growth of traffic in provincial and rural areas. In line with
the national umbrella programs for road safety and ADB's ongoing road safety support through
MPWT, the project will assist MPWT in designing and managing a road safety program for Prey
Vang and Svay Rieng provinces. Additionally, given the natural disasters that Cambodia has
faced in recent years, particularly the frequent flooding during the wet season, the need to
address climate change considerations is essential. The project therefore includes a number of
climate change adaptation measures, including road design features and plans for disaster
preparedness, mitigation, and response.

7. ADB's country operations business plan (COBP) 2009–2012 for Cambodia aims to foster

1
As noted in para. 2, provincial roads (secondary national highways) in Cambodia are labeled as national roads with
a 2- and 3-digit numbering system; the primary national highways are labeled using a single digit system.
2
pro-poor and socially inclusive growth by enhancing environmentally sustainable agriculture and
rural development. In light of the indirect impacts of the global economic crisis, the COBP seeks
to do this by diversifying rural growth and bolstering poverty reduction efforts. 2 Improving
provincial and rural roads is a core means of promoting rural growth and reducing poverty.

8. Although the geographic focus of ADB’s rural livelihood efforts has been the Tonle Sap
Basin, which has a large proportion of Cambodia's rural poor, this project’s geographical focus
is on Prey Vang and Svay Rieng, two provinces with very high poverty levels of 37 and 36 %
respectively (national poverty level 35%). The project fits well geographically with the southern
economic corridor of the Greater Mekong Subregion as a feeder route, and aligns well with the
Government’s strategy on promoting exports of rice (the new rice export policy) and rubber, the
production of which would be supported by the project road and CBF improvements. The Vaico
Irrigation Development Project (financed by Chinese Government, for approval in 2010), a canal
that connects to Mekong River in north-south direction across Prey Vang and Svay Rieng
provinces, is also expected to boost agriculture in the area. Therefore, these two projects are
expected to be complementary.

9. The COBP includes four road sector projects in the program, all of which are consistent
with the sector assistance program evaluation recommendation to shift its focus towards
rehabilitating provincial and rural roads, rather than national roads. For example, the first ADB-
financed provincial road project was approved in 2009 and will improve NR 56. 3 ADB approved
the first rural road project in 2010, which will rehabilitate and maintain connecting rural roads to
improve the rural poor’s access to markets and social services. A second rural road project is
programmed for 2013 to supplement the first. 4

10. The government's poverty reduction strategy for 2009–2013 (the Rectangular Strategy
for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase II) emphasizes generating economic
growth through the private sector, with rehabilitation and development of the country's physical
infrastructure as a necessary precondition. 5 The project supports this strategy, particularly as it
enhances connectivity, economic exchange, and access to social services and cross-border
transport and trade in remote areas of southeastern Cambodia.

B. Impact, Outcome, and Outputs

11. The impact of the project is improved access to markets, jobs, social services, and cross
border transport and trade in Prey Vang and Svay Rieng provinces. This impact is related to the
sector results framework of Cambodia Transport Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Roadmap. 6

12. The outcome of the project is the safe, cost effective, all-year access provided in the
road network of provincial agricultural areas of Prey Vang and Svay Rieng provinces.

13. There are five outputs in the project. First output is civil works to (i) rehabilitate to paved
condition NR 13 connecting NRs 8 and 1, between Komchay Mear and Prosot, and NR 314D
from Prosot to the border of Vietnam at Prey Var-Mocva; and (ii) construct a new CBF at Prey
Var-Mocva. This output has associated detail design and implementation supervision (DDIS)
consulting services, and land acquisition and resettlement required for roads and the CBF.
14. Second output is improved road asset management through axle load control at
strategic locations of national and provincial roads, to expand the ongoing axle load control
programs of MPWT.

2
ADB. 2008. Country Operations Business Plan: Cambodia, 2009–2012. Manila.
3
ADB. 2009. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed Loan to the
Kingdom of Cambodia for the Greater Mekong Subregion: Cambodia Northwest Provincial Road Improvement
Project. Manila. (Loan 2539-CAM).
4
The first project is: ADB. 2010. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed
Loan to the Kingdom of Cambodia for Rural Roads Improvement Project. Manila (Loan 2670-CAM). It will be
supplemented by a proposed Second Rural Roads Improvement Project, for approval in 2013.
5
Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia. 2008. Rectangular
Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase II. Phnom Penh.
6
ADB. 2010 (in preparation). Cambodia Transport Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Roadmap. Manila
3

15. Third output is increased road safety and safeguards by implementing: (a) a community-
based road safety awareness program in line with the national program; (b) an HIV/AIDS and
human trafficking prevention program; and (c) a sex-disaggregated baseline socioeconomic
survey of beneficiaries.

16. Fourth output is climate change adaptation to assess vulnerability to climate change in
NRs and vulnerability mapping for NRs to improve planning for climate changes by introducing
ecosystem-based adaptation strategies. The output will also develop emergency management
planning for NRs and planning water capture and storage systems.

17. Fifth output is efficient project management support to MPWT. Overall, the project has
many innovative features. Some of these features are, road asset management, social
safeguards and road safety, effective gender mainstreaming, and climate change adaptation.
With the CBF at Prey-Var Mocva, the project has regional cooperation features as well.

C. Investment and Financing Plans

18. The tentative project investment cost is estimated at $71 million, with civil works costing
about $40 million. The total cost includes taxes and duties, physical and price contingencies,
and interest and other charges during implementation. The source of ADB financing is through
the Asian Development Fund. The other financing sources are not yet known.

Table 1: Tentative Investment and Financing Plan


Financing ($ million)
Cost Cofinanciers (to
Item ($ million) ADB be determined) Government
Civil works 39.50 14.50 25.00
Road asset management 2.00 2.00
Road safety and safeguards 1.80 1.80
Climate change adaptation 5.00 5.00
Project management 2.30 2.30
Contingencies 11.90 11.90
Taxes and duties 7.00 7.00
Interest during construction 1.50 1.50
Total 71.00 34.00 30.00 7.00
Percentage 100.00 47.90 42.30 9.80

D. Indicative Implementation Arrangements

19. The MPWT will be the executing agency of the project. The project preparatory technical
assistance (TA) fact-finding confirmed project management unit 3 (PMU3) as a part of the
General Department of Public Works of MPWT will be the implementing agency of the project
preparatory TA. MPWT plans to make PMU3 a permanent division within MPWT in 2011. It is
expected that civil works contracts for road rehabilitation and CBF rehabilitation will follow
International Competitive Bidding as the mode of procurement. Equipment for axle load control
will follow National Competitive Bidding or Limited International Bidding, and still smaller
procurement packages for project management vehicles etc. will be under shopping. Advance
contracting and retroactive financing will be considered for project management vehicles and
office furniture. As for consulting services, it is planned to recruit firms for activities of DDIS,
road asset management, climate change adaptation, road safety, and HIV/AIDS and human
trafficking prevention. Advance action for recruitment of DDIS consultants will be considered.
The project will be implemented over 5 years, from 2012 to 2017.

II. DUE DILIGENCE REQUIRED

20. Due diligence required include the following:


(i) Economic and financial. Economic viability will be confirmed during the project
preparatory TA.
(ii) Governance. The project preparatory TA will look into public financial
management, procurement, anticorruption, policy and legal, capacity, and other
institutional issues and mechanisms.
4
(iii) Poverty and social. There are indirect poverty reduction impacts. Major direct
social impacts are HIV/AIDS, human trafficking, road safety as well as inclusion
of women in emergency management in the project area. A poverty and
social/gender analysis will be undertaken during the project preparatory TA.
Social and gender specialists will be hired for this purpose to prepare an analysis
report and a gender action plan based on recommendations for maximizing the
benefits for women.
(iv) Safeguards. It is envisaged that there will be limited or no impacts on indigenous
peoples. Also, minor environment impacts will be likely, due to site works by dust
and emissions. Therefore, the project may be category B for indigenous peoples
and environment. For involuntary resettlement, since there is a significant
number of affected persons, the project category is likely to be A.

21. Major risk in the project is that is associated with governance. This will be mitigated and
managed by a good governance framework developed during the project preparatory TA.

III. PROCESSING PLAN

A. Risk Categorization

22. The project is an investment project with a loan amount of $71 million, Further, ADB has
sound past experience in Cambodia in road sector projects. MPWT and PMU3 also have a
reasonable capacity with experience in ADB-financed projects. However, project’s safeguard
categorization is A as its resettlement effects are over 1,000 households, almost all of which are
likely partially affected households. Thus it is considered a complex project.

B. Resource Requirements

23. The project team will be comprised of a senior transport specialist/mission leader, a
transport economist, an environment specialist, a social development specialist, and a project
analyst. About 80 person-weeks of internal staff resources will be required for timely processing.
A project preparatory TA is required to design the project. The project preparatory TA
requirements are in Appendix 5.

C. Processing Schedule

24. Table 2 shows the major milestones of the project up to loan effectiveness.

Table 2: Proposed Processing Schedule


Milestones Expected Completion Date
Concept paper meeting October 2010
Reconnaissance mission October 2010
Peer review November 2010
Mobilization of TA consultants March 2011
Loan fact-finding mission July 2011
Management review meeting October 2011
Loan negotiations November 2011
Board consideration December 2011
Loan effectiveness April 2012
Source: Asian Development Bank estimates

IV. KEY ISSUES

25. There are no key issues requiring due diligence and support from other ADB teams.
However, during project preparatory TA it is necessary to confirm cofinancing in the amount of
about $30 million. For this, ADB has already initiated discussion with Korea Eximbank.
Discussions with Nordic Development Fund for financing climate change output will happen
during the pr0oject preparatory TA implementation.
Appendix 1 5

BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION


Aspects Arrangements
Modality Project loan

Financing ADB financing of $34 million through an ADF loan; parallel co-financing will be
sought for about $30 million; Government financing is likely to be the remaining
amount of about $7 million.

COBP/RCOBP ADB. 2008. Country Operations Business Plan: Cambodia. Manila.

Classification Sector (subsectors): Transport and ICT (road transport)

Themes (subthemes): economic growth, social development, capacity development,


climate change adaptation (widening access to markets and economic opportunities,
disaster risk management), regional cooperation and integration

Targeting classification: general intervention

Gender mainstreaming category: effective gender mainstreaming

Location impact: rural (high), urban (low), national (medium), regional/cross country
(medium)

Safeguards: Involuntary resettlement: A; indigenous peoples: B; environment: B

Risk categorization complex

Partnership(s) During the project preparatory TA, ADB will seek co-financing for road improvement
from bilateral partners like Korea Eximbank, and Nordic Development Fund’s
financing for the climate change adaptation output.

Use of a PBA None

Parallel PIU None

Department and Southeast Asia Department, Transport and Urban Development Division
division
Mission leader and Mission Leader: S. Date, Senior Transport Specialist
members Mission members: P. Broch, Senior Transport Economist; M. Buendia, Social
Development Specialist (Resettlement); K. H. Leung, Financial Analysis Specialist;
T. Mella, Operations Officer; N. Ouk, Senior Project Implementation Officer;
S. Ouk, Social Safeguard Officer; A. Velasquez, Safeguards Specialist
(Environment) and P. Villanueva, Administrative Assistant
ADB = Asian Development Bank, ADF = Asian Development Fund, COBP = country operations business plan, DMC = developing
member country, PBA = programmatic based approach, PIU = project implementation unit, RCOBP = regional cooperation
operations business plan, TA = technical assistance.
PROBLEM TREE

6
Appendix 2
Access to markets, jobs, social services, and cross
border is inadequate in Prey Vang and Svay Rieng

Transport in Prey Vang and Svay Rieng provinces is


inefficient, unsafe, and inaccessible all year through

Overloading in Road accident Weak asset Agricultural CBF at Prey Climate changes
provincial roads rates in provincial management in cargo accessing Var-Mocva in are increasingly
induce severe roads in Prey Vang provincial roads CBF at Prey poor condition to frequent and
damage and Svay Rieng are Var-Mocva is allow agricultural damage road
high slow by unpaved products to pass assets and
NR314D efficiently affect livelihood
between of rural residents
Cambodia and
More permanent Vietnam
weigh stations Provincial and MPWT lacks
are needed to rural funds to
control communities rehabilitate
overloading need road safety unpaved MPWT lacks
education provincial roads Most traffic on funds to
in Prey Vang and NR314D is rehabilitate CBF
Svay Rieng overloaded at Prey Var-
cargo trucks Mocva
with agricultural
products to and
from CBF at
Prey Var-Mocva Ground water is Government
not sufficient to lacks awareness
manage for long and capacity on
droughts emergency
management

CBF= cross border facility, MPWT = Ministry of Public Works and Transport, NR = national road.
Appendix 3 7

PRELIMINARY DESIGN AND MONITORING FRAMEWORK

Performance Targets Data Sources and Assumptions


Design Summary and Indicators Reporting Mechanisms and Risks
Impact Assumptions
Improved access to Volume of cargo traffic at National and regional Increased availability and
markets, jobs, social CBF increases by 30% statistics: NIS quality of transport services
services, and cross from 2012 to 2019. following the rehabilitation
border transport and Field surveys: MPWT of project roads and CBF
trade in Prey Vang Volume of agricultural
and Svay Rieng products transported on Agriculture related and
provinces project roads increases by Population census: NIS other industries increase in
100% from 2012 to 2019. (adjusted to target years) the project area.

By 2019, in Prey Vang Improved CBF operates


and Svay Rieng Health information system efficiently in line with bi-
provinces: and Cambodia Demographic lateral agreements
(i) economic activity rate and Health Survey: NIS
of 80% (ages15–64, Risks
both sexes) increases Unexpected long-term new
to 85%; Education management epidemic hits Cambodia.
(ii) child mortality rate of information system: MOE
83 deaths per 1,000 The project roads
live births decreases deteriorate because of
to 50; insufficient funds for road
(iii) maternity mortality maintenance programs.
rate of 461 deaths per
100,000 live births
decreases to 230; and
(iv) rural girls’ lower
secondary net
enrollment rate
increases from 30.8%
in school year
2009/2010 to 40%
Outcome Assumption
Safe, cost effective, Road accidents in the National road safety action The government sustains its
all-year access project area decrease by plan annual report: NRSC commitment to provincial
provided in the road 20% from 2009 (1,469 infrastructure development.
network of provincial accidents) to 2016 Field traffic surveys: MPWT
agricultural areas of Cambodia and Vietnam
Prey Vang and Svay Average travel times on governments agree to
Rieng provinces project roads decrease by Field traffic surveys: MPWT develop Prey Var-Mocva as
25% from 2012 to 2016 a supplementary gateway
for Bavet.
Average trip lengths on Provincial and national trade
project roads increase by statistics, MPWT's annual Risk
40% from 2012 to 2016 reports: MPWT Project roads suffer severe
damage from unexpectedly
Share of the paved severe natural disasters.
provincial road network MPWT’s annual reports:
increases from 11% in MPWT
2010 to 12% in 2016

Average number of days


per year that the project
roads are accessible
increases from 200 days
in 2012 to 365 days in
2016.
Outputs Assumptions
1. Project roads 87 km of provincial roads Monthly and quarterly project Continued government
8 Appendix 3

Performance Targets Data Sources and Assumptions


Design Summary and Indicators Reporting Mechanisms and Risks
and CBF rehabilitated and CBF rehabilitated by progress reports: MPWT commitment to overloading
2016 Monitoring reports: MPWT control and cross-border
transport and trade
Average roughness of Quarterly progress reports:
project roads in 2012 MPWT; and project Targeted communities
decreases from 6–14 to completion report: ADB apply road safety principles
2–3 in 2016. Project review missions: ADB
Targeted communities
2. Improved MPWT Violations of overloaded Project accounts: MPWT apply HIV/AIDS awareness
road asset trucks in the southeastern and prevention education
management Cambodia are reduced by MPWT annual reports:
60% from 2012 to 2016. MPWT Risks
Recruitment of consultants
Annual operation and JICA Axle Load Control and contractors is delayed
maintenance budget for Program reports: JICA by external factors.
project roads increases
from $350 per km in 2010 Quarterly progress reports: Increased construction
to $400 per km MPWT; and project costs reduce the scope of
in 2016. completion report: ADB works

MPWT annual reports: The number of natural


MPWT disasters exceeds
3. Increased road 40% of project predictions
safety and awareness beneficiaries in project
of potential social provinces and all Trained personnel in the
problems contractors' personnel PMU3 leave MPWT or are
participate in an HIV/AIDS replaced
awareness and human National health statistics: NIS
trafficking prevention
program before and
during civil works
construction, by 2016.

Sex-disaggregated
baseline socioeconomic
data established by 2013

At least 2 female
facilitators will conduct
road safety awareness
program in communes. Quarterly progress reports:
MPWT; and project
4. Reduced All residents at risk are completion report: ADB
vulnerability of project evacuated within 72 hours
roads to climate after a typhoon occurs in
change the pilot province for
emergency management,
2016 onwards.

Vulnerability mapping will


integrate gender issues.

Emergency management
plan will include women
as agents and
beneficiaries. Quarterly progress reports:
MPWT; and project
5. Efficient project PMU3 personnel completion report: ADB
management increased from 12 (7
male, 5 female) in 2010 to
Appendix 3 9

Performance Targets Data Sources and Assumptions


Design Summary and Indicators Reporting Mechanisms and Risks
22 (14 male, 8 female) in
2016

All PMU3 staff (current 7


male, 5 female)
participates in training on
social and gender issues,
by 2015 (likely 22 with 14
male, 8 female).
Activities with Milestones Inputs
1. Civil works
1.1 MPWT selects detailed design and construction supervision 1. Civil works:
consultants: by March 2012 1.1 Improving 87 km of provincial
1.2 MPWT prepares tender documents and selects contractors: by roads and CBF – $39.5 million
October 2012 1.2 Land acquisition and
1.3 MPWT completes the land acquisition and resettlement: by 2013 resettlement –
1.4 MPWT completes 87 km of road and CBF rehabilitation: by 2016 $1.9 million
2. Road asset management 1.3 Consulting services for design
2.1 MPWT completes weigh station construction: by 2014 and implementation
2.2 MPWT completes procurement of weigh station equipment and supervision
installation: by 2014 – $5.5 million
2.3 MPWT implements new weigh stations: by 2015 2. Road asset management
3. Road safety and safeguards – $2.0 million
3.1. MPWT implements the road safety program: by 2015 3. Road safety and safeguards
3.2. MPWT implements the HIV/AIDS awareness and human trafficking – $1.8 million
prevention program: by 2015 4. Climate change adaptation
3.3 MPWT completes the baseline socioeconomic survey with sex- – $5.0 million
disaggregated data: by 2013 5. Project management
4. Climate change adaptation – $2.3 million
4.1 MPWT completes the detailed vulnerability map for climate change 6. Contingencies
for project provinces: by 2016. – $11.9 million
4.2 MPWT completes the ecosystem based climate change adaptation 7. Financial charges during
strategies: by 2016 implementation
4.3 MPWT completes a pilot climate monitoring system-based road – $1.50 million
maintenance and management program: by 2016
4.4 MPWT establishes a pilot emergency management system for Prey ADB: $34.0 million
Vang and Svay Rieng, and operates it: by 2016
4.5 MPWT installs the pilot early warning system the project province (of Government: $7.0 million
4.4): by 2016
4.6 Completion of the plan for water capture and storage systems for the Cofinancing: $30.0 million
project province: by 2016
5. Efficient project management Beneficiaries: 200,000 persons
5.1 MPWT completes training on social and gender issues for all PMU3
staff: by 2014
5.2 PMU3 recruits 10 new staff for to increase its efficiency: by 2016
5.3 MPWT manages the project efficiently: by 2016

ADB = Asian Development Bank, CBF = cross-border facility, JICA = Japan International Cooperation Agency, km =
kilometer, MOE = Ministry of Education, MPWT = Ministry of Public Works and Transport, NIS = National Institute of
Statistics, NRSC = National Road Safety Committee; PMU = project management unit
Source: Asian Development Bank estimates
10 Appendix 4

INITIAL POVERTY AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS

Country/Project Title: CAM: Provincial Roads Improvement Project


Project Number: 43309
Month/Year October 2010

Lending/Financing Department/
Project loan, ADF SERD/SETU
Modality: Division:

I. POVERTY ISSUES
A. Links to the National Poverty Reduction Strategy and Country Partnership Strategy
1. Based on the country poverty assessment, the country partnership strategy, and the sector analysis, describe
how the project would directly or indirectly contribute to poverty reduction and how it is linked to the poverty reduction
strategy of the partner country.

The government's poverty reduction strategy for 2009–2013 (the Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment,
Equity and Efficiency, Phase II) emphasizes generating economic growth through the private sector, with
rehabilitation and development of the country's physical infrastructure as a necessary precondition. The project
supports this strategy, particularly as it enhances connectivity, economic exchange, and access to social services
and cross-border transport and trade in remote areas of southeastern Cambodia. Thus, it is included in the Country
Operations and Business Plan 2009–2012 as a core project in the transport sector.

B. Targeting Classification
1. Select the targeting classification of the project:
General Intervention
Individual or Household (TI-H) Geographic (TI-G) Non-Income MDGs (TI-M1, M2, etc.)

2. Explain the basis for the targeting classification: The project does not have a direct impact on poverty, thus
classified as general intervention.

C. Poverty Analysis
1. If the project is classified as TI-H, or if it is policy-based, what type of poverty impact analysis is needed?

2. What resources are allocated to the project preparatory technical assistance (TA) and due diligence?

The project preparatory TA consulting firm will have qualified international and national experts to carry out
social impact assessment, resettlement due diligence and impact assessment. Budget will be allocated for social
surveys, consultation, and disclosure activities.

3. If GI, is there any opportunity for pro-poor design (e.g., social inclusion subcomponents, cross subsidy, pro-poor
governance, and pro-poor growth)?

Likely.

II. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ISSUES


A. Initial Social Analysis
Based on existing information:
1. Who are the potential primary beneficiaries of the project? How do the poor and the socially excluded benefit
from the project?

Communities living along the road as it will result to improved access to markets, jobs, social services, and cross
border transport and trade in Prey Vang and Svay Rieng provinces.

2. What are the potential needs of beneficiaries in relation to the proposed project?

To save time and money on transportation through improved roads. To allow them to transport their goods/
produce faster and at reduced cost.
Appendix 4 11

3. What are the potential constraints in accessing the proposed benefits and services, and how will the project
address them?

Meaningful consultations will be carried out during the project preparatory TA. Views and concerns of women
and vulnerable groups will be elicited with regard to access to markets, jobs and social services; social risks;
resettlement and rehabilitation. To ensure that women and vulnerable groups will be heard, separate meetings will be
held with them. Improved roads may also result to speculators/developers buying land from the community, which is
considered a social risk that comes along with any development interventions. The project preparatory TA will be
required to design and implement a public information program to inform the local communities not only about the
project benefits but also risks such as being bought out by developers.

B. Consultation and Participation


1. Indicate the potential initial stakeholders. Local communities, road users, local government.

2. What type of consultation and participation is required during the project preparatory TA or project processing.

Public meetings, focus group discussions. Meetings with non-government organizations and community-based
organizations.

3. What level of participation is envisaged for project design?


Information sharing Consultation Collaborative decision making Empowerment

4. Will a consultation and participation plan be prepared? Yes No Please explain.

C. Gender and Development


1. What are the key gender issues in the sector and subsector that are likely to be relevant to this project or
program?

The key gender issues that the project will impact directly are: i) employment opportunities for women generated
through demand for local labor in civil works as well as in rural road maintenance; ii) increasing awareness on and
prevention of HIV/AIDS and trafficking in girls and women; iii) increasing awareness and action on road security and
safety issues impacting local populations, including women and children.; as well as iv) gender sensitive resettlement
plans so that affected households secure better access to compensation resources and livelihood activities. Other
indirect benefits include increased women’s access to social benefits of improved transportation services, including
better access to health and education services and access to markets and increased trading opportunities.

A Gender and Social Development Specialist will be recruited under the project preparatory TA to undertake a
poverty, gender and social analysis and prepare a gender action plan to maximize project benefits for women. Also,
this will establish the impacts of the project on the poor residents and design mechanisms to maximize the benefits
for them.

2. Does the proposed project or program have the potential to promote gender equality and/or women’s
empowerment by improving women’s access to and use of opportunities, services, resources, assets, and
participation in decision making? Yes No Please explain.

3. Could the proposed project have an adverse impact on women and/or girls or widen gender inequality?
Yes No Please explain

III. SOCIAL SAFEGUARD ISSUES AND OTHER SOCIAL RISKS

Issue Nature of Social Issue Significant/Limited/ Plan or Other Action


No Impact/Not Known Required
In vo lu n ta ry Re s e ttle m e n t Acquisition of land will Significant Full Plan
result to impact on houses Short Plan
and shops that are close Resettlement
to the edge of the road. Framework
No Action
Uncertain
In d ig e n ou s P e o p le s There are no reported Plan
minority groups in Svay Other Action
12 Appendix 4

Issue Nature of Social Issue Significant/Limited/ Plan or Other Action


No Impact/Not Known Required
Rieng Province. To be Indigenous Peoples
verified during PPTA. Framework
No Action
Uncertain
Labor
Employment Plan
Opportunities Other Action
Labor Retrenchment No Action
Core Labor Standards Uncertain
Affordability Action
No Action
Uncertain
Other Risks and/or Social Action Plan to be Plan
Vulnerabilities prepared as per result of Other Action
HIV/AIDS the Social Impact No Action
Human Trafficking Assessment to be carried Uncertain
Others (conflict, political out during PPTA.
instability, etc.), please
specify. The project preparatory TA
Speculators/land will be required to design
developers and implement a public
information program to
inform the local
communities, not only
about the project
benefits, but also risks
such as being bought
out by developers.

IV. PROJECT PREPARATORY TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE/DUE DILIGENCE RESOURCE REQUIREMENT


1. Do the terms of reference for the project preparatory TA (or other due diligence) include poverty, social, and gender
analysis and the relevant specialist(s)? Yes No If no, please explain why.

2. Are resources (consultants, survey budget, and workshop) allocated for conducting poverty, social, and/or gender
analysis, and C&P during the project preparatory TA or due diligence? Yes No If no, please
explain why.
Appendix 5 13

PROJECT PREPARATORY TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

A. Justification

1. The Government of Cambodia has requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
project preparatory technical assistance (TA) to prepare the Provincial Roads Improvement
Project. This project is a priority project in the Government’s key infrastructure development
agenda as it provides all-year access to provincial and rural agricultural communities of Prey
Vang and Svay Rieng provinces of southeastern Cambodia. Thus the TA was included in ADB's
country operations business plan 2009–2012 for Cambodia.

B. Major Outputs and Activities

2. Major activities of the TA are: (i) inception; (ii) feasibility study; and (iii) project design.
These include: (a) for inception, the preparatory activities; (b) for the feasibility study, the
activities for project preparation, which will cover engineering, economic, social, and
environmental aspects. The engineering study will include geological, topographical,
hydrological surveys, preliminary pavement design, detailed cost estimates, and implementation
plan. The economic study will conduct traffic surveys and assess the economic feasibility of the
project. The social and environmental study will prepare reports on environmental assessment,
poverty and social assessment, and resettlement plans; and (c) for project design, preparation
of drafts of the report and recommendation of the president, and the project administration
manual. The major outputs and activities are summarized in Table A5.1.

Table A5.1: Summary of Major Outputs and Activities


Expected Expected
Major Activities Completion Date Major Outputs Completion Date
1. Inception April 2011 Inception report April 2011
1.1 Conduct stakeholder consultations (should accompany
1.2 Establish TA methodology and a tripartite meeting)
develop work program
2. Feasibility study July 2011 Mid-term report July 2011
2.1 Conduct engineering study to (this report may
prepare preliminary engineering contain interim
design and detailed cost estimate results of the
2.2 Conduct economic study to feasibility study as of
assess economic feasibility July 2011; it should
2.3 Conduct environment and social accompany a
studies to prepare IEE, RPs, and tripartite meeting)
social assessment reports
3. Project design September 2011 Draft final report September 2011
3.1 Prepare draft RRP (should accompany
3.2 Prepare draft PAM a tripartite meeting)

Final report October 2011


IEE= initial environment examination; PAM= project administration manual; RP= resettlement plan; RRP= report and
recommendation of the president; TA= technical assistance
Source: Asian Development Bank estimates

C. Cost Estimate and Proposed Financing Arrangement

3. The TA is estimated to cost $1,100,000 equivalent, of which $1,000,000 equivalent will


be financed on a grant basis by ADB's Technical Assistance Special Fund (TASF-IV). ADB
pursued Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction, but it was not currently available for Cambodia’s
road sector projects. As a result, TASF financing is being requested to support the TA. The
14 Appendix 5

Government was advised that approval of the TA does not commit ADB to financing any
ensuing project

4. The Government will finance the remaining $100,000 equivalent in kind. The detailed
cost estimate is presented in Table A5.2.

5. Disbursements under the TA will be done in accordance with the ADB’s Technical
Assistance Disbursement Handbook (May 2010, as amended time to time). The TA consultants
will turnover the equipment to MPWT smoothly after the TA completion.

Table A5.2: Cost Estimates and Financing Plan


($'000)
Total
Item Cost
A. ADB Financinga
1. Consultants
a. Remuneration and per diem
i. International consultants (25 person-months) 500,000.0
ii. National consultants (43 person-months) 215,000.0
b. International and local travel 60,000.0
c. Reports and communications 15,000.0
2. Equipment (computer, printer, etc.)b 15,000.0
3. Workshops, training, seminars, and conferencesc
a. Tri-partite meetings 10,000.0
4. Vehicled 21,000.0
5. Surveys 80,000.0
6. Miscellaneous administration and support costs 10,000.0
7. Representative for contract negotiations 4,000.0
8. Contingencies 70,000.0
Subtotal (A) 1,000,000.0

B. Government Financing
1. Office accommodation and transport 25,000.0
2. Remuneration and per diem of counterpart staff 60,000.0
3. Contingencies 15,000.0
Subtotal (B) 100,000.0
Total 1,100,000.0
a
Financed by the Asian Development Bank's Technical Assistance Special Fund (TASF-IV)
b
Equipment
Type Quantity Cost
2 desktop computers with software,1 color laser printer, and 1 color copy machine Lump sum $15,000
c
Workshops, training, seminars, and conferences
Purpose Venue
Tri-partite meetings (3) Phnom Penh
d
Vehicle
Justify the use of and the need to purchase or lease a vehicle Expected length of use
Lease of vehicle by consultant for field work 7 months
Source: Asian development Bank estimates

D. Consulting Services

6. An international consulting firm will be engaged to implement the TA. The TA will require
10 positions in international and 9 positions in national consultants. The requirement of
international consultants is 25 person months, 43 person-months for national consultants. ADB
will select and engage the consulting firm in accordance with ADB’s Guidelines on the Use of
Appendix 5 15

Consultants, (2010, as amended from time to time) and other arrangements satisfactory to ADB.
ADB will use the quality- and cost- based selection (quality:cost ratio 80:20) with full technical
proposal to select the consulting firm. Table A5.3 below shows the summary of consulting
services requirement.

Table A5.3: Summary of Consulting Services Requirement


International Person- National Person-
Name of Positions months Name of Positions months
Highway engineer/Team Leader 7 Highway engineer/Deputy Team Leader 8
Transport economist 2 Transport economist 5
Pavement design engineer 1 Environment specialist 4
Environment specialist 2 Resettlement specialist 8
Resettlement specialist 2 Road safety specialist 4
Social safeguards specialist 2 Axle load control specialist 4
Road safety specialist 2 Climate change specialist 4
Axle load control specialist 2 Labor and gender specialist 3
Climate change specialist 2 Procurement specialist 3
Procurement specialist 3
Total 25 43
Source: Asian development Bank estimates

7. The outline terms of references for the project preparatory TA consultants are described
in paras. 7–15.

8. The team leader, as highway engineer, with his national counterpart deputy will
coordinate all TA activities within the team and also with all stakeholders. These two experts will
conduct the engineering study on proposed roads national road (NR) 13 and NR 314D, and
cross border facility (CBF) at Prey Var-Mocva to conduct their preliminary design for road and
CBF rehabilitation. Road design should be within the existing construction limits, and no
widening or realignment. They will prepare a detailed plan for implementation of the project,
including civil works, consulting services and other necessary contracts, and procurement
method adopted. Also, they will prepare a detailed cost estimate for the entire project and draft
the detailed terms of reference (TOR) for all consultants required for project implementation.
The international pavement design engineer will assist the above two experts to complete the
preliminary pavement design.

9. The international and national transport economists will conduct economic analysis for
NR 13 and NR 314D, and the CBF, and conduct risk and sensitivity analyses. They will also
draft the benefit monitoring framework for the ensuing project.

10. The international and national environment specialists will perform an environmental
assessment of the proposed road’s environmental impacts to comply with both the
Government’s and ADB’s safeguard requirements, recommend on required mitigating measures
and draft the environment management plan (EMP) for civil works implemented under the
project, and recommend on implementation and monitoring of the EMP.

11. The international resettlement specialist with the national counterpart will assess
resettlement impacts and prepare the resettlement plans for the roads and the CBF. The
international social safeguards specialist will conduct poverty and social and indigenous peoples
impact assessments and develop a program to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS and human
trafficking in project construction camps and among the project road-side population. Further,
this expert, with the national labor and gender specialist will prepare a labor and gender action
plan for the project for gender mainstreaming.
16 Appendix 5

12. The international and national road safety specialist with the experts of 10 above, will
prepare a community-based road safety program for the project area in line with the national
road safety program, with gender participation. They will prepare the TOR for the road safety
program consulting services.

13. The international and national axle load control specialists will review the current program
for over-loading control for NRs, and propose improvements, along with preliminary designs of
two new permanent weigh stations on strategic locations of NRs.

14. The international and national climate change specialists will assess the needs for
climate change adaptation measures including disaster mitigation, mainly for floods. They will
propose to the team leader climate proofing design for roads and design a disaster mitigation
plan for MPWT road network with more operational emphasis and participation of communities.

15. The international and national procurement specialists will adequately assess the
executing agency’s capacity, and suggest remedial action plan to build the agency capacity to
minimize procurement and financial management risks, prepare project’s procurement plan and
indicative implementation schedule with proposed sequencing of consultant recruitment and
procurement bidding and awarding. Also, they will assist the agency in advance action in
consultant recruitment and advance procurement, after the management review meeting.

16. The general qualifications required for all specialists are a university degree and a
minimum of 10 years experience in the relevant field of expertise, and geographical experience.
In the case of the team leader, the team leadership experience of 15 years is required.

E. Implementation Arrangements

17. The Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MPWT) will be the executing agency of the
TA. The project management unit 3 (PMU3), will be the implementing agency of the executing
agency. PMU3, the implementing agency for three ongoing ADB-financed road sector projects,
is familiar with implementation activities. MPWT, along with the Ministry of Economy and
Finance, the oversight agency or the Borrower of the ensuing loan, will make in-kind
contributions of office accommodation, and other inputs of staff salaries, per diem, transport,
etc. to support the TA.

18. The proposed TA processing and implementation schedule is listed in Table A5.4.

Table A5.4: Proposed Technical Assistance Processing and Implementation Schedule


Major Milestones Expected Completion Date
TA approval November 2010
Short listing of consultants January 2011
Approval of technical and financial proposals March 2011
Inception April 2011
Mid-term review July 2011
Submission of TA draft Final Report September 2011
Final review and submission of TA Final Report October 2011
Loan fact-finding mission October 2011
TA physical closing date September 2012
TA financial closing date December 2012
TA= technical assistance
Source: Asian Development Bank

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