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Due to the economic opportunities, the population of the twin towns has grown rapidly,
especially in Bottom Ville where there is more room for development. Furthermore, the
rapid economic growth of Sea Star has attracted a lot of professionals who prefer to live in
the twin towns and commute, rather than live in the polluted industrial environment of Sea
Star. Top Ville and Bottom Ville are considered twin towns because they share the water
from Crystal Lake. Most of the water supply for Bottom Ville comes from Crystal Lake.


The nature is a the secondary forest of tropical trees are showing weak
growth,scummbing to various insect infection and collapsing suddenly. This cause tropical
trees found in the secondary forest of top ville are showing a slow and fragile growth.The
tropical trees are dying due to the different insect infections found in the area,as well as the
trees are collapsing unware.

And the effects of it is the tropical trees mostly native to the towns that have been suddenly
showing signs of weakness .

The effects have destroyed natural habitats and disturb environment around these trees.

A solution for these trees is moving and replanting the trees in a more stable environment
which will provide nutrients.

There is a sharp rise in bladder and lung cancer cases among baby boomers.The pollution
from the factorys are starting to affect the water and vegetation of the local area.This
causes the food and water that the baby boomers are consuming to give them effects like
bladder and lung cancer the effects of it raise in hospital visits/bills more medicine
needed,more deaths.The solution is purify the water and food and make sure that why they
are consuming will not affect their health in a bad way. The number of cases of blue baby
syndrome has tripled in Bottom Ville.

The cause is nitrate has been polluting the water.The effect is the new born baby bodies
cannot carry blood as good as they are supposed to the heart

The rocks thay lay near the aquifer is rich in fluoride it can cause the bone damage this is
called skeletal fluorosis.It can occurs when a high amount of fluoride is found in the
bones.This affects to people who drinks and inhale the water.As the rocks are found in near
the area where the water is contained.In addition the mining and oil workers who have
plants near the crystal lake are more likely to be the first of the problems.

The solution to this would involve planning the locations of the oil and mining plants to be
far away from the crystal lake.

The few dental offices are overwhelmed with a variety of dental problems rarely seen before
in the communities .Citizens are eating or drinking dirty substances causing their mouth to
fill with germs and other things that can cause dental problems.People can lose teeth or get
gum diseases.Make sure people are brushing ,flossing,and rinsing their mouths twice a day
to prevent from any mouth diseases.

The frequency of outburst of diarrhea and dysentery has increased during wet
seasons.Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection caused by a host of bacterial,viral and
parasitic organisms most of which can be spread by contaminated water. It can be
prevented with safe water and personal/sorroundings hygiene .

Discharge at specific location of waste stored leached to the Crystal lake water ,there is a
little vertical mixing among the stratified layers of a lake which further inhibits the dilution of
the pollutants.Showing a distinct green tinge with excessive weeds growth and is cloudy
most of the time,death of aquatic animals,disruption of food chains,disease and destruction
of ecosytems.The solution is never throw rubbish away in the water anyhow, use water
wisely ,do not throw chemicals ,oils,paints ,and medicines down the sink drain or the
toilet ,do not throw burning fuels waste in the lake

Human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in Earth’s atmosphere in

the amounts of greenhouse gases, aerosols , and cloudiness. The largest known
contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas to the

The rational use of natural resources should guarantee that exploitation of one
resource does not harm others. It is from this standpoint that the harmful effects of mining
operations on environment should be considered. They include dumping, open pits, waste
piles, sinkholes, water, soil and air pollution problems. Environmental costs of extracting
mineral resources are explained in terms of land degradation, solid waste, air and water
pollution, vibrations and health hazards.

Infectious diseases are transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact.
Certain types of viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi can all cause infectious disease.
Malaria, measles, and respiratory illnesses are examples of infectious diseases.Simple
preventative measures, such as frequent hand washing, can cut down on disease

The ecological effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in aquatic environments, such
as streams, lakes, and marshes where it can be harmful to fish and other wildlife. As it flows
through the soil, acidic rain water can leach aluminum from soil clay particles and then flow
into streams and lakes.


1. I Recommend preventive measures for the future to the mayors who would like to
continue the industrial and economic development of the twin towns is Limit the
use of polluting chemicals in the environment, find alternates,

quick detection system for leakage of underground storage tanks and pipe lines

No dumping of hazardous wastes in landfill, make people aware of recycling


Why the use of synthetic, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides should be reduced and
the use of green fertilizer or manure should be increased

How to compost the kitchen organic waste

Never to dump household chemicals such as oil (frying oil or car oil), paint thinners,
paints, pesticides, unwanted medicines etc. onto the ground or down the drain

Never to apply pesticides or synthetic fertilizers near a water reservoir

How to grow your own vegetables or encourage public to buy organic food to support
organic food industry



Pump up the polluted water to clean up, then return to aquifer (may not be cost

Prevention is better than cure!

2. Map shows the average pH of rainfall measured during the year 2000 by the US
National Atmospheric Deposition Program which operates an acid rain observing
network. Lower pH values indicate increased acidity. "Ecosystem Change and
Public Health A Global Perspective a new book discussing a range of
environmental issues, uses this series of acid rain maps and other information in
explaining the chemistry and the impact of acid rain as part of an Earth systems
approach to global change studies.

The NASA Earth Science Enterprise 2001 education products review has recognized
this text as an outstanding educational product.

Acid deposition has already damaged North American forests, lakes, soils, buildings
and historic monuments in some cases, irretrievably. The air pollutants giving rise to
acid deposition affect human health and air quality as well. But the problem is not
just a North American one.

Because acidic pollutants can travel great distances through the atmosphere to be
deposited in ecosystems hundreds and even thousands of kilometers away, acid
deposition is a global problem. Emissions from North America travel as far as
Europe, and pollution from Asia affects human health and the environment in North

Air pollutants, particularly emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, are the
precursors of acid deposition. In North America, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
are emitted by anthropogenic sources such as metal smelting and fossil fuel
combustion in electricity generation and transportation, as well as by natural sources
such as volcanoes, forest fires and lightning. However, the vast majority of SO2 and
NOx emissions that contribute to acid deposition are a product of human activities .

3. A commission appointed by the mayors has recommended several strategies

worth $12 million to contain the economic, social and ecological consequences of
the industrialization of the twin towns. Th e budget of the twin towns can allocate
only $6 million. Can you help the mayors?

Yes I can do several strategies Environment, Development and Sustainability is

an international, multidisciplinary journal covering all aspects of the
environmental impacts of socio-economic development. Concerned with the
complex interactions between development and environment, its purpose is to
seek ways and means for achieving sustainability in all human activities aimed at
such development. Coverage includes interactions among society, development
and environment, and their implications for sustainable development technical,
economic, ethical and philosophical aspects of sustainable development local,
regional and global sustainability and their practical implementation development
and application of indicators of sustainability development, verification,
implementation and monitoring of policies for sustainable development;
sustainable use of land, water, energy and biological resources in development;
impacts of agriculture and forestry activities on soil and aquatic ecosystems and
biodiversity, and much more.

This sense, a culturally sustainable action discovers, first, and uses then all
tangible and intangible assets of the context in which it operates: placing value
on the natural, human or nonhuman built heritage or reappropriating it even to
the extent of deciding not to intervene, learning of existing knowledge and ways
of doing characteristic of a group or community that facilitate the implementation
of any action, recognizing that people behave and formulate their dreams,
desires, frustrations and beliefs both individually and collectively in very different


The natural hazards of killer lakes arise when enormous amounts of dissolved
CO2 gas trapped in the bottoms of these lakes is released suddenly. In August of
1986 Lake Nyos in Cameroon "exploded", releasing up to 1 km of CO2 and killing
about 1700 people up to 26 km (13 miles) away from the lake. A smaller gas
burst from Lake Monoun in August of 1984 killed 37 people. There are several
aspects of these disasters that we need to understand, and they include the
build-up of the gas, the release of the gas, and the remediation of the hazards.

Natural hazards created by the lethal release of large amounts of gas from lakes
are very rare. Only three lakes in the world are known to contain high
concentrations of dissolved gas in their bottom waters: Lakes Nyos and Monoun
in Cameroon, and the much larger Lake Kivu in East Africa. Only two of these
lakes, Nyos and Monoun, are known to have recently released gas resulting in
the loss of human life.

1. Cameeron is, like other 30 lakes found in the region, more than 200 meters
deep and delimitated by steep cliffs. Water mixing is very limited in this
narrow basin. In the tropical climate of Cameroon, the warm superficial layers
of water form a sort of cap covering the entire lake. August 21, 1986 was a
busy market day in the village of Lower Nyos (Cameroon) and most people
that evening went to bed early. The night brought a strange sound, like a
distant explosion. When a few people awoke the next morning, they
discovered the apparently unharmed corpses of people and animals lying
everywhere on the ground. Not even insects had been spared. More than
1.700 people died that night. In the first days after the catastrophe, everybody
struggled to understand what happened. Rumors of secret government
experiments, strange "invisible superweapons" or even a series of "atomic
bombs" soon started to circulate.

2. .The fractured rock above the magma chamber collapsed to produce a

massive crater over six miles across .Calderas are some of the most
spectacular features on Earth. They are large volcanic craters that form by
two different methods:

a.) an explosive volcanic eruption

b.) collapse of surface rock into an empty magma chamber.

A satellite view of Crater Lake, one of the world's most famous calderas.
Crater Lake formed about 7700 years ago when a massive volcanic
eruption of Mount Mazama emptied a large magma chamber below the


3. The heavy cloud sunk into a valley, which channeled it into settlements.
People in the affected areas collapsed in their tracks at home, on roads or in
the field -- losing consciousness or dying in a few breaths. In Nyos and Kam,
the first villages hit by the cloud, everyone but four inhabitants on high ground

The valley split, and the cloud followed, killing people up to 15.5 miles (25
kilometers) away from the lake. Over the next two days, people from
surrounding areas entered the valley to find the bodies of humans and cows
lying on the ground.
By Aug. 23, the cloud had mostly blown away, and the silence had lifted. After
being unconscious for up to 36 hours, some people revived to find, horrifically,
that their family members, neighbors and livestock were dead.

The lake had changed, too. It was now shallower; plants and leaves floated in
it; and its formerly picturesque blue hue had darkened into rust.

4. It had been known for years that the water in Lake Nyos was extremely
enriched in dissolved CO2.

The lake overlies a volcanic source, which appears to release CO2 and other
gases. However, most of this gas does not escape into the atmosphere, but
rather dissolves into the bottom waters of the lake. At a depth of over 200
meter, the sheer weight of the upper lake levels exerts considerable
pressures on the bottom waters. This confining pressure allows CO2to
dissolve into the bottom waters without escaping to the surface, in much the
same way that the cap on a carbonated beverage prevents CO2 from
bubbling out of its container

At a depth of 200 meters, water can hold 15 times its own volume in CO2. It
has been estimated that every liter of water in the lower part of the lake may
have contained between 1 to 5 liters of CO2!

5. In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of

carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area.

This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course,
explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake
formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases. Students interpret
graphs showing temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity
measurements for the lake, and then synthesize these different types of

limnological data to solve the problem.

6. Meromixis is less likely at higher lake levels because the volume of
freshwater inflow is a smaller percentage of the volume of the lake, thus
having less of an impact on the change in salinity and depth of
stratification. The scientists began making frequent return trips to Cameroon,
not only to study both Nyos and Monoun but also to make the region safe for
people wishing to return. Testing of the lake depths showed that the
explosions had not cleared all the pent-up carbon dioxide; indeed, the gas
was accumulating at alarming rates. The researchers speculated that certain
layers of Monoun, if left untouched, could become saturated with carbon
dioxide by this year, and Nyos, sometime after. But either lake, even short of
saturation, could explode at any moment.

7. Reddish water indicates precipitated iron.

The red color may be found on bathroom fixtures and laundry. Rusty water
occurs from sediment in the pipes or rust from the inside walls of the water
mains.The rust can be disturbed and temporarily suspended in water with
unusual water flows from water main breaks or maintenance or by flushing of
a hydrant. This discolored water is not a health threat. When the water is
discolored it is recommended to either not wash laundry or to use a rust stain
remover or regular detergent but not chlorine bleach as it will react with the
iron to form a permanent stain.