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The distributions discussed so far, viz. Binomial Distribution and Poisson Distribution are Discrete

Probability Distributions, since the variables under study were Discrete Random Variables. Now we confine

the discussion to continuous to Continuous Probability Distributions which arise when the underlying variable

is a continuous one. Normal Probability Distribution or commonly called Normal Distribution is one of the

most important Continuous Theoretical Distributions in statistics. Most of the data relating to economic and

business statistics or even in social and physical sciences conform to this distribution.

The normal distribution was first discovered by English Mathematician De Moivre (1667-1754) in 1733

who obtained the mathematical equation for this distribution while dealing with problems arising in the game

of chance. Normal distribution is also known as Gaussian Distribution (Guassian Law of Errors) after Karl

Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) who used this distribution to describe the theory of accidental errors of

measurements involved in the calculation of orbits of heavenly bodies. Today, Normal Probability Distribution

Model is one of the most important Probability Distribution Models in statistical analysis.

Normal Distribution

The normal distribution refers to a family of Continuous Probability Distributions described by the

normal equation. Normal Distribution is Bell Shaped Curve.

The Normal Curve

The graph of the normal distribution depends on two factors - the mean [μ] and the standard deviation

[σ]. The mean of the distribution determines the location of the Centre of the graph, and the standard

deviation determines the height and width of the graph. All normal distributions look like a symmetric, bell-

shaped curve, as shown below.

When the standard deviation is small, the curve is tall and narrow; and when the standard deviation is

big, the curve is short and wide (see above).

Probability and Normal Distribution Curve

The Normal Distribution is a Continuous Probability Distribution. This has several implications for

probability.

The total area under the normal curve is equal to 1.

The probability that a normal random variable X equals any particular value is 0.

The probability that X is greater than a equals the area under the normal curve bounded by a and plus

infinity (as indicated by the non-shaded area in the figure below).

The probability that X is less than a equals the area under the normal curve bounded by a and minus

infinity (as indicated by the shaded area in the figure below).

Additionally, every Normal Distribution Curve (regardless of its mean or standard deviation) conforms to

the following "rule".

About 68% of the area under the curve falls within 1 standard deviation of the mean.

About 95% of the area under the curve falls within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

About 99.7% of the area under the curve falls within 3 standard deviations of the mean.

Collectively, these points are known as the empirical rule or the 68-95-99.7 rule. Clearly, given a normal

distribution, most outcomes will be within 3 standard deviations of the mean. To find the probability associated

with a normal random variable, use a graphing calculator, an online normal distribution calculator, or a normal

distribution table.

Normal Probability Distributions

The Normal Probability Distribution is very common in the field of statistics. Whenever you measure

things like people's height, weight, salary, opinions or votes, the graph of the results is very often a normal

curve.

The Normal Distribution

A random variable X whose distribution has the shape of a Normal Curve is called a Normal Random

Variable. The Normal Probability Distribution is very common in the field of statistics. Whenever you measure

things like people's height, weight, salary, opinions or votes, the graph of the results is very often a normal

curve.

A random variable X whose distribution has the shape of a normal curve is called a normal random

variable.

f(X)=[1/σ√2π] e−(x−μ)2/2 σ2

Properties of a Normal Distribution

1. The normal curve is symmetrical about the mean μ;

2. The mean[μ] is at the middle and divides the area into halves;

3. The total area under the curve is equal to 1;

4. It is completely determined by its mean [μ] and standard deviation [σ] or variance [σ2]

Note:

In a normal distribution, only 2 parameters are needed, namely mean [μ] and standard deviation [σ].

Formula for the Standardized Normal Distribution

If we have mean [μ] and standard deviation [σ], then

Z= [X-μ]/σ

Since all the values of X falling between x1 and x2 have corresponding Z values between z1 and z2, it

means:

The area under the X curve between X = x1 and X = x2 equals the area under the Z curve

between Z = z1 and Z = z2.

Hence, we have the following equivalent probabilities:

P(x1 < X < x2) = P (z1 < Z < z2)

Normal Distribution

In probability theory, the Normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) Distribution is a very

common Continuous Probability Distribution. Normal Distributions are important in statistics and are often

used in the natural and social sciences to represent real-valued random variables whose distributions are not

known. A random variable with a Gaussian Distribution is said to be Normally Distributed and is called

a Normal Deviate.

The Normal Distribution is useful because of the Central Limit Theorem. In its most general form,

under some conditions (which include finite variance), it states that averages of samples of observations

of random variables independently drawn from independent distributions converge in distribution to the normal,

that is, they become normally distributed when the number of observations is sufficiently large. Physical

quantities that are expected to be the sum of many independent processes (such as measurement errors) often

have distributions that are nearly normal. Moreover, many results and methods (such as propagation of

uncertainty and least squares parameter fitting) can be derived analytically in explicit form when the relevant

variables are normally distributed.

The Normal Distribution is sometimes informally called the Bell Curve. However, many other

distributions are Bell-Shaped (such as the Cauchy, Student's t-, and logistic distributions).

Properties of Normal Distribution

The Normal Distribution is the only Absolutely Continuous Distribution whose cumulants beyond the

first two (i.e., other than the mean and variance) are zero. It is also the continuous distribution with

the maximum entropy for a specified Mean and Variance. Geary has shown, assuming that the mean and

variance are finite, that the Normal Distribution is the only distribution where the Mean and Variance

calculated from a set of independent draws are independent of each other.

The Normal Distribution is a subclass of the Elliptical Distributions. The normal distribution

is symmetric about its mean, and is non-zero over the entire real line. As such it may not be a suitable model for

variables that are inherently positive or strongly skewed, such as the weight of a person or the price of a share.

Such variables may be better described by other distributions, such as the Log-Normal Distribution or

the Pareto Distribution.

The value of the normal distribution is practically zero when the value lies more than a

few standard deviations away from the mean (e.g., a spread of three standard deviations covers all but 0.27% of

the total distribution). Therefore, it may not be an appropriate model when one expects a significant fraction

of outliers—values that lie many standard deviations away from the mean—and least squares and

other statistical inference methods that are optimal for normally distributed variables often become highly

unreliable when applied to such data. In those cases, a more heavy-tailed distribution should be assumed and

the appropriate robust statistical inference methods applied.

The Gaussian Distribution belongs to the family of stable distributions which are the attractors of sums

of independent, identically distributed distributions whether or not the mean or variance is finite. Except for the

Gaussian which is a limiting case, all stable distributions have heavy tails and infinite variance. It is one of the

few distributions that are stable and that have probability density functions that can be expressed analytically,

the others being the Cauchy Distribution and the Lévy Distribution.

Normal Probability Distribution

Normal Probability Distribution, also called Gaussian Distribution refers to a family of distributions that

are bell shaped. These are symmetric in nature and peak at the mean, with the probability distribution

decreasing away before and after this mean smoothly, as shown in the figure below.

The figure also shows a family of curves with different peaks cantered about the same mean, which

differ in their spread and height.

μ = Mean of the Population

σ = Standard Deviation

Normal Distribution occurs very frequently in statistics, economics, natural and social sciences and can

be used to approximate many distributions occurring in nature and in the manmade world. For example, the

height of all people of a particular race, the length of all dogs of a particular breed, IQ, memory and reading

skills of people in a general population and income distribution in an economy all approximately follow the

Normal Probability Distribution shaped like a Bell Curve.

The theory of Normal Distribution also finds use in advanced sciences like Astronomy, Photonics and

Quantum Mechanics. The Normal Distribution can be characterized by the Mean & Standard Deviation. The

mean determines where the peak occurs, which is at 0 in our figure for all the curves. The standard deviation is

a measure of the spread of the normal probability distribution, which can be seen as differing widths of the bell

curves in our figure.

The Formula

The Mean is generally represented by μ and the Standard Deviation by σ. For a Perfect Normal

Distribution, the mean, median and mode are all equal. The normal distribution function can be written in terms

of the mean and standard deviation as follows:

p(x) = (1/σRoot(2π)) x exp (- (x-μ)2/2σ2)

Or

From the above formula for Normal Distribution, it can be inferred that about 68% of all values lie

within one standard deviation from the mean; 95.4% of all values lie within two standard deviations from the

mean and 99.7% of all values lie within three standard deviations from the mean.

From the basic Bell Curve, there can be many special cases derived that become meaningful under

different situations. For example the left or right or both sides of a normal distribution can be skewed or there

could be the presence of long tails. A basic study of the normal distribution therefore is necessary before a

meaningful study can be made into these special cases. This concept can be extended to 3-D normal

distributions as well, which are used for more advanced applications.

Normal Probability Distribution

A chart, such as that seen above, is often used when dealing with normal distribution

questions. Understand that this chart shows only percentages that correspond to subdivisions up to one-half of

one standard deviation. Percentages for other subdivisions require a statistical mathematical table or a graphing

calculator.

Normal Distributions (Bell Curve)

A Normal Distribution, sometimes called the Bell Curve, is a distribution that occurs naturally in many

situations. For example, the bell curve is seen in tests like the SAT and GRE. The bulk of students will score

the average (C), while smaller numbers of students will score a B or D. An even smaller percentage of students

score an F or an A. This creates a distribution that resembles a bell (hence the nickname). The Bell Curve is

Symmetrical. Half of the data will fall to the left of the mean; half will fall to the right.

Many groups follow this type of pattern. That’s why it’s widely used in business, statistics and in government

bodies like the FDA:

Heights of people.

Measurement errors.

Blood pressure.

Points on a test.

IQ scores.

Salaries.

The empirical rule tells you what percentage of your data falls within a certain number of standard

deviations from the mean:

• 68.26% of the data falls within one standard deviation of the mean.

• 95.44% of the data falls within two standard deviations of the mean.

• 99.73% of the data falls within three standard deviations of the mean.

The standard deviation controls the spread of the distribution. A smaller standard deviation i.e. lower

SD indicates that the data is tightly clustered around the mean; the normal distribution will be taller. A larger

standard deviation indicates that the data is spread out around the mean; the normal distribution will be flatter

and wider.

Properties of a Normal Distribution

The mean, mode and median are all equal.

The curve is symmetric at the centre (i.e. around the mean, μ).

Exactly half of the values are to the left of centre and exactly half the values are to the right of the centre.

The total area under the curve is 1.

The Standard Normal Model

A Standard Normal Model is a Normal Distribution with a mean of 1 and a standard deviation of 1.

Standard Normal Model: Distribution of Data

One way of figuring out how data are distributed is to plot them in a graph. If the data is evenly

distributed, you may come up with a Bell Curve. A bell curve has a small percentage of the points on both tails

and the bigger percentage on the inner part of the curve. In the Standard Normal Model, about 5 percent of your

data would fall into the “tails” (colored darker orange in the image below) and 90 percent will be in between.

For example, for test scores of students, the normal distribution would show 2.5 percent of students

getting very low scores and 2.5 percent getting very high scores. The rest will be in the middle; not too high or

too low. The shape of the standard normal distribution looks like this:

The Standard Normal Distribution could help you figure out which subject you are getting good grades

in and which subjects you have to exert more effort into due to low scoring percentages. Once you get a score

in one subject that is higher than your score in another subject, you might think that you are better in the subject

where you got the higher score. This is not always true.

You can only say that you are better in a particular subject if you get a score with a certain number of

standard deviations above the mean. The standard deviation tells you how tightly your data is clustered around

the mean; it allows you to compare different distributions that have different types of data including different

means.

For example, if you get a score of 90 in Math and 95 in English, you might think that you are better in

English than in Math. However, in Math, your score is 2 standard deviations above the mean. In English, it’s

only one standard deviation above the mean. It tells you that in Math, your score is far higher than most of the

students (your score falls into the tail). Based on this data, you actually performed better in Math than in

English!

Properties of Normal Distribution

Graph of the Normal Distribution is Bell Shaped Curve. The top of the bell is directly above the mean

[μ].

Normal Distribution Curve is Symmetrical about the mean[μ].

As Normal Distribution Curve is symmetrical, therefore, mean, median and mode coincides i.e.

Mean=Median=Mode= μ

The ordinate at X= μ or (Z=0) divides the whole area into two halves i.e. equal parts.

Since total area under normal probability curve is, the area to the right of the ordinate as well as to the

left of the ordinate at X= μ or (Z=0) is 0.5.

By virtue of symmetry, the quartiles are equidistant from median (μ), i.e., Q3-Median = Median-Q1 or

Q3+ Q1= 2 Median = 2μ

Theoretically, range of the normal distribution is from -∞ to +∞. However, practically, Range=6σ

Normal Distribution is unimodal i.e. having only single mode value.

Normal Distribution Curve is asymptotic to the x-axis.

Normal Distribution Curve is bilateral i.e. right side and left side.

The greater percentage of cases exists at the centre or middle of the distribution.

Normal Distribution Curve is based on the elementary principles of probability. Hence, it is also known

as Normal Probability (Distribution) Curve.

Mean Deviation of Normal Distribution=[4/5] σ

Quartiles: Q1= μ-0.6745 σ, Q3= μ+0.6745 σ

Quartile Deviation=[2/3] σ

Area Property:

Area at Z=±1 is 0.6826 or 68.26%

Area at Z=±2 is 0.9544 or 95.44%

Area at Z=±1 is 0.9973 or 99.73%

Normal Probability Curves with Small, moderate, and large standard deviation values are as follows:

The normal distribution is the most important probability distribution in statistics because it fits many

natural phenomena. For example, heights, blood pressure, measurement error, and IQ scores follow the normal

distribution. It is also known as the Gaussian distribution and the bell curve. The normal distribution is a

probability function that describes how the values of a variable are distributed. It is a symmetric distribution

where most of the observations cluster around the central peak and the probabilities for values further away

from the mean taper off equally in both directions. Extreme values in both tails of the distribution are similarly

unlikely.

Example of Normally Distributed Data: Heights

Height data are normally distributed. The distribution in this example fits real data that I collected from

14-year-old girls during a study.

As you can see, the distribution of heights follows the typical pattern for all normal distributions. Most

girls are close to the average (1.512 meters). Small differences between an individual’s height and the mean

occur more frequently than substantial deviations from the mean. The standard deviation is 0.0741m, which

indicates the typical distance that individual girls tend to fall from mean height.

The distribution is symmetric. The number of girls shorter than average equals the number of girls taller

than average. In both tails of the distribution, extremely short girls occur as infrequently as extremely tall girls.

Parameters of the Normal Distribution

As with any probability distribution, the parameters for the normal distribution define its shape and

probabilities entirely. The normal distribution has two parameters, the mean and standard deviation. The normal

distribution does not have just one form. Instead, the shape changes based on the parameter values, as shown in

the graphs below.

Mean

The mean is the central tendency of the distribution. It defines the location of the peak for normal

distributions. Most values cluster around the mean. On a graph, changing the mean shifts the entire curve left or

right on the X-axis.

Standard deviation

The standard deviation is a measure of variability. It defines the width of the normal distribution. The

standard deviation determines how far away from the mean the values tend to fall. It represents the typical

distance between the observations and the average.

On a graph, changing the standard deviation either tightens or spreads out the width of the distribution

along the X-axis. Larger standard deviations produce distributions that are more spread out.

When you have narrow distributions, the probabilities are higher that values won’t fall far from the

mean. As you increase the spread of the distribution, the likelihood that observations will be further away from

the mean also increases.

Population Parameters versus Sample Estimates

The mean and standard deviation are parameter values that apply to entire populations. For the normal

distribution, statisticians signify the parameters by using the Greek symbol μ (mu) for the population mean and

σ (sigma) for the population standard deviation.

Unfortunately, population parameters are usually unknown because it’s generally impossible to measure

an entire population. However, you can use random samples to calculate estimates of these

parameters. Statisticians represent sample estimates of these parameters using x̅ for the sample mean and sd for

the sample standard deviation.

Common Properties for All Forms of the Normal Distribution

Despite the different shapes, all forms of the normal distribution have the following characteristic

properties.

They are all symmetric. The normal distribution cannot model skewed distributions.

The mean, median, and mode are all equal.

Half of the population is less than the mean and half is greater than the mean.

The Empirical Rule allows you to determine the proportion of values that fall within certain distances from

the mean.

While the normal distribution is essential in statistics, it is just one of many probability distributions, and it

does not fit all populations.

The Empirical Rule for the Normal Distribution

When you have normally distributed data, the standard deviation becomes particularly valuable. You

can use it to determine the proportion of the values that fall within a specified number of standard deviations

from the mean. For example, in a normal distribution, 68% of the observations fall within +/- 1 standard

deviation from the mean. This property is part of the Empirical Rule, which describes the percentage of the data

that fall within specific numbers of standard deviations from the mean for bell-shaped curves.

Mean +/- standard deviations Percentage of data contained

1 68.26%

2 95.44%

3 99.73%

Let’s look at a pizza delivery example. Assume that a pizza restaurant has a mean delivery time of 30

minutes and a standard deviation of 5 minutes. Using the Empirical Rule, we can determine that 68% of the

delivery times are between 25-35 minutes (30 +/- 5), 95% are between 20-40 minutes (30 +/- 2*5), and 99.7%

are between 15-45 minutes (30 +/-3*5). The chart below illustrates this property graphically.

As we’ve seen above, the normal distribution has many different shapes depending on the parameter

values. However, the standard normal distribution is a special case of the normal distribution where the mean is

zero and the standard deviation is 1. This distribution is also known as the Z-distribution.

A value on the standard normal distribution is known as a standard score or a Z-score. A standard score

represents the number of standard deviations above or below the mean that a specific observation falls. For

example, a standard score of 1.5 indicates that the observation is 1.5 standard deviations above the mean. On

the other hand, a negative score represents a value below the average. The mean has a Z-score of 0.

Suppose you weigh an apple and it weighs 110 grams. There’s no way to tell from the weight alone how

this apple compares to other apples. However, as you’ll see, after you calculate its Z-score, you know where it

falls relative to other apples.

Standardization: How to Calculate Z-scores

Standard scores are a great way to understand where a specific observation falls relative to the entire

distribution. They also allow you to take observations drawn from normally distributed populations that have

different means and standard deviations and place them on a standard scale. This standard scale enables you to

compare observations that would otherwise be difficult.

This process is called standardization, and it allows you to compare observations and calculate probabilities

across different populations. In other words, it permits you to compare apples to oranges. Isn’t statistics great!

To standardize your data, you need to convert the raw measurements into Z-scores.

To calculate the standard score for an observation, take the raw measurement, subtract the mean, and divide by

the standard deviation. Mathematically, the formula for that process is the following:

X represents the raw value of the measurement of interest. Mu and sigma represent the parameters for the

population from which the observation was drawn.

After you standardize your data, you can place them within the standard normal distribution. In this manner,

standardization allows you to compare different types of observations based on where each observation falls

within its own distribution.

Example of Using Standard Scores to Make an Apples to Oranges Comparison

Suppose we literally want to compare apples to oranges. Specifically, let’s compare their weights. Imagine that

we have an apple that weighs 110 grams and an orange that weighs 100 grams.

If we compare the raw values, it’s easy to see that the apple weighs more than the orange. However, let’s

compare their standard scores. To do this, we’ll need to know the properties of the weight distributions for

apples and oranges. Assume that the weights of apples and oranges follow a normal distribution with the

following parameter values:

Apples Oranges

Mean weight grams 100 140

Standard Deviation 15 25

Now we’ll calculate the Z-scores:

o Apple = (110-100) / 15 = 0.667

o Orange = (100-140) / 25 = -1.6

The Z-score for the apple (0.667) is positive, which means that our apple weighs more than the average apple.

It’s not an extreme value by any means, but it is above average for apples. On the other hand, the orange has

fairly negative Z-score (-1.6). It’s pretty far below the mean weight for oranges. I’ve placed these Z-values in

the standard normal distribution below.

While our apple weighs more than our orange, we are comparing a somewhat heavier than average apple to a

downright puny orange! Using Z-scores, we’ve learned how each fruit fits within its own distribution and how

they compare to each other.

Finding Areas Under the Curve of a Normal Distribution

The normal distribution is a probability distribution. As with any probability distribution, the proportion of the

area that falls under the curve between two points on a probability distribution plot indicates the probability that

a value will fall within that interval. To learn more about this property, read my post about Understanding

Probability Distributions.

Typically, I use statistical software to find areas under the curve. However, when you’re working with the

normal distribution and convert values to standard scores, you can calculate areas by looking up Z-scores in a

Standard Normal Distribution Table.

Because there are an infinite number of different normal distributions, publishers can’t print a table for each

distribution. However, you can transform the values from any normal distribution into Z-scores, and then use a

table of standard scores to calculate probabilities.

Using a Table of Z-scores

Let’s take the Z-score for our apple (0.667) and use it to determine its weight percentile. A percentile is the

proportion of a population that falls below a specific value. Consequently, to determine the percentile, we need

to find the area that corresponds to the range of Z-scores that are less than 0.667. In the portion of the table

below, the closest Z-score to ours is 0.65, which we’ll use.

The trick with these tables is to use the values in conjunction with the properties of the normal distribution to

calculate the probability that you need. The table value indicates that the area of the curve between -0.65 and

+0.65 is 48.43%. However, that’s not what we want to know. We want the area that is less than a Z-score of

0.65.

We know that the two halves of the normal distribution are mirror images of each other. So, if the area for the

interval from -0.65 and +0.65 is 48.43%, then the range from 0 to +0.65 must be half of that: 48.43/2 =

24.215%. Additionally, we know that the area for all scores less than zero is half (50%) of the distribution.

Therefore, the area for all scores up to 0.65 = 50% + 24.215% = 74.215%

Our apple is at approximately the 74th percentile.

Below is a probability distribution plot produced by statistical software that shows the same percentile along

with a graphical representation of the corresponding area under the curve. The value is slightly different

because we used a Z-score of 0.65 from the table while the software uses the more precise value of 0.667.

In addition to all of the above, there are several other reasons why the normal distribution is crucial in statistics.

o Some statistical hypothesis tests assume that the data follow a normal distribution. However, as I explain in

my post about parametric and nonparametric tests, there’s more to it than only whether the data are

normally distributed.

o Linear and nonlinear regression both assume that the residuals follow a normal distribution. Learn more in

my post about assessing residual plots.

o The central limit theorem states that as the sample size increases, the sampling distribution of the mean

follows a normal distribution even when the underlying distribution of the original variable is non-normal.

Practical Problems on Normal Probability Distribution (NPD)

Practical Probalem.1

X is a normally distributed variable with mean μ = 30 and standard deviation σ = 4. Find-1] P(x < 40), 2] P(x >

21), 3] P (30 < x < 35)

Solution:

Parameters:

μ (population mean)= 30, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 4

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] P(x < 40)

x=40

Z= [40-30]/4 or 10/4 or 2.5

P (x < 40) =P (z<2.5) = [Area to the left of 2.5] = [0.4939+0.50] =0.9938

2] P(x > 21)

x=40

Z= [21-30]/4 or -9/4 or -2.25

P (x > 21) =P (z>2.5) = [Area to the right of 2.5] = [0.50+0.4878] =0.9878

3] P (30 < x < 35)

x=30

Z= [30-30]/4 or 0/4 or 0

x=35

Z= [35-30]/4 or 5/4 or 1.25

P (30 < x < 35) =P (0< z<1.25) = [Area to the left of 1.25]-[Area to the left of 0]

= [0.8944-0.50] or 0.3944

Practical Problem.2

A radar unit is used to measure speeds of cars on a motorway. The speeds are normally distributed with a mean

of 90 km/hr and a standard deviation of 10 km/hr. What is the probability that a car picked at random is

travelling at more than 100 km/hr?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 90, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 10

Z =[X- μ]/σ

P (x≥100)

x=100

Z= [100-90]/10 =1

P (x>100) = P (z>1) = [area to the right of 1] = [0.50-0.3413] =0.1587

Practical Problem.3

For a certain type of computers, the length of time bewteen charges of the battery is normally distributed with a

mean of 50 hours and a standard deviation of 15 hours. John owns one of these computers and wants to know

the probability that the length of time will be between 50 and 70 hours.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 50, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 15

Z =[X- μ]/σ

P (50≥x≤70)

x=50

Z= [50-50]/10 =0

x=70

Z= [70-50]/15 =1.33

P (50≥x≤70) = P (0≥x≤1.33) = [area to the left of 1.33]-[area to the left of 0] = [09082.-0.50] =0.4082

Practical Problem.4

Entry to a certain University is determined by a national test. The scores on this test are normally distributed

with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Tom wants to be admitted to this university and he knows

that he must score better than at least 70% of the students who took the test. Tom takes the test and scores 585.

Will he be admitted to this university?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 500, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 100

Z =[X- μ]/σ

x=585

Z= [585-500]/100 =0.85

x=70

Z= [70-50]/10 =2

P (x≤585) = (z≤0.85) = [Area to the left of 0.85] = [0.50+0.3023] or 0.8023 or 80.23%

Tom scored better than 80.23% students who took the test, hence, he will be admitted to the university as needs

to score better than at least 70% of students.

Practical Problem.5

The lengths of similar components produced by a company are approximated by a normal distribution model

with a mean of 5 cm and a standard deviation of 0.02 cm. If a component is chosen at random

a) What is the probability that the length of this component is between 4.98 and 5.02 cm?

b) What is the probability that the length of this component is between 4.96 and 5.04 cm

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 5cm, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 0.02cm

Z =[X- μ]/σ

a) What is the probability that the length of this component is between 4.98 and 5.02 cm?

x=4.98cm

Z= [4.98-5.00]/0.02 =[-0.02/0.02] = -1

x=5.02cm

Z= [5.02-5.00]/0.02 =[0.02/0.02] = 1

P (5.02≥x≤4.98) = P (1≥z≤-1) = [0.3413] + [0.3413] = 0.6826 or 68.26%

b) What is the probability that the length of this component is between 4.96 and 5.04 cm

x=4.96cm

Z= [4.96-5.00]/0.02 =[-0.04/0.02] = -2

x=5.02cm

Z= [5.04-5.00]/0.02 =[0.04/0.02] = 2

P (5.02≥x≤4.98) = P (2≥z≤-2) = [0.4772] + [0.4772] = 0.9544 or 95.44%

Practical Problem.6

The length of life of an instrument produced by a machine has a normal distribution with a mean of 12 months

and standard deviation of 2 months. Find the probability that an instrument produced by this machine will last

a) Less than 7 months.

b) Between 7 and 12 months.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 12 months, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 2 months

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of an instrument produced by the machine lasting for less than 7 months:

x=7 months

Z= [7-12]/0.02= [-5/2] = -2.50

P(x<7) =P (z<-2.50) = [area to the left of -2.50] = [0.50-0.4938] =0.0062

1] Probability of an instrument produced by the machine lasting between 7 months and 12 months:

x=12 months

Z= [12-12]/2 = [0/2] = 0

P (7≤x≤12) = P (-2.50≤x≤0) = 0.4938 or 49.38%

Practical Problem.7

The time taken to assemble a car in a certain plant is a random variable having a normal distribution of 20 hours

and a standard deviation of 2 hours. What is the probability that a car can be assembled at this plant in a period

of time?

a) Less than 19.5 hours?

b) Between 20 and 22 hours?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 20 hours, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 2 hours

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of assembling a car in the plant in a period of less than 19.50 hours:

x=19.50 hours

Z= [19.50-20]/2 = [-0.50/2] = -0.25

P(x<19.50) =P (z<-0.25) = [0.50-0.0987] =0.4013 or 40.13%

1] Probability of assembling a car in the plant between the period of 20 and 22 hours:

x=22 hours

Z= [22-20]/2 = [2/2] = 1

P (20≤x≤22) = P (0≤x≤1) = 0.3413 or 34.13%

Practical Problem.8

A large group of students took a test in Physics and the final grades have a mean of 70 and a standard deviation

of 10. If we can approximate the distribution of these grades by a normal distribution, what percent of the

students

a) Scored higher than 80?

b) Should pass the test (grades≥60)?

c) Should fail the test (grades<60)?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 70, & σ (Standard Deviation)= 10

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of students scored grade more than 80:

x=80

Z= [80-70]/10 = [10/10] = 1

P (x>80) = P (z>1) = [0.50-0.3413] =0.1587 or 15.87%

2] Probability of students scored grade ≥60:

x=60

Z= [60-70]/10 = [-10/10] = -1

P (x≥60) = P (z≥1) = [0.50+0.3413] =0.8413 or 84.13%

3] Probability of students scored grade<60:

x=60

Z= [60-70]/10 = [-10/10] = -1

P (x<60) = P (z<1) = [0.50-0.3413] =0.1587 or 15.87%

Practical Problem.9

The annual salaries of employees in a large company are approximately normally distributed with a mean of

$50,000 and a standard deviation of $20,000.

a) What percent of people earn less than $40,000?

b) What percent of people earn between $45,000 and $65,000?

c) What percent of people earn more than $70,000?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= $50000 & σ (Standard Deviation)= $20000

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of people earning less than $40000:

x=$40000

Z= [40000-50000]/20000 = [-10000/50000] = -0.50

P (x<$40000) = P (z<-1) = [0.50-0.1915] =0.3085 or 30.85%

2] Probability of people earning between $45000 and $65000:

x=$45000

Z= [45000-50000]/20000 = [-5000/20000] = -0.25

x=$65000

Z= [65000-50000]/10000 = [15000/20000] = 0.75

P ($45000 ≤x≤$65000) = P (-0.25≤z≤0.75) = [0.0987+0.2734] or 0.3721 or 37.21%

2] Probability of people earning more than $70000:

x=$70000

Z= [70000-50000]/20000 = [20000/20000] = 1

P (x>$70000) = P (z>2) = [0.50-0.3413] =0.1587 or 15.87%

Practical Problem.10

Suppose that the data concerning the first-year salaries of Baruch graduates is normally distributed with the

population mean µ = $60000 and the population standard deviation σ = $15000. Find the probability of a

randomly selected Baruch graduate-1] earning less than $45000 annually, 2] earning more than $80000

annually, and 3] Find the range of annual salaries of the top 15% earners.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= $60000 & σ (Standard Deviation)= $15000

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of Baruch graduate earning less than $45000:

x=$45000

Z= [45000-60000]/15000 = [-15000/15000] = -1

P (x<$45000) = P (z<-1) = [0.50-0.3413] =0.1587 or 15.87%

2] Probability of Baruch graduate earning more than $80000:

x=$80000

Z= [80000-60000]/15000 = [20000/15000] = 1.33

P (x>$80000) = P (z>1.33) = [0.50-0.4082] =0.0918 or 9.18%

3] Range of annual salaries of the top 15% earners:

Z= [80000-60000]/15000 = [20000/15000] = 1.33

Area between mean income earners and top 15% earners= 0.50-0.15 or 0.35

Z value for the area 0.35 would be 1.04

Z= [x-60000]/15000 = 1.04

x- 60000 = 15600

x=60000+15600 or 75600

Thus, top 15% Baruch graduates’ earning is $75600 and above

Practical Problem.11

The mean weight of 500 college students is 70 kg and the standard deviation is 3 kg. Assuming that the weight

is normally distributed, determine how many students weigh:

1. Between 60 kg and 75 kg.

2. More than 90 kg.

3. Less than 64 kg.

4. Exactly 64 kg.

5. 64 kg or less.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 70 kg & σ (Standard Deviation)= 3 kg

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of students’ weight between 60 kg and 75 kg:

x=60 kg

Z= [60-70]/3 = [-10/3] = -3.33

x=75 kg

Z= [75-70]/3 = [5/3] = 1.67

P (60≤x≤75) = P (-3.33≤x≤1.67) = [0.4996+0.4525] or 0.9521 or 95.21%

Number of students whose weight is between 60 kg and 75 kg= 95.21% of 500 or 476

2] Probability of students’ weight more than 80 kg:

x=90 kg

Z= [90-70]/3 = [20/3] = 6.67

P (x>90) = P (z>6.67) = [1-1] or Nil or Nil

Note: z value cannot be more than 6.67

Number of students whose weight is more than 90 kg= Nil

3] Probability of students’ weight less than 64 kg:

x=64 kg

Z= [64-70]/3 = [-6/3] = -2

P (x<64) = P (z<-2) = [0.50-0.4772] or 0.0228 or 2.28%

Number of students whose weight is less than 64 kg= 2.28% of 500 or 11

3] Probability of students’ weight exactly 64 kg:

x=64 kg

Z= [64-70]/3 = [-6/3] = -2

P (x=64) = P (z=-2) = 0.500 =0

4] Probability of students’ weight 64 kg or less:

x=64 kg

Z= [64-70]/3 = [-6/3] = -2

P (x≤64) = P (z≤-2) = [0.50-0.4772] or 0.0228 or 2.28%

Number of students whose weight is less than 64 kg= 2.28% of 500 or 11

Practical Problem.12

It is assumed that the test results for a class follow a normal distribution with a mean of 78 and a standard

deviation of 36. What is the probability of a student obtaining the grade higher than 72?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)= 78 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 36

Z =[X- μ]/σProbability of student’s grade higher than 72:

x=60

Z= [72-78]/36 = [-6/36] = -0.17

P (x>72) = P (z>-0.17) = [0.50+ 0.0675] or 0.5675 or 56.75%

Practical Problem.12

A random variable X is normally distributed with mean (μ) =12 and standard deviation (σ) =2. Find the P

(9.6<x<13.8). Given that the area: A=0.3159 for 0<Z<0.9 and A=0.3489 for 0<Z<1.2 where Z is standard

normal variate.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=12 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 2

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of value more than 9.6 but less than 13.8:

x=13.80

Z= [13.80-12]/2 = [1.80/2] = 0.90

x=9.60

Z= [9.60-12]/2= [-2.40/2] = -1.20

P (<9.60x<13.80) = P (0.90<Z<-1.20) = [0.3159+0.3849] or 0.7008 or 70.08%

Practical Problem.13

In a sample of 1000 items, the mean weight and standard deviation are 50 and 10 kilograms respectively.

Assuming the distribution to be normal, find the number of items weighing between 40 and 70 kilograms.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=50 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 10

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of number of times weighing between 40 and 70 kilograms:

x=40

Z= [40-50]/10 = [-10/10] = -1

x=70

Z= [70-50]/10 = [20/10] = 2

P (<40<70) = P (-1<Z<2) = [0.3413+0.4772] or 0.8185 or 81.85%

Practical Problem.13

In a sample of 1000 items, the mean weight and standard deviation are 50 and 10 kilograms respectively.

Assuming the distribution to be normal, find the number of items weighing between 40 and 70 kilograms.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=50 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 10

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of number of times weighing between 40 and 70 kilograms:

x=40

Z= [40-50]/10 = [-10/10] = -1

x=70

Z= [70-50]/10 = [20/10] = 2

P (40<x<70) = P (-1<Z<2) = [0.3413+0.4772] or 0.8185 or 81.85%

Practical Problem.14

The average daily sale of 500 branch offices was Rs.150 thousand and the standard deviation Rs. 15 thousand.

Assuming the distribution to be normal distribution indicate how many branches have sales between-1] Rs.120

and Rs.145 thousand, 2] Rs.140 and Rs.165 thousand

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=150 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 15

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of number of sales between 120 and 145 thousand:

x=120

Z= [120-150]/15 = [-30/15] = -2

x=140

Z= [145-150]/15 = [-5/15] = -0.33

P (120<x<145) = P (-2<Z<-0.33) = [0.4772-0.1293] or 0.3479 or 34.79%

Number of branches=34.79% of 500 = 174

Probability of sales between 140 and 165 thousand:

x=140

Z= [140-150]/15 = [-10/15] = -0.67

x=165

Z= [165-150]/15 = [15/15] = 1

P (140<x<165) = P (-0.67<Z<1) = [0.2486+0.3413] or 0.5899 or 58.99%

Number of branches=58.99% of 500 = 295

Practical Problem.15

The average daily sales of 2000 firms are normally distributed with mean Rs.26000 and standard deviation

Rs.6000. Find-1] the number of firms for which sales exceed Rs.32000, 2] the number of firms with sales

between Rs.28000 and Rs.32000.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=26000 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 6000

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of firms with sales exceeding Rs.32000:

x=32000

Z= [32000-26000]/6000 = [6000/6000] = 1

P (x>32000) = P (Z>0.33) = [0.50-0.3413] or 0.1587 or 15.87%

Number of branches=15.87% of 2000 = 317 approx.

Probability of firms with sales between 28000 and 32000:

x=28000

Z= [28000-26000]/6000 = [2000/6000] = 0.33

x=32000

Z= [32000-26000]/6000 = [6000/6000] = 1

P (28000<x<32000) = P 0.33<Z<1)= [0.3413-0.1293] or 0.2120 or 21.20%

Number of branches=21.20% of 2000 = 424

Practical Problem.16

The mean weight of 500 male students at a certain college is 65.6 kilograms and the standard deviation is 10

kilograms. Assuming that weights are normally distributed, find how many students weigh-1] more than 75.5

kg, 2] between 55.5 kg and 75.5 kg

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=65.6 kg & σ (Standard Deviation)= 10 kg

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of firms with sales exceeding Rs.75.5 kg:

x=75.5 kg

Z= [75.5-65.6]/10 = [9.9/10] = 0.99

P (x>75.5) = P (Z>0.99) = [0.50-0.3389] or 0.1611 or 16.11%

Number of branches=16.11% of 500 = 81 approx.

Probability of firms with sales between 55.5 and 75.5:

x=55.5

Z= [55.5-65.6]/10 = [-10.1/6000] = -1.01

x=75.5

Z= [75.5-65.6]/10 = [9.9/10] = 0.99

P (55.5<x<75.6) = P (-1.01<Z<0.99) = [0.3438+0.3389] or 0.6827 or 68.27%

Number of branches=68.27% of 500 = 341

Practical Problem.17

Indicate which brand you will choose and why?

Brand Mean Standard Deviation

A 16000 km. 2000 km.

B 20000 km. 4000 km.

Assuming normal distribution, also indicate what percentage of brand B might be expected to run more than

24000 kilometres?

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

Brand μ (population mean) σ (Standard Deviation)

A 16000 km. 2000 km.

B 20000 km. 4000 km.

1] Brand liking most and reason:

The brand which has the lowest coefficient of variance will be preferred most.

Coefficient of variance= [SD/Mean] x100

Brand-A:

Coefficient of variance= [SD/Mean] x100 or [2000/16000] x100= 12.50%

Brand-B:

Coefficient of variance= [SD/Mean] x100 or [4000/20000] x100= 20%

Brand-A will be preferred to Brand-B

2] Percentage of Brand-B expected to run more than 24000 km:

Z =[X- μ]/σ

x=24000 km

Z= [24000-20000]/4000 = [4000/4000] = 1

P (x>24000) = P (Z>1) = [0.50-0.3413] or 0.1587 or 15.87%

Practical Problem.18

A factory turns out an article by mass production methods. From the past experience, it appears that 20 articles

on an average are rejected out of every batch of 100. Find the variance of the number of rejects in a batch. What

is the probability of that the number of rejects in a batch exceeds 30.

[Given area under a normal curve between z=0 and z=2.5 is 0.4938]

Solution:

1] Variance of the number of reject in a batch:

n (number of trials/experiments/events) =100

p (Probability of rejection in a batch)= 20/100 i.e. 0.20,

q (Probability of non-rejection in a batch) =1-p or 1-0.20 = 0.80

Variance under binomial distribution=npq or 100 x 1/5 x 4/5 =16

2] Probability of the number of rejects in a batch exceeding 30:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=20 kg & σ (Standard Deviation)= 4 kg

[Variance = standard Deviation2 =16 & Standard Deviation = (16)1/2 or 4]

Z =[X- μ]/σ

x=30

Z= [30-20]/4 = [10/4] = 2.50

P (x>30) = P (Z>2.5) = [0.50-0.4938] or 0.0062 or .62%

Practical Problem.19

The marks of students in a certain examination are normally distributed with mean marks as 40% and standard

deviation of marks 20%. On this basis, 60 students failed. The result was moderated and 705 students passed.

Find the pass marks before and after the moderation.

Solution:

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=40 & σ (Standard Deviation)= 20%

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Passing marks before moderation:

Let, passing marks before moderation= x1

60% failed means 40% passed

P (X≥ x1) = 0.40

When, X = x1

Z= [x1-40]/20 =z1

P (Z≥ z1) =.40 → P (0≤Z≤ z1)= 0.10→ z1=0.25

Z= [x1-40]/20 =0.25

x1-40 = 5→ x1 = 40+5 or 45

Passing marks before moderation = 45%

Let Passing marks after moderation= x2

70% passed means 30% failed

P (X≥ x2) = 0.70

X= x2

Z= [x2-40]/20 =-z2

P (Z≥ z2) =.70 → P (-z2≤Z≤0) = 0.70→ P (0≤Z≤ z2) = 0.20→ z2=0.52

Z= [40- x2]/20 =0.52

40- x2=10.40→ x2 = 40-10.40 or 29.60

After moderation, passing marks=29.60%

Practical Problem.20

In an examination, a student passes if he secures 30 or more marks. He is placed first, second or third divisions

accordingly as he secures 60% or more marks, between 45% and 60% marks, and between 30% and 45%

marks respectively. He gets a distinction in case he secures 80% or more marks. It is notices from the results

that 10% of the students failed whereas 5% of them obtained distinction. Calculate the percentage of students

placed in the second division. (Assume marks to be normally distributed).

Solution:

P (X<30) = 10% or 0.10

P (X>80) = 5% or 0.05

Z =[X- μ]/σ

X=30

[30- μ]/ σ =-z1

X=80

[80- μ]/ σ =z2

P (Z<-z1) =0.10 → P (0≤Z≤ z1) = 0.40→ z2=-1.28

P (Z>z2) =0.05→ P (0≤Z≤ z2) = 0.45→ z2=1.64

[30- μ]/ σ =-1.28→-1.28 σ=30- μ........Equa.1

[80- μ]/ σ = 1.65→1.65 σ=80- μ..........Equa.2

2.93 σ = 50→ σ=17.4 i.e. 17 (Approx)

1.65 [17]=80- μ→ 28.05=80- μ→ μ=80-28.05 or 51.95 or 52 (Approx)

Parameters for Normal Distribution:

μ (population mean)=52% & σ (Standard Deviation)= 17%

Probability for students securing marks between 45% and 60%:

Z =[X- μ]/σ

X=45

Z= [45-52]/17 or -7/17 or -0.41

X=60

Z= [60-52]/17 or 8/17 or 0.47

P (45<x<60) = P (-0.41<x<0.47) = [0.1591+0.1808] = 0.3399 or 33.99% or 34%

Thus, 34% students secured second division in the examination.

Practical Problem.21

The distribution of marks obtained in an examination is normal. 44% of the candidates get marks below 61 and

4% of the candidates got marks above 80. Find the percentage of candidates got marks above 65.

Solution:

Let the parameters of normal distribution,

Population Mean= μ & Standard Deviation= σ

Z =[X- μ]/σ

44% candidates’ marks below 61%:

X=61

Z1 = [61- μ]/σ

4% candidates’ marks above 80%:

X=80

Z2 = [80- μ]/σ

P(X< 61) =0.44→P(61≤X≤ μ) = 0.06→z1=-0.15

[61- μ]/σ =-0.15

61- μ =-0.15 σ ........Equa.1

P(X> 80) =0.04→P(μ ≤X≤ 80) = 0.46→z2=1.75

[80- μ]/σ 1.75

80- μ=1.75 σ...........Equa.2

19=1.90 σ

σ =10

80- μ=1.75 x 10

80-17.50= μ = 62.50

Percentage of candidates got marks above 65:

Z = [65- 62.50]/10 or 2.5/10 or 0.25

P(X> 65) =P(z>0.25)=[0.50-0.0987]= 0.4013 or 40.13%

Percentage of students securing above 65% marks=40.13% or 40% (Approx.)

Practical Problem.22

In a normal distribution, 31% of the items are under 45 and 8% of the items are over 64. Find the mean and

standard deviation of the distribution. What percentage of items differs from the mean by a number not more

than 5?

Solution:

Let the parameters of normal distribution,

Population Mean= μ & Standard Deviation= σ

Z =[X- μ]/σ

31% items under 45:

X=61

Z1 = [45- μ]/σ

8% items above 64:

X=80

Z2 = [64- μ]/σ

P(X< 45) =0.31→P(45≤X≤ μ) = 0.19→z1=-0.50

[45- μ]/σ =-0.50

45- μ =-0.50 σ ........Equa.1

P(X> 64) =0.08→P (μ ≤X≤ 64) = 0.42→z2=1.41

[64- μ]/σ = 1.40

64- μ=1.40 σ...........Equa.2

19=1.90 σ → σ =10

64- μ =1.40 x 10→ μ = 64-14 or 50

Percentage of candidates differ from the mean by not more than 5 marks i.e. 45-55:

X=45

Z = [45- 50]/10 or -5/10 or -0.50

X=55

Z = [55- 50]/10 or 5/10 or 0.50

P (45≤X≤55) =P (-0.50≤z≤0.50) = [0.1915+0.1915] = 0.3830 or 38.30%

Practical Problem.23

A normal distribution has 77 as a mean. Find its standard deviation if 20% of the area under the curve lies to the

right of 90.

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean= 77 & Standard Deviation= σ

Z =[X- μ]/σ

20% of the area under the curve lies to the right of 90:

X=90

Z= [90-77]/ σ

P (77≤X≤90) =0.30→z = 0.84

[90-77]/ σ = 0.84

0.84 σ = 13→ σ = 13/0.84 or 15.50

Standard Deviation = 15.50

Practical Problem.24

A random variable has a normal distribution with 10 as standard deviation. Find its mean if the probability that

the random variable takes a value less than 80.50 is 0.3264.

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean= μ & Standard Deviation= 10

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of value less than 80.50 is 0.3264:

X=80.50

Z =[80.50- μ]/10

P (X<80.50) =0.3264→ P (80.50≤X≤ μ) = 0.1736→z =-0.45

[80.50- μ]/10 = -0.45

80.50- μ = -4.50 → μ = 80.50+4.50 or 85

Mean of the normal distribution is 85.

Practical Problem.25

Two types of light bulbs are manufactured by firm A and firm B. The life of bulb type A is normally distributed

with mean 100 hours and variance 15. The life of bulb type B is normally distributed with mean 105 hours and

variance 30. Find the probability of type-A bulb lasting more than 110 hours and probability of type-B bulb

lasting more than 120 hours.

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Type-A Bulb

Population Mean= 100 hours & Standard Deviation2/Variance= 15 hours, i.e. σ = 3.87

Type-B Bulb

Population Mean= 105 hours & Standard Deviation2/Variance= 30 hours, i.e. σ = 5.48

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of type-A bulb lasting more than 110 hours:

X=110

Z= [110-100]/3.87 or 10/3.87 or 2.58

P (X>110) = P (Z>2.58) = 0.50-0.4951 or 0.0049 or 0.49%

2] Probability of type-B bulb lasting for more than 120 hours:

X=120

Z= [120-105]/5.48 or 15/5.48 or 2.74

P (X>120) = P (Z>2.74) = 0.50-0.4969or 0.0031 or 0.31%

Practical Problem.26

A set of examination marks is approximately normally distributed with a mean of 75 and standard deviation of

5. If the top 5% of the students get grade-A and the bottom 25% students get grade-F. What mark is the lowest

A and what mark is the highest F?

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean (μ) = 75 & Standard Deviation (σ) = 5 hours

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Top 5% students secured grade-A:

Let the lowest score for grade-A is x1

X= x1

Z =[x1- 75]/5 = z1

P (X≥ x1) = 0.05→ P (75≤X≥ x1) = 0.45→ z1= 1.64

[x1- 75]/5 = 1.64→ x1- 75 =8.20→ x1= 75+8.20 or 83.20 or 83 (Approximate)

Bottom 25% students scored grade-F:

Let the highest score for grade-F is x2

X= x2

Z =[x2- 75]/5 = z2

P (X≤ x2) = 0.25→ P (x2≤X≤ 75) = 0.25→ z2= -0.67

[x2- 75]/5 = -0.67→ x2- 75 =-3.35→ x2= 75-3.35 or 71.65 or 72 (Approximate)

Practical Problem.27

The I.Q.’s of army volunteers in a given year are normally distributed with mean 110 and standard deviation

10. The army wants to give advance training to 20% of those recruits with the highest score. What is the lowest

IQ score acceptable for advanced training?

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean (μ) = 110 & Standard Deviation (σ) = 10 hours

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Let the lowest acceptable score for advanced training is x

X=x

[x-110]/10

P (X≥x) = 0.20 → P (110≤X≤x) =0.30→z=0.84

[x-110]/10 = 0.84→ x-110=8.40→x= 110+8.40 = 118.40 or 118 (Appprox)

Practical Problem.28

For a normal distribution with mean 2 and variance 9, find the value of x such that the probability of the

interval [2, x] is 0.4115.

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean (μ) = 2 & Variance/Standard Deviation2 (σ2) = 9 i.e. σ = 3

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of the interval [2, x] is 0.4115:

Z= [x-2]/3

P (2≤X≤x) = 0.4115→ z = 1.35

[x-2]/3 = 1.35→ x-2 = 4.05 →x=4.05+2 = 6.05 or 6 (Approximate)

Practical Problem.29

Marks obtained by a number of students are assumed to be normally distributed with mean 50 and variance 36.

If 4 students are taken at random, what is the probability that exactly two of them will have marks over 62?

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean (μ) = 50 & Variance/Standard Deviation2 (σ2) =36 i.e. σ = 6

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of students’ marks being over 62

Z= [62-50]/6 or 12/6 or 2

P(X>62) = P (z>2) = [0.50-0.4772] = 0.0228 or 2.28%

The required probability that exactly 2 of the 4 selected students will have marks over 62:

n(total number of trails/experiments)=4

p (probability of marks being over 62)=0.0228,

q (Probability of marks not being over 62) = 1-0.0228 or 0.9772

P (X=x) = nCx (p)x (q)n-x

x=2

P (X=2) = 4C2 (.0228)2 (.9772)4-2 = [4.3/2!] (.0228)2 (.9772)2 = [6] (.00051984) (.95591984) = [0.002979]

=0.00298 (Approx.)

Practical Problem.30

The lifetime in hours of a certain electrical equipment has the normal distribution with mean 80 and standard

deviation 16. Find out-1] probability that the equipment lasts at least 100 hours, 2] if the equipment has already

lasted 88 hours, conditional probability that it will last at least 12 another hours

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution:

Population Mean (μ) = 80 & Standard Deviation (σ) =16

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of equipment lasting at least 100 hours:

Z = [100- 80]/16 = 20/16 = 1.25

P (X≥100) = P (Z≥1.25) = [0.50-0.3944] = 0.1056 or 10.56%

2] Probability that equipment has already lasted 88 hours, conditional probability that it will last at least 12

another hours:

p=P[X≥(88+12) | X≥88] = P (X≥100 | X≥88) = P(X≥100∩ X≥88) = P(X≥100)

P (X≥88) P (X≥88)

P (X≥88) = P [Z≥ (88-80)/16] = P [Z≥ 8/16] = P [Z≥0.50] =[0.50-0.1915] or 0.3085 or 30.85%

P (X≥100) = P [Z≥ (100-80)/16] = P [Z≥ 20/16] = P [Z≥1.25] = [0.50-0.3944] or 0.1056 or 10.56%

p = P(X≥100)

P (X≥88)

Practical Problem.31

Time taken by the crew of a company to construct a small bridge is a normal variate with mean 400 labour

hours and standard deviation of 100 labour hours. Find out-1] probability that the bridge gets constructed

between 350 and 450 hours, 2] if the company promises to construct the bridge in 450 labour hours or less and

agrees to pay penalty of Rs.100 for each labour hour in excess of 450 labour hours, probability that company

has to pay penalty of at least Rs.2000.

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution: Population Mean (μ) = 400 labour hours & Standard Deviation (σ) =100

labour hours

Z =[X- μ]/σ

1] Probability of completing the bridge construction between 350 and 450 labour hours:

X=350

Z= [350-400]/100 or -50/100 or -0.50

X=450

Z= [450-400]/100 or 50/100 or 0.50

P (350≤X≤450) = P (-0.50≤z≤0.50) = [0.1915+0.1915] or 0.3830 or 38.30%

2] Probability of paying penalty of at least Rs.2000 at the rate of Rs.100 for each excess labour hour over and

above 450 labour hours i.e. probability of completing bridge construction project at least in 450+20, i.e. 470

labour hours:

X=470

Z= [470-400]/100 or 70/100 or 0.70

P (X≥470) = P (Z≥0.70) = [0.50-0.2580] or 0.2420 or 24.20%

Practical Problem.32

The income distribution of officers of a certain company was found to follow normal distribution. The average

income of an officer was Rs.15000/- the standard deviation of the income of officer was Rs.5000/-. If there

were 242 officers drawing salary above Rs, 18500/-, how many officers were there in the company?

Solution:

Parameters of Normal Distribution: Population Mean (μ) = Rs.15000 & Standard Deviation (σ) =Rs.5000

Z =[X- μ]/σ

Probability of Officers withdrawing salary above Rs.18500:

X=18500

Z= [18500-15000]/5000 or 3500/5000 or 0.70

P(X>18500) = P (Z>0.70) = [0.50-0.2580] or 0.2420 or 24.20%

24.20% = 242

100% = 1000 i.e. Total Number of officers working in the company.