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московский ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ институт

МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ(УНИВЕРСИ'Пл I)
МИД РОССИИ

Кафедра английского языка №1

Л.К. ЯНИЦКАЯ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
в дипломатии и политике
В двух частях

Часть I

E n g l i s h for D i p l o m a c y a n d Politics

Parti

Учебное пособие
для студентов факультетов международных отношений
и международной политики

Издание второе,
дополненное, переработанное

Издательство
«МГИМО-Университет»
2006
Contents
ББК 81.2 Англ Предисловие 4
Я 62 Методические рекомендации 6
Foreword 8
Unit I. The English Language and its Peculiarities

Step 1. English as a Language of Global Communication 9


English Invasion No One Can Stop 20
Step 2. Peculiarities of the English Language 40
The Code of Spoken English 40
Electronic Media and the English Language 49
The Language of Political Correctness 58
Additional reading:
The Secret Language. Body Code 62
Grammar Supplement: The Infinitive 65

Unit 2. Diplomacy as a Career

Яницкая Л.К. Step 1. The Art of Diplomacy 98


Я 62 Английский язык в дипломатии и политике: учебное пособие для сту- What is Public Diplomacy 116
дентов факультетов международных отношений и международной полити- Diplomacy and Public Opinion 126
ки. В 2 ч. Ч 1: English for Diplomacy and Politics / Л.К. Яницкая ~ M.:
МГИМО(У) МИД России, 2005. - 279 с. Step 2. Challenges and Rewards of a Diplomatic Career I 12
The Challenges a Future Diplomat May Fact l *<»
Some Qualities Desirable in a Future Diplomat \46
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов факультетов междуна- Additional reading:
родных отношений и ПОЛИТОЛОГИИ в качестве базового. Пособие состоит из Language Problems in Diplomatic Intercourse 154
лнух ЧАСТОЙ, КАЖДАЯ и1* которых содержит три раздела. Criticism of Diplomacy I 56
Пособие ГМСЖС предназначено для студентов, начавших изучать англий- Grammar Supplement: The Gerund 139
ский тык на первом курсе института или имевших перерыв в изучении
11ЫК1 ДО Поступления в институт. Пособие снабжено грамматическим при-
нижением с комплексом упражнений. Unit 3. News Media: the Power to Inform

ББК 81.2 Англ Step 1. Print and Electronic Media 191


The Press in Britain 199
ISBN 5-9228-0259-3 The American Press 203
The Language of Newspaper Headlines..... ...216
Step 2. Freedom to Inform 227
© Московский государственный институт Diplomacy and the News Media 227
международных отношений (университет) News Media and Public Opinion 230
МИД России, 2006 Freedom of the Media and the Internet 232
©Яницкая Л.К.,2006
Additional reading: Press Freedom and Control in Britain 235
Grammar Supplement: The Participle 239
i i.i i n - i r\« >п nut iimwnriun irwin n
irviKivni
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ к м ш и уроки содержа! упражнения на написание короткого выска >ывя
кия ii.'i I ада иную гему (paragraph), комментирования цитаты (comment),
Первая часть учебною курса Английский язык в дипломатии и политы реферирование статьи (summary) и написание сочинения (essay),' >тм зада-
ке рассчитано на 70 часов аудиторных занятий (или 4 часа в неделю) и ния сопровождаются методическими рекомендациями к их выполнению.
предназначен для студентов, продолжающих изучение английского языка Предлагаются также темы для подготовленных и неподготовленных
на базе знаний, приобретенных в течение первых двух лет в институте или выступлений, материал для учебной дискуссии.
имевших перерыв в изучении языка. Каждый урок снабжен грамматическим приложением. Темы граммати-
Цель пособия - углубление и расширение языковых, а также экстралин- ческого материала отобраны в соответствии с программой по английскому
гвистических знаний студентов, расширение диапазона понимания англий- язык}/ для студентов II - III курсов факультета МО. В первой части - это
ского текста, обогащение активного словарного запаса, совершенствования неличные формы глагола: РТнфинитив, Герундий и Причастие, их формы и
устной и письменной речи в пределах грамматических и лексических тем, функции.
предусмотренных программой для второго - третьего курсов факультета В заключение автор выражает благодарность рецензентам пособия к.ф.н.
международных отношений МГИМО. Новикову Д.Н., к.ф.н. Бобринской И.Д. и ст. пр. Цветковой Н.И. за ценные
Первая часть включает три раздела и построена по тематическому замечания и советы при составлении пособия, а также всем, кто вносил
принципу. Темы разделов отвечают требованиям профессиональной ори- свои пожелания и критические замечания при работе с данным пособием.
ентации студентов факультетов международных отношений. Каждый раз-
дел - урок (Unit) делится на две ступени: первая - содержит тематический Автор
словарь с иллюстрацией его использования, упражнения на его активиза-
цию, тематический текст ознакомительного характера для аналитического
чтения, на базе которого построены упражнения на активизацию и закреп-
ление лексического материала, упражнения на словообразование и разви-
тие навыков устной и письменной речи. Вторая ступень, более профессио-
нально-ориентированная, также содержит комплекс упражнений на акти-
визацию и закрепление лексического материала и дальнейшее развитие
разных видов устной и письменной речи. Кроме того, уроки содержат те-
матические тексты дни раЗВЭТИЯ навыков различных видов чтения и до-
полнитсльные гекёты повышенной сложности с заданиями.
Текстовой материал взят из оригинальных источников, часть материала
Незначительно адаптирована И сокращена. Весь материал полностью при-
м< к II и соответствие с у1 icon о-методическими задачами данного этапа
(И [учения
I [оурочный тематический словарь тщательно отобран с тем, чтобы сту-
дент мог самостоятельно проанализировать текст, выполнить упражнения
и подготовиться к беседе с минимальной затратой времени.
Каждый текст снабжен упражнениями коммуникативной направленно-
сти: ответы на вопросы в парной работе, включая упражнения на само-
стоятельное построение вопросов (типа интервью), воспроизведение ин-
тервью в парах, вопросы для общего обсуждения, комментирование цитат
из текстов и высказываний с доводами сза* и 'против'.
гмютя и«> раиштшо плимкоп письменной речи
Мерный тематический TCKCI каждого раздела п о с т общий характер, В конце каждой ступени студентам предлагаются упражнения на напи-
требующий предварительного обсуждения (pre-reading questions). Начи- сание либо короткого сочинения на данную тему (paragraph), комментиро-
нающим студентам рекомендуется письменно ответить на вопросы к тек- вания цитаты (comment), резюме (summary), либо сочинения (эссе) с напо-
сту, избегая его цитирования, но используя активный словарь. Парная ра- минанием о том. как должно быть выполнено это задание. Оценка этих за-
бота с вопросами по тексту заставляет студентов повторить как его содер- даний должна осуществляться в соответствии с разработанными крите-
жание, так и активный словарь. Особое внимание надо уделить понима- риями.
нию трудных предложений, вынесенных в отдельное упражнение.
Пересказу текста должно предшествовать обсуждение на уроке основ- Работа над грамматикой
ных пунктов его содержания. Важно, чтобы в пересказе студенты употреб- Для закрепления пройденного грамматического материала и изучения
ляли активный словарь, но не повторяли слово в слово авторский текст. нового в конце каждого раздела дается грамматическое приложение.
I [еобходимо напомнить студентам требования написания краткого содер- Весь грамматический материал расположен в определенной системе и
жа пня (summary). подается в таблицах и моделях, что дает студентам возможность при необ-
Тексты для просмотрового чтения читаются в классе. В зависимости от ходимости изучить определенные грамматические явления самостоятель-
задания (Find answers to the questions..., True - False statements . . . ) , длины но. Тем не менее, при работе с грамматикой преподавателю рекомендуется
текста и уровня группы студентам дается от 2-х до 10 минут на его про- вводить и объяснять грамматический материал в классе. Грамматические
чтение и выполнение заданий к тексту. упражнения развивают умение переводить данное грамматическое явление
с английского на русский и с русского на английский, использовать пра-
Работа со слов дрем вильную грамматическую форму в .предложении и более широком контек-
Активный тематический словарь отрабатывается в классе и дома в уп- сте (раскрытие скобок), перефразировать предложения с использованием
ражнении 1, иллюстрирующем использование активного словаря, и нужной конструкции, а также некоторые упражнения носят коммуника-
в упражнении 2 на правильное использование производных. Полезно так- тивную направленность, иллюстрируя использование данного явления в
же сделать выборочный перевод предложений для лучшего их понимания. речи (например, Герундия).
Упражнения на замену подчеркнутых слов активным словарем и слово- В 1-й части изучаются следующие темы: ИнфинИТИВ формы И фуН!
образование помогают студентам запоминать слова и их использование. ции; инфинитивные комплексы: Complex (Object (повторение), (lomplc
Подстановочные упражнения (тексты) следует задавать на дом, чтобы сту- Subject и For-Infinitive Complex; Геру иди и формы И функции ПриЧК ГИС
денты вдумались в содержание контекста. формы, функции, абсолютная причастная конструкция
Отдельно иллюстрируются слова, вызывающие трудность в употребле-
нии В ном случае даются упражнения не только на выбор правильного
слона, по II ил переиоде русского.
И К§ЖДОМ разделе сен, упражнения на словообразование с префиксами и
суффиксами
Работа С упражнениями на развитие навыков устной речи
На базе каждого текста для аналитического чтения предлагаются уп-
ражнения коммуникативной направленности в виде вопросов / косвенных
вопросов - ответов для парной работы, упражнения типа "Prove that
"Agree or disagree", "Comment on ...", "Discuss the points ...", Role-play.
Преподавателю необходимо на каждом уроке обращаться к такому роду
упражнений, стимулируя студентов к общению. Развитию навыков устной
речи способствуют также тексты для просмотрового чтения в классе с по-
следующим обсуждением проблем, поднятых в них.
Foreword
UNIT t THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
AND ITS PECULIARITIES
Anyone who is planning to go into politics and take up a career of a
diplomat climb the ladder to the top and join those who make big STEP 1. ENGLISH AS A LANGUAGE OF GLOBAL
politics must be prepared to face various challenges and handle a lot COMMUNICATION
of responsibilities on this thorny way.
In this respect it is difficult to exaggerate the importance of a thor- The topical vocabulary to be remembered
ough knowledge on a wide range of subjects and, first and foremost
foreign languages. Tn the matter of languages a little knowledge is a 1. to communicate v. общаться, передавать, сообщать
particularly dangerous thing'. Those who can spare time to study the (information, knowledge) (информацию, знания, ,..)
language of the country they are specializing in, will find its acquisi- communication n. общение, связь,
tion of great advantage. The surest way to gain admission to the heart передача информации
of a nation is to give this proof of a desire to cultivate intimate rela- communicative adj. / sociable общительный
tions with, and to understand the feelings of, the people. community n. община, общество, сообщество
Learning foreign languages is hard work but it does not mean that
languages alone are a qualification for a foreign service officer or an 2. common adj. общий, обычный,
international relations expert. But still they are of vital importance. (language, market, interests, etc.) общепринятый,
Since English is on a fair way to becoming the lingua franca of the syn. general widespread, usual, распространенный,
world, it is only natural to start one's way to the career in the interna- vulgar (manners) вульгарный
tional field with learning the English language first thing. Do not confuse with
ordinary adj. (people, words, clothes) обычный, и рос ГОЙ
syn. unexceptional непримечательный,
ant. extraordinary, out-of-the ordinary заурядный
common sense Здравый смысл
common ground общая тема / язык
(un)commonly adv. (не) обычно
to have in common / to share иметь ч-л общее, делить
The British Commonwealth Британское содружество наций
It's common knowledge общеизвестно
It's common practice обычная практика, общепринято
The House of Commons палата общин (in Britain)

3. term n. 1. термин; 2. семестр;


3. срок; 4. сессия (парламента)
long / short term долго / краткосрочный
terms n. pi. 1. условия; 2. отношения
in general terms в общих чертах
to c o m e to terms / to agree прийти к согласию, contributor п. помощник, жертвователь, автор,
договориться сотрудник (газеты), плательщик
to be on ... terms находиться в ... отношениях contributory adj. содействующий, способствующий
in terms of в связи с, из-за, в терминах,
через, говоря языком, в смысле, 8. to acquire v. (knowledge, habit, skills, strength) приобретать,
с точки зрения (to add to what is already possessed) накапливать, получать
4. to consider v. / to regard / считать, полагать, Do not confuse with
to think / to believe рассматривать, учитывать to gain v. завоевать, добиваться,
consideration n. 1. рассмотрение, обсуждение (independence, rights, reputation, etc.) получать
2. внимание, уважение (to struggle in acquiring)
considerations n. pi. соображения to gain ground набирать силу
(o give consideration (to) уделять внимание to gain an upper hand одержать верх, победу
to take into consideration учитывать, to gain time выиграть время
syn. to take into account принимать во внимание
considered рассматриваемый, данный to win v. (a battle, a competition, a prize) победить, завоевать,
considerable adj. (ly) adv. значительный (но) (better qualities played a part in the gaining) выиграть
Do not confuse with
considerate adj. внимательный Pay attention to the respective поит
acquisition n. (effort of acquiring is implied) приобретение,
5. to accept v. / to agree принимать, допускать, накопление
syn. to come to terms примириться, соглашаться acquirement п. приобретенное KtHOCtlO
generally accepted общепринятый (implies a continued effort to cultivate oneself) mm НЯВШ
(un)acccplahle ndj (не) приемлемый gainn. прибыль, HMI ода,
acceptance n принятие, согласие доходы (pi), прИрОС!
acceptability и приемлемость, допустимость
9. to appear v. 1. появляться, выступать;
6 to imply v. / to mean / подразумевать, значить syn. to seem 2. казаться, по-видимому
to suggest appearance n. появление, (внешний) вид
this implies / suggests... из этого следует apparent adj. (ly) adv. очевидный (но)
implication n. значение, смысл, подтекст strange as it may appear / seem как это ни странно
implied adj. подразумеваемый, скрытый
10. to vary v. менять(ся), видоизменяться
7. to contribute (to) v. 1. вносить вклад, способствовать, variety n. разнообразие, разновидность
содействовать various adj. различный, разнообразный
2. платить взносы; variable adj. / syn. changeable изменчивый, переменный
3. писать (статьи), сотрудничать invariable adj. неизменный, постоянный
contribution n. содействие, вклад, взнос invariably adv. неизменно, всегда

10 11
5. The man was a common worker, severe and uncommunicative.
11. certain adj. определенный, уверенный, 6. American English is increasingly becoming the means of
syn. sure, definite несомненный communication.
certainly adv. несомненно, конечно 7. It is necessary to find common ground with the other party.
( u n c e r t a i n t y n. (не) определенность 8. It's common knowledge that traveling broadens the mind.
9. Higher education is common practice nowadays.
упрощать 10. Wrong use of articles is common to all beginners.
12. to simplify v.
упрощение 11. To use your common sense is most important here.
simplification n.
простота 12. The House of Commons is the lower house of British
simplicity n.
простой Parliament, where the elected members of Parliament sit.
simple adj
simplified adj, упрощенный
term, in terms of, to be on ... terms, to come to terms
13. to expand v. / to grow 1) расширять(ся), увеличиваться,
распространяться; 1. There are a lot of English terms in Russian.
(often in volume)
2) излагать подробно 2. An exam in English is taken in the first term of the third year.
расширение, распространение, 3. President in the United States is elected for a four-year term.
expansion n.
экспансия 4. The second reading of the bill was put off till the autumn term.
Do not confuse with 5. What are the terms of foreign investments in Russia?
to extend v. (in space, time, area, простирать(ся), тяяуть(сяХ 6. In terms of technological developments one had to learn English.
расширять, удлинять, 1, In historical terms a hundred years is a short period.
terms, influence / increase in length)
распространять 8. You cannot measure everything in terms of monej
extension n. / length продление, протяженность 9. In terms of defence this treaty would guarantee oui sin viva!
extent n. / degree степень, мера 10. In the talks the two parties failed to come to terms
to a certain extent / degree в некоторой степени 11. These two countries are not on diplomatic terms*
extensive adj. обширный, длительный
consider, consideration, considerable (ly). considerate
Exercise l
Translate the sentences illustrating the use of the active vocabulary. Simplicity is considered to be a strength of English.
There have been considerable changes in the country lately.
communicate, community, communication, communicative, com- He is a very inconsiderate person as he never considers other
mon people's feelings.
4 A lot of factors must be taken into consideration here.
1 It is important for people all over the world to have a language in 5. This bill has been under consideration for half a year.
common use and to communicate freely 6. What readers write is given much consideration to.
2. The old professor did his best to communicate his love to history 7 One has to consider the so-called 'generation gap'.
to his students. 8. What are your considerations on this point?
3. There are many ethnic communities in the U.S.A. 9. The issue considered is of general interest.
4. The world community needs to acquire a common language.

13
12
10. The prices for oil have grown c o n s i d e r a b l y lately. 3. Acquisition of fluency in English may
accept, acceptance, acceptable, acceptability 4. His latest acquisition was a Picasso, 4
;
5. One of his acquirements was apprec in
1. An a c c e p t i n g language easily absorbs or a c c e p t s words from 6. Drinking like smoking is an acquir
other languages. 7. In various usages words may acq'
2. Your argument cannot be a c c e p t e d . <т.
V Slang is u n a c c e p t a b l e in the official language. & gain
4. One of the signs of a community is a c c e p t a n c e of certain rules. 1. It is easy to gain a reputation, but ha. t
5, A c c e p t a b i l i t y of a word depends on its register. 2. The matter seemed to be gaining in impoi &
6 I had only to a c c e p t the terms. 3. English has gained much popularity lately. ^
7 The English language is a c c e p t e d to h a v e b e c o m e international. 4. The idea was speedily gaining ground.
5. He managed to gain the upper hand over his counterp^
Imply» implied, i m p l i c a t i o n 6. One's gains and losses are not always measured in terms ot
money.
I WIKII does this notion i m p l y ? 7. The gains of the revolutions were to be protected.
2. Very lew could understand the i m p l i c a t i o n of his statement. 8. He is known for his love of gain.
3. To read between the lines is to guess the i m p l i e d meaning. 9. No gains, no pains.
4. The i m p l i c a t i o n of the events was to be assessed later 10. All the gains of the past three centuries seemed to have been lost.
5. His words i m p l y that he has lost t o u c h with reality.
appear, appearance, apparent (ly)
contribute, contributor, contribution
1. English appears to have accepted a great number of words from
I The 11 S is the greatest c o n t r i b u t o r to t h e UN t h o u g h it is k n o w n other languages.
to owe i j»roal sum of c o n t r i b u t i o n s to it. 2. The English vocabulary is apparently still growing.
Mv friend regularly c o n t r i b u t e s articles to our local newspaper, 3. People are often judged by appearance.
i luich younger generation c o n t r i b u t e s s o m e monstrous words to 4. Strange as it might appear, but he gained little popularity.
the vocabulary of their language. 5. The difference between American English and British English is
I Ilic European Security Council made a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to the apparent in using the same word for different things.
promotion of peace throughout the world. 6. Unexpectedly he appeared as a very flexible politician,
5. I thank all the speakers w h o c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e discussion.
6. The coming c o n t r i b u t i o n s are to be spent on the reconstruction. vary, variety, various, invariably

acquire, acquisition, a c q u i r e m e n t / gain 1. Opinion on the matter was extremely varied.


2. The variety of proposals invariably surprised the chairman.
a. aquire 3. The pronunciation of the same English word and its use may
1. He never a c q u i r e d a taste for serious music. vary depending on the country.
2. The older you grow; the harder it is for y o u to a c q u i r e friends. 4. American English is one of the many varieties of English.

14 15
5. The shop sells v a r i o u s goods. 2. The present tense is more in a summary.
6. There is hardly a better word than v a r i a b l e to describe the 3. among people becomes easier if they can m
weather in t h o s e parts. a language.
7'. The talks went on with varying success. 4. There are quite a number of English words which are
confused by English learners.
certain, (un) certainty, certainly 5. One of the founding Treaties is the Treaty Establishing the
European Economic .
1. English is certain to continue gaining ground. 6. Many ethnic in the USA try to keep their language and
2. Certainly in journalistic usage this w o r d acquires a different traditions and them to their children.
meaning. 7. Many First Certificate tests aim to examine the applicant's __
! Л certain coarsening of speech is characteristic of our times. abilities as well.
4. There was some (un) certainty in his words. 8. If a Norwegian, a Korean and a Masai were on a desert island.
5. I offered her my hand and she took it uncertainly. would still be possible.
6. Many world languages have contributed words to English at
certain periods. consider, considered, consider ation(s), considerablefly), considerate

expand, expansion / extend, extension^ extensive, extent 1. The next point _ is the role English plays in the Internet,
2. It was very of him to have offered help.
1. NATO has expanded to the East to a considerable extent lately. 3. A part of Little Britain was destroyed during Na/i raids.
2. The English language began to spread overseas as a result of 4. The status of spoken English has been upgraded
British military and commercial expansion. 5. The conflict must be settled as soon as possible
3. The vocabulary of the Italian language expanded to a great 6. The issue under now is how to protect the E
extent from old Latin. language.
4. The meaning of the word has been extended to become 1. What did you have when you rejected the offer/
international. 8. No differences exist between British English and
5. At the time Russia continued to extend its influence to the East American English.
6. An extended period in power leader may result in corruption. 9. The English vocabulary has grown for the last hundred
7. The Internet has led to a massive extension in the use of English. years.
8. The 20th century witnessed an extensive technological progress.
contribute, contribution, contributor (s), contributory
Exercise 2
Fill in the spaces with an appropriate word 1. Queen Victoria was the greatest to the expansion of the
# borders of the British Empire.
communicate, communication, community, communicative, 2. Japanese can hardly be called a language.
common (ly) 3. For Churchill's great to Britain a monument was erected
to him in Parliament.
1. people are nice to deal with. 4. All will be much appreciated by the church.

16 17
5. Each member oi this community is to pay .
6. T h e greatest to the English language appear to be appear, appearance, apparently)
German and French.
7. W h a t could be most _ _ to your enlarging the 1. There is an disagreement among English linguists as to
vocabulary? the ways English is to be protected.
8. Church has always lived on 2. He was _________ satisfied with what he heard.
3. The most difference lies in the pronunciation.
accept, accepting, acceptance, (un)acceptable, (nn)acceptability 4. The language to have been changing for centuries.
5. English in many countries as an official language.
I Some English words which used to be quite in formal 6. T h e English saying goes, " are deceptive".
style seem to be now. 7. The origin of some gestures does not certain.
2. of a word depends on what register it belongs to. 8. A vertical head nod, always a ' y e s ' sign, almost
3. Common of rules is important for general agreement. everywhere in the world.
4. You will have the terms of the game.
5. Japanese can hardly be called an language as well as vary, varying, variety, various, variable, invariably
contributory.
6. Certain rules of public behaviour are generally . 1. of n e w words may go in ways.
7. They said our plan wras too complicated and thus . 2. As a living organism language develops independently.
8. of the idea considered is obvious. 3. In degrees,
g , all four conceptions
p influenced the reform.
9. English to be the language of the Internet. 4. People's views are influenced in degrees by
10. This behaviour must be considered under the economic, political and religious developments.
circumstances. 5. In many other languages there is a 'high' and l o w '
6. A comfortable mixture of English period furniture in Ins office
acquirt, acquired acquisition, acquirement _____ impressed visitors.
7. The other m a n ' s classical quotation annoyed him.
The ability to concentrate is a valuable . 8. The 16th century produced a remarkable _______ of saints.
Of (he vocabulary of a foreign language is a long process 9. Opinion on the matter under consideration considerably.
and implies __ and use of good dictionaries.
Smoking is an habit imply, implied, implication
In a different context this word may __ a n e w meaning.
5. During these years he a great appreciation of his The meaning of his words is quite clear.
secretary's efficiency. What could be the of this strange statement?
6- He ___________ such skills in the course of long practice. This fact that there is still a way out of the difficulty.
7. T h o s e lands were his richest __ by marriage. The in his political speech could confuse anyone.
8- _______„ of good manners is most important for a diplomat. Reading between the lines and seeing the meaning
needs special training.
6 T h e _ _ _ _ _ _ t 0 be drawn from Britain's military weakness was

18 19
ports and investments, in terms of technological development, one had
that she must seek diplomatic support.
to learn English to join the 21st century-.
expand, expansion, extend, extension, extent, extensively)
In this context it is not difficult to see why Toyota provides six-
month in-service English courses to 1,000 of its employees. In Italy,
1. of t h e British Empire fell on the 19th century.
English is a must for many technical jobs. In Brazil job-hunters are
2. The EU has its borders to the East to a great __
investing their last savings in English lessons because so many pro-
3. They offer an ' summer course to English learners.
spective employers recruit only workers with a knowledge of English.
4. The English vocabulary ________ due to borrowings and
In C h i n a English is the top priority foreign language to be learned at
productive word-building.
school.
5. Do y o u happen to k n o w the of the rivers in Russia?
T o d a y ' s search for information and need for global communication
6. All states h a v e been to some affected by these events.
have already promoted English to being the international language.
7. The members of the committee are being more
English is considered to be spoken n o w by 400 million people as the
consulted in their areas of expertise.
native language in twelve nations and approximately by 800 million
8. This way of activity will the role of private actors.
people as an official or semi-official language of forty-four countries
9. Regional conflicts ended an peace.
more.
10. There are opponents to the of t h e free-trading regime.
But why is English rising so far above the world's other tongues?
11. T h e civilization of ancient Greece and R o m e had its
First of all, it has proved to be, up to a certain level of fluency, easier
political d o m i n a n c e into N o r t h Western Europe.
to learn than other languages because of its relatively simple and
12. T h e press usually refers just to newspapers, but the term can be
flexible forms and open vocabulary.
to include magazines.
O v e r the centuries English words have been simplified. Verbs now
have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according i<>
Exercise 3
the noun. T h e trend towards simplicity is believed to be ;i strength ol
Before you read the text below, answer the following questions.
English.
Another strength is the flexibility of function of individual WOrdfl
1 Mow long h a v e you been learning the English language?
As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become a veiy flexi-
2 Is English y o u r first, second or third language?
ble language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many
3. Why are you learning it?
different parts of speech. Verbs and nouns may have the same form,
4. In what countries is English spoken as the first language?
for example, spread, answer, demand, etc. Adjectives can be used as
5. Mow much is English spread in other countries? W h y ?
verbs: warm - to warm; narrow - to narrow. Prepositions too are
flexible: near - to near; round-a round (of talks, elections).
Exercise 4
Openness of the vocabulary implies that English is a very accept-
Now read the text, study the note and do the tasks that follow.
ing language. It accepts words from other languages and easily creates
compounds and derivatives.
English Invasion No-One Can Stop
Most world languages seem to have contributed some words to
by Jeremy Geelan
English at certain periods. And it is, above all, a two-way street, ab-
sorbing vernacular (local) words and phrases from the very countries
The English language is n o w the first or the second language of more
into which it expands. The greatest contributors were such languages
sovereign states than any other language in the world. In terms of ex-

21
20
Exercise 5
as F r e n c h (dentist, ballet, garage, etc), G e r m a n (halt, kindergarten,
Work in pairs. Discuss the following:
etc) and D u t c h (toy, switch, cookie, etc) and many other languages.
Just as E n g l i s h finds a h o m e for t h e s e and other borrowings, so, in
1. Why do people in many countries l e a m English?
turn, it achieves a mighty 'export 'trade. In Japan, masukomi m e a n s
2. What are the main features that m a k e English so popular?
mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and nansensu m e a n s 'nonsense \ A h o m e - b r e d
3. What does 'simplicity' of the English language imply?
word like hooligan appears in Russian a l o n g with n u m e r o u s computer,
4. Why is English considered to be a very flexible language?
aviation, naval, business terms.
5. What is implied by ' o p e n n e s s ' of the English vocabulary?
All this a n d t h e spontaneous c o i n a g e of n e w w o r d s (xerox, sand-
6. Why has English become an effective way of communication?
wich, submarine, hot dog, etc) h a v e m a d e English an effective m e a n s
1. In what areas is the English language used?
of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M o d e r n English is t h e primary international lan-
8. What future for the English language is predicted?
guage used in diplomacy, t h o u g h it u s e d to be French. In fact, a p -
proximately 8 0 % of t h e information stored in computers is written in
English or its variety, 7 5 % of t h e mail, cables, and telexes sent a r o u n d Exercise 6
the world, a n d 9 0 % of Internet content is in English. Translate the sentences from the text Pay attention to the transla-
In its role as a global language, English has b e c o m e one of t h e most tion of the Infinitive fortns and the vocabulary.
important a c a d e m i c a n d professional tools and is accepted as t h e m o s t
important l a n g u a g e for t h e international community to learn. 1. In terms of exports and investments, in terms of technological
This is a fact t h a t seems to be irreversible. It is predicted today t h a t development, one had to l e a m English to join the 21st century.
speaking t h e c o m m o n world l a n g u a g e will be fundamental to achieve 2. In this context it is not difficult to see why Toyota provides six-
success. T h e s p r e a d o f t h e English l a n g u a g e makes t h e spread o f wild- m o n t h in-service English courses to 1,000 of its employees
fire l o o k slow. We a r e likely to be on t h e way to acquiring o n e lan- 3. In C h i n a English is the top priority foreign language to be learned
guage. at school.
4. English has proved to be, up to a certain level of fluency, casici lo
Not* to th.i> text: learn t h a n other languages.
5. T h e trend towards simplicity is believed to be a strength of
l\iy attctitnttt f<> ihc use and translation of the Complex Subject with the Infini- English.
tive. 6. Most world languages seem to have contributed some words to
English is considered to be an international language. * It is considered that English at certain periods.
English is an international language. - Английский считается МеждуНарод- 7. English ... is accepted as the most important language for the
НЫМ ЯЧЫКСШ.
international community to learn. This is a fact that seems to be
English appears / seems to have spread round the world. — It appears /seems
that English has spread round the world. ~ Кажется (По-видимому), англий- irreversible.
ский язык распространился по всему миру, 8. T h e spread of the English language makes the spread of wildfire
English is certain / sure / likely to continue changing. = It is certain / likely look slow.
that English will continue changing > Английский язык, несомненно, будет 9. We may n o t h a v e become one world, but we are likely to be on
продолжать меняться. t h e way to acquiring one language.

For more detail consult the grammar supplement on the use of the Infinitive at
the end of the Unit.

23
22
Exercise 7 maintains /discusses /mentions /believes/argues, etc. The
Work in class. Prove that: verbs, however, should be in the same tense, either all present or
all past (The present tense is more common)
1. One has to learn English to j o m the 21st century. 9. Do not introduce your ideas or attitudes unless you are specially
2. English is easier to l e a m , ' u p to a certain level of fluency' than asked.
any other language. 10. Do not use contractions like ldon 't, won % can % etc'.
3. English achieves a mighty w export' trade and its expansion seems
irreversible. Exercise 9
4. Speaking a c o m m o n world l a n g u a g e is or will be fundamental to Work in pairs.
achieve success. a. Interview your partner about the following:
5. We are likely to be on the way to acquiring one c o m m o n
language. 1) how fluent s/he is in speaking English and the other language(s);
2) what prevents him /her from mastering English or the other
Exercise 8 languages s/he is learning;
a. Sum up the text in writing. 3) if there is anything in common between English and the other
b. Be ready to reproduce the text in more detail in class. languages (alphabet, pronunciation, roots, suffixes, prefixes,
borrowings, loans, grammar, etc.);
* WIten ywiting a summary you must shorten the text by two thirds 4) which features make your first language different from the second
keeping to its main idea(s). For your summary to be good it should one;
satisfy certain requirements. So follow the next recommendations: 5) which language s/he finds more difficult to learn and why;
6) what subjects s/he can discuss in them?
1, First look through the text several times to find the central 7) what s/he can say about her / his progress in language Study over
idea(s) and underline it (them). the years.
2. Analyze each paragraph, formulate its main point. If t h e ideas are
repealed, join them. К Маке notes of the answers and report your findings to the class
I Begin writing with a reference to the author, the central idea and
its importance Exercise 10
4. Avoid quoting the author; u s e synonyms. Complete the sentences according to the text
5. You may use words, phrases or examples from the text if y o u find
t h e m important. 1 exports and investments, technological
6. Avoid repetitions, stick to the point development, one had to learn English the 21st
7. Use j o i n i n g words (so, but. however, on the contrary, (un)like, century.
etc.) to be logical, do not j u m p from one idea to another. 2. In China English is the foreign language to be
8. Leave #ш* unnecessary details: e.g. lists, figures, anecdotes, learned at school :
examples unless they are important. 3. Today's search for information and need for _______
9. Be clear in presenting ideas and opinions. Use such words as: have already English ... to being international
the author begins / continues / concludes: says / states 4. English has proved to be, _, easier to learn ...

24 25
5. T h e towards simplicity is believed to be a of a two-way street
English. to absorb words from the very countries into which the language ex-
6. Openness of t h e vocabulary that English is a very pands
________ language. an accepting language
7. M o s t world languages have _ some words to English a home-bred word
at
__________ periods. Internet content
8. T h e greatest were such languages as F r e n c h ..., an important academic and professional tool
German ... and Dutch... foreign borrowings
9. ЛИ this and the of new words ... have made along with numerous terms
English an effective of to contribute words
10. ... English ... is _ as the most important language for the
international to learn. Exercise 13
11. It is predicted today that speaking the __ world language Find in the text English equivalents to the following.
will be to achieve success.
12. ... we are likely to be on the way to one language. to share; to agree to; to mean; to seem; to think / to suppose;
to speak; to take in; to give jointly, to lend; to get as one's own;
Exercise 11 to experience some change; to spread
Find in the text the English equivalents to the following.
Exercise 14
родной язык Supply suitable verbs from the text for the underlined equivalents.
полуофициальный язык
относительно простой 1. The Russian language seems to have given a Kiumbei of WOftll to
ГИбкОСТЬ И открытость some world languages.
потеря окончаний 2. Openness of a language means that a language not only can lake
КрОМС* 14)14) in words from a language but also lends its vocabulary to ii
расширяться / распространяться 3. English is supposed to be spoken by over a million people.
в гною очередь 4. The people of the U.S. got English as their national language.
важный для достижения успеха 5. Many countries share English as their first language.
приобрести один общий язык 6. English spreads very quickly round the world.
самопроизвольное образование 7. The twro parties had to agree to the conditions,
хранить информацию 8. Everybody knows that any living language experiences some
change in time.
Exercise 12 9. To speak one common language is very important.
Suggest the Russian for the English word-combinations.

to promote a language to being international


compounds and derivatives

26 27
Exercise 15 12. Speaking and writing English easily is required for this job.
Match the explanations with the words from the text 13. There are a lot of examples of slang in each section of society.
14. The chance of any artificial language becoming an international
1. roughly, about, close to a. means tongue does not seem too promising;.
2. a great number of b. approximately
3. that can be foreseen с trend Exercise 17
4. mode, way d. numerous Make the adjectives
5. creation e. primary
variable, certain, considerable, considerate, effective, available, pos-
6. easily influenced f. promote
7 ending g. fundamental sible, important, official, flexible, regular, formal acceptable, differ-
X without an effort, unchecked h. predictable ent, reversible, common
l
> first in importance i. irreversible
10, tendency j. prospective a. negative with the aid of one of the negative prefixes:
1 1. that cannot be turned back k. fluency
12. advance 1. spontaneous im -
un -
13. ability to write and speak easily m. absorb
14. keep n. inflection
15. very important o, coinage
16. take in j). flexible
17. very promising q. store

Exercise 16
Ъ. nouns with the help of the following suffixes:
Replace the underlined words by a suitable word from the right
hand column in Exercise 15. Make changesf if necessary. a(c)rwe
-(t)ion -ness
I Modern English has no endings to show singular or plural, or
gendei
2. Speaking one world language will be important to achieve
success.
3. The process of spreading English appears to have no way back.
4. English has been advanced to being the international language.
5 English takes in words of the countries into which it expands. Exercise 18
Fill in the spaces in the chart with correct derivatives of the given
6. English is the main international language used in diplomacy.
7. Most information kggt in computers is written in English. words.
8. The tendency is for English to spread round the world.
9. Many events of that period could be easily foreseen.
10. Your first and foremost task is to work hard to achieve success.
11. Unchecked creation of new words have made English an effective
way of communication.

28
I

10. It is not __, these days, to find educated people expressing


1. contribution
2 hostility to Received Pronunciation.
1. various
2. //. translate into English.
create h
2. 1 С ними было трудно найти общий язык.
appear 2. Кража одежды с убитых и раненых было обычным делом в
1. acquired течение многих веков.
2.
3. Обе церкви имели много общего: и та и другая хотели
1. 1. simple
2. simplification 2.
владеть сердцами простых людей.
1. 4. Общеизвестно, что многие обычаи прошлого связаны с
derive 2. религиозными праздниками.
1. 1. accepting 5. Во всем этом мало здравого смысла, и обычный человек
accept 2. 2. вряд ли это поймет.
1. invasion 6. Простыми (необразованными) людьми проще управлять.
2. 7. Пикты (the Picts), Скотты и Бритты имели общую кельтскую
1. expansion
(Celtic) культуру и язык.
2.
extend 1
8. Его акцент был обычным для большинства живущих в этой
2, части страны.
9. Его родители были простыми рабочими,
E x e r c i s e 19 10. У меня обычная машина, ничего особенного.
Choose the right alternative.
a. к
r fill in the gaps with ( tin) common or ordinary. L fill in the gaps with acquire, gain or win.
I Slang has a vivid quality which expressions lack. 1. In another context a word can a different meaning.
2. Ilie two parties met to work out g r o u n d for b o t h sides. 2. The matter seemed importance with every passing day.
3. Services in the churches were conducted in t h e tongue. 3. The conservative party failed to an absolute majority.
4. T h e word ' e s q u i r e ' became in written addresses. 4. With a negative prefix a word may an opposite meaning.
5. After t h e N o r m a n conquest t h e old Anglo-Saxon l a n g u a g e 5. The clock three minutes a day.
continued to be spoken by people. 6. The institute has _______ some very expensive equipment,
6. T h e s u r n a m e F l e m m m g has been a o n e since 1360. 7. You can easily an American accent if y o u live in the
7. Juries h a d no training in the law; they were people country for some time.
using sense. 8. The victory was with great effort and losses.
8. There might be little in between them. 9. The English language weight in the twentieth century.
9- Scots were most unhappy at t h e idea of being ruled 10. It is hard new friends at an old age.
by England. 11. Neither side was able a decisive victory.

31
30
• IIMM • I
12. There might be great for Spain from fishing in the
2.resF o
por a
nsb
ibtile hun
dr
ed y
ear
s the ce
n t
r
al go
ve
r
nm
ssni.es has _ ___ wthi every pasnig yea en t its
3.H O u
r u
troubled waters north of the Pyrenees.

si tao
sk si._n
_ahlsidrin
iuclfeo
nncseaosna theasPrethsdeient.eye
13. Under the boy-king Edward, the Protestant party

The fre st i e t
i fr
control of the government.
14. Gradually Christian ideals and institutions
autonomy and dynamism.
15. As Europe lost its spiritual unity, it
a new

in return a sort of
A t
Engsiht
he e
l absorbs o xam you w i
l o b
n e a
a s
ke
d
st
at
em_ent
.
lcal words rofm those countreis n ito
8
.9. W e e x p ec
t t
he
o
f ser
vc
i e s her
e.
economic and diplomatic unity.

//. translate into English.


of the nucelar weapons may threaten peace.
1. Человек накапливал знания в области медицины столетиями.
2. Он завоевал репутацию серьезного и честного человека.
it translate into English.
3. В 19м веке Британия завоевала огромные территории и
1. Общеизвестно, что английский язык распространился по
получила право называться империей.
всему миру.
4. В войне с бурами Великобритания не смогла приобрести ни
2. Границы России протянулись с запада на восток.
друзей, ни постоянных союзников (allies).
3. Британия быстро распространяла свое влияние на
5. Вкус к хорошей классической музыке можно приобрести.
захваченные территории.
6. Партия, которая получает большинство на выборах,
4. Евросоюз продолжает расширяться за счет стран Восточной
получает право формировать правительство.
Европы.
7. Прожив в стране несколько лет, можно приобрести широкие
5. Россия выступает против расширения 11Л ТО на tocroi
знания языка, обычаев и нравов местных жителей.
6 Считается, что протяженность наших границ СОСЮЛМТ
8. Эта идея быстро завоевала популярность.
( более 5 тысяч километров.
) Ваша задача ~ щлу^щть хорошие знания языка.
К). 11рив1>1чки, которые вы приобретаете в юности, часто
Exercise 20
остаются с вами навсегда.
Supply the English for the Russian words in the brackets.
11 Ом зшкювал первый приз на фонетическом конкурсе.
a.
12 Движение против колонизации набирало силу.
13. Человек гщио.б_зетает близких друзей в молодости. 1. (Условия) of the contract were (неприемлемы) for us.
14. Династии Стюартов не удалось завоевать контроль над 2. It was hard to realize the full (вклад) of his teaching.
Англией. 3. Everything that we associate with the Elizabethan Age cannot be
15. Титул пэра можно либо унаследовать (inherit), либо получить explained in any simple historical (понятиями).
за большие заслуги перед Британским королевством. 4 (Говоря о) human geography, Europe was much larger than it is
с.
today.
5. The beginning of the 16th century witnessed the earliest

1. The government was exw


pee
ca
ftelrde servcies.
/. fill in the gaps with extend or expand, extension or expansion.
(появление) of something like international money markets,
6. Unfamiliar and disturbing things were happening every day. with
no (очевидного) explanation.

33
L С

7. Until 1560 France (считалась) to be the strongest and most Exercise 21


aggressive power on the continent. (L Complete the text with a suitable word out of those given below.
8, The Church was the largest and wealthiest institution, impossible
to describe (исходя из) the twentieth century experience. considered, appear, ordinary, various, seems, uncommon, spread (2), variety,
{ accept, commonly, approximately, extent
> The (подаяния) to the church flowed from the believers in large
quantities,
The accent of British English which has become the standard for
in I! (считается) that wherever there was a strong monarch, reform
teaching and learning is known as Received Pronunciation.
was ai least possible.
Early BBC recordings showr the remarkable (1) to which RP
I I Most of the German rulers who took up the challenge to reform
has altered over just a few decades. In addition RP is no longer as
the I hurch profited (в смысле) political power and wealth.
(2)_ used as it was fifty years ago. It is (3) that
12 (Если говорить о) ease and speed of communications, Europe in
(4) three per cent of British people speak it in a pure form
Hi- sixteenth century was larger than the whole world today.
now. The more conservative (5) is found in older speakers.
I I (Pa< ирис гранение) of the English language to other countries
Most other (6) __ _people have developed an accent which is a
appears irreversible.
mixture of RP and (7) regional characteristics.
b
Regionally modified speech (8) to have made a come-back
I Since 1950s youth culture in (различными) ways has continued
in educated British society. Some contemporary politicians proudly
(вносить вклад) to the English language.
(9) ___ to admit their regional background, and the BBC em-
> I want (определенности) more than anything else.
ploys several announcers with regionally modified accents. Nor is it
I I wondered if there was an (скрытой) threat in his tone.
(10) these days, to find that educated people do not (11)
I I [e offered his hand and the woman took it (неуверенно).
RP, both within and outside Britain, because of its tradi-
In the 19th century it was socially (приемлемо) to use the word
tional association with conservative values.
/<// while now if sounds insulting.
None the less, RP continues to be the most widely (12)
' • I ho s'KMh :;i \ocabulary (поставщики) to the English language
accent in the Court, Parliament, the Church of England, the
used f<> 'к* French, German and Dutch,
legal profession, and in other national institutions. It is still the only
i in ability <
i > keep silent when necessary is a valuable (качество).
accent taught to foreigners who wish to learn a British model, and it is
н I h<* (разновидности) of English differ in (разнообразным) ways.
4 thus widely (13) . In fact, today there are far more foreign
I w.m! to MI you that I (считаю) you impatient and impertinent
speakers of RP in other countries than mother-tongue users in Britain.
bill I (принимаю ваши условия).
И) The girl seemed (приобрела) a taste for pretty clothes recently.
b. After you have completed the text, read it through again and ex-
I1 Л wider context may help to understand the (подразумеваемое)
plain why "there are more foreign speakers ofRP in other countries
meaning of a word.
than mother-tongue users in Britain".
12. The speaker was asked (высказаться подробнее) on his project.
Exercise 22
Translate the sentences using the active vocabulary.

1. Язык - это средство общения в определенном сообществе.

34
• 'Я Я Я Я Я Я Я Я Я
Exercise 23
2. В нашем языке нет такого разнообразия диалектов, которые Discuss the following with the class.
меняются в зависимости от местности. 1
3. Общеизвестно, что язык меняется во времени и может стать II 1. Do you agree that there must be a world common language? Give
мертвым языком, если он не является средством общения. your arguments.
4. Русский и английский имеют мало общего. 2. What usually puts people off learning English or any other
5. Контекст помогает понять определенное подразумеваемое foreign language?
значение слова. 3. What contributes to a language learner's success in mastering a
6. Свободное владение языком подразумевает мышление на language?
нем. 4. How much does the study of the history, geography or literature
7. Значительный вклад в расширение словаря английского of the country contribute to learning its language?
языка внесли языки народов стран Британского содружества. 4
К {аи мствования значительно расширили словарный состав. Exercise 24
9, Наращивание (приобретение) словаря может происходить a. Supply a suitable word out of those given below for the spaces in
разными путями the text
10. Если говорить о словаре, то в английском языке он самый
большой. Common, various, appear, accepted, ordinary, tongue, varieties, coined, consi
i 1. Изменения в условиях договора были приняты и erable, appeared, means of communications, varies, acquire, contributed, collo
распространены на последующие договоренности.. quial, expanding.
12. Было трудно понять скрытый смысл его слов.
13. Пожертвования в фонд всегда принимаются через банк. British and American English
14. Допустимость использования слова определяется стилем.
15. Все сотрудники газеты должны следовать определенным The divergence of the American (I) from British M;m<l,u<l,
правилам, began to be noticed m the eighteenth cenlury. Thanks to the modern
16 Ixuи говорить об истории языка, то она уходит во времена (2) this divergence has not become (3) . During the pe
иностранных вторжений, riod American English has been (4) , many new words 01
17, Старшее поколение всегда стремиться передать свой опыт и new meanings to words have (5) which make the languages
знания молодежи. distinct from each other. Their appearance (6) according to
18 Различие между этими языками очевидно и проявляется the subject which is talked or written about, or style which is natural
ВО всем: в произношении, грамматике, словаре и т.д. to the speaker or writer. They mainly belong to one or two classes:
19. Несомненно этому вопросу надо уделить значительное firstly, (7) English words which (8) a new mean-
внимание. ing, or are used to create new compounds, or new phrases which were
20. Надо учесть, что первый семестр всегда длиннее второго. rarely used in English but now have become (9) in America;
21. Трудно примириться с переменчивостью его настроения. secondly, words which the English-speaking settlers in America have
(10) from other languages.
It is not from outside, however, but from within, that special words
and their use have been (11 ) to American English.

36
STEP 2, PECULIARITIES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE dubious about the context of unfamiliar terms, times and situations
where certain words are appropriate for use can be baffling. Most
E x e r c i s e 26 slang terms are for use in informal conversations. As meanings are
Read the text that follows and make up 10 logical questions to cover subtle and implications depend on circumstances, it is best to avoid
Us contents* using any slang term or phrase unless you are sure of its use.
T h e C o d e o f S p o k e n English Writers and speakers could do without slang but its colourful and
imaginative vocabulary adds vividness to descriptions. Slang diction-
F o r generations English-speaking people have been pulling to aries give the reader a tool to understand slang and its significance in
pieces the words of their language and refitting t h e m into other words the smaller communities of speaking culture.
explanatory of the current events. A generation passed away, but the On the other hand there are widely used and longstanding set ex-
new words remained. Л new generation practiced their use in the cir- pressions called idioms that constitute the backbone of the spoken lan-
Olimstances for which they were designed, without appreciating the guage. They are indispensable to the daily speech and to the language
reason for then coining. In time the words became part of the collo- of newspapers and books, television and movies. Whenever you hear a
quial or spoken language, the kind of informal English, which is nor- phrase whose meaning cannot be understood even if you know the
mal in ordinary conversation but not considered acceptable in more definitions of the separate words involved, you have probably encoun-
formal language. Numerous phrases and words in common usage have tered an idiom. Most idioms have precise constructions, and their
grown into the language as slang, unexplainable idioms and euphe- whole meaning may be lost if you change them. Mastering idioms re-
misms. quires a great deal of listening, studying, practice and usage.
Slang is often coined by groups of people (teenagers, students, pro- The more recent phenomena are euphemism and politically correct
fessionals, etc) who share an interest occupation or hobby and are (p.c) words. Both are used to replace less direct words oi names foi
discontented with the traditional words and expressions. For this rea- something which is considered to be inappropriate, unpleasant oi ol
son it often has a particular colourful and vivid quality which the ordi- fensive in order not to hurt people's feelings 0] to conceal something
nary expressions lack. Highly informal, slang develops when people for example, in political or military spheres.
meel with a new set of circumstances for which they do not feel the
curreni vocabulary is adequate. Thus during the period of disturbance (from 21st century Dictionary oj Slang)
01 wai there is often a great increase in the number of slang coinages.
Very often these are words which refer to subjects considered by most Exercise 27
people not quite respectable: crime, drink, sex, insanity, for example. Discuss the text in pairs making use of your questions to the text
Slang words may come into fashion and disappear. This does not
always happen. Many words that were originally coined as slang have Exercise 28
remained to become part and parcel of the language. Thus words like Find in the text equivalents to the following.
bus, snob, fun, mob began life as slang but because they expressed a
meaning which no other word quite expressed they remained in the to break or take apart
language to fill a gap. to die
Like other forms of language, slang has its appropriate and inappro- to be created or intended for
priate occasions. For foreign speakers of English and for those to understand the reason for creating words
to have common interest

40
41
4. doublespeak d. local constituents, or common people,
to be dissatisfied
whose collective impressions form what
to be (un)suitable
is known as public opinion
to be in doubt / uncertain 5. plum e. a politician who has failed to be reelected
confusing
but still in office
delicate, not clearly seen Military:
to be necessary in every day speech 1. Fourth area a MX missile of the US
lo come across ; to meet 2. jam b. shortened version of Secretary of Defence
exact / accurate construction 3. peacekeeper c. cause interference to the enemy's
to become an expert in a language
electronic communications
4. Secdef d. space, the fourth arena where war might
Exercise 29
be waged
Here are some examples of slang used in various spheres of life.
Press, News:
Fry to match the slang expressions or words with their explanations.
L Couch potato a. Well-Off Older person, a person who
is over sixty-five and financially
General:
independent
1. all ears a. cause for extreme mental effort
2. Yuppie (acronym) b. spokesperson or commentator
2. big shot b. fuss or scandal
3. spin doctor c. Young Urban Professional
3. big stink с completely attentive 4. wag d. addicted 1У viewer
4. brain drain d. important person 5. Woopie (acronym) e. individual charged with attempting to
control the wav an issue <>r event is
Computerspeak:
regarded
1. data bus a. to start
2. bug b computer that is controlled by other Exercise 30
», MIPS electronic elements of a computer Read the text and do the multiple-choice exercise following it
С data movement from one place to another
! sieve с I software error
Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood,
. boot e. Millions of Instructions Per Second
used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any
situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and
Government and politics:
expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries.
I. grassroots a. purposefully complicated, and often
Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms
redundant language, usually applied
that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and in infor-
to government and similar bureaucracies;
mal speech and writing, but not considered appropriate for more for-
(from George Orwell's novel, 1984)
mal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial lan-
2. lame duck b. a term for taking a position, political or
guage. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by
otherwise, which is offensive to no one,
a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by
i.e. politically correct
the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found
c. important government position

43
42
4. The word 'appropriate' in line 7 could best be replaced by
in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage
a. suitable c. elegant
and slang are more common in speech than in writing. h. congenial d. direct
Colloquial speech often passes onto standard speech. Some slang 5. The word 'them" in line 18 refers to
also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy a. words a memories
momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the ma- b. slang phrases d. the majority
jority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them
in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its Exercise 31
own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. CL Match some idioms with their explanations; consult a dictionary
It lias been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural if necessary.
conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang ex-
pressions First, the introductions and acceptance of new objects and L to be at sea a. to be in strong opposition
situations in the society, second, a diverse population with a large 2. to be at loggerheads b. to have the same opinion,
number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the to agree
majority population. 3. apiece of cake с in short
Finally, it is worth noting that the terms 'standard', 'colloquial', 4. odds and ends d. an easy or simple thing
and 'slang' exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study lan- I 5. to make head or tail of e
- not to meet expectations
guage. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be 6. to talk through one's hat f. to have a natural talent for easy
aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speak- relationship
ers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all 7. to keep one's fingers crossed g. to make exaggerated or
three types of expressions. inaccurate statements
h. to ;iv<>i<i taking :i decision
1. With which of the following topics is the passage primarily 9. to see eye to eye i. very rarely
concerned? | 10. to let a cat out of the bag j. to be m ;i State ol confusion
a Standard speech C, Different types of speech I 11. to have a way with k. to trick someone into believing
h I, IK nnatii' sp< v< It d. Dictionary usage
j us t for fun
2. ! low is slang defined by the author?
п Words and phrases accepted by the majority for formal usage 12. in a nutshell I. to act with determination
/>. Words and phrases understood by the majority but not found 13. to fall short m. to disclose a secret
in standard dictionaries 14. once in a blue moon n. to understand
c. Words and phrases that are understood by a limited group of 15. to take_tiiejbull by the horns o. a variety of things
speakers 16. to take a back seat | p. to wish for good luck
d. Words and phrases understood by a large number of speakers
but not accepted as fofinal usage
b. Now replace the underlined words with an appropriate idiom out
3. The author mentions all of the following as requirements for slang
of those above, make changes if necessary.
expressions to be created EXCEPT
a. new situations c. interaction among diverse groups
b. a new generation d. a number of linguists 1 In short, what we need is your public support on this issue.
2. I am sure this task won't be of any difficulty to me.

45
44
3. S o m e o n e disclosed the s e c r e t and it appeared in the press. 3 . 1 ' m not going and t h a t ' s flat.
4. W h e n e v e r there was a problem, the staff called on the file clerk a. That \s my final decision.
r
w h o seemed to m a n a g e computers well. b. I m very disappointed that I can t go.
5. N o w that he retired he appears in town very rarely. C, I 'm not going because I ca/j 7 afford it.
6. Politicians often m a k e exaggerated or inaccurate statements and 4. T h e j o k e fell flat with the audience.
their promises s e l d o m meet our expectations. a. Everyone fell about laughing.
7. I wish y o u good luck at y o u r exam. b. No one realized it was supposed to be funny.
a It started as a joke but had serious consequences.
8. Strange as it may appear, the president m a d e everybody believe
that he could not understand h o w it all had happened.
Exercise 34
9. Fortunately the two parties had the s a m e opinion on all the issues.
There are many idioms containing parts of human body: head, face,
10. The Iwo leaders were in strong opposition.
month, eye, foot, hand, leg, etc. and idioms containing colours^ which
I I. You should be more determined and do something about it. It's
y o u may find difficult to interpret. Use a dictionary, choose at least
no g o o d always choosing to avoid responsibility.
five idiomatic expressions with body parts and five containing col-
ours, illustrate their use and translate the sentences into Russian.
E x e r c i s e 32
Fill in the gaps with an idiom from Exercise 3L
Exercise 35
Identify and explain the idioms in the following sentences.
1. I think we on h o w to h a n d l e this problem.
2. Dick when he said he had got a call from the White H o u s e .
I. Many words that were originally coined as slang have remained
3. Let's that his plane lands on time.
for us to snack on while we wait. to become part and parcel of the language.
4. I ' v e got a few
2. Sir Thomas More saw to the heart of the issue in a way (hat
5. During t h e election campaign most candidates .
almost no other did.
6. T h e P r e s i d e n t ' s budget director and housing secretary had long
T h e whole problem has just been swept under the carpel Nobodj
' ) e e n .,__.. _ o v e r
domestic policy spending.
h a s done anything about it
7 Г11 admit 1 am a bit over the new tax law. 4 Inability to speak publicly has nipped many promising careen in
X The mayors was to discuss council housing.
the bud.
5. His little daughter could easily twist h i m round her little finger.
ExerciM 33
6. RP speakers are apparently rated highest by their hearers for
Try to guess what the idioms below mean.
intelligence, ambition, self-confidence, wealth... Not everyone
takes this lying down.
1. He fell over backwards to help her.
a. He did everything he could to help her. 7. D o n ' t tell her the truth. I would let sleeping dogs lie if I were you.
b. He fell over when he was trying to help her. 8. Whenever there is a conflict in a region they always have their
c. He made a fool of himself. finger in the pie.
2. She really seems to have fallen OR her feet. 9. -1 shall always remember the day we first set eyes on the Grand
<z Everything has got wrong for her. Canyon. My husband's face dropped a mile.
b. She '$ hurt her feet, - Y o u mean he wasn't impressed?
с She 5 been veiy lucky. - N o . I mean he fell over the edge.

46 47
E x e r c i s e 36 or unisex hipsters ... To get to work, they travel along a ring road, bus
Translate the text into English. lane, cycleway or pedestrian precinct, driving a hatchback or a mini-
cab .. They might take the high speed tram or the intercity... To
Я люблю английский язык. Чем дольше я учу его и пользуюсь amuse themselves, they go 'wind-surfing, sky-diving, orienteering,
им, тем меньше, как мне кажется, я его знаю. Однажды я сидел в visit a safari park, or play bingo at the community center. Discos at-
небольшой компании англичан. В разгар беседы сидевшая рядом tract those who are with it others feel more laidback listening to coun-
со мной англичанка вдруг воскликнула: Cw Мистер Орестов, не тя- em on the hi-fi; they might read some sci-fi, dipp into a
ните меня за ногу". Я смутился и даже виновато взглянул на свои
руки: одна держала сигарету, другая лежала на колене, моем соб- coffee-table book, or watch sitcom or soap opera on the box or the
ственном. Откуда я мог знать тогда, что 'тянуть за ногу' значит в video. Some get their kicks from jogging, others from yoga..
английском языке 'разыгрывать', ч дурачить", "мистифицировать Exercise 38
и еще кое-что, не имеющее отношения к ногам. А знакомый Read the text below and say if the following statements are true or
джентльмен во время спора упрекнул меня: сс Не бегайте, пожа- false.
луйста вокруг куста". Поскольку в комнате, где шла беседа, есте-
ственно не могло быть кустов, я понял, что опять поскользнулся 1. Electronic media, the Internet including, have found a common
на льду английского языка. Оказалось, это значит 'не ходите во- standard for communication.
круг да около* или, проще, 'говорите прямо". 2. Electronic communications have had a considerable effect on
language.
(из книги О. Орестова 'Другая жизнь и берег дальний ')
3. The language of electronic conversation does not differ from
ordinary English.
E x e r c i s e 37
Explain the underlined words and word-combinations which have
4. The style of the written conversation is simple and understandable
lately appeared in the language. Which of them seem familiar to you
to everybody.
and have already gained ground not only in the English language
5. There is a special dictionary for compute! users
hut also in other languages? Indicate the areas of human activity
6. The English-speaking people have lost (he English Inm'.uap.e ;r.
they involve. their property.

The Ever - C h a n g i n g W o r l d o f W o r d s . . . a n d t h e W a y W e
Electronic Media and the English Language
Speak New.
New technology does not only affect the language but it also
A modern man or woman may work as a Eurocrat, or an ombuds- changes our speech habits. For the electronic media that bind the
man, a troubleshooter, a spokes|)erson? an anchorman or а Ш. Their world together are essentially carriers of language. To work efficiently
children may be punks or skinheads, learn modern maths at the local they need a common standard. The personal computer (PC) has one:
poly or sixth-form college or attend a playground. Microsoft's operating system, Windows. The Internet has another:
They pay VAT but do not practice tax evasion as the) disapprove TCP / IP, Esperanto or transmission protocol, which allows computers
of the black economy. Instead they bulkbuy at the cashjmd j^am: with anywhere in the world.to hook into it. The English language is now
their credit cards. They may live in a tower block or a moMkJlome^- the operating standard for global communication.
They eatjunk food from a takeaway. They wear jumpsuits, homeknits.

48 49
In fact, electronic communications have affected, and will continue Exercise 39
to affect language in three distinct ways. First, they change the way Explain the meaning of the italicized words in the sentences.
language is used. Secondly, they have created a need for global lan-
guage - and English will fill that slot. Third, they will influence the 1. The electronic media that bind the world together are carriers of
future of other languages which people will continue to speak. H o w is the language.
it to be effected? 2. Internet TCP/IP allows computers anywhere in the world to hook
Start with the simplest sort of change: the way English is used in into it.
electronic converse. T h e language of electronic chat is splattered with 3. The language of electronic chat is splattered with abbreviations,
abbreviations, broken sentences and vocabulary of its own. N o t only is broken sentences and vocabulary of its own.
the vocabulary of electronic communication different from ordinary 4. For the listener, concentration on the voice alone, stripped of
English; SO is the way in which it is used. misleading body language, can be far more telling than a face-to-
Broadcasting and telephone have created other kinds of speech: a con-
face conversation.
versation with somebody y o u cannot see. Like talking in the dark it 4. The Internet will collapse if you use flowery language,
encourages speakers to confide. For the listener, concentration on the 5. Writers can refine their words before speaking them.
voice alone, stripped of misleading body language, can be far m o r e 6. A written conversation ... lacks the key-quality of speech: the
telling than a face-to-face conversation. O n e study found that it was tone of speech that conveys emotion.
easier to detect when a person was lying in a telephone call than either 7. To foster more clarity WIRED, a magazine much read by the
in a video-call or face-to-face. digerati, produced its own style guide.
Electronic media h a v e created another novelty-: the written conver-
sation, w h o s e style is described as follows, ' T h e r e is no social pres- Exercise 40
sure to avoid t h e broken sentence. T h e key-word is 'bandwidth 5 - Wltat do you think? Share your ideas with the class.
which implies that the Internet will collapse if y o u use flowery lan-
guage, but really means "Get to the point'. A written conversation has 1. Is the effect of the electronic means of communication 0П the
ОПС great advantage over the spoken word: writers can refine their English language positive or negative? Explain why
words bclorc- 'speaking' them. But it also lacks a key-quality of 2. Is it true that electronic communication encourages speakers to be
ipee I» i\\r lone of voice that conveys emotion. more open?
To foster more clarity WIRED, a magazine much read by the dige- 3. What advantages and disadvantages does the author find in a
rati, recently produced its own style guide, called 'Principles of Eng- written conversation? Do you share his opinion? Can you add to
lish Usage in the Digital Age*. The result of the development of the the list?
7
Internet will soon be extraordinary : a language spoken by more people 4. Will the Internet really collapse if you use flowery language?
as a second tongue than a first. Why?
This is an extraordinary state of affairs. Carl Mills, professor of 5. What effect will further development of the Internet make on the
English at the University of Cincinnati, says nervously: cIt will be the English language?
first time in the history of the world that the language is not ours any 6. What may be the consequences of the fact that the English
more. If a language is no longer the property of its native speakers, it language is no longer the property of its native speakers?
will change, and it's not clear what consequences will be."

50 51
Exercise 41 Distinguish the respective nouns:
0. Translate the following sentences from the text, pay attention to affection n. (towards) - привязанность, любовь,
the words in bold type. e.g. The memory filled me with affec- теплые чувства
tion and understanding, e.g. The mem-
ory filled me with affection.
1. N e w technology does mot only affect the language but it also
changes our speech habits.
affectation - нарочитость, напыщенность
e.g. He spoke with unexpected
2. Electronic communications h a v e affected, and will continue to
affectation.
affect language in three distinct ways. H o w is it to be effected? - воздействие, эффект, влияние
effect n. (on)
3. They will influence the future of other languages which p e o p l e e.g. The effects of radiation on the
will continue to speak. I Ьоф may be unpredictable.
influence n. (on) - влияние
h. Study the difference between to affect, to influence and to effect. (implies power to affect sb. or sth. or
Translate the examples illustrating the difference. produce effects because of wealth, po-
sition, authority, ability)
e.g. The prime-minister was sure of his
to affect (sth / sb.) (often negative) - воздействовать, влиять influence on the Cabinet members. I
= to act under a stimulus to produce a
response
syn. to h a v e an effect (on )
Learn the respective adjectives:
e.g. The sight of the destroyed house affectionate ! - ласковый
affected me deeply. e.g. In an affectionate gesture the fa-
Development of technology has af- ther juxtted her on the head.
\jected the language considerably. affected -нарочитый, напыщенный
e.g. The style of his speech was too
to effect ~ to put into life, to realize - осуществлять much affected. _______
syn to perform, to achieve effective - действенным, эффек i ивный
б g //<' W(U Q dynamic personality who e.g. The measures taken cannot be
fffcited radical reforms. called effective.
influential - влиятельный
to influence (sth) to bring about a - влиять e.g. The press-secretary appeared to be
change due to circumstances position, a very influential figure.
wealth, etc.
e.g. Our beliefs are influenced by our Exercise 42
upbringing. CL Complete the sentences with the right word affect, influence or ef-
In his office he can easily influence the fect or their derivatives.
events.
1. Diplomats are supposed ______ political leaders,
2. The US government aims foreign audiences.
3. The policy that the country has taken in this issue may its
international status.

52 53
7. Его манера разговаривать была простой и доброжелательной.
4. The Speaker in the House of Representatives is a very ___
8. Больше всего меня поразило его безразличие к своей судьбе.
member of Congress.
9. Как правительство собирается осуществить свои планы?
5. We are all familiar with the possible ______ of a nuclear war.
10. Воспоминания наполнили душу теплыми чувствами.
6. The big oval table was the witness of most decisions that
Canadian history since Confederation.
Exercise 43
7. His in the party hierarchy was considerable.
Read the short text explaining what euphemism is and do the tasks
8. The Senator had prestige, and enormous wealth.
that follow.
9. The ________ of the story and the picture was considerable.
10. She felt g e n u i n e towards t h e little boy.
According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, a
Yiddish is n o w spoken mostly in the U S A where it has some
euphemism is the use of a pleasanter, less direct name for something
on English.
which is thought to be unpleasant in order not to give offence. Some-
12 As the century progressed the national representative assembly.
times euphemisms are used just to show politeness or to make things
Parliament, g r e w in .
seem better than they really are, or to protect the feelings of individu-
I i Many feudal landowners were directly by C o l u m b u s '
als of lower status, for example, to pass away for to die; a funeral di-
discovery of America.
rector for an undertaker; intoxicated for drunk; perspire for sweat;
14. They s a w the importance of y o u n g minds.
maintenance people for janitors, etc.
15. T h e record of his method, Spiritual Exercises, was o n e of the
most b o o k s of that century.
Here are sofne common English euphemisms, try to match them
16. His work was published in almost every E u r o p e a n language and
with their explanations.
t h e t h o u g h t of many generations.
17. T h e United States remains an English-speaking nation with an
1. animal companion a handicapped, invalid
unparalleled over t h e rest of the world.
2. event (military) b-jslums and ghelloes
18. T h e state of t h e American dollar ________ all t h e m o n e y markets
of the world. 3. a senior citizen с lazy, uninterested in working
19. The United States foreign policy m a n y other countries.
for a living
20. While reading a text, one may consider each word by itself, and 4. elderly | d. nuclear incident
this b<id reading habit also both speed and 5. economically challenged; e. lie
comprehension. disadvantaged
6. physically challenged f. old-age pensioner
h. Translate the sentences* 7. contribution
8. person of size h. poor
1. Как повлияло его повышение на его поведение в коллективе? 9. motivationally deficient i. old
2. Ваше мнение будет наиболее влиятельным. 10.. fib j. overweight person
3. Мне не понравились его напыщенные манеры. J^Ljnner^ity k. a bribe
4. Влияние печатного слова всегда было очень сильным.
5. Его слова затронули душу каждого.
6. Реформы были проведены достаточно быстро.

55
54
Exercise 44
Rephrase these straightfonvard sentences using euphemisms to
Exercise 46
тике them more socially acceptable. Euphemisms are also used in a rather sinister way. Politicians as well
as military people resort to them to cover up some events, or inten-
1. That politician told lies speaking to the electorate. tionally deceive the public, or even the international community.
2. It was announced that the leader of the state died yesterday of a
stroke. (i Read this extract front an essay written by George Orwell in
3. All old pensioners of the town are invited to our charity party. May, 1945. What does it say about language and politics?
4 The military technicians worked to avoid a nuclear accident at all How true is it today?
costs.
5 The president admitted that he was aware of the need of the poor Language and Politics
and invalids.
6. According to the mayor the problem of slums in the town wras as In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of
acute as ever. the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India,
7. "Fast food' restaurants have been found to blame for a great the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs
number of overweight people in the USA. on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are
8. The company is determined to reduce the staff by firing lazy too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the
uninterested in their work employees. professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to
9. A senior civil servant was accused of taking bribes. consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy
vagueness or doublespeak. Defenceless villages are bombarded from
Exercise 45 the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle RUI
Explain in plain English what the italicized euphemisms might chine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets this ifl Ctlled
mean in the sentences below. pacification. Millions of peasants are robbed of theil farm! Hid IWt
trudging along the roads with no more than they can canv (Ml ll
1. The company is in a non-profit situation. called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers
2. The rebel fighters wove neutralized. People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back ol
V The prime-minister was economical with the truth. the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called
I Wilh all due respect, I think your figures are misleading. elimination of unreliable elements. Such phraseology is needed if one
There was & frank and open exchange of views. wants to name things without calling up mental pictures of them. A
6. The company spent $12 million on contributions. mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the
7. The army broke off contact with the enemy. outline and covering the details. The great enemy of clear language is
8. Highly confidential sources were used in technical surveillance insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared
for decades. aims, one turns instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like
the cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as
'keeping out of polities'. All issues are political issues, and politics it-
self is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and schizophrenia. When
the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer.

56
57
к Explain the author's statements, agree or disagree with them. things. Non-PC things include polystyrene cups, saying 'businessmen'
or % congressmen' (as opposed to 'persons'), etc.
1. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence The roots of political correctness go back a long way. In the U.S. A
of the indefensible. diplomats, journalists, and others such as university teachers have
2. Political language has to consist largely of euphemisms and been increasingly asked not to use certain words and expressions be-
sheer cloudy vagueness. cause they are politically incorrect and might cause offence, and to use
3. The great enemy of clear language is insincerity. other, politically correct or PC, words. Where organizations such as
4. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, universities have rules about words to be avoided in conversation and
one turns ... to long words and exhausted idioms. elsewhere, these rules constitute a speech code.
c
v In our age there is no such thing as 'keeping out of politics/ There are a lot of arguments supporting it, and still there are some
^> When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. who dismiss it as an irrelevance.
The opponents say that 'political correctness' is a lacking sense but
Exercise 47 dangerous thought and speech code that threatens the free speech and
Now discuss the following: intellectual curiosity' of so many students and their teachers at colleges
across the USA.
1. In what circumstances do people resort to euphemisms? 'Political Correctness7 nowadays sees everything in terms of race,
2. In what spheres of life is the use of euphemisms justified? Why? class, and gender. While celebrated by promoters as a list of objec-
3. In what areas are they absolutely unacceptable? Why? tively offensive things one may not say, 'Political Correctness' is
4. Could people do without euphemistic language? Why? really a subjective list put together by the few to rule the many a lisi
5. Is to be frank and blunt a virtue or a vice? of things one must think, and do. It affronts the right of an individual
to establish his or her own beliefs. It enforces a dangerous way of
Exercise 48 looking at the world - in black and while
a. Read the article explaining the origin of the term 'politically Journalists are urged to avoid referring to African tribes be< ausc
<. urn < /' and say whether the author approves of the phenomenon. this offends many blacks (who are more often African American1)
They are told never to use the word 'Jewess', but to remembei to call
The Language of Political Correctness a Latino woman a 'Latina'. 'Eskimos' disappear because they are not
a homogeneous group and may view the term Eskimo negatively.
Political correctness seems to have originated with US college stu- 'Dutch treat' and 'Dutch courage' are offensive (to the Dutch?). There
dents in the late 1980s and early 1990s. A set of values has come to is more. The term 'deaf and dumb' is apparently offensive. Much as
dominate university campuses which are called politically correct: that 'birth defects' are best replaced by 'congenital disabilities5. Because
is to say one has to have a single attitude towards certain sensitive is- many women do the job, 'letter earner' is preferable to 'mailman'.
sues such as the Third World, the situation of women, etc. "Politically 'Mankind' is no good. 'Gringo', 'savages7 and "redskin' are among
correct" describes those who are ecologically sensitive, vegetarian, the words preferably to be avoided.
feminist, multicultural, sandal-wearing, etc. PC - things include ethnic The latest edition of Webster's College Dictionary has a chapter
pride (especially Afrocentrism), recyclable products, saying 'people of called 'Avoiding Insensitive and Offensive Language' which urges the
colour (never coloured people), 'women' (not girls) and 'Ms' (not reader to avoid 'emphasizing the differences between people' and
Mrs or Miss), sensitivity to unconscious racism, and 'diversity' in all 'think of a language as a way towards rectifying the unequal status

58 59
between one group and another'. But political correctness and the 5. Это утверждение подразумевает, что не все аспекты
banning of words does not drive out prejudice: it merely hides it проблемы были рассмотрены.
6. Его беглость речи не была учтена и не повлияла на оценку.
(from Why 'Political Correctness ' Cannot Be Correct by Mark Berley) Если говорить о грамматике, то ошибок было много.
7. Я не принял предложение сразу, однако мое молчание было
к Discuss the following: расценено как согласие.
3. Этот язык явно слишком труден для того, чтобы быстро
1. What is referred to as 'political correctness?3 приобрести разговорные навыки.
2. Which issues and why are included in PC- things? 9. Влияние экономического кризиса на жизнь простых людей
3. What is considered to be politically incorrect? очевидно.
4. What arguments do opponents produce against using p.с 10. Его влияние на людей было велико.
language? 11 • Гибкие формы английского языка способствуют развитию
Si In what spheres of life is it recommended to be politically correct? языка 'недоговоренностей'(understatement)
6. What are 'Dutch treat9 and 'Dutch courage'? Do you think these 12. Условия контракта определенно неприемлемы.
expressions may be offensive to the Dutch? 13. Эта часть общества легко поддается влиянию средств
7. Why is the word 'mankind5 considered to be politically incorrect? массовой информации (mass media).
8. Does political incorrectness always cause trouble? 14. Прямота в высказываниях воспринималась как протест
9. Is it true that the language fuss distract people's attention from против власти.
painful facts? Why? 15. Накопление словаря может происходить различными путями.
10. Is there anything in common between euphemism and political 16. Средства общения между людьми разнообразны.
correctness? 17. Война повлияла не только на жизнь людей, но И на ИХ умы
18. Я вижу определенный скрытый смысл в его слоил\
Exercise 49 19. С исторической точки зрения этот период считается
Summarize the text about 'political correctness' in about 80 words. определяющим.
Follow the rules of writing a summary given in exercise 8. 20. Вашим утверждениям не хватает здравою смысла.
21. Предполагается, что все авторы журнала будут следовать
Exercise so определенным правилам политкорректное™.
Translate the sentences, practice using the vocabulary of Unit L 22. Британская империя распалась, когда ее колонии добились
независимости.
1 Общеизвестно, что изучение иностранного языка требует 23. Умение слушать людей - это хорошее качество.
немалых усилий. 24. Приобретение знаний - основная задача студента.
2. Общность интересов и взглядов способствует 25. Опыт накапливается с годами.
взаимопониманию.
3. Ссора возникла из-за недоразумения. Они просто не поняли
друг друга.
4. Между этими языками много общего. Похоже, что один
является разновидностью другого.

60 61
gossip, lecture and speak out most of the time - and yet for all that,
Exercise 51 the majority of our 'talking' is done without speaking.
Write a composition (an essay) of about 200 words on the following Running along with our spoken words is a secret and mostly silent
topic: language which illustrates, fills out and annotates what we say. Some
Ci
Wlien the general atmosphere in a community is bad, language of it is not at all difficult to understand. We smile, nod, wink, wave, lift
must suffer." an eyebrow, frown, shake hands, drum our fingers and tap our feet
many times a week, using a silent shorthand of communication, which
Remember that when writing a composition (essay) is easily interpreted: ' H u l l o / we smile; ' O K , ' we n o d ; a wink, 'she
did?"; a frown, 'clear off; a handshake, 'good to meet y o u ' ; tap-tap.
1) there must be a short Introduction (three or four sentences) Тш bored or impatient'. We all make and translate dozens of such
introducing the subject y o u are going to discuss. simple gestures each day, giving and reading them correctly within the
2) there must be a B o d y (the m a i n part), in which y o u develop t h e context of our speech and actions. After all, there is nothing to a ges-
introduced point(s) and w h i c h may be divided into paragraphs. ture. It delivers a message, but hardly of deep meaning or significance.
3) Ihere must be a short Conclusion in which y o u s u m up t h e Yet take a hundred -or a thousand - insignificant gestures together,
poinl(s) introduced but in other words than in t h e Introduction. and you find an invaluable, and infinitely variable, tool of
4) all the three parts m u s t be logically linked to each other by communication.
connective words like "but, however, on the one hand ... f on the Anyone fretting over the latest international crisis knows that a
other hand ..., in addition to.., apart from, nevertheless, in diplomatic gesture can be safely ignored as a passing matter, whereas
conclusion, e t c . " if his country adopts a posture in a disputed issue, this could be much
5) t h e ideas expressed m u s t be clear, logical and precise. more serious. This difference in meaning that we accept in the news-
6) y o u are not expected to be p e r s o n a l papers, applies also to the silent body language Gesture is confined to
7) do n o t use contractions like " d o n ' t or can't". a small part of the body, a shake or shrug of the shoulders, curl of the
lips, furrowing of the brow, whereas adopting a posture requires every
part of the body to be involved in tension.
Additional reading Silence speaks louder than words. We all acknowledge thifl f i<>111
time to time when our emotions rise to a certain level of intensity
Eierdse 52 'Words failed me', we say when we describe incoherence of angei,
Haul the text and do the tasks thai follow* shock or passion. It is when expression is most important to us thai we
find words most inadequate. You can say 'I love you', or M hate you1,
T h e S e c r e t Language. Body Code. quite coolly ay a low level of emotion, but if you swept off your feet,
or black with fury you will find it either impossible or unnecessary to
Talk is every m o d e r n m a n ' s remedy for every problem, his tool of say anything at all. Your message will come across loud and clear
communication in every situation. He 'gets around the table' with al- without words.
lies and enemies "to negotiate', he 'chats up" his date, he 'shoots a A researcher found that at an informal meeting only 7 per cent of
line' to colleagues, * gives his story' to the media and "has it out with the understanding reached derived from the actual words spoken. The
his wife'. M o d e r n m a n , m fact, is a talkative animal, and if you ask new understanding transmitted at the meeting came 38 per cent from
him how he talks, he laughs instead. He knows we all talk, chatter. their intonation, and 55 per cent from the body movements

63
62
accompanying them. On average, y o u can probably assume that about
GRAMMAR SUPPLEMENT
40 per cent of the information y o u obtain about others is read from
their body movements. W o r d s m many situations are heavily dis-
THE INFINITIVE
counted.
(torn Body Cock by Warren Lamb)
FORMS
T a s k s t o t h e text:
i Active Passive
| Indefinite (simple)
1 . B r i n g o u t t h e difference i n m e a n i n g o r a r e a o f u s a g e b e t w e e n ! refers to the present or
w o r d s i n t h e following g r o u p s j future
Perfect
a talk, speak, chatter, gossip, lecture; b. gesture, posture; refers to a prior activity
C. discount, ignore.
Continuous
refers the activity to the
2 . P i c k o u t t h e facial e x p r e s s i o n s a n d gestures m e n t i o n e d i n t h e
[ moment of speech
t e x t a n d say w h a t t h e y m e a n . Perfect Continuous
refers to a prior activity
3 . M a t c h t h e c o l o u r s w i t h t h e feelings a n d e m o t i o n s w i t h w h i c h that has/had been lasting to have been doing
- t h e y a r e usually a s s o c i a t e d . I for or since some time

black anger FUNCTIONS


blue cowardice
1. subject To read is useful Читать/ ЧП НИ! ПО
crimson despair лезно,
grey embarrassment 2. predicate Our aim is to matter English Hum
gram envy цель- выучить английский наш
purple fear The results were to b| sec-n latei iv
red зультаты предстояло у ни дел, ПОЗЖв,
hopelessness
while jealousy
3. object Не wants to be free. - Он хочет быть
yellow rage свободным.
sadness 4. attribute The problem to be solved is simple. -
shame Задача, которую надо решить - простая.
Не is the last / the first to do it. - Он
первым / последним сделал это.

5. modifier They met to have lunch together. -


Они встретились, чтобы вместе пообедать.
I am too tired to help you. - Я слишком
устал, чтобы помогать тебе. _

64
65
B e careful n o t t o u s e ' t o ' b e f o r e t h e I n f i n i t i v e f o r m s following cer- T h e t o - I n f i n i t i v e is u s e d :
tain words:

i. auxiliary and modal verbs: do /does/ d i d ; m u s t ; c a n / could;;


appear challenge instruct refuse
m a y / m i g h t ; will / s h a l l ; w o u l d / s h o u l d ; n e e d n ' t
afford convince learn remind
e.g. Why did you go to the stadium? You needn't have done it. agree decide manage seem
You might have stayed at home and watched the game on TV. arrange demand mean struggle
advise deserve need swear
2., verbs of physical perception in the a c t i v e form: allow expect order tell
see, w a t c h , notice», observe^ h e a n feel ask encourage offer teach
begin fail plan threaten
V,g, I have never heard him speak English, be forbid prepare wait
Hut in the passive.
claim force pretend want
He has never been heard to sing.
choose hesitate promise warn
3. the verbs: m a k e , h a v e , let, d a r e cease hope permit wish
cause invite persuade urge
e.g. Have / make him do the work quickly, carefully and independently.
Let everybody contribute to the discussion.
2. after adjectives without prepositions
How did you dare argue with him?
e.g. This plan is impossible to effect.
Nobody made you speak. Why did you?
He is lucky to have acquired such experience.
But in the passive:
He was made to speak.
lie was made tji understand that he had better keep silent. 3. after too + adjective and adjective + enough
e.g. Chinese is too difficult to learn quickly.
Note: the verbs 'have', d a r e ' are not used on this pattern.
Many people believe that English is easy enough to learn.
* ///<' word combinations: w o u l d r a t h e r / s o o n e r do «.» (than).,
4. in introductory Infinitive phrases
h a d b e t t e r d o . . . , W h y (not) d o . . . ? 7 c a n n o t but d o ..,

e.g. / Y/ rather speak to you in private, = Гdprefer to speak to you. to tell the truth - по правде говоря
He 'd sooner die than apologize. to sum up - короче говоря; подводя итог сказанному
You Ul better take an umbrella. It may rain. to conclude - в заключении
Why not put the discussion off till tomorrow?
to make a long story short - короче говоря
He couldn't hut admit his guilt.
to make things worse - хуже того
to say nothing of... / not to mention ... - не говоря уже о ...
to say the least - по меньшей мере, если не сказать большего
to put it mildly - мягко выражаясь

66 67
6. O n e ' s gains and losses are not always to be measured in terms of
E x e r c i s e S3
money.
Complete the sentences choosing a suitable Infinitive phrase from
7. When Julius Caesar, later to be Roman Emperor, invaded Britain,
the list below.
the Celtic tribes lived in the British Isles.
how to phrase, how to keep, which to choose, where to put, what to
8. The most famous person to write in English in the period of
say, when to come, whether to stay here or go back
'Renaissance' in Europe was William Shakespeare.
9. To hear him talk is an education in itself
1. He asked his mother back.
10. The desire to write was dominant in Martin.
2. There were a lot of books on the shelves. We didn't k n o w _______
11. She returned to her motherland never to leave it again.
3. We were not sure
12. Byron wrote: "I awoke one morning to find myself famous".
4. [ didn't know the baby warm.
13. If the reform was to come at all, it could come only from the top.
5 I was helping her to put away the clean linen. She was telling me
14. There was much to be said for the idea.
it.
15. A blind man would be glad to see. (proverb)
6. I le did not k n o w his faith in h e r
16. All truths are not to be told, (proverb)
7. I ' m so bewildered, I d o n ' t k n o w __ .

Exercise 56
E x e r c i s e 54
Put the verbs in the brackets in the active or passive Indefinite In-
Use the Introductory Infinitive phrases according to the sense.
finitive fornt
1. He contributed to the bankruptcy of the firm, .
1. He is too y o u n g (judge).
2- , the two parties came to terms at last.
2. F v e known quite a n u m b e r of foreigners who (nod hard (acquire)
3. I am not quite satisfied with the terms of the agreement, __.
an Oxford accent.
4. , he did not only lose all his money but also all his property.
3. Did y o u see h i m (come) to work? He can't (find) any w h e n
5. , mastering a foreign language is hard work.
4. Y o u will never hear an Englishman (complain) to a Strangei
6 Thai man speaks most European languages, English.
5. Citizens must (make) (respect) laws.
7 I le is not the most considerate son,
6. Why not (sum) up the idea?
Exercise 55 7. With the Romans gone, Britain began (invade) from all sides.
Translate the sentences containing the Indefinite Infinitive in vari- 8. "Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never
ous functions. (disappoint)".
9. Children should (see) and not (hear).
1. One had to learn English to j o i n the twentieth century. 10. It is better (give) than (give).
2. In many countries English is the top priority foreign language to 11. Why (invent) a common language?
12. The decision made is never too late (change).
be learned at school.
13. D o n ' t (judge), and you w o n ' t (judge).
3. Modern English is the primary international language used in
14. Men are not (measure) with inches.
diplomacy though it used to be French.
15. What is done cannot (undo)
4. The spread of the English language makes the spread of wildfire
16. I like (read) but I still like (read), especially plays.
look slow.
5. The implication of the events was to be understood later.

69
68
10. "Кто рожден быть повешенным, не утонет".
17. W h a t ' s h a p p e n e d here? I want (tell) the truth.
18. T h e child was brave enough (praise).
Exercise 58
19. Y o u taught me languages; and my profit on it is I k n o w h o w
Translate the sentences containing the Continuous Infinitive.
(curse).
20. T h e English would rather n o t (let) a n y o n e (see) their feelings. 1. Our group will be writing a test from 2 to 4 p.m. tomorrow.
2 1 . Y o u h a d better not (involve) in anything like t h a t
2. He is lucky to be traveling in the South when we are having such
22. W h a t makes s o m e people (accept) what is against their
cold weather here.
principles?
3. We know her to be enjoying herself at the party now.
23. I had h i m (accept) my offer.
4. He claims to be learning the language of the country.
24. He would rather (die) than (tell) a lie.
5. I expect you to be listening to me instead of writing something.
25. I could watch many hands (raise) for the proposal,
6. He pretended to be weighing the chances in his mind.
26. I am sure that y o u will never (make) (betray) y o u r friend.
7. The population tends to be growing every year.
27. You should (keep) y o u r remarks to yourself N o b o d y likes (make)
fun of.
Exercise 59
28. King Henry I was m a d e (ask) t h e p o p e ' s forgiveness and also
Put the verbs in the brackets in the Indefinite or Continuous Infini-
allowed himself (whip) by the monks.
tive forms (to do/to be doing),
29. It is better (prevent) a misfortune from h a p p e n i n g rather than
(look) for a remedy sifter it has happened.
L What is he doing? I expect him (do) his homework and not
30. T h e visitors said that it m a d e t h e m (feel) good that they were
(watch) television.
welcomed in such a manner.
2. We needn't (walk). I know the lift (work) today.
3. At the time the population seemed (grow) too fast
Exercise 57
4. In the 16th century France still appeared (dominate) <>n in-
Translate the sentences into English. Use active or passive Indefinite
continent
Infinitive forms.
5. I am sure they are happy (stay) at this luxurious hotel.
6. The monarchy appeared (be) strong and (grow) stronger at homo
I Он хочет внести свой вклад в это дело.
2. Я рад, что меня понимают. and abroad.
7. The man pretended (not notice) me but (look) at somebody else.
3. Не обязательно говорить всю правду.
8. I am sony that I have (keep) you waiting
4. Не заставляйте меня учиться, как пользоваться компьютером.
9. -1 wonder what he can (do) now? - He may (enjoy) himself or he
Я слишком стар, чтобы запомнить, какую клавишу нажать.
might (work) hard.
5. Не думаю, что меня пригласят.
10. The prices tend (rise) faster this year.
6. Чтобы работать эффективно^ электронным средствам
11. My intention is (see) him immediately and (find) out the truth.
массовой информации нужен общий стандарт.
7. Зачем все упрощать? 12. The technology will certainly (develop) quickly in the near future.
8. Ты достаточно взрослый, чтобы понимать такие вещи. 13. When I entered she pretended (look) for something on the floor.
9. Раньше языком дипломатического общения был 14. At last we could (relax). It was so pleasant (to lie) after a tiring
французский. journey.

71
70
Exercise 60
Translate the sentences using either the Indefinite or Continuous
Exercise 62
Infinitive forms.
Put the verbs in the brackets
it in the active Indefinite or Perfect form - to do / to have done.
1. Было бы лучше учить разговорный язык с носителями языка.
2. Ему везет, что он сейчас отдыхает на юге. 1. One should (look) ahead and (hope) for the best.
3. Он притворился, что читает и не слушает меня. 2. You should (look) where you were going.
3. I am glad (give) you that chance.
4. Я бы предпочел пойти туда позже.
5. Она встречается с ним завтра утром. 4. You needn't (walk) upstairs, the lift is working.
6. Мне жаль, что задерживаю вас. 5. He is lucky (see) the country and (have) a chance of practicing
7. Я рад, что доставляю вам удовольствие. the language.
<Х. Он будет читать лекцию завтра утром с 10 до 12. 6. It is so considerate of you (reserve) a hotel room well in advance.
(
) 11е звони мне вечером, я буду заниматься английским. 7. England is the first country (try and execute) the king.
10. Я гак рад разговаривать с вами на своем родном языке. 8. Saxon kings helped the Church (grow).
1 I Так хорошо сидеть здесь с вами и беседовать. 9. I am sony not (warn) you in advance.
12. В такую жару я бы предпочел сейчас лежать на пляже, а не 10. The government had (accept) the terms of the Trade Union.
11. By the end of the year you will (acquire) the necessary skills.
сидеть на уроке.
12. You might (wait) for me. Why didn't you?
13. Он притворился, что читает и не слышит, что ему говорят.
13. He needn't (tell) us that it was not his fault. We were sure of it.
14. Интересно, чем я буду заниматься в это время через год?
14. Why (interrupt) the speaker?
Exercise 61 15. We shall (finish) the work by the tune you come back
Translate the sentences containing the Perfect Infinitive.
Ьь in the active or passive Indefinite or Perfect form - to do to hi'
1. 11 is considerate of you to have taken care of the old man. done /have done / to have been done.
2. I am glad to have met you.
I I am sorry to have given you so much trouble. 1. You should (make) your report long ago. Why didn't you make it?
4, She said she would like to have lived'in the 18th century. 2. The report should (make) long ago. Why wasn't it made1'
I would have liked to see his face when he heard it. 3. The problem is (solve) by this time. Why hasn't it been solved?
6 I meant to have reminded you of it earlier. 4. I am happy (introduce) to him at last at the concert.
7. You should have spared his feelings. 5. I am glad (meet) you and hope (see) again soon.
8. According to the schedule the plane was to have landed long ago. 6. Hie text needn't (translate) to the end, the students were only
9. You ought to have remembered у от mother's birthday. asked (translate) the first paragraph.
10. The terms should have been accepted long ago. 7. Jane is happy (grant) a scholarship last month.
11. The plan will have been effected by the end. of the year. 8. We were (meet) at 9 o'clock, but he never came.
12. She is happy to have been offered this job. 9. I remember us (take) for husband and wife.
10. I am glad (give) that chance.
11. We were displeased (arouse) by the noise at midnight.
12. The contract will (sign) by the end of the week.

73
13. I was happy (introduce) to the famous writer. 6. I hate to have been keeping you all this time.
14. T h e translation needrTt (do) in writing, do it n o w out loud. 7. She pretended to have been waiting for me all these months.
15. Fd rather not (accept) the terms of the agreement then. 8. The examination appears to have been lasting for two hours.
16. I am really sorry (make) an impression that I didn't like the play. 9. This year he will have been learning English for ten years.
17. He is lucky (to invite) to yesterday's party. 10. How long will you have been living in Moscow this year?
18. I would rather not (go) there alone.
19. T h e work should (do) long ago. Exercise 65
20. Y o u should (do) his w r ork when I asked you to do it. Use the verbs in the brackets in a Perfect Infinitive form.
21. T h e company should (effect) this idea last year.
22. T h e (ask n e e d n ' t (simplify). 1. You shouldn't (lose) your temper in the argument.
2. We needn't (leave) so early. Nobody expected us to do it.
Exercise 63 3. The director expects them (consider) the problem by now.
Translate the sentences. Use the Infinitive forms. 4. They believe him (consider) the problem for two hours now.
5. We expect the committee (revise) the programme by now.
1. Он не знал, что делать и к кому обратиться за помощью. 6. All of us think the committee (revise) the programme too long.
2. Он не знает? что ему надо было делать и к кому обращаться. 7. I am sorry (argue) with you at the meeting. You were right.
3. Я рад (был) содействовать вашем)/ продвижению. 8. I am sony (argue) with you so long. You are right.
4. Объявление должно (было) быть сделано громко и четко. 9. He is happy (stay) at his grandmothers for the whole summer.
5. Яяе хотел бы жить в Средние века. 10. They appear (discuss) the issue for two weeks already, while they
6. Вам лучше найти с ним общий язык. were (take) a decision by last Friday.
7. К концу обучения вы приобретете необходимые знания. 11. The committee seems (consider) his nomination for an hour
8. Решение несомненно будет принято к концу недели. 12. I expect the discussion (finish) by now.
(
> Почему бы не внести свой вклад в общее дело? 13. Do you know this writer (start) his career as a doctor?
Iо I [е было необходимости ехать в Англию, чтобы выучить 14. Nobody believes you (tell) the truth.
грамматику английского языка. 15. The MPs will (consider) the bill for a month already.

Exercise 64 Exercise 66
У ran slate the sentences containing the Infinitive in the Perfect Con- Put the verbs in the brackets in the required Infinitive form.
tinnoiis form.
1. The English claim (be) the first in Europe (try and execute) the
1. He is fortunate to have been traveling for a whole month. king.
2. We know the committee to have been considering the project for 2. They talked in a whisper not a. (wake) up the sleeping children.
several months already. b. (hear).
3. I believe him to have been learning English since childhood. 3. The boys were too frightened a. (speak); b. (punish).
4. He is sorry to have been looking for the information so long. 4. He liked (see) in public.
5. It is so considerate of you to have been looking after my cat all 5. He hated (bother) with trifling matters when he had many
this time. important questions (decide).

74 75
6. This burning question is (decide) very quickly. 26. A man might (find) it hard (refuse) a lady's invitation even if he
7. Is there anything else (tell) h i m the news? I believe he deserves wished (do) so.
(know) h o w the matter stands and (tell) all about it. 27. Shaw and Ruskin argued that the dirtiest or most unpleasant work
8. All questions are (ask) l a t e r should (pay) for at the highest rates.
9. In many countries of t h e British Commoinvealth British English 28. The king decided (make) the Vikings (stay) away by paying them.
continues (accept) for official or semi-official purposes. 29. The vast territories were conquered by the Angles, Saxons and
10. T h e people w h o used (reject) Latin began (use) it in speech. Jutes (divide) into numerous small kingdoms later.
11. The roads the R o m a n s h a d built in England continued (build) after 30. He that is bom (hang) shall never (drown).
they left.
12. Few individual families could (afford) (keep) a team of oxen Exercise 67
(быков), and these had (share) on a cooperative basis. Translate the sentences into English using the Infinitive in various
13. King Henry I made all the nobles (promise) (accept) his wife forms and functions.
Matilda when he died.
14. Usually the church preferred (support) the king against the nobles, 1. Нельзя заставить любить.
but expected (reward) for its support. 2. Зачем изобретать общий язык?
15. Some kings and popes wanted (increase) their authority. In such 3. Я бы предпочел с ним не общаться.
circumstances trouble could not (avoid) 4. Что может заставить наших оппонентов пойти на уступки?
16. Since the rules of feudalism did not include taxation, taxes could 5. Иностранный язык лучше всего начинать изучать с детства.
only (raise) with the agreement of those wealthy enough (tax). 6. Можно выиграть время, если полететь самолетом, (passive)
17. King Edward made one of his Scottish knights (provide) money 7. Мы предполагаем, что наши условия были приняты.
and troops for the English army. 8. К концу года он будет учить английский уже пять лет
18. Some Scottish nobles accepted Edward, but the people refused 9. Все видели, как он победил в состязании.
(rule) by the English king. 10. Никто не ожидал, что задание будет каким г рудным
1() Л romance cannot (found) on lies. 11. Хотелось бы, чтобы вы заставили его работать усерднее
20. There is no reason why a girl should not (offer) (pay) her share 12. Средствам массовой информации нужен общий стандарт,
when invited out by a boy. чтобы работать эффективно.
21. The topic sentence should not (express) in too general terms. 13. Он заговорил первым.
Ideally it should (attract) the reader's attention and make him 14. От него меньше всего можно было этого ожидать.
(want) (read) on. 15. Я бы не хотел, чтобы вы приобретали опыт такого рода.
22. Since the Egyptians had no printing press, all their books had 16. Английский язык нелегко выучить хорошо,
(write) by hand. 17. По правде говоря, это не те условия, которые можно принять
23. Shall we make a break? - I'd rather (continue) (work). с легкостью.
24. I wonder what he earns and how much he can (afford) (spend). 18. Этим ничего не добьешься.
25. Many people could not (choose) what work they would (do), 19. Такое приобретение, как автомобиль, трудно скрыть.
but the economic necessity made them (take) the first job that 20. Смысл сделанного заявления еще предстоит понять.
came their way.

76 77
INFINITIVE COMPLEXES I- The Complex Object construction (revision) is built on the pattern

f. Complex Object ~f~ И. Complex Subject 1 ill. For - Complex J


Noun /pronoun •+• Verb + noun /pronoun + (to) Infinitive
¥ -f noun / pm + (to) In- NI prn + active / passive j For + noun/pm •+• to Inf. The boy heard his mother call him.
finitive verb + to Inf. He wants you to do it
No 'to' after: g/prn + passive verb + to
He spoke in a high voice 1. There are certain verbs which are used in the construction fol-
1. see, watch, notice, ob- 1. He was seen to leave. for everybody to hear lowed by the *to' Infinitive. They are:
serve, hear, feel him.
Nobody saw me leave. 2. He was made to come. think, believe, suppose, consider, assume, expect, find, want,
It is all very well for you mean, desire, (would) like, hate, order, ask, allow, forbid,
2 make, have, let, dare 3. This (ask is considered to laugh. encourage
You should make him (not) to he/to have been
come. complicated* This question is for him e.g. Many people consider / believe/ think English to be an
To- Infinitive after to decide. international language and find it easy to learn.
want, expect, think, be- I didn 4 mean the task to puzzle you so much.
lieve, consider, suppose, He suggested an idea for Possible promotion encouraged him to learn English.
assume, etc. the problem to be solved
quickly.
He considers the problem 2. The verbs of physical perception seey watch, observe, notice,
to be very complicated. hear, feel and the verbs make, have, get, Id are followed in the
Complex Object construction by an infinitive without U\
n/pm + active v»+ to Inf*
e.g. / noticed/ smv / watched/ observed him pass her a parcel
1 (don't ) seem / appear He cannot make/get/let me go.
He seems / appears to You must make, have /get him come.
have bee*a learning Eng-
lish long. II. The Complex Subject construction is built on three patterns.
2. Mm *>M /...P rove (fol- No pattern is used in the Future tense. The same verbs as in the
lowed by cto be') Complex Object construction are used here. They may be followed by
The task turned out /
ail forms of the Infinitive. Be careful to translate the structure cor-
proved to be difficult
3. happen rectly.
Do you happen to know
her name? Pattern 1

be -f sure / certain / noun /pronoun + passive Verb + to-Infinitive


likely + to-Inf.
He is sure/certain/ likely
to come late.

78 79
it / was considered ~+ all" Infinitive forms считают, считается, что
has been believed считалось. 10. Such kind of enthusiasm could not be expected to spread very far
is / was fall Infinitive forms известно, что | d o w n in society.
has been known 11. He is known to be learning a third language.
thought 1 12. Diplomacy is believed to have been evolving for centuries.
is assumed полагают. i
was supposed + all Infinitive forms предполагается, что Exercise 69
has been heard полагали i
seen Put the verbs in the brackets in the correct Infinitive form
is reported
was claimed говорят / сообщается, 1. King Alfred is said (translate) many Latin works into English and
has been said -fall Infinitive forms утверждается / утвер- thus encouraged learning in all fields.
maintained ждают / 2. T h e course of history is k n o w n (influence) by King Alfred a lot.
stated утверждалось, что
3. U n d e r K i n g Edward the country is thought (prosper).
argued
Is / was alleged + all Infinitive 4. Church building is supposed (go on) for over a century.
forms утверждается /
has been утверждалось, 5. King Edward is known (start) a n e w church.
что якобы 6. Harold was made unwillingly (promise) that he would not try to
take the throne for himself
Exercise 68 7. During Alfred's struggle against the Danes walled settlements are
Translate the sentences according to Pattern L said (build) to keep them out.
8. T h e climate is considered (change) for centuries.
1. W h e n we reduce a n u m b e r of ideas to one general idea we are 9. T h e problem is felt (turn) into a challenging one.
said to generalize. 10. T h e chairman is alleged (take) bribes.
2. English is considered to he spoken n o w by over 800 million
people. E x e r c i s e 70
\, T h e trend towards simplicity is believed to be a strength of Paraphrase the sentences so as to use either the Complex Subject
English, (Pattern 1) or Complex Object construction, or both, if possible. Mi ml
4 The contributions coming to the church were alleged to have the form of the Infinitive,
/><V/7 Stolen.
5. The y o u n g e r generation is known to have contributed s o m e Model: They consider that English will continue spreading.
m o n s t r o u s words to t h e N e w Vocabulary. (Complex Object) They consider English to continue spreading.
6. You are expected to take an English exam in the first t e r m of t h e
It is considered that English has become an international language.
third year.
(Complex Subject,) English is considered to have become an international
7. Latin is said to have been spoken by the majority of c o m m o n language.
p e o p l e at the time.
8. T h e Stuart monarchs are known to have been less successful than 1. It is known that the English have not lived in a state of hatred of
t h e Tudors. their neighbours.
9. Slang is not supposed to be used in the formal or official 2. It was believed that the n e w model of society would make all
language. people happy.

80
81
3. It was supposed that all participants had accepted t h e rules. 10. The conference was to have started before the New Year but it
4. It is said that F r e n c h m e n are puzzled by the v e h e m e n c e of English didn't, (expect)
political debates. 11. The character of British people has been misjudged for many
5. It is considered that the English are always preferring practical centuries, (assume)
compromise to theoretical exactness. 12. The English as a nation have felt secure centuries, (know)
6 It is claimed that the English were the first people in E u r o p e who 13. They have always looked down on other nations, (say)
tried and executed their king. 14. England was invaded by many tribes, (know)
7. It is assumed that the character of the British people has been 15. The newspaper wrote that the cabinet disagreed with the prime
misjudged for many centuries. minister, (allege)
К Now we may consider that the problem is settled.
9 К is expected that the conflicting nations will eventually come to Exercise 72
a compromise. Translate the sentences into English.
10. Why is it considered that I should be responsible for it?
I I They say that he is the best m the profession. 1. Говорят, что обсуждение проблемы уже началось.
12. She didn't expect that he would write often. 2. Сообщается, что делегация прибудет на следующей неделе.
13. They say the retirement was a tragedy for him. The company told 3. Его никогда не видели таким смущенным.
him that he should leave (make). 4. Полагают, что комитет уже принял решение.
14. It was reported that the troops had advanced to the border. 5. Слышно было, как люди громко спорили.
15. There is a letter I expect that you will translate. 6. Как известно, британский английский отличается от его
16. He has not heard that she has ever mentioned his name. американской разновидности.
17. Can he trust us? It is impossible, (make) 7. Слышали, что новый проект закона долго обсуждался
18. It is alleged that the minister has taken bribes. 8. Предполагалось, что мы встретимся после экзаменов
9. Казалось маловероятным, чтобы возникли какиб-либо
Exercise 71 трудности.
("hange the sentences so as to use Pattern 1 with appropriate Infini- 10. Говорят, что этот проект поможет сэкономить средства
tive forms. 11. Известно, что этот законопроект разрабатывается уже год.
12. Наконец-то, можно считать, что исследование закончено.
i This part of land was once under the sea. (believe) 13. Никто не ожидал, что суд продлится так долго.
2. Л number of famous writers of the past were doctors, (know) 14. Считают, что английский язык будет продолжать меняться.
3. This test was to be the final one. (suppose) 15. Считают, что с ним трудно найти общий язык.
4. He is the best candidate to the post, (consider) 16. Известно, что многие писатели были врачами.
17. Говорят, что он, якобы, занял у вас большую сумму денег.
5. The negotiations are reaching a decisive stage, (say)
18. Предполагается, что все условия договора будут приняты.
6. The laws are respected by the vast majority of people, (say)
19. Известно, что язык меняется со временем.
7. A new epidemic of the flu has been sweeping Europe for the last
20. Полагают, что такие привычки приобретаются в детстве.
two months, (report)
8. The differences between them have been growing lately, (seem)
9. The air was growing colder, (feel)

82 83
Exercise 74
Pattern 2
Pitt the verbs in the brackets in the appmpriate Infinitive form.
Noun /pronoun + active Verb -f to-Infinitive
1. English patriotism appears (base) on a d e e p sense of security
a appear /seem + all Infinitive forms - по-видимому, по всей
2. T h e English do not seem (keep) to any religious or social ideas
видимости, кажется . \.
3. T h e monarchy appeared (be) strong and (grow) stronger at h o m e
e.g. He seems / appears to have been learning English long. - Кажется, on and abroad.
долго учит английский. 4. By 9 5 0 England seemed (become) rich and peaceful again after
You don 4 seem / appear to be listening to me. ~ Кажется, ты меня не t h e troubles of the Viking invasion.
слушаешь. 5. T h e N o r m a n conquest seemed (draw) nearer.
b turn out/prove + to be - оказывается 6. James I appeared (prefer) (rule) without Parliament.
7. C h a r l e s ' s authority appeared (accept) m o r e completely than the
€ g He turns out /proves to be a good friend. - Оказывается, он хороший authority of an English king for centuries.
друз.
8. He seems (be able) (balance) his budgets and (make) the
The task turned out /proved to be difficult. - Задача оказалась трудной.
administration efficient.
9. T h e first signs of trouble between Crown and Parliament seemed
с happen + all Infinitive forms - случайно, случилось так;
( c o m e ) in 1601.
e.g. Do you happen to have heard anything about the incident? - Вы, 10. Despite the differences between Anglo-Saxons and Celts, the
случайно, не слышали что-нибудь об этом инциденте? Celtic bishops seem (accept) readily in Anglo-Saxon areas.
11. M o s t of these bishops appear (come) from churches and
We happened to come to tenns. -Мы все-таки пришли к согласию. monasteries along E u r o p e ' s vital trade routes
12. Y o u only seem (read) the text, in (act you are dreaming
Exercise 73 13. He seems (contribute) most to the common cause
Translate the sentences containing the verbs seem /appear. 14. T h e word appears (acquire) a n e w meaning in this contexi
15. T h e context does not seem (help) y o u (understand) the word
I T h e faci that English has b e c o m e the most important language for
the intcrnationaJ community seems to be irreversible. Exercise 75
2. English appears to have accepted a great n u m b e r of words from Rephrase ike sentences according to Pattern 2 (a). Follow the
other languages. model
3. Most men and boys seem to enjoy looking for d a n g e r Model: It seems / appears that English will not stop spreading.
4. r
r h e m a n ' s mind appeared to be working with extraordinary Apparently / seemingly English will not stop spreading.
English doesn 4 seem / appear to stop spreading.
freedom.
5. He doesn V seem to have been affected by the event in any way. It appeared7 seemed that there was no way out
6. He appears to h a v e been learning English since childhood. There was apparently /seemingly no way out.
7. T h e l a n g u a g e barrier didn Y appear to prevent their There didn *t appear /seem to be a way out.
communication.
8. You don f t seem to be following me. i. It seems they have been considering the matter for 3 hours.

85
84
2. It appears that any other language is m o r e difficult to learn than E x e r c i s e 77
English. Translate the sentences into English.
3. It d o e s n ' t seem that y o u will be able to acquire fluency in such a
short period. 1. Мне кажется, я вас знаю. Похоже, мы какое-то время вместе
4. It appears there are a lot of people willing to learn English. работали.
5. It appears that English has accepted a great n u m b e r of words from 2. Кажется, я никогда его не видел.
other languages. 3. По-видимому, они договорились.
6. It seemed that an agreement was hard to c o m e to. 4. Похоже на то. что в доме кто-то есть.
7. It appeared that t h e r e w e r e n ' t enough copies of t h e project. 5. Кажется, за мной кто-то шел. когда я возвращалась домой.
8. It appeared that t h e resolution was not adopted. 6. Вы как будто меня не слушаете.
9. It appeared that he was losing patience. 7. Вам, кажется, не нравится наше предложение.
10, II seems they h a v e n ' t heard all about it. 8. По всей видимости, вы просто не поняли друг друга.
l i l t seems h e d i d n ' t realize that h e might lose the competition. 9. Процесс глобализации кажется необратимым.
12 It appears there was a mistake in t h e text of t h e contract. 10. Очевидно, что компьютерные технологии способствовали
расширенному использованию английского языка.
E x e r c i s e 76
Paraphrase the sentences so as to use the verbs in the brackets Exercise 78
according to Pattern 2 (a). Translate the sentences following Pattern 2 (b).

1. Esperanto has lost competition with English in becoming an 1. English has proved to be easier to learn than other languages.
international l a n g u a g e (appear). 2. The matter turns out to be gaining in importance with every day
2. N o w English does n o t only belong to the English (seem). 3. Their program proved to be too reasonable to triumph
3. T h e expansion of English will not be stopped by anyone, 4. King Alfred turned out to be strong enough to make ;i !fe;il\ will»
(appear). the Vikings.
4. T h e language of political correctness was invented in the U.S. 5. The Stuarts proved to be true to their beliefs.
(seem) 6. In the end the decisions proved to be short-sighted.
5 Idioms are difficult to learn, (seem). 7. My fears have proved to be groundless.
6 There are different slang words m different communities,
(appear) Exercise 79
7. There is a lot of difference between a public school in Britain and Rephrase the sentences according to Pattern 3 (b). Follow the
a public school in t h e US (seem). model
8. T h e Internet is c h a n g i n g (appear). Model: It turned out that the two parties were of the same opinion on
9. Lingua F r a n c a has b e c o m e a compromise language (appear).
the problem.
The two parties turned out to be of the same opinion on the
10. Early contacts b e t w e e n settlers and natives led to the formation of
problem.
pidgin languages (seem).
1. It turned out that he was a reliable person.
2. It turns out that he is right.

86 87
3 It turned out that the conflict was difficult to solve.
4 It turns out that the two parties are unprepared for taiks.
5. Exercise 82
It turned out that there was no r o o m for all of us.
6. It turned out that the task was not difficult.
Rephrase the sentences according to Pattern 2 (c). Follow the model
7. It turns out that we are incapable of finding a way out of the
situation.
Model: It so happened that the Celts were pushed by the Romans to
the north.
8. It proved that the language of the article was quite easy.
9. It proved that it was impossible to c o m e to terms with the man. The Celts happened to be pushed by the Romans to the north.

10. It proves that it is difficult to learn English properly. 1. It happened that England was invaded from many sides.
2. It happens that the Celtic language has survived in Scotland and
Exercise 80
Northern Ireland.
Translate the sentences into English, 3. It happens that there is no obvious solution to the problem.
4. It so happened that French became the language of diplomacy.
1. Он оказался очень внимательным сыном. 5. It so happened that we didn't know each other at the time.
2. Оказалось, достаточно легко выучить разговорный 6. It happens that we have known each other since childhood.
английский.
7. It happened that I was present at the opening session.
3. Оказывается, ты очень общительный. 8. It happened that when I came he was still being questioned.
4. Оказалось, что невозможно встретиться с ним наедине. 9. It happened that everybody had taken the problem seriously.
5. Ваши условия оказались неприемлемыми. 10. It happens that I don't know this man.
6. Переговоры оказались трудными.
7. Книга, которую мне дали, оказалась скучной. Exercise 83
8. Эта фирма оказалась надежным партнером. Translate the sentences into English.
Exercise 81
1. Случилось так, что меня не было дома, когда ОН ЗВОНИЛ
translate the sentences following Pattern 2 (c),
2. Мы, случайно, раньше не встречались?
3. Происходит так, многие языки заимствуют все больше ело»
I ()ur ways never happened to cross. из английского.
2. I le happened to acquire an American accent when he stayed in 4. Как произошло, что вы наконец смогли договориться4?
the United States.
5. Так случилось, что обе стороны в это время вели переговоры
3. There happen to be a lot of mistakes m your test
о мире.
4. Do you happen to remember this fact?
6. Может случится так, что срок президентства будет продлен.
5. He happens to have gained the reputation of a fair man.
7. Я как-то не припоминаю ваше лицо.
6. She happens to be living in London now
8. Получается, что мы так и не нашли общего языка.
7. I don't happen to remember this fact.
9. Как получилось, что он одержал верх в споре?
10. Где ты приобрел этот акцент?

88

89
Pattern 3 8. We are sure that everything will turn out all right.
Noun /pronoun + be + adjective + to-Infinitive 9. He has surely noticed the mistake.
10. I am certain the treatment will help you.
6 y
The verb be + certain /sure/likely /unlikely (несомненно, опре- 11. I d o n ' t think the answer will please him.
деленно, вероятно, маловероятно) is followed mostly by an Indefi- 12. It was clear that the news would be m u c h commented on.
nite Infinitive and refers the activity to the future.
E x e r c i s e 86
e.g. He is sure/certain to come late. - Он, несомненно, придет поздно. Put the verbs in the brackets in the appropriate Infinitive form.
This is (un)likety to happen. (Мало)вероятно, что это произойдет.
1. The first visitors are sure (influence) by stereotypes.
Exercise #4 2. Britons are unlikely (consider) retirement abroad.
Translate the sentences according to Pattern 3. 3. Ask no questions and you are certain (tell) no lies.
4. For many years the Picts and the Scots were sure (come down)
1. We have not b e c o m e one world, but we are likely to be on the from the north on to their less hardy neighbours.
way to acquiring one language. 5. For his successes in war Alfred is certain (deserve) the title of
2. T h e U.S. is certain to be the greatest contributor to the UN "Great".
budget. 6. T h e invasion is certain (take) place in the sixth century.
3. Idioms are certain to be difficult to leam. 7. Charles k n e w that his army was unlikely (win) against the Scots.
4. T h e s e reforms are sure to have far-reaching consequences. 8. People acting separately are likely (fail), for strength lies in unity.
5. T h e truth is likely to come out sooner or later.
Exercise 87
Exercise 8 5 Translate the sentences using the Complex Subject structure.
Rephrase the sentences following the model
Model: 1. Такие вещи вряд ли происходят случайно
It Is *was (un) likely / certain /sure that we will / would never see 2. Весьма вероятно, что он вспомнит твои слова.
each other again
We Ote / were (un) likely / certain / sure to never see each other
3. Маловероятно, что они смогут приехать на переговоры.
again. 4. Это предложение, наверняка его заинтересует.
5. Вероятно, статья будет напечатана в следующем номере.
I H i s certain that English will be gaining m o r e and more ground. 6. Несомненно, вам будет легко общаться.
2. It was likely that Britain would never feel secure again. 7. Похоже на то, что мы не найдем общий язык.
3. I doubt that he will be looking for reasons. 8. Вы обязательно найдете новые слова в этом тексте.
4. It is more likely that the nuclear arms race will result in war than 9. Он наверняка смотрит сейчас телевизор.
deter an attack. 10. Вряд ли такой перевод приемлем.
5. It is sure that y o u will find idiomatic English difficult to leam. 11. Уверен, вы знаете, что я имею в виду.
6. It is unlikely that any other language except English can become a 12. Английский язык, несомненно, будет распространяться.
global language.
7. Judging by the course of the talks they will be successful.

90 91
4. It is difficult for even English speakers to read and understand
4 9
III. F o r - Infinitive C o m p l e x , Chaucer's poems.
5. The older a person grows, the more difficult it is for him or her to
Pattern 4 acquire new friends.
9
for + noun /pronoun + 'to Infinitive 6. It's all very well for you to give advice, and it's for me to take a
decision.
P a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e For-Infinitive C o m p l e x . 7r. There is nothing for you to do but leave at once.
8. Don't you find it strange for her to have kept it secret so long.
1. It is important for you to learn English. - Вам важно выучить 9. It's high time for all of us to leave.
английский язык. 10. It's all very well for him to judge. He was not there.
2. Us lime for the lecture to start. - Пора начинать лекцию,
* Its all very well for you to say thai, but I was frightened. Exercise 89
Хорошо нам это говорить, а я испугался. Rephrase the underlined parts of sentences so that you may use the
4. The best thing is for him to keep silent - Ему лучше всего For-Infinitive structure.
помолчать.
5. The decision is for you to take. - Решение принимать вам. 1. The lecturer spoke loudly and clearly so that everyone in the hall
6. We are waiting for you to say something on the subject could hear him.
Мы ждем, когда вы скажете что-нибудь по этому вопросу. 2. The arrangements have been made so that the speeches might be
7. I have said it for everybody to hear. - Я сказал это, чтобы все interpreted in all the languages.
слышали. 3. To communicate freely among themselves people need a common
8. They say there is no need for Americans to leara foreign language,
languages. - Говорят, что американцам нет необходимости 4> In order that a language should become international it musl mccl
учить иностранные языки. certain requirements.
9. The text was too difficult for the students to understand. 5. If you want to be accepted well when in Britain, don i trv to ipeak
Студентам было слишком трудно понять этот текст. and behave like the English, be natural.
Ю The text is easy enough for you to read it without a dictionary*. 6. If they wish to settle the conflict, they will have to come to terms.
! )IOI гекст достаточно легкий, чтобы вы перевели его 7. It is 10 o'clock in the evening. You must go to bed. (It's time ... )
без словаря. 8
- You are laughing, and I am hurt.
9. It is harder to ieam languages when you grow older.
Exercise 88 10. There is nothing that he can do but to apologize for his mistake.
Translate the sentences containing the For-Infimtive Complex.
Exercise 90
1. The king arranged for his son to be crowned as his successor. Translate the sentences using the For-Infinitive Complex into Eng-
2. English is accepted as the most important language for the lish.
international community to learn.
3. It is important for people all over the world to have a common !. Решение принимать вам.
language to communicate easily. 2. Хорошо ему судить других

93
92
3. Я повторяю это, чтобы ты понял мою мысль, b. The Pilgrims
4. Чтобы выучить язык, ты должен много заниматься.
5. Вам пора идти домой.
6. Чтобы кампания была успешной, надо действовать активно. The pilgrims were puritans, that is to say, people of England who
7. Тебе ничего не остается, как извиниться. objected to the form of religious services used in the Church of Eng
land. King James punished all who refused (1 follow) laws and tradi-
8. Нельзя будет договориться, если мы не пойдем на уступки.
tions of the Church and (2 contribute) money (3 support) it. Tho
9. Мне трудно примириться со своим положением.
people had (4 leave) their country and went to Holland trying (5 find)
10. Ты легко справишься с этой задачей самостоятельно.
religious freedom there. But they were not allowed (6 own) land ill
11 Легко тебе говорить, что все будет хорошо, а я волнуюсь.
Holland and. besides, they did not wrant their children (7 grow) up and
12. Вам будет необходимо найти с ним общий язык.
(8 become) Dutch-speaking people. They wanted (9 remain) English;
I > Ему очень важно получить знания в этой области.
so they soon returned to England with the idea of leaving for Amm< fl
14. Гебе решать, что делать дальше.
There they hoped (10 build) homes and start a new life based 0П thdl
15. Чтобы принять решение, необходимо прийти к согласию. own ideals of religious and civil rights. Pilgrim Fathers decided (I I
Exercise 91 form) a colony that should (12govern) by just and equal laws eitab
lished by common agreement.
Put the verbs in brackets in the correct Infinitive form with or with-
out 4o\
с Made in the USA
a. Writing a paragraph
The American style of life is known (I influence) people in COUIIIIICN
A paragraph is known (1 be) a separate section of a larger piece of as far apart as Russia and Brazil for quite a time This influeni в l HI ( !
writing which we break into paragraphs (2 make) it easier (3 follow). see) in all kinds of ways, from the clothes we wcai to the food \\«' Ш
Each paragraph is a collection of sentences about a single topic. The When you switch on the TV (3 watch) a feature film, it is likely
opening sentence is supposed (4 indicate) what the topic is going (5 (4 be) an American movie, at least chances are nine oul Oi ten Пи
be) and is known (6 call) topic sentence. The final sentence which most obvious influence of American culture is (5 follow) through the
happens (7 call) terminator is expected (8 return) to the general topic use of English as the international language of communication. If h
and (*> repeat) the first sentence in different words. were not for the importance of American economic influence on the
world, many people would not (6 bother) (7 learn) English at all. Eng-
The topic sentence should not (10 express) in too general terms.
lish appears (8 acquire) the advantage over other languages by offer-
Ideally it should challenge the reader's attention and make him (11
want) (12 read) on. ing a complete package: it is known (9 accept) as the language of in-
ternational science for a long way now; it has proved (10 be) the lan-
One must (13 arrange) the ideas in a logical sequence. (14 achieve) guage of computers, pop music and many international organizations.
a smooth flow of ideas within the paragraph one can (15 repeat) the Above all, English appears (1 Ibe) the first and second language in
key words and phrases, use a pronoun (16 refer) to a word in the pre- many countries in the world.
vious sentence, and use connectives and transitional phrases, such as
first, second, etc, after a while, meanwhile, however, soon, at last,
at the same time, moreover, then, finally, on the one hand, yet, later,
as a result, on the other hand, but.

94
95
dL Old Latin still alive
way since then. Computer translation systems seem (6 appear and 7
use) in many parts of the world. N o t surprisingly the E.U. happens (8
Latin is k n o w n (1 be) the language of ancient R o m e . With the spread
involve). With so many official languages, translating and interpreting
of R o m a n pow 7 er Latin seems (2 c a n y ) to every part of the k n o w n an-
cient world and became the dominant tongue of Western Europe. T h e are reported (9 take) up more than fifty percent of the C o m m u n i t y ' s
colloquial speech of cultured R o m a n s is certain (3 find) in the come- administrative budget. But although the efficiency of machine transla-
dies of Plautus, the letters of Cicero, the Satires of Horace, etc. It is tion is improving rapidly, h u m a n translators are unlikely (10 make)
characterized by freedom of syntax, by the presence of numerous in- redundant. On the contrary, people and machines work together in
terjections, and by the frequent use of Greek words. harmony. T o d a y ' s computers are considered (11 be) of little value in
translating literary works, where subtlety is vital, or the spoken word,
The colloquial speech of polite society is n o t (4 confuse) with the
language of the poor and uneducated classes, which shows a greater which tends (12 be) ungrammatical, or important texts, where absolute
disregard for syntax, a love of n e w words, and a striving for simplic- accuracy is essential. B u t for routine technical reports, working papers
ity, especially in word order. and the like, which are k n o w n (13 take) up so much of the translation
Latin is also k n o w n (5 be) the language of letters in Western Europe workload of international organizations, computers are likely (14
in the Middle Ages. Even for the people in general, Latin continued (6 play) an increasing role. T h e method of operation will probably (15
be) a living language, because the church was likely (7 provide) a be) for the machine (16 make) a rough version, which the translator is
h u g e mass of ecclesiastical literature both in prose and poetry. T h e supposed (17 edit) then, correcting obvious errors, and where neces-
language, however, underwent many essential changes, but it h a p - sary referring back to the original.
pened (8 change) far less during this period than did either French or If machines can (18 translate) languages, could they ever (19 teach)
English. languages? Yes, say enthusiasts, although they doubt that the teacher
In the 15th a n d l 6 t h centuries N e w Latin, also called m o d e m Latin, could ever (20 replace) totally by a machine in the classroom Good
came into being. Almost all books of importance were written in Latin old teachers k n o w best!
at this time, and Latin used (9 be) t h e m e d i u m of diplomatic inter-
course a m o n g European nations
Not until the end of the 17th century did Latin stop being used as
an international tongue. During the 18th and 19th centuries, however,
it remained the language of classical s c h o o l T h e Roman Catholic
Church is known still (10 use) Latin as the language of its official
documents.

e. Feed in English, print out French

Once upon a time, according to a much-told story, a computer was set


a task. It was supposed (1 translate) 'traffic j a m ' into French and then
back into English. The machine was heard (2 buzz) and (3 click), it
was seen (4 blink) its lights and eventually it came up with v car-
flavoured m a r m a l a d e ' . Machine translation is sure (5 come) a long

96
97
relations n. отношения, родственники
II. D I P L O M A C Y AS A C A R E E R to maintain / to conduct relations поддерживать отношения
to break off relations прервать отношения
relationship(s) отношение(я), зависимость
STEP I. THE ART OF DIPLOMACY
relative adj, (ly)adv. относительный (но)
T h e topical vocabulary to be r e m e m b e r e d relative n. родственник

1. to authorize v. 5. to dominate v. / to rise above преобладать, господствовать


наделять властью, поручать,
syn. to approve dominance n. превосходство,
санкционировать, одобрять
authority n. (of a person or thing in a field) n. господство
1. авторитет, власть, руководство;
domination (of) n. (высшая) власть, господство
2. документ
authorities n. (pi.) dominant adj. преобладающий,
органы управления, руководители
authorization n. господствующий
санкция, разрешение
authoritative adj. (ly) adv. авторитетный (но), властный (но)
authoritarian (rule) adj. 6. policy n. политика, политический курс,
авторитарное (правление)
метод(ы)управления, план
2. to maintain v. (at some level) national / public / государственная /
1. поддерживать; сохранять;
syn. to state, to assert domestic / home / внутренняя/
2. утверждать
maintenance n. foreign policy внешняя политика
1. поддержание, сохранение;
to conduct / to carry out a policy проводить политику
2. утверждение;
policies n. (pi.) программа, план,
3. ремонт, эксплуатация
3. economic adj. экономический
поведения
Do not confuse with: Do not confuse with
economical adj. politics n. (with a sing.verb) политика, наука управления,
экономичный
политические дела
/ distinguish between the nouns: to get into / to engage in politics заняться политикой
e< onomics n. 1. экономика как наука; to get out of/ to give up / to quit politics бросить политику
2. экономика отрасли big politics большая политика
economy n. 1. экономика как система, politics n. (with a pl.verb) политические взгляды
государство; politician n. политик, политический деятель
2. способ экономии средств political adj. политический
economist n. экономист
to economize v. экономить 7. to negotiate v. вести переговоры, договариваться
negotiations n. / talks переговоры
4. to relate v. / to link / to connect 1. связывать, соотноситься); to conduct / to carry out / on / вести переговоры
2. рассказывать, сообщать to hold negotiations
relation n. 1. связь, отношение; negotiator п. переговорщик, посредник
2. родственник; 3. рассказ

99
98
Exercise 1
Study the use of the topical vocabulary in the context, translate the
8. to appoint v. (to a pest) назначить (на должность) sentences into Russian.
appointment n. назначение, пост, должность
appointee n. назначенец, назначенный authorize, authority, authorization, authoritative(Iy),
на должность authoritarian
9. to respond v. (to) отвечать, реагировать
response n. ответ5 отклик, реакция
1. The signing of the resolution is to be authorized by Parliament.
responsive adj. отзывчивый
2. The Ambassador's authority dominates in the embassy.
responsible (to sb. for st.) adj. ответственный (за)
3. An authority to handle such matters is to be established.
responsibility n. ответственность,
4.1 would like you to show me your authority to act on his behalf.
обязанность, долг
возложить ответственность 5. The authorities of the community refused to consider our needs.
to lay responsibility (on)
to handle / to take / assume / взять / принять на себя 6. His authoritative opinion was taken into consideration.
to accept responsibility ответственность 7. It was authoritatively claimed that the taxes would not be raised.
to share responsibility разделить ответственность 8. No arrest of an individual is possible without an authorization of
to carry out / to fulfill / исполнять обязанности the court.
to execute responsibilities 9. No democracy is possible under an authoritarian rule.

10. to involve v. (sth, doing) 1) включать в себя; appoint, appointment, appointee


2) вовлекать; 3) требовать
to be / get involved (In) участвовать, быть замешанным 1. British prime-minister is officially appointed by the Queen.
involved adj. 1) сложный, запутанный; 2. The appointments to the Cabinet are made by the Prime ministei
syn. considered 2) рассматриваемый, данный 3. You can be received only by appointment
involvement n. участие, вовлечение, 4. Any appointee to a diplomatic post must possess certain
вмешательство important qualifications.

II, to represeni (sb) v, представлять (к-л), dominate, dominance, domination, dominant


syn. to act on behalf выступать от имени
representative п., adj. представитель, 1. Britain dominated the world trade in the 19th century.
представительный 2. Churchill had a forceful character and his dominance in the House
representation n. представительство of Commons was clearly felt.
Do not confuse with 3. Napoleon's domination on the Continent encouraged him to
to present sth to sb представлять (ч-л), вручать
prepare an invasion of the British Isles.
to present sb with sth дарить
4. Domination of Britain in the sea was unchallenged at the time.
present n. дар, подарок
5. France grew more and more dominant in the field of diplomacy
present adj. настоящий, присутствующий
and imposed not only its rules but also the language.
presently adv. в настоящее время
presentation n. представление, вручение, презентация

101
100
6. The relative value of political friendships and alliances is to be
involve, involved, i n v o l v e m e n t
estimated.

1. T h e organization was deeply involved in worldly affairs.


r e s p o n d , r e s p o n s e , r e s p o n s i v e , (ir) responsible, responsibility
2. To know the language well involves a lot of practice.
3. T h e j o b of a diplomat involves traveling a lot.
1. The authorities were not certain h o w to r e s p o n d to the criticism.
4. T h e task is too involved for h i m to manage it alone.
2. Diplomats must be flexible in handling diverse responsibilities.
5. The organization denied its i n v o l v e m e n t in the terror act.
3. The attack was a r e s p o n s e to the death of two Israeli soldiers.
6. The issue involved is to be considered later.
4. The question remains: w h o is to be responsible for the deal?
5. Teachers are happy to have responsive students, willing to learn.
maintain, maintenance
6. A fundamental belief is that the poor tend to be idle and
irresponsible.
I Many career diplomats m a i n t a i n that their j o b is too challenging.
2. Relations between the two countries should be m a i n t a i n e d at the
Exercise 2
same friendly level.
Fill in the gaps with the right derivatives.
3. M a i n t e n a n c e of peace in the region is conducted by the UN
forces.
authorize, authorized, authority, authorization, authoritative(ly),
4. M a i n t e n a n c e of the equipment is going to be costly.
authoritarian
5. A foreign office is responsible for the m a i n t e n a n c e of foreign
affairs.
1. T h e governors had almost absolute
2. Everyone waited for an opinion of the Chairman,
negotiate, negotiation(s), negotiator
3. The communist and fascist dictatorships were different from the
regimes of Latin America.
1. The terms of the contract are y e t to be n e g o t i a t e d ,
4. At the period the of the Church was expanded
2. Their willingness to n e g o t i a t e was doubtful.
5. Discipline and __ power were most important
3. The negotiators are expected to start work early next week.
6. These two complimented each other.
4. The two countries have been n e g o t i a t i n g peace for a long time.
7. One has to have an to take pictures in the palace.
5. Negotiations are to be held at a very high level.
8. The need of the age is rather than liberty.
6. This involved problem needs n e g o t i a t i n g .
9. The editor refused the publication.
10 An official to investigate these complaints.
r e l a t e , relation(s), r e l a t i o n s h i p , r e l a t i v e l y )
11 ______ agents of a foreign ministry conduct various jobs abroad.
12 The Prime Minister's unique position of comes from
1. All these problems a r e r e l a t e d to the economic ones.
majority support in the House of Commons.
2. He was asked to r e l a t e the events in their sequence.
3. An important purpose of diplomacy is to promote good r e l a t i o n s
appoint, appointment appointee
between states.
4. Many other ministries are engaged m our bilateral r e l a t i o n s h i p .
1. In the organization each had his place and function.
5. English is relatively simple to learn at the beginning.

103
102

J
2. Non-professional diplomats are often referred to as political 15. Disagreeing with the view is dangerous.

3. The real p o w e r of _ ministers lies with the president, involve, involved, involvement
4. T h e way diplomats in the U S A is often criticized.
5. In the U S t h e to diplomatic posts often receive t h e m as a 1. The job is monotonous and attention but no initiative.
gratitude from t h e elected president for their financial support. 2. The implementation of the task will require the of all
6. O n e can get to his office only by . the staff.
7. In the US most ambassadorial are gained through 3. The new appointment will moving from place to place.
financial contributions. 4. Their relations are too much .
S. ТЪе prime minister has the power ministers. 5. The arrested denied any _ in the robbery.
6. In some instances regional interests _ and this will
dominate, dominance, dominant, domination also demand consideration.
7. The expansion of political, economic and social issues have
I. Britain's early 19th century commercial gave way to the pushed diplomats to increased in external affairs of
United States' economic, diplomatic and cultural in the domestic ministries.
20th century.
2. The island countries of the Caribbean by distant negotiate, negotiation, negotiator
European economic and political powers.
3. The civilization of ancient Greece and Rome had extended its 1. Rapid communication now enables a to remain in
political into North Western Europe. constant touch with the government throughout.
4. Today multilateral mechanisms have become . 2. help improve state-to-state relations.
5. From the _________ aggressive power in European international 3. The terms of the contract are to be studied carefully
politics France almost overnight became a victim state. 4. In _ both parties demonstrated their willingness to
6. Die Conservatives managed the voting. cooperate.
7 Of the four personalities of the early sixteenth century - 5. The treaty is before being signed.
Charles V was the central figure. 6. The were dominated by the mediator's authority.
К Religion became again a factor even in politics. 7. and arbitration skills are necessary for a diplomat.
(
) If there is any challenge at all to the of English, it may
come from inside America itself. relate, relation(s), relationship(s), relatively), unrelated
10. In the newly independent states English was associated with
colonial of the past 1. The links between persons or states are referred to as .
11. The English language ______ at international forums. 2. These two developments were closely .
12 These skills are in the activities of a diplomat. 3. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Europe expenenced almost
13. In the 16th centuries 'the French system of diplomacy' emerged a century of peace.
and international relations. 4. The revolution was accomplished with little bloodshed.
14. The English invariably took the loyalty of the other 5. Those were four central ideas closelv to each other.
countries for granted.

104 105
6. T h e intricate _ between state and church may be studied in 6. T h e question is whether abroad should reflect a
England on a ___ large scale. country's economic difficulties.
7. T h e decision was delayed by an dispute over the 7. Learning a language may difficulty when there is low
procedure. or no motivation.
8. T h e Senator was accused of having given posts to his . 8. T h e community in which the UN diplomat operates is composed
9. F o r centuries, maintaining between nations through of ________ of other governments.
the exchange of representatives has been the task of diplomacy- 9. T h e features the typical diplomat an infinite variety.
10. These two events are hard to each other. 10. T h e congress was very . The heads of all major powers
were
respond, response, responsive, responsible, responsibility 11. T h e tradition leading to the world system of
international relations originated in ancient Greece.
1. T h e uprising was p e o p l e ' s to t h e g o v e r n m e n t reforms. 12. з you must accept the of others or they
2. The trade union leaders waited for the authorities _ to would not accept you.
their demands. 13. Public diplomacy activities often many differing
3. T h e defence secretary is for t h e armed forces. views as by private individuals and organizations.
4. All t h e _ for the taken decision is to be laid on the head 14. Textbooks science as a noble search for truth.
of the department.
5. Children are to kindness. Exercise 3
6. students do not need to be forced to study. Read the text below and find answers to the following questions.
7. Considerate people are always to other p e o p l e ' s
misfortunes. 1. How is diplomacy defined?
8. All of us should share the for what has h a p p e n e d . 2. How much did Greece contribute to the development of
9. In to the criticism some arguments w e r e produced. diplomacy?
10. The _ for the failure of the reform is to be laid on the 3. What was French diplomacy like?
government, 4. Who managed foreign affairs in the 16th century in France,
England and Spain?
represent, representation, representative; present fly), presentation 5. What institutions preceded modern embassies?
presence 6. What key features did contemporary diplomacy inherit from
French diplomacy?
1. of credentials is held officially. 7. What changes has the character of diplomacy experienced?
2. Foreign Service work involves, a m o n g others, the functions of 8. What tasks does modern or multilateral diplomacy include?

3. H e was as an official of the company. T h e Art of Diplomacy


4. O n e of the rewards that careers in the Foreign Service offer is the
c
pride and satisfaction of your country abroad. Diplomacy is the art of conducting international negotiations'.
5, Presidents and chairpersons of m t e m a t i c n a l institutions are drawn Nation-states, through authorized agents, maintain mutual relations,
from the ranks of member states' communicate with each other, and carry out political, economic and

106 107
legal transactions. Diplomacy as a uniform system based on generally As a consequence, the tasks of the new multilateral diplomacy have
accepted rules and directed by diplomatic hierarchy having a fixed been broadened. Diplomacy n o w involves not only presenting
international status is of quite modern growth. credentials and participating in the diplomatic circuits and various
The history of diplomacy dates back to ancient times w h e n tribes, functions of a national capital but also it requires special art of
city-states and other communities sought ways of communicating and explaining and defending national policies at a global level in a
establishing relations with one another. But the tradition leading to the variety of international organisations. Diplomats working both in
present world system of international relations originated in ancient foreign offices and international organizations contribute to gathering
Greece. The Greek developed a diplomatic vocabulary, principles of information, laying the groundwork for new initiatives of their
international conduct and elements of international law. In brief, there governments, reducing interstate friction, creating and amending
already existed an international system of multilateral diplomacy. international rales.
During (he fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 'the French system of (from On History of Diplomacy)
diplomacy 4 began to emerge and dominate international relations.
Diplomacy was then a g a m e of wits played in a narrow circle, and Exercise 4
etiquette took an incredible amount of time. T h e £ haute diplomatic' Discuss with the class.
appeared as a process of exalted haggling, conducted with an utter
disregard of the ordinary standards of morality, but with the exquisite 1. What or who are the authorized agents through which international
politeness and in accordance with more and more elaborated rules. relations are maintained?
At the time in France, England and Spam royal secretaries were 2. Why was old diplomacy dominated by the French system?
appointed, whose responsibilities included the management of foreign 3. W h y was Britain c a late starter' in establishing resident missions?
affairs. Resident missions in other countries, staffed by secretaries, 4. What are the tasks of a resident ambassador?
can be regarded as the forerunners of the modern embassies. France 5. What international and regional organizations were established in
was the first European state to establish a modern foreign ministry in the twentieth century?
1626. Russia followed i n l 7 2 0 , when Peter the Great created College 6. What role have they played and continue to play ш international
of Foreign Affairs and Russia too acquired its own ministry. Britain relations?
was to be a late starter.
The French diplomacy developed several key features of Exercise 5
contemporary diplomacy - resident ambassadors, the art of Explain the word combinations from the text in English.
conducting secret negotiations, ceremonial duties and protocol
Since then the character of diplomacy itself has undergone a great legal transaction; diplomatic hierarchy; presentation of credentials;
change. This change is threefold: firstly, there has developed a greater protocol; diplomatic circuits; information gathering; laying the
sense of community of interests between nations, with a number of groundwork for new initiatives; reducing interstate friction.
international institutions being set up; secondly, owing to the rise of
democracy diplomacy finds its expression in parliament assemblies Exercise 6
and in the press; thirdly, the position of the diplomatic agent has Give the English equivalents from the text to the following.
changed and the m o d e m means of communication have contributed a
great deal to the change. искусство ведения переговоров на международном уровне
поддерживать взаимоотношения

108 109
общепринятые правила 4. Diplomacy now involves not only presenting credentials and
назначить на пост participating in the diplomatic circuits and various functions of a
считать предшественником national capital, but also it requires special art in explaining and
современная дипломатия defending national policies at a global level.
создать Министерство иностранных дел 5. Diplomats working both in Foreign offices and international
претерпевать изменения organizations contribute to gathering information, laying the
рост демократии groundwork for new initiatives, reducing interstate fnction,
как следствие creating and amending international rules.
расширить задачи дигокжатии
участие в дипломатических раутах Exercise 9
защищать государственную политику Match the definitions with the words from the text.

Exercise 7 \ a. elaborated
Suggest the Russian for the word combinations from the text b. incredible
3. living at the same time с consequence
through authorized agents 4, extraordinary7 d. owing to
commercial conventions 5. absolute, complete e. feature
a game of wits 6. developed in detail, f. disregard
management of foreign affairs complicated
resident mission 7. because of g. exquisite
royal secretary 8. ignorance _h._contemporary
ceremonial duties 9. unbelievable i. haggling
a threefold change lOjresult j . utter
diplomatic agent 11. characteristic t k. transaction

Exercise 8 Exercise 10
translate the sentences from the text into Russian, pay attention to Complete the sentences with one of the words in the right-hand
the translation of the infinitive and- ing forms of the verbs. column of exercise 9.

1. The history of diplomacy dates back to ancient times when tribes, 1. Nation-states ... carry out political, economic and legal .
city-states and other communities sought ways of communicating 2. As a , the tasks of the new multilateral diplomacy has
and establishing relations with one another. been broadened.
2. The 'haute diplomatic' appeared as a process of exalted haggling, 3. The French diplomacy appeared as a process of exalted ,
conducted with an utter disregard of the ordinary standards of conducted with an of the ordinary standards
morality, but with the exquisite politeness and in accordance with of morality, but with the politeness and in accordance
more and more elaborated rules. with more and more rules.
3. Britain was to be a late starter in establishing its Foreign Office. 4. ... etiquette then took an amount of time.

110 Ill
5. the rise of democracy diplomacy finds its expression
6. Nowadays the United States rises above all other countries.
in parliament assemblies and in the press
7. The ties between our countries have strengthened lately, and it is
6. T h e French diplomacy developed several key of
important to keegjhem up at the same level.
diplomacy.
8. Our country refused to take part in the conflict.
9. The Prime Minister was the one who acted on behalf of his
Exercise 11
country and appeared as a talented orator.
Find English equivalents from the text to the following words and
10. On arriving in the country the ambassador produces his
word combinations. Point out the sentences where ihe respective
credentials, that is, formal papers giving him the right to act for
verbs or their derivatives are used
his government.
to hold / to carry out;
11. English is considered_.as the most spread language in the UN.
(o keep of (He same level / to state or affirm
12. These two events are easy to connect with each other.
to Start, lo come from
13. Before being named for a higher post foreign officers are to
to appear
serve in various regions of the world.
to rise above
14. The economy of the country has experienced a decline lately.
to consider as
15. The present world system of international relations started in
to create / to organize (2)
ancient Greece.
to experience / to go t h r o u g h
to include / to require / to participate Exercise 13
to act on behalf Substitute the nouns from the active vocabulary list for the
to n a m e for a post: underlined equivalents in the sentences.
to c o n n e c t
to give permission 1. Russia insists on all countries receiving a permission or approval
to p r o d u c e / to hand over of the UN to any use offeree in the region.
2. The power of the United States in the world is unquestionable
Exercise 12
3. The actions that the local government takes are ineffective,
Replace the underlined words by the vocabulary front the text Make
4. The Foreign Office is waiting for an answer to its note.
и'л' of Exercise 11. Make changes in the sentences, if necessary. 5. The obligations of a foreign sendee officer are all-embracing.
6. The situation in all fields of industry and agriculture is steadily
1. An ambassador who is sent to work in an embassy abroad very improving.
quickly realizes the v alue of languages. 7. What are his political views? - He is a Conservative.
2! The Conservatives were above all other parties for over im years. 8. Such methods may lead to the reduction of work places.
3. Before being named for a higher post foreign officers are to 9. His participation in the riot is to be proved.
serve in various regions of the world. 10. The Foreign Secretary invited the new officer assigned for the
4. A special commission was organized to find out who had given jDOSt for a briefing.
permission to introducing the troops. 11. The one for the post stated that he was determined to learn
5. The job of a di plomat may require traveling a lot. the language of the country.
12. I would like to show you a document to act on his behalf

112
113
E x e r c i s e 14 E x e r c i s e 16
Sum up the text in writing. Before writing consult the hints for a Translate the sentences using the word collocations above.
summary at pages 24-25. Be ready to reproduce it in class.
1. Переговоры по контролю за вооружением были неожидан но
E x e r c i s e 15 прерваны и возобновились месяц спустя.
Learn collocations with the words below, explain them and suggest 2. Переговоры происходили на уровне послов.
their Russian equivalents. 3. Народная дипломатия - это часть пропагандистской машины
~ diplomacy ~ США.
4. В ходе переговоров на высшем уровне участники
unilateral ~ ; bilateral ~ ; multilateral ~- shuttle ~; kid-glove -, обменялись мнениями по ряду важных вопросов.
gunboat ~; shirt-sleeves ~; public ~; - of a big stick; stick-arid- 5. Только мощная держава может позволить себе вест
i arrot -. переговоры с позиции силы.
diplomatic ~ 6. Британия часто обращалась к дипломатии 'кнута и прякмсд'
7. Такую дипломатию трудно назвать дипломатией В ЛАЙК01Ыч
- c o i p s ; -circuit; -circles; -function; -intercourse; перчатках'.
-service; -sources; -immunity; -privileges. 8. Этот конфликт можно уладить при помощи двусторон них
переговоров.
~ ambassador ~ 9. Дипломатия 'без галстуков' часто бывает очень
эффективной (fruitful).
- Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary-; - at large; 10. Ранг посла присваивается министром иностранных дел.
the newly appointed - ; to accredit an - to another government; 11. Посол или дипломат может быть отозван, если он будет
to confer the rank of - on ; to exchange - s; объявлен персоной нон-грата.
to raise to the rank of ~ ; to recall an -. 12. Деятельность дипломатического сотрудника может быть
приостановлена, если он не выполняег свои обязанности.
- ambassadorial ~ 13. Многие дипломаты считают дипломатические рауты и
мероприятия скучной, но неотъемлемой (unalienable) частью
- rank; - talks; at the - level. своих обязанностей.
~ negotiations 14. Переговоры по прекращению огня откладывались несколько
раз. Вторая сторона отказывалась обсуждать условия
arms-control - ; peace - ; separate - ; top-level ~ ; a n e w round заключения мира.
of - ; a breakdown in - ; in t h e course o f - ; through - ; 15. Во время войны союзники (allies) обменялись послами со
to complete - ; to delay - ; to enter into - ; to resume - ; всеми союзническими (allied) государствами.
t o suspend - .
to negotiate -

- a treaty; - terms of peace; - for a cease-fire; - for peace;


- from a position of strength.

114
E x e r c i s e 17 Traditional diplomacy actively engages one government with
Read the text 'What is Public Diplomacy?' and (a) answer the another government. In traditional diplomacy, U.S. Embassy officials
question in the title; represent the U.S. Government in a host countiy primarily by
maintaining relations and conducting official U S G business with the
W h a t is Public Diplomacy? officials of the host government whereas public diplomacy primarily
engages many diverse non-government elements of a society.
When early in their careers, Anwar S a d a t Valery Giscard d'Estaing, Public Diplomacy refers to government-sponsored programs
Helmut Schmidt, and Margaret Thatcher, among other national intended to inform or influence public opinion in other countries; its
leaders, visited the United States under the educational exchange chief instruments are publications, motion pictures, cultural
programs of the United States Government, U.S. public diplomacy exchanges, radio and television.
was a! work. When Latin America viewed a film called The Trip,
depicting the dangers of illegal narcotics trafficking to all societies, (b) prove that:
including their own, they were watching the product made by U S I A , 1. The U.S. public diplomacy is dependent on the US Government.
the U.S. G o v e r n m e n t ' s public diplomacy information agency. 2. The U.S. public diplomacy is at work round the world.
W h e n a student or a scholar in a developing countiy conducts 3. Public diplomacy differs from traditional diplomacy.
research in a U.S. information center in his capital city, he is utilizing 4. Public Diplomacy is not the same as Public Affairs.
one of the popular services provided by U.S. public diplomats in his
countiy. W h e n a newspaper correspondent in a country that has (c) discuss the following:
diplomatic relations with the U.S. asks for clarification of a statement 1. Does public diplomacy work in your country? How?
allegedly m a d e by a high-ranking U.S. official, he contacts the U.S. 2. W h o and what are engaged in it?
E m b a s s y ' s press attache - a U.S. public diplomat 3. What examples of public diplomacy at work in your country can
When a U.S. performing artist is on a foreign tour sponsored by the y o u give?
U.S. Government, U.S. public diplomats in the cities the artist visits 4. Is public diplomacy in Russia independent of the government?
will publicize the tour and make arrangements for her or his 5. In what areas does public diplomacy seem to be most effective
performances. These are but a few of the various activities with which publications, motion pictures, cultural exchanges, education oi
the practitioners of public diplomacy become involved, but they radio and television?
demonstrate the scope and variety of m o d e m public diplomacy.
Public Diplomacy is to be distinguished from Public Affairs E x e r c i s e 18
because the latter provides information to the domestic public, press Study the difference between the pairs of words which may cause
and other institutions concerning goals, policies and activities of the confusion. Translate the examples.
U.S. g o v e r n m e n t
Public diplomacy differs from traditional diplomacy in that public a* economics / e c o n o m y
diplomacy deals not only with governments but primarily with non-
governmental individuals and organizations. Furthermore, public 1. E c o n o m i c s is the science of the production, distribution, and use
diplomacy activities often present many differing views as represented of goods and services.
by private American individuals and organizations in addition to 2. E c o n o m i c s is also the financial aspects of a branch of industry.
official U.S. Government views. 3. A specialist in economics is called an economist.

116 117
4. T h e e c o n o m i c s of t h e heavy industry has i m p r o v e d lately. Exercise 19
5. Today s o m e special k n o w l e d g e of international e c o n o m i c s can be Choose the right alternative.
a veiy useful a s s e t
6. T h e n e w e c o n o m i c s of production offered unprecedented
a. economy (ies) / economics
opportunity at h o m e and abroad. 1. For a quarter of a century politicians have argued over the
7. E c o n o m y is t h e system by which a country produces wealth. relevance and usefulness of 'Western' ________ to cnon-
8. E c o n o m y is also a way of spending and saving money. Westenv__ .
9. T h e e c o n o m y of t h e country has suffered severe setbacks lately. 2. It can be said that an early definition of was c
An
10. T h e first e c o n o m y introduced by the government was t h e Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations'.
reduction of electricity consumption. 3. The national is the system of the management and use
of resources of a country.
I), e c o n o m i c / e c o n o m i c a l 4. The first introduced by the government involved the
reduction of fuel consumption.
1. T h e e c o n o m i c situation in the country was w o r s e n i n g quickly. 5. The developing countries are mainly agricultural producers whose
2. [lie world e c o n o m i c crisis embraced many countries. is based on relatively primitive farming methods.
3. F o r a decade or more the slogan in the country was ' E c o n o m i c s 6. The emergence of a global is to be welcomed because it
must be e c o n o m i c a l ' . contributes to international harmony.
4. U n e c o n o m i c a l ways of spending the fund led to its elimination. 7. influences politics at every level.
5. T h e government was considering most e c o n o m i c a l ways of 8. National _____ have increasingly been integrated into a
m a n a g i n g t h e staff. single, global
6. T h e e c o n o m i c problems demanded e c o n o m i c a l management. 9. The campaign is gaining ground.
10. In the early sixteenth century the European was
c. policy / politics expanding with unprecedented rapidity.

1. Politics is the art and science of governing a country. b. economic / (un)economical fly)
2. 1 He has chosen a career in politics.
V IГ you do not care for politics, polities will take care of you. 1. Inflation may cause a country to be in a bad state.
4 We are always so quick to criticize American politics. It is usuallv more to buy large quantities of a product.
5. A diplomat is not to publish any writing on international politics, 3. First we need to improve our situation.
6. His politics were a pragmatic mixture of socialism, radical 4. We must be more _ if we want to overcome our
Liberalism and trade union demands. difficulties.
7. Policy is a plan of action taken by a government, political party, 5. The U.S. ambassador is known to communicate a lot with people
business, etc. on the side.
8. The government must have policies to run the country. 6. The ties between our countries are strengthening.
9. This means an economic policy for economy, and foreign policy 1. He insists that the budget for the next year is very .
for actions taken by the country in other parts of the world. 8. The question is whether representation abroad should reflect a
10. Karl Marx wrote that <("politics is born of economics". country's difficulties.

119
118
9. T h e United States dominates all other countries not only 3. Экономисты сделали вывод, что экономика выходит из
but also politically. кризиса.
10. policy in this branch of industry has led to its decline. 4. Наша экономика развивается очень медленно, если
развивается вообще.
с policy /politics 5. Самый большой кризис в экономике США наблюдался в 30-е
годы прошлого века и получил название 'Великой
1 An ideal diplomat is to share his government's . депрессии".
2. He is a democrat that is why I can't share his _ 6. Во многих областях экономической деятельности
What principles in defence _ *s your country guided by? наблюдается спад, и все ждут, когда экономика вновь начнет
Home should be guided by the interests of the people. быстро развиваться.
P.C. is initialism for Politically Correct, a term for taking a 7. Экономичное использование бюджетных средств - это
position in or otherwise, which is offensive to no one. первое, что необходимо для поднятия экономики.
6, We expect all employees to follow the company regarding 8. Экономика сельского хозяйства требует пристального
dress code внимания правительства.
7. I Ic is much concerned with the specific details of public . 9. Экономические санкции не всегда приводят к желаемому
8. is a way of conducting результату.
9. One of the main of the government is to reduce 10. Многие уверены; что страна стоит перед экономическим
unemployment. кризисом.
10. He has been thinking for some time of getting out of
11. is the activity through which people make, preserve b. use 'policy' or 'politics '
and amend rules under which they live.
12. In practice his was always to choose whatever course 1. Государственная политика по этому вопросу не определен*!
would benefit Britain. 2. Политика отечественной автомобильной промышленности
13. From the dominant, aggressive power in European international оставляет желать лучшего, (leaves much to be desired.
France almost overnight became a victim state. 3. Изучать политику - значит по сути изучать науку управления
14. Religion became again a dominant factor even in for или осуществления власти.
another century and a half. 4. Большой политикой занимается ограниченный круг людей.
15. Public bills include measures relating to public . 5. Внешняя политика страны стала главным вопросом для
обсуждения.
Exercise 20 6. Что влияет на политические взгляды людей?
7. Одна из задач дипломата - объяснять политику своего
Translate the sentences into English
государства за рубежом.
8. Успеху такого политического курса могут способствовать
a. use economy, economics, economic, economical, economist
различные факторы.
1 Эти цифры указывают на спад одной из самых удачных
экономик.
2. Экономика государства - важная отрасль знания.

120 121
Exercise 21
Exercise 23
Distinguish between the verbs: to he (lied, lied, lying) -лгать; Look up the words of the same root in a dictionary.
to lie (lay, lain, lying) - лежать; to lay (laid, laid, laying) - класть a) Make up sentences to illustrate their meaning, give their Russian
and complete the sentences with appropriate ones in the right form* translation.

1. Which country the foundation of diplomacy? Credit: to give credit /credence (to); to do sh credit; credentials;
2. The secret documents on the table. (injcredible; to accredit; to discredit; credo; credulous
3. The committee down the rales of the protocol
4. Diplomats are said to have to _________ a lot. b) Translate the sentences into English. Use one of the words or
5. Just because the official before the commission he word-combination from those above.
was dismissed from his post
6. En ihe tropical climate a diplomat runs the risk of being 1. Надо отдать должное его преданности своему делу.
down with malaria or some other exotic disease. 2. Успех в переговорах был неожиданным и невероятным,
7. Nobody knows what future ahead. 3. Поверить в его объяснения было трудно.
8. By you may only make the situation worse. 4 Вручение верительных грамот - важная часть протокола.
9. He used to take things , down. 5. Народ мало верит обещаниям политиков.
10. The whole country below. 6. Желтая пресса способна дискредитировать любого.
11. The responsibility for the failure of the reform is to on 7. Ему было оказано большое доверие - представлять нашу
the government. страну на переговорах.
12. Our interests __ in doing what the President wants to do. 8. Дети, как и старики, очень доверчивы..
9. Борьба за справедливость ~ это его жизненное кредо
Exercise 22 10. Количество журналистов, аккреднтР.ианиых на нстрече и
a. Turn the adjectives wide: long; deep; light; strong; short into верхах, было строго ограничено.
nouns and verbs following the model Consult a dictionary.
Exercise 24
Model: broad - breadth - to broaden c
Make nouns of the verbs to appoint, to maintain, to dominate, to
negotiate, to authorize, to establish, to relate, to contribute, to
b. Translate the sentences into English. involve and distribute them according to the suffixes

1. Взаимные отношения между нашими государствами - merit; - tion; - ity; - ance.


постоянно поддерживаются, укрепляются и расширяются.
2. Срок пребывания посла США в России был продлен на год. Exercise 25
3. Современная дипломатия значительно расширила свои рамки. Complete the sentences with correct derivatives of the words in
4. Разногласия между двумя странами все углублялись. brackets.
5. Это соглашение значительно облегчило задачу установления
мира в регионе. 1. (authorize) agents maintain mutual (relate).
6. Сессия парламента была сокращена на неделю. 2, Secret (negotiate) have always been a key feature of diplomacy.

122 123
Exercise 26
3. Britain became o n e of the first major powers to reopen diplomatic
Supply appropriate English equivalents to the Russian words,
(relate) with Russia.
4. The (appoint) secretaries a r e (respond) for t h e (manage) of 1. Various types of (политических) forums are to be distinguished
foreign affairs. from the UN's own regional (экономических) commissions.
5. (dominate) of French diplomacy in previous centuries is c o m m o n 2. Diplomacy is the method by which nation-states, (через
knowledge. уполномоченных) agents, (поддерживают) mutual
6. T h e conduct of (relate) in old diplomacy was on t h e bilateral (отношения), (общаются) with each other, and (выполняют)
basis. political (экономические) and legal tasks.
7. (negotiate) with g o v e r n m e n t s and defence of national policies is 3. The new diplomacy (подразумевала) the (создание) of an
one of the tasks of diplomacy. international organization to act as a forum for peaceful
8. (establish) of international organizations broadened the tasks of settlement of disputes.
diplomacy. 4. (общение осуществляется при помощи) verbal exchanges.
9. An (authorize) for search is to be given by court. 5. Special knowledge of international (политике) can be very useful.
10. The basis of bilateral diplomacy is (maintain) of state-to-state 6. A diplomat is expected to have an out-going personality and a
(relate). capacity (поддерживать) strong personal (связи).
11. The (appoint) of ambassadors is t h e (respond) of the Foreign 7. Much of the Foreign Office's work is (ведется) in secret.
Secretary.
8. When Churchill (был назначен) a secretary for the colonies he
12. They decided, even at t h e loss of several days, to wait for the n e w worked toward the (создание) of new Arab states.
(appoint), who w a s highly r e c o m m e n d e d to them. 9. Churchill insisted on Hitler's unconditional surrender - peace
13. He thought that a C a n a d i a n Prime Minister might have more (путем переговоров) never entered into his (планы)
influence in a j o i n t (relate) t h a n under total independence. 10. Secretariat staff (занимается) in surveys of woi Id
14. He could b e c o m e a mediator, with (authorize) and p o w e r which (экономических) and social trends and problems
could be fostered and enlarged. 11. (Господство) of the French diplomacy was natural due to the
15 The (dominate) feature of modern diplomacy is that it is (господствующему) position of France in (экономической) Mid
conducted multilaterally. (политической) spheres over the whole Europe.
\(> Public diplomacy is as necessary for (maintain) and strengthening 12. The (назначение) as an ambassador to the U.S. does not often
of friendly (relate) with other countries as traditional diplomacy. depend on the qualifications of the (назначенца).
17. The Prime Minister insisted that (economics) C a n a d a will have 13. (Представительство) of the country in this international
big opportunities.
organization was very limited.
18. Non-career diplomats are often called political (appoint). 14. (При осуществлении) her (политики) Margaret Thatcher
19. O n e of the main p r o b l e m s of modern international intercourse is (отвечала) by force to force.
the increasing (respond) of diplomacy to public opinion. 15. We try (вовлекать) many of other ministries to have active roles
20. In the international organizations diplomats serve not only as in our (двухсторонних отношениях).
(represent) and (promote) of their country's interests guided by 16. Political (назначенцы) gain their (авторитет) in science, culture,
the instructions of national (authorize) and as their political (политике и экономике).
advisers but also as (contribute) to the interests of the global
(communicate).

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Exercise 27

Read the text below. Find arguments "for' and 'against


9
diplomacy confidence when it suited h i m to do so; and the reptile press, hired to
to be open to public criticism. Do the tasks thai follow. give seemingly independent support to his policy, was o n e of his most
potent weapons. So far the only necessary consequence of the growth
Vocabulary notes to the text: of the power of the public opinion on the art of diplomacy has been to
extend the sphere of its application.
1. glare - severe look; scrutiny - close look
2. to veil - to cover up
a. Look back at the text and answer the italicized question put
3. eloquence - the art of speaking or writing beautifully
4. personal fascination - personal charm, attractiveness in the text.
5. reticence - silence, reserve b. Discuss the following ideas with the class or with a partner;
6. to take into confidence - to make people believe support or challenge them.

Diplomacy and Public Opinion 1. Diplomacy is too delicate, too personal an art to survive the glare
and confusion of publicity.
One of the main problems of modern international intercourse is 2. The success of the policy of a foreign minister in a democratic state
the increasing responsibility of diplomacy to public opinion. The must ultimately rely on the support of public opinion.
question is how far has the public discussion of international affairs 3. In the difficult g a m e of diplomacy a certain reticence is always
affected the legitimate functions of diplomacy: for the better or for the necessary.
worse? To the diplomat of the old school the a n s w e r seems clear. For
him diplomacy was t o o delicate, too personal an art to survive the Exercise 28
glare and confusion of publicity. Complete the text with the words given below.
A master of the old diplomatic art of intrigue, of veiling his
purpose under a cloud of eloquence, moreover, of t h e art of personal Advancing, representatives, unlikely, ambassadors (2), relations,
fascination was Metternich. Public opinion to h i m was only a public, promoting(2), politicians, management, appears\ fluently\
dangerous force to be kept under control. major, engaging(2), current, certain
Distinct from h i m was George Canning, w h o m a y be called the
great prototype of the n e w diplomacy. He s a w clearly t h e i m m e n s e T h e British Foreign Office in the 21st century.
force that would be added to his diplomatic action if he h a d behind
him the force of public opinion. One thing we can say for (1)
about the
_я auuui me future
luiure Foreign
roreign
The success of the policy of a foreign minister hi a democratic state
Office is that it will not be immune to change. And it will always have
must ultimately rely on the support of public opinion, but the necessity
its critics as well as admirers. In 2000 the Foreign Policy Center, a
for its support in the conduct of foreign affairs has its peculiar
New Labour think-tank, proposed replacing traditional (2) ____________
dangers. In the difficult game of diplomacy a certain reticence is
and diplomats, businessmen and foreign nationals by computers. The
always necessary. Tims, even in Great Britain, the diplomatic
same year Robin Cook, the Foreign Secretary, voiced his desire to see
correspondence laid before parliament is carefully edited. T h e appeal
the Foreign Office staffed by more (3) of ethnic minorities,
to public opinion may be used as a diplomatic weapon.
more women, and fewer products of Britain's elite (4) ____________
Bismarck, w h o s e statesmanship was at least as cynical as that of schools.
Metternich, was a master of the art of taking the world into his

126
127
T h e m a m role of the Foreign and C o m m o n w e a l t h Office will 1993 - 1994: Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for
continue to be t h e (5) of Britain's foreign (6) on European and Canadian affairs.
a day-to-day basis, and running of Britain's embassies abroad. T h e 1991 - 1993: U.S. Deputy Permanent Representative and
?
work of the overseas missions - (7) trade, (8) _ in C h a r g e d Affairs of the US mission to N A T O .
dialogue with local (9) and (10) British interests, 1988 - 1991: Director of the State D e p a r t m e n t ' s Office of Soviet
(11) , cultural, social and educational links, and (12) U n i o n Affairs.
m ' p u b l i c ' diplomacy is (13) to become 1985 - 1988: Served in the U.S. Embassy in London.
redundant. T o d a y ' s (14) „„____ abroad are visible, high-profile 1981-1985: Served in the Office of Soviet U n i o n Affairs.
figures - Francis Bertie, Ambassador to France in the early twentieth 1979 - 1 9 8 1 : Served in the U.S. Embassy in M o s c o w .
century, gave only o n e or t w o speeches in his thirteen years in France, 1977 - 1979: Served in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs.
whereas Michael Jay, the (15) Ambassador, (16)
frequently on French news programmes, speaking http:/ / usembassy.state.gov/Moscow/wwwha.htrnl
(17) in French.
Britain may not have been able to resolve its position with Europe Interviewer: Как Вы смотрите на вашу роль посла?
and its place in the world, but it nevertheless remains true that Ambassador: First of all, I am here to represent US interests, which
Britain's history and its ambitions ensure it will play a (18) lie in doing what President Bush wants to do.
role in the world well into t h e twenty-first century. I. Как бы Вы сформулировали цели, которые преследует
господин Буш в нашей стране?
E x e r c i s e 29 A, President Bush is seeking to transform the Russian-American
Look through the semice record of Alexander Vershhow, 49, former relationship into something that approaches not just a partnership
American Ambassador to Russia Do a two-way translation of an but an alliance. So my role is to play an active part in trying to
interview given by him to a Russian correspondent Learn the explain - to what is still a rather skeptical Russian elite of public
interview and role-play it in class. opinion ~ that we do have common interests.
I. Что же, как посол, Вы практически делаете дли этого?
Name: Alexander Vershbow A. I have been deliberately active in engaging with the Russian Presfl
Place of birth: B o s t o n , Massachusetts and doing public speaking events in order to get our side of the
Family: Wife Lisa, sons Benjamin and Gregory- story into circulation. And I'm also trying to promote goodwill by
Education: B.A. in Russian and East European Studies from Yale taking an active part in cultural activities and social events,
University (1974), M a s t e r ' s degree in International bringing a lot different people into our great national resource,
Relations and Certificate of the Russian Institute from Spaso House.
C o l u m b i a University (1976). L С кем в России Вы общаетесь больше всего?
Diplomatic rank Career Minister A. Obviously as a diplomat I deal with first and foremost with the
Previous posts: Ministry of Foreign Affairs - with the minister and the deputy
1998 - 2 0 0 1 : US A m b a s s a d o r to N A T O ministers primarily - but we also have regular contacts with
1994 - 1 9 9 7 : Special assistant to the President and Senior Director people in the presidential administration and the Russian Security
for E u r o p e a n Affairs at the National Security Council. Council. I also have a lot of interaction with people on the
economic side. We try to engage many of the other ministries
to have active roles in our bilateral relationship - atomic energy

128
129
science and technology, finance, labour. I try to spend a lot of time
with t h e print and broadcast media, and involve think-tankers who США ввело понятие народной дипломатии, которая
are influential one way or another. So it's a busy job. осуществляет связи между правительственными учреждениями
государства с негосударственными учреждениями или
Exercise 30 гражданами других стран.
Discuss the following in pairs or with the class.
Exercise 32
1. What are the aims of a resident ambassador abroad? Discuss the following statements in class; choose one and write a
2. H o w does he try to achieve those aims? comment on it of about 80 words.
3. What are his responsibilities as the host of an embassy?
4. W h o does he deal with most in the host country? a. "An ambassador is one official the state cannot do without".
5. What are his relations with the government he represents? b. "Ambassadors are eyes and ears of states."
с Diplomatic methods are often more effective than forceful actions,
Exercise 31 d. Many people maintain that diplomacy is one of the black arts.
Render the text into English. Use the active vocabulary for the
underlined words. Remember that writing a comment is expressing your opinion on the
subject, which is similar to writing a composition, but in which you
Значительный вклад в становление и укрепление державы, produce your own arguments supporting or rejecting the idea stated.
обретение ею прочных между народных связей и позиций внесли
первые российские послы. Определенная последовательность You may begin with:
дипломатических должностей и рангов упоминалась в 7 (don ft) support the statement / the idea expressed because ...
знаменитой петровской "Табели о рангах": атташе, третий or 7 (don't) quite agree with the statement involved because ...
секретарь, второй секретарь, первый секретарь, советник, or 'To my mind/ In my opinion there is a lot of/ little truth in the
посланник, посол. statement...
Названия у должностей в МИД такие же, как и у рангов. Но
часто на практике ранг отстает от должности Ранги In developing your idea use such words as: First (ly), second(ly),
присваиваются пожизненно и сохраняются, даже если человек thirdfly) • • Furthermore, moreover, however, though, on the one hand
уходит с дипломатической службы. ...on the other hand... etc.
Посол - высший ранг, но не самая высокая должность. Тех, кто
прошел все ступеньки дипломатической службы, называют When finishing your writing use:
карьерными дипломатами. Послами или посланниками могут
стать и непрофессионалы. Таких дипломатов называют To conclude, To sum up, In conclusion,
политическими назначенцами. Свой авторитет они завоевали в Summing up I 'd like to repeat /to emphasize / to point out again
науке, культуре, политике или экономике. that...,
Общеизвестно, что из сотен стран мира большую политику It is worth repeating / emphasizing /pointing out again ...
вершат не больше десятка. Естественно, значимость и авторитет
у послов в этих странах выше, чем у других.

130
131
STEP 2. CHALLENGES AND REWARDS OF A
DIPLOMATIC CAREER to commit oneself (to sth, to do sth) посвятить себя ч~л5 взять
на себя обязательство
The topical vocabulary to be remembered commitment n. приверженность, готовность,
1. office n. преданность, обязательство,
служба, должность, канцелярия, совершение
ведомство, министерство to guide v. вести, руководить
to be in office to be guided (by)
занимать пост, должность руководствоваться ч-л
to hold / to ieave / to quit office занимать / покидать пост guidance n.
to get / come into office руководство
вступить в должность guide n. ведущий, руководитель, гид
to run / to manage an office управлять ведомством, guide-book путеводитель, справочник
министерств ом,
public office 6. to distinguish v.
гос. учреждение различать, отличать
good offices
добрые услуги, любезность (between; one from апофЛег)
officer n. (senior/junior)
служащий, чиновник (высшего / to distinguish oneself отличиться, проявить себя
official n. низшего звена /ранга) to be distinguished (from) / to differ отличаться, различаться
должностное лицо, сотрудник distinguished adj. выдающийся
a career official / officer
official adj. штатный сотрудник distinguishing adj. / distinctive отличительный
официальный, формальный, (in) distinguishable adj. отличимый, различимый
служебный distinct adj. четкий, ясный, отчетливый
(as) distinct from в отличие от
2. to challenge v.
1) бросить вызов, оспаривать, distinction n. отличие
syn. to question вызывать на состязание;
2) подвергать сомнению Exercise 33
challenge n.
to pose a challenge вызов, трудность, препятствие Complete the sentences with the right words.
to face a challenge представлять трудность
сталкиваться с трудностью, office, officer, official(s)
to respond to a challenge принимать вызов
отвечать на вызов 1. Foreign are staffed with
challenger n. of different ranks.
претендент, соперник 2. The embassy communicate their government views on
political issues to foreign
3. to handle (sth) v. / to manage /
управлять, обрабатывать, 3. Briefing a visiting senior is one of the jobs a political
to control / to deal with does.
обращаться
to handle one's responsibilities 4. His twice-extended term in
выполнять обязанности is due to expire next year,
5. You should stop letting your having their own way.
4. to be committed (to do) / (to sth /doing) быть приверженным. 6. The mansion was an residence of the prime-minister for
призванным, преданным his term in
to commit (a mistake, a cnme, etc) совершить

132 133
wmmn {unvsetjj . (oej committed to. commitment (s)
7. T h e UN Secretary G e n e r a l m a y participate in r e s o l v i n g a conflict
through his _ .
1. His to the c o m m o n cause was challenged.
8. In his j o b a foreign service has to c a n y out a lot of
2. T h e mistake that y o u m a y a p p e a r t o h a v e far-
responsibilities. reaching consequences.
3. I am sure other c o u l d be p u t off.
4. A f o r e i g n s e r v i c e o f f i c e r is e x p e c t e d to p r o m o t e his
challenge, challenging, (tin) challenged, challenger
country's interests abroad.
5. M o t h e r T h e r e s a,, w h o d i e d r e c e n t l yy,, i s knn oo w
w nn _ to charity.
1. T h e G o v e r n m e n t and t h e Immigration Minister h a v e powrers which
6
6. T h h
T h o u g h s o m e o f its c a n d i d a t e s w e r e s o c i a l i s t s , t h e p a r t y a s a
it is u s e l e s s .
whole was not to socialism.
2. T h e career of a d i p l o m a t p o s e s a n u m b e r of .
7. Britain avoided giving binding to j o i n in a war.
3. No one the authority of the speaker.
8. Britain decided to a b a n d o n her traditional naval strategy in
4. All f o r m e r d i p l o m a t s a d m i t t h a t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i s .
m a y c o m e f r o m i n s i d e A m e r i c a itself. f a v o u r of a m a s s i v e to a l a n d W a r .
5. If there is any a t all t o t h e d o m i n a n c e o f E n g l i s h , i t
6. Domination of Britain in t h e sea was
at t h e time.
7. A m o n g the distinguish distinguished, distinguishing / distinctive, distinct,
that service in a ministry of foreign affairs
distinctly, distinction
offers are being able to report a n d interpret e v e n t s and trends in a
variety of cultures and political systems.
1. f r o m t h o s e w h o w o r k i n a f o r e i g n office, a d i p l o m a t
8. T h e r e will be e x p e c t e d several to t h e m a y o r ' s post.
9. With h e r limited forces Britain simply could n o t g u a r a n t e e to w o r k i n g a b r o a d i s o n d u t y i n t h e f r o n t l i n e all t h e t i m e .
m e e t all the possible by herself. 2. is to be m a d e between 'economic' and 'economical".
3. T h e r e are a n u m b e r of Russian diplomats whose
10. S o o n e r or later the d o m i n a n t position of the English l a n g u a g e
c a n be successfully . biographies are worth reading.
4. It is hard not between these two notions.
handle 5. Honesty, dignity and professionalism are the features
of a g o o d diplomat.
6. A d i p l o m a t i c i n t e r p r e t e r s h o u l d s p e a k in a voice.
1. O n e of the arts a future d i p l o m a t m u s t possess is t h e art of
t
people. 7. T h e 'new diplomacy' is from the 'old' one.

2. In his j o b a foreign s e r v i c e officer h a s a lot of things. 8. I n all s e r i o u s a n d c u l t u r e d s p e e c h a n d w r i t i n g t h e r e i s v e r y little


by w h i c h the t w o can .
T h e responsibilities w e r e s u c h that he was n o t able .
9. T h e Financial Times may f r o m t h e T i m e s b y its
Any g o v e r n m e n t m u s t t h e immigrants with extreme
caution. colour and content.

Diplomats must be flexible in 10. T h e r e a r e s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e s o f t h e ____________ b e t w e e n


diverse responsibilities.
British and American English.
6. _______ v a r i o u s r e s pj ^o .n^s ^i bmi lw
i tw
i eos , e^ sэpрe^cиi ш
a lи
l yу i ш
n ssmai
maller posts, is
o n e o f t h e c h a l l e n g e s a f o r e i g n s e r v i c e officer f a c e s . 11. He is k n o w n himself in the diplomatic service.

7. He t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e skill. 12. The employee has a record of service.


13. Brevity is a characteristic of t h e author.

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rrom i'ubhc Affairs.
15. А
feature of modern diplomacy is that it has become subjects may crop up. One of the chief functions of the head of the
more open to the public at large. mission is to train the junior members of the service in the right
performance of their duties,, especially in the preparation of reports on
Exercise 34
subjects of interest in drafting dispatches and paraphrasing the text of
Read the text and make up 10 questions to cover its contents. ciphered telegrams. Serving in various countries abroad diplomats and
their families may face various challenges ranging from harsh
The Challenges a Future Diplomat May Face climates to lack of jobs for the spouses and schools for the children.
In the international organizations diplomatic work is distinguished
Foreign Offices or Ministries of Foreign Affairs in national by the fact that diplomats serve not only as representatives and
capitals are staffed with officers of different ranks exercising their promoters of their country's interests guided by the instructions of
duties in various departments. They analyze and report to their seniors national authorities and as their political advisers but also as
on political matters that may affect the national interests of their
contributors to the interests of the global community.
country. They communicate their government views on political
issues to foreign officials, negotiate agreements and maintain contact In diplomatic life at home and abroad success in the Foreign
with political leaders, third country diplomats and other influential Service requires a strong command of the mother tongue as well as of
people. a foreign language since language problems crop up at every step. All
F.S. officers must be able to speak and write clearly, concisely,
Among the challenges that service in a ministry of foreign affairs persuasively and correctly.
offers are being able to report and interpret events and trends in a (from On Diplomatic Practice)
variety of cultures and political systems. Foreign officers must also be
able to communicate rapidly and concisely, and be flexible in Exercise 35
handling various responsibilities, especially in smaller posts. In more Discuss the text in pairs. Make use of your questions.
specialized areas they are expected to know the language, history,
culture and politics of a nation or a region in which they specialize.
Exercise 36
As distinct from those who work in a foreign office, a diplomat Say what you think of the following:
working abroad is on duty in the front line all the time. He must be
committed to promote and defend his country's policy abroad in
1. Why are reporting and interpreting events and trends in the world
various ways. His first and foremost duty is to keep the authorities in
political systems referred to as challenges for a political officer?
his country constantly informed about the current events taking place
2. What do various responsibilities in smaller posts involve?
in the country of his residence related to not only political but also
economic and cultural issues. His job may involve reporting and 3. What are the ways in which a diplomat may promote his country's
analyzing the events and changes in the host country, briefing and interests?
suggesting remarks for a visiting senior official, and perhaps, 4. Why is it necessary for a diplomat to have a strong command of the
7
escorting the official, while handling the daily flow of cables and mother tongue as well as a foreign language?
correspondence relating to the visit. 5. How important is good knowledge of the history and culture of the
Besides the most important duties, there is in every Embassy and country a diplomat specializes in?
Legation an immense amount of routine work, and many monotonous

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137
Exercise 37
составлять дипломатические депеши
a. Fill in the chart below with the duties and responsibilities of a
Foreign Service officer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in
излагать тексты шифрованных телеграмм
overseas missions basing on the text and on your ideas.
столкнуться с трудностью
работать в качестве политического советника посла
говорить и писать правильно, кратко и убедительно
M i n i s t r y of F o r e i g n Affairs
Exercise 39
Complete the sentences with the words from the text and the
vocabulary list of STEP 2. The first letters are given in 'a \
a.
1; One of a diplomat's tasks involves h correspondence.
2. Diplomats in their decisions are often g by their
national authorities.
3. Foreign Service staff are с to support their country's
policy publicly.
4. The imposed mobility of a Foreign officer presents с
b. Imagine you are a juniour'foreign officer at the Foreign Ministry.
Speak about your responsibilities. to family life.
5. The ability to speak p p and с aat meetings is
E x e r c i s e 38 important for a diplomat at the United Nations.
Find in the text English equivalents to the following:
6. ВВ i i a ivisiting senior о is one of the jobs a
political о does.
выполнять различные обязанности Junior diplomats are expected to be flexible in fi theil
затрагивать национальные интересы responsibilities and to be able to communicate r end
с .
информировать представителей иностранных государств о
8. Older people are often g by outdated principles.
политических взглядах своего правительства
объяснять события и тенденции 9. Embassy о _______ maintain their relations with the о
проявлять гибкость при выполнении обязанностей ofthe host country.
10. An embassy's press attache is с to convey his country's
находиться на передовой линии
быть готовым продвигать и защищать политик}' своей страны policy to the public.
11
постоянно держать свое правительство в курсе событий и The r of a diplomat abroad are d from those at
изменений в стране пребывания the Foreign Office: they are much wider.
кратко инструктировать 12. A A number b off political
l figures d themselves in big
сопровождать высокопоставленного чиновника politics.
b
принимать и обрабатывать ежедневный поток корреспонденции
1. This matter requires
q delicate .
учить младших сотрудников правильно выполнять свои
2. The US Government's public diplomacy agency
обязанности
itself to promote the national interests.

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3. In its work the UN is
11. (трудности) a diplomat may face in a foreign country are
by the principles formulated in
its Charter. unpredictable.
4. Work and life in developing countries may be too .
12. Though the career of a diplomat is (трудная), it is interesting.
5. A career diplomat is expected to display his to his
country. Exercise 41
6. Diplomats are to influence political leaders.
Replace the underlined words by the words from the active
7. No country the US authority in the international
vocabulary list and from the texts.
arena.
L As members of the alliance we must keep our defence promises.
8. T h e art of people is of little significance without the
gift of understanding others and seeing from their p o i n t of view.
2. Many career diplomats say that their job is too difficult.
(
> The that a diplomat may face in a foreign country may
3. The president is facing a threat to his leadership from his deputy.
4. He devoted himself to the idea of improving the economy.
turn 0U1 to be unbearable.
5. A dutiful diplomat cannot be dependent on his feelings.
10. O n e of the junior officers' is correspondence.
6. After the election the Conservatives appeared as the largest party.
Exercise 40 7. The government is not always the highest power in a state.
Supply an appropriate word from the active vocabulary of STEPS 1
8. The task is to cany out the election campaign successfully.
and 2 for the Russian words in the brackets. 9. He has no formal position in the party.
10. Who is expected to investigate these complaints?
1. A diplomat (призван) to influence political leaders. 11. The imposed mobility of the profession brings a lot of hardships.
2. The head of the country offered his (добрые услуги) in settling 12. Foreign Service staff is supposed to support their country's line.
the conflict. 13. Foreign affairs are governed by the FO.
3. The tasks of a diplomat (включают в себя) presentation of 14. The protocol of meetings is dealt with by secretaries,
credentials, protocol and participation in diplomatic circuits. 15. Nobody questioned his influence and power.
4. Political, (экономические) and social issues have pushed 16. The task is too complicated for us to manage.
diplomats toward increased (участие) in external affairs of 17. He devoted his life to the cause of peace.
domestic ministries.
5. Multilateral diplomacy (передача ответственность) of managing Exercise 42
the increasingly complex national system to the diplomats
5 Turn the verbs ;' to promote; to contribute; to guide; to defend; to
traditional function of (защищать государственную политику). challenge; to analyze; to serve; to represent; to advise; to maintain;
6. Among others a Foreign Service officer's duty is (работа с) to present' into nouns and personal nouns according to the model
correspondence. Consult a dictionary, when necessary, translate the words.
7. Arabic, Chinese and Russian cannot (обрабатываться) by most
computers. Model: to conduct - conduct - conductor
8. It is undesirable for the country (ввязываться) in this conflict.
9. (Готовность) to defend the interests of his country is the most
important quality of a diplomat.
10. (Участие) in diplomatic circuits is one of the duties of a diplomat.

140 141
Exercise 43 I. As ambassador, do you have a proactive agenda of people to meet
Look through the service record of the Russian Ambassador to the and policies to advocate? What's your vision of у our role?
U.S. and do a two-way translation of the intervi&v given by Yuri А, Какова роль посла? Он поддерживает контакты с
Ushakov, 55, at the Embassy in Washington. Use the active представителями страны, в которой работает, в моем случае с
vocabulary. Role-play the interview in class. правительством США и излагает им точку зрения России.
Также он постоянно информирует Москву и ее руководителей
Name: Yuri U s h a k o v о тонкостях американской политики.
Place of birth: Moscow I. Wlw do you deal the most in the American community?
Family: Wife Svetlana, one daughter А, Естественно, я встречаюсь не только с политиками и
Education: M o s c o w State University of International relations официальными лицами, но и с общественностью. Мы
(1970). Later defended a thesis on the foreign policy организуем приемы, выставки и культурные мероприятия,
of European countries for a Ph.D. in history. приглашаем художников и музыкантов из России для
Diplomatic rpnk: A m b a s s a d o r Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. выступлений в посольстве и в резиденции посла. Завтра я
Previous posts: лечу в университет Северной Каролины, где выступлю перед
1998-1999: Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of t h e Russian студентами. Этот университет имеет тесные связи с моей
Federation. alma mater - МГИМО.
1996-1998: Ambassador, permanent representative of t h e Russian L What do you see as most important in ambassador's work?
Federation to the O S C E in Vienna, Austria. А. Важнее всего, конечно, то, что посол должен работать в
1992-1996: Director of the department of all-European cooperation положительном ключе (for the positive). Он должен работать
for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian для развития положительных конструктивных отношений
Federation. между нашими двумя странами, не осложнять, а решать
1986-1992: D e p u t y Chief of Mission and Minister-Counsellor in the проблемы. Вот принципы, которыми я руководствуюсь в
Embassy of the U S S R / Russian Federation to Denmark. своей работе.
1979-1986: held various posts in the Soviet Embassy to D e n m a r k , in I. Wlien it comes to foreign policy decisions, do you consult often
t h e Scandinavian Department, in the Secretariat of the with the Foreign Ministry? Do you ever consult directly with
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U S S R and in t h e President Putin, or receive instructions from him?
departments of post-graduate studies of t h e Diplomatic А. Каждый вечер я посылаю телеграммы (cables) в Москву,
Academy. которые отражают встречи и разговоры в течение дня, а также
http: // www.russianembassv.om/ наш комментарий о различных событиях в США и наши
рекомендации. А утром получаю огромное количество
L Mr. Ambassador, tell us about being the Russian Ambassador in телеграмм от послов других стран, инструкции и приказы от
Washington. How have you been spending your time? моего начальства.
А. Это интересная, но трудная работа, которую очень трудно I. How can you compare the work you are doing with
планировать заранее. Всегда возникает какой-то вопрос, ambassadorial work of the Cold War period?
который надо срочно решать. Сейчас все мои силы и моих А. Сравнивать нельзя. Раньше вся информация шла (to be
сотрудников направлены на подготовку встречи между funneled) только через посла. Сегодня лидеры стран могут
нашими двумя президентами в Москве и Петербурге. общаться напрямую по телефону.

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