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What Is Cement?

A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other
materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own, but rather to bind sand and
gravel together. Cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand
and gravel, produces concrete.
It is made of fine mineral powder manufactured with very precise processes. Mixed with water,
this powder transforms into a paste that binds and hardens when submerged in water. Because
the composition and fineness of the powder may vary, cement has different properties depending
upon its makeup
All of these varieties of cement comply with specific industry standards and norms. They are
subject to stringent controls at each stage of the manufacturing process, thereby guaranteeing the
highest level of quality.
What is Portland Cement?
Joseph Aspdin took out a patent in 1824 for "Portland Cement," a material he produced by firing
finely-ground clay and limestone until the limestone was calcined. He called it Portland Cement
because the concrete made from it looked like Portland stone, a widely-used building stone in
England.
How to Cement?
Cement starts to set when mixed with water, which causes a series of hydration chemical
reactions. The constituents slowly hydrate and the mineral hydrates solidify. The interlocking of
the hydrates gives cement its strength. Contrary to a common belief, hydraulic cement does not
set by drying out proper curing requires maintaining the appropriate moisture content during the
curing process. If hydraulic cements dry out during curing, the resulting product can be
significantly weakened. Nonetheless, a minimum temperature of 5 °C is recommended.
TYPES OF CEMENT
Cements used in construction are usually inorganic, often lime or calcium silicate based, and can
be characterized as either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending on the ability of the cement to
set in the presence of water
Hydraulic Cements
*have the ability to set and harden under water.
*Hydraulic cements can harden instantly.
*Used for making structures that are underwater.
*Also primarily used to close cracks and leaks in concrete structures that are likely to be affected
by water.
Non-Hydraulic Cements
*Should be kept dry to attain strength
*It reacts with water to form stable calcium silicate hydrates.
*It takes a substantially longer time to dry off and gain strength after being set.
*Primarily used for making structures on land.
Components of Non-Hydraulic and Hydraulic Cements

Non Hydraulic Cement


CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
The calcium oxide is then spent (slaked) mixing it with water to make slaked lime (calcium
hydroxide):

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2


Once the excess water is completely evaporated (this process is technically called setting), the
carbonation starts:

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O


This reaction takes time, because the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the air is low. The
carbonation reaction requires that the dry cement be exposed to air, so the slaked lime is a non-
hydraulic cement and cannot be used under water. This process is called the lime cycle.

Hydraulic Cement

Conversely, hydraulic cement hardens by hydration when water is added. Hydraulic cements
(such as Portland cement) are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main
components being:

Belite (2CaO·SiO2);
Alite (3CaO·SiO2);
Tricalcium aluminate (3CaO·Al2O3) (historically, and still occasionally, called 'celite');
Brownmillerite (4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3).

STEP BY STEP PROCESSES

Step 1 : Preparing the Dry Mix


Purchase the right amounts of cement, sand, and stone. The precise ratios will
vary depending on the type of cement, so make sure to check your bag or the
instructions that came with your cement. However, as a general rule of
thumb, you will need one part cement, two parts sand, and four parts stone

Step 2 : Put on safety equipment


Cement will admit dust and debris that can be dangerous without the right
safety equipment. Wear a dust mask, as well as safety goggles and a thick
pair of gloves when mixing cement
Step 3 : Assemble your supplies
Mixing cement is a messy process that requires a lot of attention. Assemble
your supplies ahead of time. You will need your cement, sand, and stone, as
well as a bucket, a wheelbarrow, and a shovel or similar tool for mixing
Step 4 : Be Cautious
Dump your ingredients into a wheelbarrow. Use your small spade to shovel a
ratio of one part cement, two parts sand, and four parts gravel into the
wheelbarrow. Make sure you're wearing your dust mask, as dust and debris
will get into the air during the process.

Step 5 : Mixing in Water


Mix the ingredients together. Though they'll be mixed later, it's a good idea to
have the dry mix thoroughly incorporated before adding the water. After
pouring your cement, sand, and stone into the wheelbarrow, use a shovel or
similar tool to mix the ingredients together until you have an even, uniform
mixture.

Step 6 : Add Water

Add a small amount of water. There is no precise amount of water to add to


your cement. You merely need to add enough that you form a smooth paste
with the consistency of peanut butter. Start small to avoid creating cement
that's too soupy. Pour a small amount of water, like half a bucket, into the
crater you made. Then, mix in the water with your shovel until it's completely
absorbed.

Step 7 : Test
Test the mixture. Drag a shovel through the center of the cement. If the
mixture is too dry, the sides of the groove you created will crumble. This
means the mixture needs more water.

Step 8 : Complete the process


Pour the mixed cement immediately into your project's area. This step needs
to be completed as soon as possible. This prevents the cement from drying
before you can complete your project. Tilt the wheelbarrow over the area
where you're applying cement and pour the cement mixture in.
Cement in History

Throughout history, cementing materials have played a vital role and were used
widely in the ancient world. The Egyptians used calcined gypsum as a cement and
the Greeks and Romans used lime made by heating limestone and added sand to
make mortar, with coarser stones for concrete.
The Romans found that a cement could be made which set under water and this
was used for the construction of harbours. This cement was made by adding
crushed volcanic ash to lime and was later called a "pozzolanic" cement, named
after the village of Pozzuoli near Vesuvius.
In places where volcanic ash was scarce, such as Britain, crushed brick or tile was
used instead. The Romans were therefore probably the first to manipulate
systematically the properties of cementitious materials for specific applications and
situations.
The Renaissance and Age of Enlightenment brought new ways of thinking which
led to the industrial revolution. In eighteenth century Britain, the interests of
industry and empire coincided, with the need to build lighthouses on exposed rocks
to prevent shipping losses. The constant loss of merchant ships and warships drove
cement technology forwards.

What’s The Difference Between Concrete and Cement?

The terms cement, and concrete, can be confusing to beginning builders because
they are often used interchangeably, which is inaccurate. Cement, concrete, and are
two different materials. The basic difference is that cement is a fine binding
powder (which is never used alone),
Although the terms cement and concrete are used interchangeably. Cement is
actually an ingredient of concrete. Concrete is basically a mixture of aggregates.
The aggegates are sand and gravel or crushed stone.