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Relative clauses – это определительные придаточные предложения, которые начинаются с

относительных местоимений (relative pronouns) или относительных наречий (relative adverbs):

who/that/which – который

whose – чей

when – когда

where – где

why – почему

Мы используем определительные придаточные предложения (ОПП), чтобы соединить два простых

предложения или дать уточняющую информацию о чем-либо. Мы используем ОПП, чтобы описать людей,
предметы, время, место или причину. Относительные местоимения стоят после существительного, которое
они описывают.


The boy who won the prize was happy.

Those jeans which you want to buy are really expensive.

Относительные местоимения могут служить подлежащим (Subject)или дополнением (Object) в ОПП.

Когда отн. мест-е – субьект, за ним следует глагол. Когда обьект – следует существительное или местоимение.


Do you know the man who talked to me? - Subject

The peaches that are lying on the table are tasty. - Subject

We will stay at a hotel which is next to the beach. - Subject

That is the film which is very exciting. - Subject

Do you know the man who I talked to? - Object

The peaches that you bought in the shop are tasty. - Object

We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us. - Object

That is the film which I like very much. - Object

Exercise: Read the sentences and underline the relative pronouns (Прочитайте предложения и подчеркните
относительные местоимения):

He met his teacher who was very strict. – Он встретил своего учителя, который был очень строгим.
He’s looking for a secretary that can use a computer well. – Он ищет секретаря, который хорошо умеет
пользоваться компьютером.

You will see the house which is opposite the petrol station. – Ты увидишь дом, который напротив заправки.

The camera that costs about 200 pounds has been lost. – Фотоаппарат, который стоит около двух сотен
фунтов, был потерян.

The little girl whose doll was broken is crying. – Маленькая девочка, чья кукла поломана, плачет.

The house which roof is white belongs to my grandparents. – Дом, крыша которого белая, принадлежит
моим бабушке и дедушке.

Относительное местоимение вводит придаточное предложение. Но иногда можно опустить это

местоимение, когда оно не является субьектом (подлежащим) придаточного предложения, а выступает


Do you know the girl who he is talking to? – в придаточном подлежащее – he, поэтому who можно


Do you know the girl he is talking to?

The film which/that I saw two days ago was very interesting.


The film I saw two days ago was very interesting.

I didn’t like the book which/that you gave me.


I didn’t like the book you gave me.

Where is the pencil which/that I lent you?


Where is the pencil I lent you?

Упражнение 1. Join two sentences using a relative pronoun (Соедините два предложения, используя
относительное местоимение)

Example: I wrote to the friend. He had a birthday last week. – I wrote to the friend who/that had a birthday
last week.

I bought a house. It was nice.

Alice has got a friend. He dances well.

He received the letter. He was waiting for it.

Max has become an actor. You met him last year.

I was happy to get a letter from my friend. He has been travelling around the world.

This dress costs a lot of money. It has a handmade embroidery.

I forgot to print the article. I wrote it yesterday.

The boy was sad. His bike was broken.

Относительные наречия:

Where – to talk about a place

Why – to talk about a reason

When – to talk about time


This is the café where I ate a delicious cake yesterday. – Это то кафе, где вчера я ел вкусный торт.

Tell me the reason why you are crying. – Скажи мне причину, почему ты плачешь.

My favorite day of the week is Friday, when the weekend is about to begin. – Мой любимый день недели –
пятница, когда выходные вот-вот начнутся.

Exercise. Put the relative adverbs where/why/when :

We will visit the castle........the kings lived.

Winter is the time of the year..........many people suffer from flu.

I can’t understand the reason...........you have been late for work.

Do you know the reason............she is so upset?

This is the library...........you can find even rare books.

The school...........I study is near my house.

This is the reason...........I never invite her to the party.

I remember the day............I went to school.

1. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate relative pronouns.

a) This is the store..........was robbed last week.

b) The bag..........I bought is blue.

c) She wore a costume...........made her look funny.

d) The girl...........door was open was waiting for the guests.

e) The boy............rode a horse was very handsome.

f) This is the gadget...........price is really high.

2. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate relative adverbs.

a) The morning...........you came to me was wonderful.

b) The café............we went last Friday is really nice.

c) This is the place...........I can be alone.

d) Tell me the reason............you are smiling.

e) The department store............you work as a shop assistant gets a lot of customers every day.

f) Could you explain me the choice.............you study this subject.

3. Переведите на английский язык, обращая внимание на относительные местоимения.

а) Мужчине, который живет по соседству, 60 лет.

б) Мальчик, который потерял свой дневник, очень невнимательный.

в) Игрушки, которые лежат на столе, мои.

г) Книга, которую я читаю, очень интересная.

д) Я не знаю никого, чьи родители являются учителями.

е) Мама выбрала продукты, которые были дешевле.

ж) Те люди, которые мало спят, чаще имеют перепады настроения.

з) Спортсмены, которые много тренируются, побеждают на соревнованиях.

Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate relative adverbs or pronouns.

1. That is the shop ____ was awarded as the best shop in the city.

2. The girl ____ brother go with me to the gym is a good singer.

3. The man ____ broke into our house was caught in two days.

4. She visits her grandmother ____ lives in countryside every summer.

5. She was wearing a dress ___ looked like princess’.

6. The bookshelf ____ we bought last week has broken down.

7. The man ___ was sitting on the bench turned around and saw his granddaughter.

8. A woman ____ son was crying paid no attention to him.

9. The woman ____ car had broken down on her way home spend 3 hours waiting for help.

10. My best friend ____ I have known for years will never let me down.

11. He didn’t follow the instructions ____ he was given, so he failed to pass the test.

12. The girl ___ lived next door was very shy and couldn’t say a word to protect herself at school.

13. I need to buy a laptop ____ can work up to 5 hours without a charger.

14. My father ___ is a doctor has no idea how to repair a car.

15. The photo ____ is placed on the mantel was taken at the picnic two years ago.

Put the correct relative pronoun (who, which, whose).

This is the bank was robbed yesterday.

A boy sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.

The man robbed the bank had two pistols.

He wore a mask made him look like Mickey Mouse.

He came with a friend waited outside in the car.

The woman gave him the money was young.

The bag contained the money was yellow.

The people were in the bank were very frightened.

A man mobile was ringing did not know what to do.

A woman daughter was crying tried to calm her.

The car the bank robbers escaped in was orange.

The robber mask was obviously too big didn't drive.

The man drove the car was nervous.

He didn't wait at the traffic lights were red.

A police officer car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.
Decide whether the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun (S) or an object pronoun (O).

Do you know the girl who I danced with? -

Do you know the girl who danced with me? -

The apples that are lying on the table are bad. -

The apples that we bought in the shop are bad. -

We will stay at a hotel which is not far from the beach. -

We will stay at a hotel which my friend has recommended to us.

That is a museum which I like very much. -

That is a museum which lies in the heart of the town.

This is the man who Barbara visited in Scotland.

This is the man who lives in Scotland.

Decide whether the relative pronouns must be used (M) or not (N).

A calendar is something which tells you the date. -

Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team. -

Jane is a person who everybody likes. -

A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it. -

The Thames is a river which runs through London. -

Cheese is food which mice like eating. -

A racket is something which you use to hit a ball when you play tennis or badminton. -

Socks are things which you wear on your feet. -

A guide is a person who shows tourists around around a place. -

Love is a feeling which nobody can describe. -

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