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9/23/2019 Manila - Wikipedia

Coordinates: 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E

Manila (/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà, pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]),
officially the City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ maj
ˈnilaʔ]), is the capital and highly urbanized city of the Philippines. It is the most
densely populated city proper in the world as of 2018.[10] It was the first Capital and Highly Urbanized City
chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 Lungsod ng Maynilà
and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised (City of Manila)
Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949.[11] Manila, alongside Mexico
City and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to
Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean,
thus connecting Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in
world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the
planet.[12] Manila has been damaged by and rebuilt from wars more times than
the famed city of Troy and it is also the second most natural disaster-afflicted
capital city in the world next to Tokyo,[13] yet it is simultaneously among the
most populous and wealthiest cities in Southeast Asia.[14]

The Spanish city of Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish
conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi. The date is regarded as the city's
official founding date; however, a settlement has already existed dating back as
far as 1258. Manila was also the seat of power for most of the country's colonial
rulers. It is home to many historic sites, some of which were built during the
16th century. Manila has many of the Philippines' firsts, including the first
university (1590),[15] light station (1642), lighthouse tower (1846), water
system (1878), hotel (1889), electricity (1895), oceanarium (1913),[16] stock
exchange (1927), flyover (1930s), zoo (1959), pedestrian underpass (1960),[17] From top, left to right: The Manila skyline, Rizal
science high school (1963),[18] city-run university (1965), city-run hospital Monument, Fort Santiago, Malacañang Palace,
(1969), and rapid transit system (1984; also considered as the first rapid transit University of Santo Tomas, Manila City Hall, Quiapo
system in Southeast Asia).[19] Church

The term "Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area,
the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially defined
metropolitan area called Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines,
includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District. Flag
It is the most populous region of the country, one of the most populous urban
Nickname(s): Pearl of the Orient[1]
areas in the world,[20] and is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia.[21]
Motto(s): Bagong Maynila
The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015,[6] and is the historic core (New Manila)
of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. With
71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila is also the most densely populated
city proper in the world.[6][7]

The city is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay. The Pasig River flows
through the middle of the city, dividing it into the north and south sections.
Manila is made up of 16 administrative districts: Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros,
Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Andres, San
Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo, while it is
divided into six districts for its representation in Congress and the election of
the city council members. In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Research
Network listed Manila as an "alpha –" global city.[22]

Contents Map of Metro Manila with Manila highlighted

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Early history
Spanish period
American period
Japanese occupation and World War II
Post-war years and the martial law era (1945-1986)
Contemporary period (1986-present)
Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
Natural hazards
Other faiths

Location within the Philippines
Culture Coordinates: 14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E
Sports Country Philippines
Festivities and holidays Region National Capital Region
Law and government
Congressional 1st to 6th districts of
District Manila
Barangays and districts
Administrative 16 city districts
Infrastructure District
Established 13th century or earlier
Sultanate of 1500s
Water and electricity
Healthcare (Rajahnate of
Education Maynila)
Spanish Manila June 24, 1571
Notable people
City Charter July 31, 1901
Sister cities Highly December 22, 1979
Asia Pacific Urbanized City
Barangays 896

International relations Government[2]

Consulates • Type Sangguniang Panlungsod
• Mayor Francisco "Isko Moreno"
See also
Domagoso (NUP/Asenso
Notes Manileño)
References • Vice Mayor Dr. Ma. Sheilah "Honey
Lacuna" Pangan
(NUP/Asenso Manileño)
External links • City List
• City Council Councilors
Etymology • Electorate 1,065,149 voters (2019)

Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, comes from the phrase may-nilà, Area[3][4]
which translates to "where indigo is found."[23] Nilà is derived from the • City 42.88 km2 (16.56 sq mi)
Sanskrit word nīla (नील) which refers to indigo, and, by extension, to several • Urban 1,474.82 km2
(569.43 sq mi)
plant species from which this natural dye can be extracted.[23][24] The Maynilà
• Metro 619.57 km2
name is more likely in reference to the presence of indigo-yielding plants
(239.22 sq mi)
growing in the area surrounding the settlement, rather than Maynilà being

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known as a settlement that trades in indigo dye.[23] This is because the Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
settlement was founded several hundred years before indigo dye extraction Population (2015 census)[6][7]
became an important economic activity in the area in the 18th century.[23] The • City 1,780,148
native Tagalog name for the indigo plant, tayum (or variations thereof)[23][25] • Density 41,515/km2
actually finds use in another toponym within the Manila area — Tayuman (107,520/sq mi)
("where the indigo [plant] is") — and elsewhere in the Philippines (e.g., Tayum, • Urban 22,710,000[5]
Abra; Tagum, Davao del Norte). • Metro 12,877,253
• Metro density 20,785/km2
Maynilà was eventually adopted into Spanish as Manila. (53,830/sq mi)
Demonym(s) English: Manileño,
May-nilad Spanish: manilense,[8]
An antiquarian and inaccurate etymology asserts the
Filipino: Manileño(-a),
origin of the city's name as may-nilad ("where nilad Manilenyo(-a), Taga-
is found").[23] Here, nilad is taken to be the name for Maynila
one of two littoral plant species: Economy
• Income class special city income class
popularly, but incorrectly: the water hyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes) which still grows on the banks • HDI (2017) 0.756[9] – high
of the Pasig River to this day.[23] However, it is a • Revenue (₱) 10,154.9 million  (2016)
recent introduction to the Philippines from South • GDP USD 276.4 billion
America and therefore could not have been the plant
species referred to in the toponym.[23] Time zone UTC+8 (PST)
Plate depicting the correctly: a shrub-like tree (Scyphiphora ZIP code +900 – 1-096
"nilad" plant hydrophyllacea, formerly Ixora manila Blanco) found PSGC (https://p 133900000 (https://psa.g
(Scyphiphora in or near mangrove swamps,[23][26] This tree is the sa.gov.ph/classi ov.ph/classification/psg
hydrophylacea), actual species that the Tagalog terms nilád or nilár
fication/psgc/) c/?q=psgc/citimuni/13390
from Augustinian refer to.[27]
missionary Fray From a linguistic perspective it is unlikely for native
Francisco Manuel
IDD : area code  +63 (0)2
Tagalog speakers to completely drop the final
Blanco's botanical Climate type tropical monsoon climate
consonant /d/ in nilad to arrive at the present form
reference, "Flora Native Tagalog
de Filipinas" Maynilà.[23] As an example, nearby Bacoor still languages
retains the final consonant of the old Tagalog word
Website manila.gov.ph (http://mani
bakoód ("elevated piece of land"), even in old la.gov.ph)
Spanish renderings of the placename (e.g., Vacol, Bacor).[28] Historians
Ambeth Ocampo[29][30] and Joseph Baumgartner[23] have also found that in all early documents, the place had always been written
without the final /d/, thereby making the may-nilad etymology spurious.

The misidentification of nilad as the source of the toponym appears to originate from an 1887 essay written by Trinidad Pardo de
Tavera, in which he wrote nila as both referring to Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo) and to Ixora manila (actually, nilád in
Tagalog[27]).[24][23] Early 20th century writings, such as those of Julio Nakpil[31] and of Blair and Robertson then repeated the
claim.[32][30] Today, this erroneous etymology continues to be perpetuated through casual repetition in both literature[33][34] and
popular use, such as in Maynilad Water Services and the name of the underpass close to Manila City Hall, Lagusnilad ("Nilad


Early history
The earliest evidence of human life around present-day Manila is the nearby Angono Petroglyphs, dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos,
the aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon, where Manila is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians
migrated in and assimilated them.[35]

Manila was an active trade partner with the Song and Yuan dynasties.[36] The polity of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the
Ming dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. The Tondo district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers
were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. Tondo was christened under the Chinese characters for "Eastern Totality (All)" or "東都" due
to its location east of China. The kings of Tondo were addressed variously as panginuan in Maranao or panginoón in Tagalog ("lords");
anák banwa ("son of heaven"); or lakandula ("lord of the palace"). The Emperor of China considered the Lakans—the rulers of ancient
Manila—"王", or kings.[37]

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In the 13th century, Manila consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter on the
shore of the Pasig River. It was then settled by the Indianized empire of Majapahit, as
recorded in the epic eulogy poem "Nagarakretagama", which described the area's conquest
by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk.[37] Selurong (षेलुरोङ् ), a historical name for Manila, is listed in
Canto 14 alongside Sulot, which is now Sulu, and Kalka. Selurong (Manila) together with
Sulot (Sulu) was able to regain independence afterwards and Sulu even attacked and looted
the Majapahit province of Po-ni (Brunei) in retribution.[37]
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription
is the oldest historical record in the During the reign of the Arab Emir, Sharif Ali's descendant, Sultan Bolkiah, from 1485 to
Philippines. It has the first historical 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei which had seceded from Hindu Majapahit and became a
reference to Tondo and dates back Muslim, had invaded the area. The Bruneians wanted to take advantage of Tondo's strategic
to Saka 822 (c. 900).
position in trade with China and Indonesia and thus attacked its environs and established
the Muslim Rajahnate of Maynilà (‫ ;ﻛﻮﺗﺎ ﺳﻠﻮدوڠ‬Kota Seludong). The rajahnate was ruled
under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as a satellite state.[38] It created a
new dynasty under the local leader, who accepted Islam and became Rajah Salalila or
Sulaiman I. He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in
Tondo. Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Middle
East and Southeast Asia.[39]

Spanish period
On June 24, 1571, the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Manila and declared
Rajah Sulayman
it a territory of New Spain (Mexico), establishing a city council in what is now the district of
Intramuros. He took advantage of a Tondo vs Manila territorial conflict to justify expelling
or converting Bruneian Muslim colonists who supported their Manila vassals while his
Mexican grandson Juan de Salcedo had a romance with a princess of Tondo, Kandarapa.[40]
López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of the Conspiracy
of the Maharlikas, a plot wherein an alliance between datus, rajahs, Japanese merchants
and the Sultanate of Brunei would band together to execute the Spaniards, along with their
Latin American recruits and Visayan allies. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the
capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would control
for the next three centuries. In 1574, Manila was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate
Lim Hong, who was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. Upon Spanish settlement,
The newly rebuilt Manila Cathedral
Manila was immediately made, by papal decree, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico.
in 1880 before the earthquake of
July 20, 1880, which knocked down Then, by royal decree of Philip II of Spain, the city of Manila was put under the spiritual
the over-a-century old bell tower. patronage of Saint Pudentiana and Our Lady of Guidance (Spurred by a locally found sacred
image i.e. a Black Madonna of unknown origin; one theory is that it is from Portuguese-
Macau, another is that, it is a Tantric goddess and this was worshiped by the natives in a
Pagan-Hindu manner and had survived Islamic iconoclasm by the Sultanate of Brunei. This image was interpreted to be of Marian
nature, and it was found during the Miguel de Legazpi expedition and eventually a Mexican hermit built a chapel around that image).

Manila became famous for its role in the Manila–Acapulco galleon trade, which lasted for more than two centuries and brought goods
from Europe, Africa and Hispanic America across the Pacific Islands to Southeast Asia (which was already an entrepôt for goods
coming from India, Indonesia and China), and vice versa. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru was exchanged for Chinese silk,
Indian gems and the spices of Indonesia and Malaysia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in Europe and North Africa were shipped via
Mexico to Manila.[41] In 1606, upon the Spanish conquest of the Sultanate of Ternate, one of monopolizers of the growing of spice, the
Spanish deported the Sultan of Ternate along with his clan and his entire entourage to Manila were they were initially enslaved and
eventually converted to Christianity.[42] About 200 families of mixed Mexican-Filipino-Spanish and Papuan-Indonesian-Portuguese
descent from Ternate and Tidor followed him there at a later date.[43] The city attained great wealth due to it being at the confluence of
three great commercial exchanges: the Silk Road, the Spice Route and the Silver Flow. Jealous of her wealth, the city was captured by
Great Britain in 1762 as part of the Seven Years' War in Europe.[44] The city was then occupied by the British for twenty months from
1762 to 1764 in their attempt to rule the Spanish East Indies, but the city was cut off from the rest of the country by Spanish-Filipino
forces who refused to accept British rule.[45] Frustrated by their inability to take the rest of the archipelago, the British eventually
withdrew in accordance with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys, who came with the
British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal, which explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta

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The Chinese were then punished for supporting the British invasion, and the fortress city of
Intramuros, initially populated by 1200 Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish
troops,[48] kept its cannons pointed at Binondo, the world's oldest Chinatown.[49] The
Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of Manila,[50][51] and also at Cavite,
where ships from Spain's American colonies docked, and at Ermita, an area so named
because of a Mexican hermit that lived there. The Philippines hosts the only Latin
American-established districts in Asia.[52] When the Spanish evacuated Ternate, they
settled the Papuan refugees in Ternate, Cavite which was named after their former

The rise of Spanish Manila marked the first time in world history where all hemispheres and
continents were interconnected in a worldwide trade network. Thus, making Manila,
alongside Mexico and Madrid, the world's original set of Global Cities, predating the ascent
Puente Colgante in 1875
of modern Alpha++ class world cities like New York or London as global financial centers,
by hundreds of years.[54] A Spanish Jesuit Priest commented that due to the confluence of
many foreign languages gathering in Manila, he said that the confessional in Manila is "the most difficult in the world."[55] Another
Spanish missionary in the 1600s by the name of Fray Juan de Cobo was so astonished by the manifold commerce, cultural complexity
and ethnic diversity in Manila he thus wrote the following to his brethren in Mexico:

"The diversity here is immense such that I could go on forever trying to differentiate lands and peoples. There are
Castilians from all provinces. There are Portuguese and Italians; Dutch, Greeks and Canary Islanders, and Mexican
Indians. There are slaves from Africa brought by the Spaniards [Through America], and others brought by the Portuguese
[Through India]. There is an African Moor with his turban here. There are Javanese from Java, Japanese and Bengalese
from Bengal. Among all these people are the Chinese whose numbers here are untold and who outnumber everyone else.
From China there are peoples so different from each other, and from provinces as distant, as Italy is from Spain. Finally,
of the mestizos, the mixed-race people here, I cannot even write because in Manila there is no limit to combinations of
peoples with peoples. This is in the city where all the buzz is." (Remesal, 1629: 680–1)

— [56]

After Mexico gained independence in 1821, Spain began to govern Manila directly.[57] Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and
education flourished more than they had in the previous two centuries.[58] The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 facilitated direct
trade and communications with Spain. The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous peoples, Negritos, Malays,
Africans, Chinese, Indians, Arabs, Europeans, Latinos and Papuans from the surrounding provinces[59] and facilitated the rise of an
ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution, which sought independence from
Spain. A revolt by Andres Novales was inspired by the Latin American wars of independence. Following the Cavite Mutiny and the
Propaganda Movement, the Philippine revolution eventually erupted, Manila was among the first eight provinces to rebel and thus
their role was immortalized in the Philippine Flag where Manila was marked as one of the eight rays of the symbolic sun.

American period
After the 1898 Battle of Manila, Spain ceded Manila to the United States. The First Philippine Republic, based in nearby Bulacan,
fought against the Americans for control of the city.[60] The Americans defeated the First Philippine Republic captured President
Emilio Aguinaldo, who declared allegiance to the United States on April 1, 1901.

Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in June 1901, the Americans made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila
consisted not of Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas. The new charter proclaimed that Manila was composed of eleven
municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz
and Tondo. In addition, the Catholic Church recognized five parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic, Santa Mesa and Singalong—as
part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres.[61]

Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government headed by Governor-General William Howard Taft invited city
planner Daniel Burnham to adapt Manila to modern needs.[62] The Burnham Plan included the development of a road system, the use
of waterways for transportation, and the beautification of Manila with waterfront improvements and construction of parks, parkways
and buildings.[63][64]

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The planned buildings included a government

center occupying all of Wallace Field, which
extends from Rizal Park to the present Taft
Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the
Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the
sea. Along with buildings for various
government bureaus and departments, it would
form a quadrangle with a lagoon in the center
and a monument to José Rizal at the other end Tram running along Escolta Street
of the field. Of Burnham's proposed government during the American period.
The Burnham Plan of Manila.
center, only three units—the Legislative Building
and the buildings of the Finance and
Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II erupted.

Japanese occupation and World War II

During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers were ordered to
withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, 1941.
General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and
destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it. Manila was occupied by
Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.

From February 3 to March 3, 1945, Manila was the site of the bloodiest battle in the Pacific
theater of World War II. Some 100,000 civilians were killed in February.[65] At the end of The destruction brought about by
the battle, Manila was recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the the Battle of Manila in 1945
second most devastated city in the world, after Warsaw, during the Second World War.
Almost all of the structures in the city, particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed.

It was after the many times when Manila was once again destroyed by war, when the city earned the moniker "The City of Our
Affections". This nickname was given by National Artist and writer Nick Joaquin, in reference to the spirit of resilience the city has had
in the face of the constant wars that have razed it and also in repeatedly surviving and rebuilding despite being the second-most natural
disaster prone city in the world.[66] This is reflected in the noble spirit of Manileños and Filipinos who, despite having the second-most
disaster prone capital city in the world and also the second-most war devastated capital city in recent history, are the most generous
nationality in Southeast Asia and the 17th most generous nationality worldwide.[67] Manila (and the Philippines in general) is also
among the top sources of missionaries worldwide.[68] This is explained by the fact that the Philippines is the most fervently Christian
country in the world and is ranked as the 5th most religious country, globally.[69]

Post-war years and the martial law era (1945-1986)

In 1948, President Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to
Quezon City, a new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in 1939
during the administration of President Manuel L. Quezon.[70] The move ended any
implementation of the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.

With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in 1952 (all mayors were
appointed before this), Manila underwent The Golden Age,[71] once again earning its status
as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After
Rizal Avenue in the 1970s before
the construction of Line 1 Lacson's term in the 1950s, Manila was led by Antonio Villegas for most of the 1960s.
Ramon Bagatsing (an Indian-Filipino) was mayor for nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986
People Power Revolution. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as
the "Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life
and welfare of the people of Manila.

During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, the region of Metro Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of
Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate
regional unit of government.[72] On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation on June 24, 1976, Manila was reinstated by President
Marcos as the capital of the Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of government since the Spanish Period. Presidential
Decree No. 940 states that Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the eyes of the world, the premier city of the

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Philippines being the center of trade, commerce, education and culture.[73] Concurrent with the reinstatement of Manila as the capital,
Ferdinand Marcos designated his wife, Imelda Marcos, as the first governor of Metro Manila. She started the rejuvenation of the city as
she re-branded Manila as the "City of Man".[74]

During the martial law era, Manila became a hot-bed of resistance activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with
the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime. After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power
Revolution (predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain in Europe), led by Maria Corazon Aquino and
Cardinal Jaime Sin, ousted the dictator Marcos from power.[75]

Contemporary period (1986-present)

From 1986–1992, Mel Lopez was mayor of Manila. During his early years, his administration was faced with 700 million pesos worth of
debt and inherited an empty treasury. In the first eleven months, however, the debt was reduced to 365 million pesos and the city's
income rose by around 70% eventually leaving the city with positive income until the end of his term. Lopez closed down numerous
illegal gambling joints and jueteng. In January 1990, Lopez padlocked two Manila casinos operated by the Philippine Amusement and
Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR), saying the billions it gained cannot make up for the negative effects gambling inflicts upon the people,
particularly the youth. He also revived the Boys’ Town Haven (now referred to as “Boys Town”), rehabilitating its facilities to
accommodate underprivileged children and provide them with livelihood and education.

In 1992, Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim
was succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign (and city slogan) "Buhayin ang
Maynila" (Revive Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating
facilities. He was the city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated
Atienza's son Ali in the 2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects[76] claiming Atienza's projects made little
contribution to the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010
city elections in which Lim won against Atienza. Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human rights,[77] charged
with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools,[78] and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park hostage
taking incident, one of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno and 28 city councilors filed
another case against Lim in 2012, stating that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them.[79]

In 2012, DMCI Homes began constructing Torre de Manila, which became controversial for
ruining the sight line of Rizal Park.[80] The tower is infamously known as "Terror de
Manila" or the "national photobomber."[81] The Torre de Manila controversy is regarded as
one of the most sensationalized heritage issues of the country. In 2017, the National
Historical Commission of the Philippines erected a 'comfort woman' statue along Roxas
Boulevard, which made Japan express regret that such statue was erected in the city despite
the healthy relationship between Japan and the Philippines.[82][83]

In the 2013 elections, former President Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in the mayoral race.
During his term, Estrada allegedly paid ₱5 billion in city debts and increased the city's View of the Rizal Monument in Rizal
revenues. In 2015, in line with President Noynoy Aquino's administration progress, the city Park with the controversial Torre de
Manila looming in the background.
became the most competitive city in the Philippines, making the city the best place for doing
business and for living in. In the 2016 elections, Estrada narrowly won over Lim in their
electoral rematch.[84] Throughout Estrada's term, numerous Filipino heritage sites were demolished, gutted out, or approved for
demolition. Among such sites are the post-war Santa Cruz Building, Capitol Theater, El Hogar, old Magnolia Ice Cream Plant, and Rizal
Memorial Stadium, among many others[85][86][87] Some of these sites were saved upon the intervention of various cultural agencies of
government and heritage advocate groups against Estrada's orders.[88] In May 2019, Estrada claimed that Manila was debt-free,[89]
however, two months later, the Commission on Audit verified that Manila has a total of 4.4 billion pesos in debt.[90]

Estrada, who was seeking for reelection for his third and final term lost to Isko Moreno in the 2019 local elections.[91][92] Moreno has
served as the Vice Mayor under both the Lim and Estrada Administration. Estrada's defeat was seen as the end of their reign as a
political clan, whose other family members run for various national and local positions.[93] After assuming office, Moreno initiated a
city-wide cleanup against illegal vendors, signed an executive order promoting open governance, and vowed to stop bribery and
corruption in the city.[94]

The city has an ordinance penalizing cat-calling since 2018, and is the second city in the Philippines to do so after Quezon City passed a
similar ordinance in 2016.[95] Recently, the City Government is planning to revise existing curfew ordinance since the Supreme Court
declared it unconstitutional on August 2017. Out of the three cities reviewed by the Supreme Court, namely: the City of Manila, Navotas

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and Quezon City; only the curfew ordinance of Quezon City was approved.[96][97]

Under the proposed form of federalism in the Philippines, Manila may no longer be the capital or Metro Manila may no longer be the
seat of government. The committee has not yet decided on the federal capital and states that they are open to other proposals.[98][99]

The City of Manila is situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay, on the western edge of
Luzon, 1,300 km (810 mi) from mainland Asia.[100] One of Manila's greatest natural
resources is the protected harbor upon which it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia.[101]
The Pasig River flows through the middle of city, dividing it into the north and south.[3][4]
The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas, is relatively consistent with the natural
flatness of its overall natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation

ISS photo of Manila (just left of Almost all of Manila sits on top of centuries of
center) and surrounding cities prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters
of the Pasig River and on some land reclaimed
from Manila Bay. Manila's land has been altered
substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the
waterfronts since the American colonial times. Some of the city's natural variations in
topography have been evened out. As of 2013, Manila had a total area of 42.88 square

In 2017, the City Government approved five reclamation projects: the New Manila Bay–City The Manila Bay sunset
of Pearl (New Manila Bay International Community) (407.43 hectares), Solar City (148
hectares), the Manila Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares), Manila Waterfront City (318
hectares)[102] and Horizon Manila (419 hectares). Once completed, it will increase the city's total area from 42.88 km2 (4,288 ha) to
58.3 km2 (5,830 ha). Another reclamation project is possible and when built, it will contain the in-city housing relocation projects.[103]
Reclamation projects have been criticized by environmental activists and the Philippine Catholic Church, claiming that these are not
sustainable and would put communities at risk of flooding.[104][105] In line of the upcoming reclamation projects, the Philippines and
the Netherlands forged a cooperation to craft the ₱250 million Manila Bay Sustainable Development Master Plan to guide future
decisions on programs and projects on Manila Bay.[106]

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Manila has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), bordering closely on a tropical
monsoon climate (Köppen Am). Together with the rest of the Philippines, Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its proximity to the
equator means that temperatures are hot year-round especially during the daytime, rarely going below 19 °C (66.2 °F) or above 39 °C
(102.2 °F). Temperature extremes have ranged from 14.5 °C (58.1 °F) on January 11, 1914,[107] to 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) on May 7, 1915.[108]

Humidity levels are usually very high all year round, making the temperature feel hotter than it is. Manila has a distinct cool dry season
from late November through early March, and a relatively lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly cooler
temperatures during the daytime. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons
usually occur from June to September.[109]

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Climate data for Port Area, Manila (1981–2010, extremes 1885–2012)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

36.5 35.6 36.8 38.0 38.5 37.6 36.5 35.6 35.3 35.8 35.6 34.6 38.6
high °C
(97.7) (96.1) (98.2) (100.4) (101.3) (99.7) (97.7) (96.1) (95.5) (96.4) (96.1) (94.3) (101.5)

29.6 30.5 31.9 33.3 34.4 33.5 32.4 32.3 32.1 31.4 30.5 29.8 31.1
high °C
(85.3) (86.9) (89.4) (91.9) (93.9) (92.3) (90.3) (90.1) (89.8) (88.5) (86.9) (85.6) (88.0)

25.6 25.9 26.7 27.9 29.2 29.1 28.9 28.8 28.2 27.1 26.0 25.9 28.4
mean °C
(78.1) (78.6) (80.1) (82.2) (84.6) (84.4) (84.0) (83.8) (82.8) (80.8) (78.8) (78.6) (83.1)

21.2 21.3 21.4 22.5 24.9 26.4 25.8 25.4 24.6 23.3 22.2 21.6 23.6
low °C
(70.2) (70.3) (70.5) (72.5) (76.8) (79.5) (78.4) (77.7) (76.3) (73.9) (72.0) (70.9) (74.5)

14.5 15.6 16.2 17.2 18.0 19.5 20.3 20.4 20.2 19.0 16.7 15.7 14.5
low °C
(58.1) (60.1) (61.2) (63.0) (64.4) (67.1) (68.5) (68.7) (68.4) (66.2) (62.1) (60.3) (58.1)

rainfall 17.3 14.2 15.8 23.7 147.2 253.5 420.5 432.4 355.1 234.8 121.7 67.4 2,103.6
mm (0.68) (0.56) (0.62) (0.93) (5.80) (9.98) (16.56) (17.02) (13.98) (9.24) (4.79) (2.65) (82.82)

4 3 3 4 10 17 21 21 20 17 12 7 139
(≥ 0.1 mm)

70 64 63 64 71 76 79 81 79 76 72 74 74

159 198 226 258 239 206 183 176 174 195 181 152 2,105

Source #1: PAGASA[110][111]

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun, 1931–1960)[112]

Natural hazards
Swiss Re ranked Manila as the second riskiest capital city to live in, citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes,
tsunamis, typhoons, floods and landslides.[13] The seismically active Marikina Valley Fault System poses a threat of a large-scale
earthquake with an estimated magnitude between 6–7 and as high as 7.6[113] to Metro Manila and nearby provinces.[114] Manila has
endured several deadly earthquakes, notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick medieval city.[115] The
Earthquake Baroque style was used by architects during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent earthquakes.[116]

Manila is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly.[117] In 2009, Typhoon Ketsana (Ondoy) struck the Philippines. It led to one of the
worst floodings in Metro Manila and several provinces in Luzon with an estimated damages worth ₱11 billion ($237 million).[118][119]
The floodings caused 448 deaths in Metro Manila alone. Following the aftermath of Typhoon Ketsana, the city began to dredge its
rivers and improve its drainage network. The south of Manila is also home to a now dormant volcano, Taal Volcano which in the past
threatened the capital with landslides and volcanic eruptions.

Due to industrial waste and automobiles, Manila suffers from air pollution,[120][121] affecting 98% of the population.[122] Air pollution
alone causes more than 4,000 deaths yearly.[123] On a 1995 report, Ermita is regarded as Manila's most air polluted district due to open
dump sites and industrial waste.[124] According to a report in 2003, the Pasig River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with
150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste dumped daily.[125] The city is the second biggest waste producer in the
country with 1,151.79 tons (7,500.07 cubic meters) per day, after Quezon City which yields 1,386.84 tons or 12,730.59 cubic meters per
day. Both cities were cited as having poor management in garbage collection and disposal.[126]

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The Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up the Pasig River and
tributaries for transportation, recreation and tourism purposes.[127] Rehabilitation efforts
have resulted in the creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution

Pollution in Manila Bay

The bay skyline of Manila as seen from Harbour Square. (2009)

Manila is a planned city. In 1905, American Architect and Urban Planner Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital.
His design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement, which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from
rectangles. The city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—
the basis of which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city.[130] Two districts were later created, which are Santa Mesa
(partitioned off from Sampaloc) and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana).

Manila's mix of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Manila was
razed to the ground by the Japanese forces and the shelling of American forces. After the liberation, rebuilding began and most of the
historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the historic buildings from the 19th century that had been
preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated or otherwise left to deteriorate. Manila's current urban
landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.

Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide range of styles
spanning different historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect American,
Spanish, Chinese, and Malay influences.[131] Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio
Toledo, Felipe Roxas, Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa have designed significant
buildings in Manila such as churches, government offices, theaters, mansions, schools and

The façade of the Manila Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters. Some of these were designed by National
Metropolitan Theater, designed by Artists for Architecture such as Juan Nakpil and Pablo Antonio. Unfortunately most of these
Juan M. Arellano theaters were neglected, and some of it have been demolished. The historic Escolta Street in
Binondo features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural style, many
of which were designed by prominent Filipino architects during the American Rule in the
1920s to the late 1930s. Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta
Street, which was once the premier street of the Philippines.[132]

Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive
bombardment of the United States Air Force during World War II. Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed
historic Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been
reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts), Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau
of the Treasury) and the currently under construction San Ignacio Church and Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros). There are plans
to rehabilitate and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the
Manila Metropolitan Theater. Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo, Quiapo, and San Nicolas are also planned to be
restored, as a part of a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful prewar state.[133][134]

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Since Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects invented the style called
Earthquake Baroque which the churches and government buildings during the Spanish colonial
period adopted.[116] As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries barely
affected Manila, although it did periodically level the surrounding area. Modern buildings in and
around Manila are designed or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in
accordance to the country's building code.[135]

According to the 2015 census, the population of the city was 1,780,148, making it the second most
populous city in the Philippines.[6] Manila is the most densely populated city in the world, with
41,515 inhabitants per km2 in 2015.[7] District 6 is listed as being the most dense with 68,266
The Luneta Hotel, an
inhabitants per km2, followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710. District 5 is the
example of French
least densely populated area with 19,235.[140]
Renaissance architecture
with Filipino stylized beaux
Manila's population density dwarfs that of Kolkata (24,252 inhabitants per km2),[141] Mumbai
(20,482 inhabitants per km2), Paris (20,164 inhabitants per km2), Dhaka (29,069 inhabitants per
km2), Shanghai (16,364
inhabitants per km2, with its most
Population Census of Manila
dense district, Nanshi, having a
density of 56,785 inhabitants per Year Pop. ±% p.a.
km2), and Tokyo (10,087 1903 219,928 —
inhabitants per km2).[140]
1918 283,613 +1.71%
1939 623,492 +3.82%
Manila has been presumed to be 1948 983,906 +5.20%
the Philippines' largest city since 1960 1,138,611 +1.22%
the establishment of a permanent 1970 1,330,788 +1.57%
Binondo, established in 1594, is the 1975 1,479,116 +2.14%
Spanish settlement with the city
world's oldest Chinatown. 1980 1,630,485 +1.97%
eventually becoming the political,
commercial and ecclesiastical
1990 1,601,234 −0.18%
capital of the country.[142] Its
1995 1,654,761 +0.62%
2000 1,581,082 −0.97%
population increased dramatically
2007 1,660,714 +0.68%
since the 1903 census as the
2010 1,652,171 −0.19%
population tended to move from
2015 1,780,148 +1.43%
rural areas to towns and cities. In
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[136][137][138][139]
the 1960 census, Manila became
the first Philippine city to breach
the one million mark (more than 5 times of its 1903 population). The city continued to grow
until the population somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating
People flocking the street market at
Plaza Miranda. increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon may be attributed to
the higher growth experience by suburbs and the already very high population density of
city. As such, Manila exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan
population[143] from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5%[144] in 1980 and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger Quezon City
marginally surpassed the population of Manila in 1990 and by the 2015 census already has 1.1 million people more. Nationally, the
population of Manila is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories such as Caloocan and Davao City by 2020.[145]

The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog language of surrounding areas, and this Manila form of spoken
Tagalog has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and
entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education, business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout Metro
Manila and the Philippines itself.

A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which used to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine
universities and colleges, and many children of Japanese, Korean, Indian, and other origins also speak their parents' languages at
home, aside from English and/or Filipino for everyday use. A variant of Southern Min, Hokkien (locally known as Lan'nang-oe) is
mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino community. According to data provided by the Bureau of Immigration, a total of 3.12
million Chinese citizens arrived in the Philippines from January 2016 to May 2018 (https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2018/06/09/

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Crime in Manila is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. Crime in
the city is also directly related to its changing demographics and unique criminal justice system. The
illegal drug trade is a major problem of the city. In Metro Manila alone, 92% of the barangays are
affected by illegal drugs.[147]

From 2010 to 2015, the city had the second highest index crime rates in the Philippines, with 54,689
cases or an average of about 9,100 cases per year.[148] By October 2017, the Manila Police District
(MPD) reported a 38.7% decrease in index crimes, from 5,474 cases in 2016 to only 3,393 in 2017.
MPD's crime solution efficiency also improved, wherein six to seven out of 10 crimes have been
solved by the city police force.[149] MPD was cited was the Best Police District in Metro Manila in A Toyota Vios of the Manila
2017 for registering the highest crime solution efficiency.[150] Police District


As a result of Spanish cultural influence, Manila is a predominantly Christian city. As of 2010, Roman Catholics were 93.5% of the
population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church (2.4%); Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches
(1.8%); and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of Islam and other religions make up the remaining 1.4% of its population.[151]

Manila is the seat of prominent Catholic churches and institutions. There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are
considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral.[152] The Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Manila and the oldest established church in the country.[153] Aside from the Manila Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the
city: Quiapo Church, Binondo Church, and the Minor Basilica of San Sebastián. The San Agustín Church in Intramuros is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic churches in the city. Manila also has other parishes located
throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous
Catholic missions both within the Philippines and to Asia beyond.

Several Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the city. St. Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is
the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines' Diocese of Central Philippines, while align Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and
central offices of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called the Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the
Philippine Revolution). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has several churches in the city.

The indigenous Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum) in
Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical, Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the
Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord
Church Worldwide also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and
Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park.

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Manila Cathedral is the The Minor Basilica of San San Agustín Church in Binondo Church serves
seat of Roman Catholic Sebastián is the only all-steel Intramuros, a UNESCO the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Manila church in Asia.[154] World Heritage Site. Chinese community

Quiapo Church is the

home to the iconic Black
Nazarene which
celebrates its feasts
every January 9

Other faiths
There are many Buddhist and Taoist temples in the city serving the Chinese Filipino
community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim population which worships at Masjid Al-
Dahab. Members of the Indian expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the
large Hindu temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations Avenue. The
National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Philippines, the governing body of the
Filipino Bahá'í community, is headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati.

Masjid Al-Dahab, the largest
Manila is a major center for commerce, banking mosque in Metro Manila.
and finance, retailing, transportation, tourism,
real estate, new media as well as traditional
media, advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in
the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments operate in the city.[155]

The National Competitiveness Council of the Philippines which annually publishes the
Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI), ranks the cities, municipalities
and provinces of the country according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency
Aerial view of Binondo, the city's and infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI, Manila was the second most competitive
Chinatown and business district. city in the Philippines.[156] Manila placed third in the Highly Urbanized City (HUC)
category.[157] Manila held the title country's most competitive city in 2015, and since then
has been making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of the best place to
live in and do business.[158] Lars Wittig, the country manager of Regus Philippines, hailed Manila as the third best city in the country to
launch a start-up business.[159]

The Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The
Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to oversee the operation and management of the ports. The
International Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank as one of the top five major maritime terminal
operators in the world[160][161] has its headquarters and main operations on the ports of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian
Terminal Incorporated, has its corporate office and main operations in the Manila South Harbor and its container depository located in
Santa Mesa.

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Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world, was the center of
commerce and business activities in the city. Numerous residential and office skyscrapers
are found within its medieval streets. Plans to make the Chinatown area into a business
process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued by the city
government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified to be converted into BPO offices.
These buildings are mostly located along the Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all
unoccupied and can be converted into offices.[162]

Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the Philippines." Numerous

shopping malls are located in this place, which sells products and goods at bargain price. The Port of Manila, the chief port of
Small vendors occupy several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous the Philippines.
landmark in Divisoria is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall that is a part of the
Philippine National Railways' Main Station. It attracts 1 million people every month, but is
expected to add another 400,000 people when the Line 2 West Extension is constructed, which is set to make it as Manila's busiest
transfer station.[163]

Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related products such as

chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods. Food and beverages and tobacco
products also produced. Local entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for
export, including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The food-processing
industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city.

The Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution terminals of the three
major players in the country's petroleum industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas
Shell and Petron Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns,
including its environmental and health impact to the residents of Manila. The Supreme The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the
Court has ordered that the oil depot to be relocated outside the city by July 2015,[164][165] central bank of the Philippines
but it failed to meet this deadline. Most of the oil depot facility inside the 33 hectare
compound have been demolished, and plans are put into place to transform it into a
transport hub or even a food park.

Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines.[166] Manila Bulletin, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by
circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros.[167] Other major publishing companies in the country like The Manila Times, The
Philippine Star and Manila Standard Today are headquartered in the Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines'
oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper[168] is headquartered in Binondo.

Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard.[169] Some universal
banks in the Philippines that has its headquarters in the city are the Landbank of the Philippines and Philippine Trust Company.
Unilever Philippines used to have its corporate office along United Nations Avenue in Paco before transferring to Bonifacio Global City
in 2016.[170] Toyota, a company listed in the Forbes Global 2000, also has its regional office along UN Avenue.

Manila welcomes over 1 million tourists each year.[166] Major tourist destinations include
the historic Walled City of Intramuros, the Cultural Center of the Philippines
Complex,[note 1] Manila Ocean Park, Binondo (Chinatown), Ermita, Malate, Manila Zoo, the
National Museum Complex and Rizal Park.[171] Both the historic Walled City of Intramuros
and Rizal Park were designated as flagship destinations and as a tourism enterprise zones in
the Tourism Act of 2009.[172]

Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park and the largest urban park in
The historic Fort Santiago in Asia[173] with an area of 58 hectares (140 acres),[174] The park was constructed as an honor
and dedication to the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed by the Spaniards
on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal Monument is the Kilometer Zero
marker for distances to the rest of the country. The park was managed by the National Parks and Development Committee.

The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of Intramuros is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the Intramuros
Administration, an attached agency of the Department of Tourism. It contains the famed Manila Cathedral and the 18th Century San
Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kalesa is a popular mode of transportation for tourists in Intramuros and nearby

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places including Binondo, Ermita and Rizal Park.[175] Known as the oldest chinatown in the world, Binondo was established on 1521
and it was already a hub of Chinese commerce even before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines. Its main attractions are Binondo
Church, Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch, Seng Guan Buddhist temple and authentic Chinese restaurants.

Manila is designated as the country's pioneer of medical tourism, expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually.[176] However,
lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its

Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in Asia.[178][179] Major shopping
malls, department stores, markets, supermarkets and bazaars thrive within the city.

One of the city's famous shopping destinations is Divisoria, home to numerous shopping
malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban Center and the Lucky Chinatown Mall. It is
also dubbed as the shopping mecca of the Philippines where everything is sold at bargain
price. There are almost 1 million shoppers in Divisoria according to the Manila Police
District.[180] Binondo, the oldest Chinatown in the world,[49] is the city's center of
commerce and trade for all types of businesses run by Filipino-Chinese merchants with a Divisoria is a popular flea market for
locals and tourists.
wide variety of Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants. Quiapo is referred to as the "Old
Downtown", where tiangges, markets, boutique shops, music and electronics stores are
common. C.M. Recto Avenue is where lots of department stores are located.

Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city.[181] The mall was the second and the largest Robinsons Malls built. SM
Supermall operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM City Manila and SM City San Lazaro. SM City Manila is located on
the former grounds of YMCA Manila beside the Manila City Hall in Ermita, while SM City San Lazaro is built on the site of the former
San Lazaro Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz. The building of the former Manila Royal Hotel in Quiapo, which is famed for its revolving
restaurant atop, is now the SM Clearance Center that was established in 1972.[182] The site of the first SM Store is located at Carlos
Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague) Street in San Miguel.


As the cultural center of the Philippines, Manila is the home to a number of museums. The
National Museum Complex of the National Museum of the Philippines, located in Rizal
Park, is composed of the National Museum of Fine Arts, the National Museum of
Anthropology, the National Museum of Natural History, and the National Planetarium. The
famous painting of Juan Luna, the Spoliarium, can be found in the complex. The city also
hosts the repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and other
literary and information resources, the National Library. Museums established or run by
educational institutions are the Mabini Shrine, the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art
and Design, UST Museum of Arts and Sciences, and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas. The National Museum of Fine Arts.

Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's most prominent

museums, documents the Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines.
The Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for freedom
during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other revolutionary leaders. The
Metropolitan Museum of Manila is a museum of modern and contemporary visual arts
exhibits the Filipino arts and culture.

The National Museum of Natural Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned museum that exhibits
History at Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park. the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata, a children's museum and a place of hands-on
discovery and fun learning, and Plaza San Luis which is an outdoor heritage public museum
that contains a collection of nine Spanish Bahay na Bató houses. Ecclesiastical museums in
the located in the city are the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned in Santa Ana, the San Agustin Church Museum and the Museo
de Intramuros which houses the ecclesiastical art collection of the Intramuros Administration in the reconstructed San Ignacio Church
and Convent.
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Sports in Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city's, and in general the
country's main sport is basketball, and most barangays have a basketball court or at least a
makeshift basketball court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays
have covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer (April to May).
Manila has many sports venues, such as the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex and San
Andres Gym, the home of the now defunct Manila Metrostars.[183] The Rizal Memorial
Sports Complex houses the Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball
Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium (the latter two
Children playing basketball at the
are indoor arenas). The Rizal complex had hosted several multi-sport events, such as the
ruins of San Ignacio Church in
1954 Asian Games and the 1934 Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Intramuros
Southeast Asian Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005 Games,
most events were held elsewhere. The 1960 ABC Championship and the 1973 ABC
Championship, forerunners of the FIBA Asia Championship, was hosted by the complex,
with the national basketball team winning on both tournaments. The 1978 FIBA World
Championship was held at the complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta
Coliseum in Quezon City, Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena at that time.

Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the Enrique M. Razon Sports
Center and the University of Santo Tomas Sports Complex, both of which are private venues
owned by a university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University Athletic
Association of the Philippines and the National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball
The Intramuros Golf Club
games held at Rizal Memorial Coliseum and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball
events had transferred to San Juan's Filoil Flying V Arena and the Araneta Coliseum in
Quezon City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the
city, but the Philippine Basketball Association now holds their games at Araneta Coliseum and Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now
defunct Philippine Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex.

The Manila Storm are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains
Field, Calamba, Laguna. Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the
country, at the Rizal Memorial Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of Baseball Philippines; Lou Gehrig and Babe Ruth were the
first players to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on December 2, 1934.[184] Another popular sport in the city
are cue sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010 World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila.[185]

The Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA World Cup qualifier in decades when the Philippines hosted Sri
Lanka in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for international matches, had undergone a major renovation program
before the match.[186] The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its
first rugby test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I tournaments.[187]

Festivities and holidays

Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the city's citizens are Roman
Catholics as a result of the Spanish colonization,[188] most of the festivities are religious in
nature. Manila Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571 by Spanish
conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, was first proclaimed by Herminio A. Astorga (then
Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. It has been annually commemorated under the
patronage of John the Baptist, and has always been declared by the national government as
a special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations. Each of the city's 896
barangays also have their own festivities guided by their own patron saint.
Catholic devotees during the Feast
of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
The city is also the host to the Procession of the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon),
held every January 9, which draws millions of Catholic devotees. Other religious festivities
held in Manila are the Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and Pandacan held on the third Sunday of January, the Feast of the Nuestra
Señora de los Desamparados de Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana which was held every May 12, and
the Flores de Mayo. Non-religious holidays include the New Year's Day, National Heroes' Day, Bonifacio Day and Rizal Day.

Law and government

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Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national capital of the Philippines and
is classified as a Special City (according to its income)[189][190] and a Highly Urbanized City
(HUC). The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor, the 36-member
City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the Association of Barangay Captains, and
the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan. The members of the City Council are elected
as representatives of specific congressional districts within the city. The city, however, have
no control over Intramuros and the Manila North Harbor. The historic Walled City is
administered by the Intramuros Administration, while the Manila North Harbor is
managed by the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies. The
Manila City Hall, the seat of city
barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee the welfare of the city's
constituents and cannot exercise their executive powers. Manila has a total of 15,489
personnel complement by the end of 2018.[191]

The current mayor is Francisco "Isko Moreno" Domagoso, who served as the City's Vice Mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria
Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former Manila Vice Mayor Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-
limited by up to 3 terms, with each term lasting for 3 years.

Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has several national government
offices headquartered at the city. Planning for the development for being the center of
government started during the early years of American colonization when they envisioned a
well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The strategic location chosen was
Bagumbayan, a former town which is now the Rizal Park to become the center of
government and a design commission was given to Daniel Burnham to create a master plan
for the city patterned after Washington, D.C. These improvements were eventually
abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L. Quezon.
Palacio del Gobernador in
A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of Manila, or what is now Intramuros is home to the Philippine
Quezon City. Several government agencies have set up their headquarters in Quezon City Commission on Elections and
Intramuros Administration.
but several key government offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were
substantially altered after the devastation of Manila during World War II and by subsequent

The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as well as the president's official residence. Aside from these, important
government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the
Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call
the city home. Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National Library, National Archives, National Museum and
the Philippine General Hospital.

Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972, due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its
successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new Batasang Pambansa Complex. When a new constitution restored
the bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old
Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new building it shares with the Government Service Insurance System at
reclaimed land at Pasay. The Supreme Court will also transfer to its new campus at Bonifacio Global City, Taguig in 2019.[192]

In the 2018 Annual Audit Report published by the Commission on Audit, it is stated that the total revenue of the City of Manila
amounts to ₱14.1 billion.[191] It is one of the cities with the highest tax collection and internal revenue allotment.[193] The Tax Revenue
of the city amounts to ₱7.3 billion. It total Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA), coming from the National Treasury, amounts to ₱2.94
billion. The city's total Assets was worth ₱40.7 billion in 2018.[191] The City of Manila has the highest budget allocation to healthcare
among all the cities and municipalities in the Philippines.

Barangays and districts

Unofficial Barangay Map of Manila produced by the City Planning and Development Office

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Manila is made up of 896 barangays,[194] which are grouped into 100 Zones for
statistical convenience. Manila has the most number of barangays in the
Philippines.[195] Attempts at reducing its number have not prospered despite local
legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed on April 23, 1996—reducing the number from 896
to 150 by merging existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.[196]

District I (2015 population: 415,906)[197] covers the western part of Tondo and is
the most densely populated Congressional District. It is the home to one of the
biggest urban poor communities. The Smokey Mountain in Balut Island is once
known as the largest landfill where thousands of impoverished people lives in the
slums. After the closure of the landfill in 1995, mid-rise housing buildings were
built in place. This district also contains the Manila North Harbour Centre, the
Manila North Harbor, and the Manila International Container Terminal of the Port
of Manila.
District II (2015 population: 215,457)[197] covers the eastern part of Tondo known
as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular shopping place in the Philippines Manila is divided into six congressional
and the site of the Main Terminal Station of the Philippine National Railways. districts as shown in the map.
District III (2015 population: 221,780)[197] covers Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas
and Santa Cruz. It encompasses the so-called "Downtown Manila" or traditional
business district of the city and the oldest Chinatown in the world.
District IV (2015 population: 265,046)[197] covers Sampaloc and some parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the University of Santo
Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia.
District V (2015 population: 366,714)[197] covers Ermita, Malate, Paco, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of
Santa Ana. The historic Walled City is located here, along with Manila Cathedral and San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World
Heritage Site.

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District VI (2007 population: 295,245)[197] covers Pandacan, San Miguel, Santa

Ana, Santa Mesa and a portion of Paco. Santa Ana district is known for its 18th
Century Santa Ana Church and historic ancestral houses. Polytechnic University
of the Philippines is located here, the most populous university in the Philippines.

District map of Manila that shows its

sixteen districts.

Name Area Density Barangays
District (2015)
km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi
Binondo 3 0.6611 0.2553 18,040 27,000 70,000 10
Ermita 5 1.5891 0.6136 10,523 6,600 17,000 13
Intramuros 5 0.6726 0.2597 5,935 8,800 23,000 5
Malate 5 2.5958 1.0022 86,196 33,000 85,000 57
Paco 5&6 2.7869 1.0760 82,466 30,000 78,000 43
Pandacan 6 1.66 0.64 87,405 53,000 140,000 38
Port Area 5 3.1528 1.2173 66,742 21,000 54,000 5
Quiapo 3 0.8469 0.3270 28,478 34,000 88,000 16
Sampaloc 4 5.1371 1.9834 265,046 52,000 130,000 192
San Andrés 5 1.6802 0.6487 128,499 76,000 200,000 65
San Miguel 6 0.9137 0.3528 17,464 19,000 49,000 12
San Nicolas 3 1.6385 0.6326 43,069 26,000 67,000 15
Santa Ana 6 1.6942 0.6541 66,656 39,000 100,000 34
Santa Cruz 3 3.0901 1.1931 118,903 38,000 98,000 82
Santa Mesa 6 2.6101 1.0078 110,073 42,000 110,000 51
Tondo 1&2 8.6513 3.3403 631,363 73,000 190,000 258


Development of public housing in the city began in the 1930s when the United States rule over the Philippines. Americans have to deal
with the problem of sanitation and concentration of settlers around business areas. Business codes and sanitation laws were
implemented in the 1930s. During this period until the 1950s, new communities were opened for relocation. Among these were
Projects 1–8 in Diliman, Quezon City and the Vitas tenement houses in Tondo. The government implemented the Public Housing
Policy in 1947 that established the People's Homesite and Housing Corporation (PHHC). A few years later, it put up the Slum Clearance
Committee which, with the help of the PHHC, relocated thousands of families from Tondo and Quezon City to Sapang Palay in San
Jose del Monte, Bulacan in the 1960s.

In 2016, the national government completed several medium-rise houses for 300 Manila residents whose slum community was
destroyed by a fire in 2011.[198] Recently, Mayor Isko Moreno plans to retrofit dilapidated tenements within the city. A meeting was
held with the National Housing Authority for the relocation of affected residents.[199]

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One of the more famous modes of transportation
in Manila is the jeepney. Patterned after U.S.
Army jeeps, these have been in use since the
years immediately following World War II.[200]
The Tamaraw FX, the third generation Toyota
Kijang, which competed directly with jeepneys
The Smokey Mountain Housing and followed fixed routes for a set price, once
Project was built on a former landfill. plied the streets of Manila. They were replaced
Jeepney is one of the most popular
Continuous development of housing by the UV Express. All types of public road modes of transportation in Manila
buildings continues up to the transport plying Manila are privately owned and
present day.
operated under government franchise.

On a for-hire basis, the city is served by

numerous taxicabs, "tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the auto
rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads", which are also known as "kuligligs" (bicycles with a
sidecars, the Philippine version of pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria,
motorized pedicabs are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular tourist
attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of Binondo and Intramuros. Manila will
phase out all gasoline-run tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles (e-
trikes), and plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to qualified tricycle drivers from the
Pureza Station of Line 2 in Santa
city.[201][202] As of January 2018, the city has already distributed e-trikes to a number of
drivers and operators in Binondo, Ermita, Malate and Santa Cruz.[203]

The city is serviced by Line 1 and Line 2, which form the Manila Light Rail Transit System,
as well as the Manila Metro Rail Transit System, currently made up of one line (Line 3) with
several more in development. Development of the railway system began in the 1970s under
the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line 1 was built, making it the first light rail
transport in Southeast Asia, though despite the name "light rail", Line 1 operates as a Light
Metro running on dedicated right-of-way. Line 2 on the other hand, operates as a full-metro
heavy-rail system. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar
expansion.[204] Line 1 runs along the length of Taft Avenue (N170/R-2) and Rizal Avenue
(N150/R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto Avenue (N145/C-1) and Ramon
Blumentritt Station of the Line 1
Magsaysay Boulevard (N180/R-6) from Santa Cruz, through Quezon City, up to Masinag in
Antipolo, Rizal. Line 3 runs from Taft Avenue, where it intersects with the EDSA station on
Line 1, northward through the eastern part of the city, eventually meeting with Line 2 at Araneta Center-Cubao Station before
eventually terminating in the north of the city at North Avenue Station, with plans to extend the line to link up with Roosevelt Station
at the northern terminus of Line 1.

The main terminal of the Philippine National Railways lies within the city. One commuter railway within Metro Manila is in operation.
The line runs in a general north-south direction from Tutuban (Tondo) toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila, located at
the western section of the city at the vicinity of Manila Bay, is the chief seaport of the Philippines. The Pasig River Ferry Service which
runs on the Pasig River is another form of transportation. The city is also served by the Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark
International Airport.

In 2006, Forbes magazine ranked Manila the world's most congested city. According to Waze's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index",
Manila is the town with the worst traffic worldwide.[205] Manila is notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities.[206] The
government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in the city. Some of the projects include: the proposed construction
of a new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of España Boulevard and Lacson Avenue,[207] the construction of the Metro Manila
Skyway Stage 3, the proposed Line 2 West Extension Project from Recto Avenue to Pier 4 of the Manila North Harbor,[208] the
proposed construction of the PNR East-West line which will run through España Boulevard up to Quezon City, and the expansion and
widening of several national and local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful impact, and the traffic jams and
congestion continue unabated.[209]

The Metro Manila Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and
medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to 2030.[210][211]

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Water and electricity

Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, which served 30% of the city with most
other sewage being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open canals.[212] MWSS was privatized in 1997, which split the
water concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services took over the west zone of which Manila is a part. It now
provides the supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in Manila,[213] but it does not provide service to the
southeastern part of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila Water. Electric services are provided by Meralco,
the sole electric power distributor in Metro Manila.

The Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and implementation of the
health care programs provided by the city government. It operates 59 health centers and six
city-run hospitals, which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public city-run
hospitals are the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres
Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital, and Justice Jose
Abad Santos General Hospital.[214] Manila is also the site of the Philippine General
Hospital, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the University of
the Philippines Manila. The city is also planning to put up an education, research and
hospital facility for cleft-palate patients.[215][216]
The Philippine General Hospital, the
Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private hospitals that operates largest medical center and the
national referral center for health in
in the city are the Manila Doctors Hospital, Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center,
the Philippines.
Dr. José R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center, Our Lady of
Lourdes Hospital, and the University of Santo Tomas Hospital.

The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a
special referral tertiary hospital. Manila is also the home to the headquarters of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for the
Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines.

The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria,
tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016, a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been “fully
immunized”.[217] The Manila Dialysis Center that provides free services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee
on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.[218][219]

The center of education since the colonial
period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is
home to several Philippine universities and
colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as
the home of the University of Santo Tomas
(1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620),
Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of
the Philippines University and the Mapua
The campus of the University of the
Institute of Technology. Only Colegio de San
De La Salle University is a Lasallian City of Manila and Baluarte de San
Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros;
educational institution established in Diego in Intramuros.
1911. the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a
new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo
left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its
name) in 1952.

The University of the City of Manila (Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila) located at Intramuros, and Universidad de Manila located
just outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila city government.

The University of the Philippines (1908), the premier state university, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central
administrative offices from Manila to Diliman in 1949 and eventually made the original campus the University of the Philippines
Manila – the oldest of the constituent universities of the University of the Philippines System and the center of health sciences

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education in the country.[220] The city is also the site of the main campus of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines, the largest university in the country in terms of student

The University Belt refers to the area where there is a high concentration or a cluster of
colleges and universities in the city and it is commonly understood as the one where the San
Miguel, Quiapo and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of
España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the eastern end of Claro M.
Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different
side streets. Each of the colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance The University of Santo Tomas is
of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern bank of the Pasig River, the oldest existing university in Asia,
established in 1611.
mostly at the Intramuros and Ermita districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the
southernmost part of Malate near the city limits such as the private co-educational
institution of De La Salle University, the largest of all De La Salle University System of schools.

The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education
system. It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high schools.[222] The city also contains the Manila Science High School,
the pilot science high school of the Philippines.

Notable people

Sister cities

Asia Pacific
Bacoor, Philippines[223]
Bangkok, Thailand[224]
Beijing, People's Republic of China[225][226]
Dili, East Timor[227][228]
Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China[226]
Haifa, Israel[229]
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam[230]
Incheon, South Korea[231]
Jakarta, Indonesia[232]
Nantan, Kyoto, Japan[233]
Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan[234]
Osaka, Japan (Business Partner)[235]
Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands[236]
Shanghai, People's Republic of China[237]
Taipei, Taiwan[238]
Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan[239][240]
Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan[240][241]

Bucharest, Romania[234]
Lisbon, Portugal[242]
Madrid, Spain[243]
Màlaga, Spain[234]
Moscow, Russia[234]
Nice, France[244]

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Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico[245]

Cartagena, Colombia[234]
Havana, Cuba[234]
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[246][247]
Lima, Peru[234]
Maui County, Hawaii, United States[247]
Mexico City, Mexico
Montevideo, Uruguay[248]
Montreal, Quebec, Canada[249]
New York City, New York, United States (Global Partner)[250]
Panama City, Panama[251]
Sacramento, California, United States[247]
San Francisco, California, United States[247]
Santiago, Chile[234]
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada[252]

International relations


Country Type Ref.

Canada Consular agency [253]

United States Consular agency [254]

The Russian Federation Honorary consul [255]

Finland Honorary consul [256]

France Honorary consul [257]

Mexico Honorary consul [258]

Poland Honorary consul [259]

Spain Honorary consul [260]

United Kingdom Honorary consul [261]

Serbia Honorary consul

See also
Cities of the Philippines
List of cities in the Philippines
Greater Manila Area
Mega Manila
Imperial Manila
Rajahnate of Maynila
Rizal Avenue
Hidalgo Street
Manila – Wikipedia book

1. The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place south of the street belongs to Pasay. Buildings and structures in
CCP that falls under the jurisdiction of Manila includes the National Theater.

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2. "Cities" (https://web.archive.org/web/20130309004634/http://dilg.gov.ph/cities.php). Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the
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-based-2015-census-population). Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
8. This is the original Spanish, even used by José Rizal in El filibusterismo.
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ned-harvard/). Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 7, 2018.
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erupload/annual_audit_report/LGUs/2014/NCR/Cities/City_of_Manila_ES2014.pdf) (PDF). 2014. Archived from the original (http://
www.coa.gov.ph/index.php/local-government-units/2014/category/5447-cities) on November 4, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
12. Frank, Andre G. (1998). ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 131.
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manila-is-worlds-second-riskiest-city-to-live-in-poll). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
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15. Cruz, Isagani (December 17, 2009). "The first university" (http://www.philstar.com/education-and-home/532930/first-university).
The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
16. "22 Things We No Longer See in Manila" (http://www.filipiknow.net/things-and-landmarks-we-no-longer-see-in-manila/).
FilipiKnow.net. July 14, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
17. "Quiapo underpass for pedestrians, not business" (http://conceptnewscentral.com/index.php/2016/12/23/quiapo-underpass-pedest
rians-not-business/). Concept News Central. December 23, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
18. "A Brief History of Manila Science High School" (http://www.manilascience.edu.ph/about/history/brief-history-manila-science-high-s
chool). Manila Science High School. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
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External links
Official Website of the City of Manila (https://web.archive.org/web/20170223001303/http://manila.gov.ph/)
Geographic data related to Manila (https://www.openstreetmap.org/relation/103703) at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Capital of the Philippines Succeeded by

Quezon City 1976–present Incumbent
Preceded by Capital of the Philippines Succeeded by
Iloilo 1571–1948 Quezon City

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