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Types of Semiconductors

Semiconductors can be classified as:

1. Intrinsic Semiconductor.

2. Extrinsic Semiconductor.

Extrinsic Semiconductors are further classified as:

a. n-type Semiconductors.

b. p-type Semiconductors.

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Si Si Si
Si
Si
Si
Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor

FREE ELECTRON

Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor
Si Si Si
Si
Si
Si
Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor
Intrinsic Semiconductor Si Si Si FREE ELECTRON Si Si Si HOLE Si Si Si • Semiconductor

HOLE

Si Si Si
Si
Si
Si

• Semiconductor in pure form is known as Intrinsic Semiconductor.

• Ex. Pure Germanium, Pure Silicon.

• At room temp. no of electrons equal to no. of holes.

Fig 1.

Energy in ev

Intrinsic semiconductor energy band diagram

Conduction Band

Intrinsic semiconductor energy band diagram Conduction Band Valence Band FERMI LEVEL Fig 2. Fermi level lies
Intrinsic semiconductor energy band diagram Conduction Band Valence Band FERMI LEVEL Fig 2. Fermi level lies
Intrinsic semiconductor energy band diagram Conduction Band Valence Band FERMI LEVEL Fig 2. Fermi level lies

Valence Band

FERMI

LEVEL

Fig 2. Fermi level lies in the middle

Extrinsic

Semiconductor

• When we add an impurity to pure semiconductor to increase the charge carriers then it becomes an Extrinsic Semiconductor.

• In extrinsic semiconductor without breaking the covalent bonds we can increase the charge carriers.

Comparison of semiconductors

Intrinsic Semiconductor

1. It is in pure form.

2. Holes and electrons are equal.

Extrinsic Semiconductor

1. It is formed by adding trivalent or pentavalent impurity to a pure semiconductor.

2. No. of holes are more in p- type and no. of electrons are more in n-type.

(Cont.,)

3. Fermi level lies in between valence and conduction Bands.

4. Ratio of majority and minority carriers is unity.

3. Fermi level lies near valence band in p-type and near conduction band in n-type.

4. Ratio of majority and minority carriers are equal.

ComparisonComparison betweenbetween n-typen-type andand p-typep-type semiconductorssemiconductors

N-type

• Pentavalent impurities are added.

• Majority carriers are electrons.

• Minority carriers are holes.

• Fermi level is near the conduction band.

P-type

• Trivalent impurities are added.

• Majority carriers are holes.

• Minority carriers are electrons.

• Fermi level is near the valence band.

N-type Semiconductor

• When we add a pentavalent impurity to pure semiconductor we get n-type semiconductor.

As
As

Fig 1.

N-type Pure Si si
N-type
Pure
Si
si

N-type Semiconductor

• Arsenic atom has 5 valence electrons.

• Fifth electron is superfluous, becomes free electron and enters into conduction band.

• Therefore pentavalent impurity donates one electron and becomes positive donor ion. Pentavalent impurity known as donor.

P-type Semiconductor

• When we add a Trivalent impurity to pure semiconductor we get p-type semiconductor.

Ga
Ga

Fig 2.

P-type Pure Si si
P-type
Pure
Si
si

P-type Semiconductor

• Gallium atom has 3 valence electrons.

• It makes covalent bonds with adjacent three electrons of silicon atom.

• There is a deficiency of one covalent bond and creates a hole.

• Therefore trivalent impurity accepts one electron and becomes negative acceptor ion. Trivalent impurity known as acceptor.

Carriers in P-type Semiconductor

• In addition to this, some of the covalent bonds break due temperature and electron hole pairs generates.

• Holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carriers.

P and N type Semiconductors

P

Acceptor ion

- - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Minority electron

Majority holes

Donor ion N + + + + + + + + + + + Majority
Donor ion
N
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Majority electrons
Minority hole

Fig 3.

Comparison of semiconductors

Intrinsic

Semiconductor

1. It is in pure form.

Extrinsic Semiconductor

1. It formed by adding trivalent or pentavalent impurity to a pure semiconductor.

2. Holes and electrons are equal.

2. No. of holes are more in p- type and no. of electrons are more in n-type.

3. Fermi level lies near valence band in p-type and near conduction band in n-type.

3. Fermi level lies in between valence and conduction Bands.

AEI105.121 to 122

14

Conduction in Semiconductors

Conduction is carried out by means of

1. Drift Process.

2. Diffusion Process.

Drift process

A CB B VB V Fig 4.
A
CB
B
VB
V
Fig 4.

• Electrons move from external circuit and in conduction band of a semiconductor.

• Holes move in valence band of a semiconductor.

Diffusion process

Diffusion process X=a Fig 5. • Moving of electrons from higher concentration gradient to lower concentration

X=a

Fig 5.

• Moving of electrons from higher concentration gradient to lower concentration gradient is known as diffusion process.

P and N type Semiconductors

P

Acceptor ion

- - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Minority electron

Majority holes

Donor ion N + + + + + + + + + + + Majority
Donor ion
N
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Majority electrons
Minority hole

Fig 1.

Formation of pn diode

Depletion Region

P N + - - - + + + - + - + + +
P
N
+
-
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
-

Fig 2. Formation of pn diode Depletion Region P N + - - - + + + -

19

Formation of pn diode

• A P-N junction is formed , if donor impurities are introduced into one side ,and acceptor impurities Into other side of a single crystal of semiconductor

• Initially there are P type carriers to the left side of the junction and N type carriers to the right side as shown in figure 1

• On formation of pn junction electrons from n- layer and holes from p-layer diffuse towards the junction and recombination takes place at the junction.

• And leaves an immobile positive donor ions at n- side and negative acceptor ions at p-side.

Formation of pn diode

• A potential barrier develops at the junction whose voltage is 0.3V for germanium and 0.7V for silicon.

• Then further diffusion stops and results a depletion region at the junction.

Depletion region

• Since the region of the junction is depleted of mobile charges it is called the depletion region or the space charge region or the transition region.

• The thickness of this region is of the order of 0.5 micrometers

Circuit symbol of pn diode

Circuit symbol of pn diode K A Fig 3. • Arrow head indicates the direction of
K
K
K
K

K

K

A

Fig 3.

• Arrow head indicates the direction of conventional current flow.

P-N Junction Diode- Forward Biasing

P-N Junction Diode- Forward Biasing Fig. 1 P-N junction with FB AEI105.124 25

Fig. 1 P-N junction with FB

Working of P-N Junction under FB

P N
P
N

V

Working of P-N Junction under FB P N V AEI105.124 Potential barrier Fig. 2 Working of

AEI105.124

Potential barrier

Fig. 2 Working of P-N junction

26

Forward Bias

• An ext. Battery applied with +ve on p-side, −ve on n- side.

• The holes on p-side repelled from the +ve bias, the electrons on n- side repelled from the −ve bias .

• The majority charge carriers driven towards the junction.

• This results in reduction of depletion layer width and barrier potential.

• As the applied bias steadily increased from zero onwards the majority charge carriers attempts to cross junction.

AEI105.124

27

• Holes from p-side flow across to the −ve terminal on the n-side, and electrons from n-side flow across to the +ve terminal on the p-side.

• As the ext. bias exceeds the Junction barrier potential (0.3 V for Germanium, 0.7 V for Silicon ) the current starts to increase at an exponential rate.

• Now, a little increase in forward bias will cause steep rise in majority current.

• The device simply behaves as a low resistance path.

Features:

• Behaves as a low resistor.

• The current is mainly due to the flow of majority carriers across the junction.

• Potential barrier, and the depletion layer is reduced

Current components

Current components Fig. 3 Current components AEI105.124 30

Fig. 3 Current components

P-N Junction Diode- Reverse Biasing

P-N Junction Diode- Reverse Biasing Fig.1 P-N P-N Junction Junction Diode Diode with with Reverse Reverse

Fig.1 P-NP-N JunctionJunction DiodeDiode withwith ReverseReverse biasbias (RB)(RB)

P-N Junction working under reverse bias

P-N Junction working under reverse bias P N Fig.2 P-N Junction Diode working under RB V

P

N

Fig.2 P-N Junction Diode working under RB

V

P-N Junction working under reverse bias P N Fig.2 P-N Junction Diode working under RB V

AEI105.125

Potential barrier

32

P-N Junction Diode- Reverse Bias

• External bias voltage applied with +ve on n-side, −ve on p- side.

• This RB bias aids the internal field.

• The majority carriers i.e. holes on p-side, the electrons on n- side attracted by the negative and positive terminal of the supply respectively.

• This widens the depletion layer width and strengthens the barrier potential.

• Few hole-electron pairs are created due to thermal agitation (minority carriers).

• As a result small current flows across the junction called as reverse saturation current I 0 (uA for Germanium, nA for Silicon).

• Behaves as a high impedance element.

• Further rise in reverse bias causes the collapse of junction barrier called breakdown of the diode.

• This causes sudden increase in flow of carriers across the junction and causes abrupt increase in current.

P-N JUNCTION

P-N JUNCTION Fig 1. AEI105.126 36

Fig 1.

JUNCTION PROPERTIES

1. The junction contains immobile ions i.e. this region is depleted of mobile charges.

2. This region is called the depletion region, the space charge region, or transition region.

3. It is in the order of 1 micron width.

1. The cut-in voltage is 0.3v for Ge, 0.6v for Si.

(Contd )

5. The reverse saturation current doubles for every 10 degree Celsius rise in temperature.

6. Forward resistance is in the order ohms, the reverse resistance is in the order mega ohms.

7. The Transition region increases with reverse bias this region also considered as a variable capacitor and known as Transition capacitance

V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction Diode

V-I Characteristics of P-N Junction Diode Fig 2. AEI105.126 39

Fig 2.

(Contd…)

I F (mA)

Forward bias

(Contd…) I F (mA) Forward bias I R (uA) Breakdown voltage V R (V) V F

I R (uA)

Breakdown voltage

I F (mA) Forward bias I R (uA) Breakdown voltage V R (V) V F (V)

V R (V)

V F (V)

Cutin voltage

Reverse Bias

Fig 3.

AEI105.126 41

Diode Current

The expression for Diode current is

I

=

I ( e

0

V

nV

t

1)

Where I o= Reverse Saturation current.

V=Applied Voltage. V t =Volt equivalent temperature=T(K)/11600.

n=1 for germanium and 2 for silicon.

Resistance calculation

I F (mA)

Forward bias

ΔV I f V ΔI r V f I Cutin voltage r Reverse Bias
ΔV
I
f
V
ΔI
r
V
f
I
Cutin voltage
r
Reverse Bias

I

R (uA)

Fig 4.

Breakdown voltage

V R (V)

V F (V)

Resistance calculation

Forward Resistance

1. Dynamic resistance (r f )= ΔV/ ΔI

ohms.

Where ΔV, ΔI are incremental voltage and current values on Forward characteristics.

2. Static resistance (R f )= V f /I f

…ohms.

Where V f, I f are voltage and current values on Forward characteristics.

(Contd )

Reverse Resistance:

Static resistance = V r /I r

…ohms

Where V r , I r are voltage and current values on Reverse characteristics.

Diode-Variants

• Rectifier diodes: These diodes are used for AC to DC conversion Over voltage protection.

• Signal diodes : Detection of signals in AM/FM Receivers.

• Zener diode: Voltage Regulation purpose.

• Varactor diode for variable capacitance Electronic tuning commonly used in TV receivers.

(contd…)

• Light Emitting Diodes (LED) :

Display Light source in Fiber optic comm.

• Photo diodes : Light detectors in Fiber optic comm.

• Tunnel diode: Negative resistance for Microwave oscillations

• Gunn diode :Microwave Oscillator.

• Shottkey diode: High speed Logic circuits

Semiconductor diodes

Semiconductor diodes Fig. 1 Diode variants V i s u a l - 1 AEI105.127 48

Fig. 1 Diode variants

Semiconductor diodes Fig. 1 Diode variants V i s u a l - 1 AEI105.127 48

Visual - 1

Diode numbering

First Standard (EIA/JEDEC):

In this approach the semiconductor devices are identified with the no of junctions.

1N series : single junction devices such as P-N junction Diode. e.g.: 1N4001,1N3020.

2N series : Two junction devices such as Transistors. e.g.:

2N2102,1N3904.

EIA= Electronic Industries association JDEC=Joint Electron Engineering Council.

(contd…)

Second Standard

In this method devices given with alpha-numeric codes. And each alphabet has a specific information which tells about application, material of fabrication.

First Letter: material A=Germanium. B=Silicon. C=Gallium arsenide. R=compound material (e.g. Cadmium sulphide).

(contd )

Second Letter: For device type and function

A= Diode. B= Varactor. C= AF Low Power Transistor. D= AF Power Transistor. E= Tunnel Diode. F= HF Low Power Transistor. L= HF Power Transistor. S= Switching Transistor. R= Thyristor/Triac. Y= power device. Z= Zener.

(contd )

Third Letter: Tolerance

A :±1%.

B :±2%.

C :±5%.

D :±10%.

Examples:

1. AC128: Germanium AF low power Transistor.

2. BC149: Silicon AF low power Transistor.

(contd…)

3. BY114

4. BZC 6.3 : Silicon Zener diode Vz= 6.3v.

5. BY127

: Silicon Crystal diode.

: Silicon rectifier diode.

Lead Identification:

Commonly the cathode is identified with a band marking a dot marking or with a rounded edge.

is identified with a band marking a dot marking or with a rounded edge. Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Diode lead identification

Specifications

1. Peak inverse voltage (PIV) It is the max. voltage a diode can survive under reverse bias.

2. Max. Forward current (I f ).

It is the maximum current that can flow through the diode under forward bias condition.

3. Reverse saturation current (I o ).

Amount of current flow through the diode under reverse bias condition.

Specifications (contd…)

4. Max power rating (P max ).

Maximum power that can be dissipated in the diode.

5. Operating Temperature ( o C ). The range of temperature over which diode can be operated.

Applications

1. Rectifier circuits for AC-DC Conversion.

2. Over voltage protection circuits.

3. Limiter, Clamping, voltage doublers circuits.

4. Signal detector in AM/FM Receivers.

5. In transistor bias compensation networks.

6. Digital Logic gates.

ZENER DIODE

• Invented by “C.Zener”.

• Heavily doped diode.

• Thin depletion region.

Sharp break down voltage called zener voltage V z.

• Forward characteristics are same as pn diode characteristics.

CIRCUIT SYMBOL

Anode

cathode

CIRCUIT SYMBOL Anode cathode Fig 2. Circuit symbol of zener diode • Arrow head indicates the

Fig 2. Circuit symbol of zener diode

Arrow head indicates the direction of conventional current flow.

• “Z” symbol at cathode is a indication for zener diode.

PHOTOS OF ZENER DIODES

K A
K
A
K A
K
A

Fig 3. photos of Zener Diodes

PHOTOS OF ZENER DIODES

PHOTOS OF ZENER DIODES Fig. 4. Fig 3. photos of Zener Diodes AEI105.128 61
PHOTOS OF ZENER DIODES Fig. 4. Fig 3. photos of Zener Diodes AEI105.128 61

Fig. 4. Fig 3. photos of Zener Diodes

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

In forward bias

R f

Acts as a closed switch.

Practical

Ideal Fig 5. Equivalent circuit in forward bias

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

in reverse bias

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT in reverse bias For the voltage below break down voltage V z Acts as

For the voltage below break down voltage V z

Acts as a open switch

Fig 6. Equivalent circuit in reverse bias for voltage below V z

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT

in reverse bias

V z

R Z V z
R
Z
V
z

Ideal

Practical

For the voltage above break

down voltage

V z

Acts as a constant voltage source

Fig 7. Equivalent circuit of zener diode for voltage above V z

ZENER BREAK DOWN

• Break down in Zener Diode.

• In heavily doped diode field intensity is more at junction.

• Applied reverse voltage setup strong electric field.

• Thin depletion region in zener diode.

ZENER BREAK DOWN MECHANISM

Depletion Region

P

ZENER BREAK DOWN MECHANISM Depletion Region P N - + - + - - + +

N

- + - + - - + + + - + - + - +
- +
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
- +
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
- +
-
+
- +
-
+

Fig 1. Zener Break down Mechanism animated

ZENER BREAK DOWN MECHANISM

Depletion Region

P

ZENER BREAK DOWN MECHANISM Depletion Region P N - + - + - - + +

N

- + - + - - + + + - + - + - +
- +
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
-
+
- +
-
+
+
+
-
-
-
+
+
-
-
- +
-
+
- +
-
+

Fig 2. Zener Break down mechanism

ZENER BREAKDOWN

• Applied field enough to break covalent bonds in the depletion region.

• Extremely large number of electrons and holes results.

• Produces large reverse current.

Known as Zener Current I Z .

ZENER BREAK DOWN

• This is known as

“Zener Break down”.

• This effect is called

“Ionization by an Electric field”.

AVALANCHE BREAK DOWN

• Break down in PN Diode.

• In lightly doped diode field intensity is not strong to produce zener break down.

• Depletion region width is large in reverse bias.

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN MECHANISM

Depletion Region

P N - - + + - + + - - + - - +
P
N
-
-
+ +
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+ +
+ +
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
+ +
Incident Minority
carriers
Fig 3. Avalanche break down
mechanism animated
AEI105.129
Avalanche
of charge
carriers
71

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN MECHANISM

Depletion Region

P N - - + + - + + - - + - - +
P
N
-
-
+ +
-
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+ +
+ +
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
-
+ +
Incident Minority
carriers
Fig 4. Avalanche Break
down mechanism.
AEI105.129
Avalanche
of charge
carriers
72

AVALANCHE BREAK DOWN

• Velocity of minority carriers increases with reverse bias.

• Minority carriers travels with great velocity and collides with ions in depletion region.

AVALANCHE BREAK DOWN

• Many covalent bonds breaks and generates more charge carriers.

• Generated charge carriers again collides with covalent bonds and again generates the carriers

AVALANCHE BREAK DOWN

• Chain reaction established.

• Creates large current

• This effect is known as Collision”.

“Ionization by

• Damages the junction permanently.

Differences between Zener and Avalanche break downs.

1. Occurs in heavily doped diodes.

1. Occurs in lightly doped diodes.

2. Ionization takes place by electric field.

3. Occurs even with less than 5V.

4. After the breakdown voltage across the zener diode is constant.

2. Ionization takes place by collisions.

3. Occurs at higher voltages.

4. After breakdown voltage across the pn diode is not constant.

VI CHARACTERISTICS OF ZENER DIODE

Voltage versus current characteristics of zener diode.

Characteristics in forward bias.

Characteristics in reverse bias.

FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERSTICS

Anode

cathode

FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERSTICS Anode cathode V Fig 1. zener diode in forward bias AEI105.130 78

V

Fig 1. zener diode in forward bias

FORWARD BIAS

CHARACTERSTICS

I F (mA)

FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERSTICS I F (mA) V F (V) Cutin voltage Fig2. Forward bias charactersticas of
FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERSTICS I F (mA) V F (V) Cutin voltage Fig2. Forward bias charactersticas of

V F (V)

Cutin voltage Fig2. Forward bias charactersticas of zener diode

FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERSTICS

Characteristics same as pn diode.

Not operated in forward bias.

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS

Anode

cathode

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS Anode cathode V Fig 3. Zener diode in Reverse bias AEI105.130 81

V

Fig 3. Zener diode in Reverse bias

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS

ZenerBreakdown

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS ZenerBreakdown V z V R (V) Reverse Bias I R (uA) Fig 4.
REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS ZenerBreakdown V z V R (V) Reverse Bias I R (uA) Fig 4.

V z

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS ZenerBreakdown V z V R (V) Reverse Bias I R (uA) Fig 4.

V R (V)

Reverse Bias

I R (uA) Fig 4. Reverse Bias characterstics of zener diode

REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERSTICS

Always operated in reverse bias.

Reverse voltage at which current increases suddenly and sharply

known as Zener break down voltage.

Zener break down occurs lower voltages than avalanche break down voltage.

After break down the reverse voltage V Z remains constant.

VI CHARACTERISTICS

Fig 5. VI characteristics of Zener diode
Fig 5. VI characteristics of Zener diode

APPLICATIONS OF ZENER DIODE

Used as voltage regulator.

Also used in clipper circuits

SPECIFICATIONS OF ZENER DIODE SpecificationsSpecifications ofof 1n7461n746 zenerzener diodediode

Zener Voltage:

Tolerance range of zener voltage:

Test current I ZT :

Maximum zener Impedance Z ZT:

3.3V

+5% to +10%

Test current I Z T : Maximum zener Impedance Z Z T : 3.3V +5% to
Test current I Z T : Maximum zener Impedance Z Z T : 3.3V +5% to

20

mA

28

ohms

SPECIFICATIONS OF ZENER DIODE SpecificationsSpecifications ofof 1n7461n746 zenerzener diodediode

Maximum d.c. zener current:

Reverse leakage current I s :

Maximum power dissipation:

110mA

10uA

500 mw up to 75 w