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623

MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING


By W.B. Palmer, M.A., Ph.D.*, and P. L. B. Oxley, B.Sc., Ph.D. (Graduate)t
In an attempt to overcome the deficiencies of existing theories of cutting, an experimental
technique was developed for observing the cutting process during slow orthogonal cutting
of mild steel. An attempt to find consistency between the observations and the ideal theory
of plasticity failed. Consequently the theory was extended by including the effect of work-
hardening and, in spite of the laborious nature of the analysis, it appeared that consistency
had been regained. This led to a novel and physically consistent picture of the cutting
process, which was taking place during the tests.

INTRODUCTION Ernst (I) observed from photomicrographs and films that


WHATEVER THE SHAPE of a cutting tool, its action is probably deformation occurred in a fairly MITOW zone, and assumed
connected in some way with the relatively simple case of that this zone could be idealized as a single shear plane.
orthogonal cutting. In orthogonal cutting, the cutting edge The geometry of the process could then be represented as
of the tool is parallel to the work surface and perpendicular in Fig. 1 on which AB is a line of velocity discontinuity
to the direction of cutting. If the width of a cut is large
compared with its depth, side spread is concentrated at the I
edges, and flow in general takes place in planes perpendicular
to the work surface and parallel to the direction of cutting.
I
It is natural that research has concentrated on this relatively
simple problem of plane strain.
It has become customary (I)$ to distinguish between
three types of process, which may take place during
machining: (1) a discontinuous chip made up of segments
may be formed by a crack running at intervals ahead of the
tool; (2) a continuous chip may be formed by plastic de-
formation without fracture; and (3) a continuous chip may
be accompanied by a ‘built-up-edge’ of highly deformed
material which adheres to the tool tip and periodically
breaks down and builds up. It is normally considered that, WORK
with ductile materials at least, any one of these modes may
occur, depending upon the cutting conditions of friction,
Fig. 1. Geometq of Shear Plane Assumption
rake angle, speed, and depth of cut. Only the second process,
termed the shear plane. Applying a minimum work hypo-
however, can be regarded as a steady-motion problem
exhibiting dynamical equilibrium. It is therefore again thesis Merchant (2) obtained a unique solution for the
reasonable that work has concentrated on this case, and in inclination, 4, of this shear plane in terms of the rake
the present paper the authors follow this course and join angle, CL, and the mean angle of friction X between the tool
in the hope that an understanding of this process and the and chip, that is,
limits within which it cantake place will elucidate the other
modes of chip formation.
This relation over-estimated (3) the angle of the shear
The MS. of this paper was first received at the Institution on 18th plane, and the concept of shear strength being dependent
December 1957, and in its revised form, as accepted by the Council
for publication, on 2nd May 1958. upon compressive stress had to be introduced to relate the
* Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering, Leeds University. theory to practice. Unfortunately, the required degree of
t Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering, Manchester College of Science dependence was unsupported by independent evidence.
and Technology.
$ A numerical list of references is giken in Appendix III. Thus the theory failed as far as an explanation of the cutting
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 1959
624 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

process was concerned, although it has been, and is, useful SchafTer (4)suggested that chip curl was caused by thermal
in the presentation of practical cutting data. strain and residual stresses. This was not confirmed by
Lee and Schaf€er (4),while retaining the assumption of Hahn (8), who observed that a chip could be dissolved in
a single shear plane, introduced the conceprs of the ideal acid or heated to incandescence without appreciable change
theory of plasticity. By assuming that the material im- in curvature. After extensive experimental work Hahn
mediately above the shear plane was quasi-plastic with slip- deduced indirectly that the chip was born curled at the
lines parallel to and perpendicular to the shear plane, they shear plane, although no conclusive cause was put forward.
derived a similar expression for the inclination of the shear Henriksen (9) supposed that, if the chip were born curled,
plane, that is, it must be held in contact with the tool purely by friction
on the tool-chip interface, while a finite tool force was
transmitted at the tool tip. On the other hand, Merchant (10)
suggested that contact between tool and chip was due to
This solution was extended to cover the case of cutting local Hertzian flattening with maximum normal pressure in
with a continuous chip and a built-up edge, and the con- the middle of the contact length. Thus our understanding of
ditions under which this process would arise were con- chip curl is far from clear even in a qualitative sense, and a
sidered. This latter extension depended upon the coefficient satisfactory physical picture of cutting should include some
of friction between the built-up edge and the machined explanation of the phenomenon.
surface and, lacking an independent determination of this Measurements of hardness distribution (I I) (12)have
coefficient, freedom in its value facilitated satisfaction of shown that the chip, the built-up edge, and the finished
experimental observations. surface were hardened by cutting, the maximum hardness
Subsequent workers ( 5 ) have introduced additional occurring at the built-up edge. Zlatin and Merchant (12)
physical qualifications to obtain better agreement between also concluded from the distribution that the plastic zone
expressions based on a single shear plane and their experi- was narrow, but from the published results this conclusion
mental results. In all this work, however, it is clear that the appears to be open to doubt. Henriksen (13)considered the
point is rapidly reached where ignorance of the parameters residual stresses in the machined surface. From photo-
introduced allows the experimental results to be ‘fitted’. micrographs he concluded that crystals in the region of the
Hill (6) has examined the permissibility of the stress tool point were severely elongated and finally torn under
conditions at the ends of the shear plane implied by the tension. This was confirmed by measuring the change in
shear-plane type of solution. He showed that if the yield curvature of a machined plate, and the residual stresses
criterion were not to be exceeded, the position of the shear were shown to be of the order of the tensile strength of the
plane was limited to a certain range. Merchant’s solution material.
lies outside this range, and Lee and SchafFer’s solution forms In conclusion, existing theories of cutting are of some use
one boundary of it. Finally, he suggested that a unique in collating cutting data, but they have failed to explain the
solution of cutting in terms of the depth of cut, the rake basic mechanics of the process and the picture presented
angle, and the coefficient of friction, might not be possible; leaves out of account some striking experimental facts. The
and that probably the final stable condition of cutting assumption that deformation takes place on a shear plane
depended upon the initial conditions. has been common to all theories, and it is possible that this
Many investigators have tried to explain some of the assumption is too coarse to allow fruitfd discussion of the
phenomena of machining on the basis of temperature machining process. The starting point of this investigation
distribution. At the start of such an investigation some was therefore to re-examine this assumption experimentally
assumptions have to be made about the form of the plastic by developing a technique of taking cint films of the process.
deformation, for this determines the location of the heat Subsequentlythe mechanics of machining were investigated
sources. It has usually been assumed that deformation takes as a problem in plane plasticity with new assumptions.
place on a shear plane with heat produced on this plane and Some preliminary results of this work (14) were presented
on the tool-chip interface. Thus it is clear that, although at the 1956 meeting of the British Association.
temperature effects may modifj a solution seriously, the
primary problem is one of plastic deformation and the
present paper is confined to this problem. Notation
Other workers have examined particular features of the k Shear yield stress of material.
machining process. For instance, considerable attention has K Total shear force per unit width.
been paid to the phenomenon of chip curl. It is well known M Moment of stresses.
that the length of the chiptool contact is of the order of the P Total normal force per unit width.
chip thickness and that at the end of contact the chip curls R Radius to point in centred fan.
away from the tool, but this fact has not formed an essential R A Radius from fan-centre to outer surface.
part of any of the above theories. Ernst and Merchant (7) R B Radius from fan-centre to tool point.
presumed that the chip was born curled at the shear plane, S1Y s2 Distances along slip lines of each family.
and that this occurred as a necessary consequence of the t Time.
shear plane being in fact slightly convex upward. Lee and CL Rake angle.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 625

Inclination of boundary between work and plastic observed fields for the larger rake angles (at least) could be
zone. regarded as representative of the process, although caution
Natural shear strain. must be exercised in using them.
Angle between above boundary and an adjacent The limitations of the available photographic equipment
slip line. imposed a severe restriction on the speed of cutting.
Effective natural strain. Therefore the whole of the experimental work was per-
Principal natural strains. formed at a cutting speed of 0.51 in./min. As the speed was
Effective natural strain-rate. so low the lathe held no advantage as a machine on which
Principal natural strain-rates. to perform the tests, and consequently a more rigid milling
Angle between tool force and work-plastic zone machine was adapted to operate as a planer. A general view
boundary. of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 2, Plate 1. The milling
Mean angle of friction between tool and chip. head was replaced by a tool dynamometer, to which the
Mean normal stress (tensile positive). tool was clamped, of the same general design as one used by
Mean normal stresses at A and B. Merchant (2) to measure forces parallel and perpendicular
Effective stress. to the machined surface. The work-piece was mounted in
Direct stresses. the vice and cutting was performed by traversing the table
Principal stresses. of the machine horizontally. The microscope (magnification
Shear stress. x 50) incorporated an attachment for high-intensity
Inclination of shear plane. normally incident lighting and, together with the camera,
Orientation of slip lines (anti-clockwise positive). it was supported on a structure, which was mounted on the
cross-slide of the machine.
EXPERIMENTAL A P P A R A T U S AND METHOD All experiments were performed with a planished mild
The primary object of experiment was to obtain a visual steel. It is possible that the process of cutting is markedly
record of plastic flow within a typical plane, that is, in a Merent for different materials. It was decided, however,
plane perpendicular to the machined surface and parallel to conduct the present investigation with one material and
to the direction of cutting. There have been two approaches to attempt a considered explanation of the process for this
to this problem. single case. Ultimately future comparisons with other
On the one hand (as practised by M.E.R.L.*) the work materials will confirm or deny assumptions based upon
may be divided on such a plane prior to machining and a experience of one material. A metallurgical examination of
grid inscribed on the plane. The work is reassembled and the mild steel showed that this material had a small
machining begun. When steady conditions are reached, randomly orientated grain structure. A compression test
cutting is stopped as quickly as possible, and the deforma- was performed on a cylindrical specimen, care being taken
tion of the grid can be analysed to give information on the to inhibit barrelling as much as possible by lubricating the
nature of the flow. Thus this method should represent ends with colloidal graphite in alcohol between increments
f a i W l y the conditions on a typical plane; but the results of load. Although barrelling was not entirely prevented and
may be more typical of stopping than of running conditions, the test was incomplete in the sense that the maximum
and it is beset with the experimental difficulty of inscribing strain achieved was exceeded during cutting, the stress-
a grid sufficientlyfine for normal depths of cut. strain m e derived from this test (Fig. 3) gave some
On the other hand, as in the present investigation the indication of the relevant properties of this material.
ffanks of the work, chip, and tool may be observed directly Specimens of dimensions 1 i n . x t in.x 1 in. were cut
through a microscope and a film record taken of the process. from strip. After one Aank was polished and etched, the
It was recognized that the results would not represent a specimen was gripped in the machine vice to give a width
typical plane for there is bound to be some side spread on of cut of 4 in. and a length of cut of 1 in. The width of the
the flank, but it was hoped that they might give a good
indication of the character of typical flow. The method had
the advantage that the inscription of a grid was superfluous,
because the flank of the work was polished and etched and
individual crystals could be followed to give streamlines of
ffow.
To check the effect of side spread upon the observations
some preliminary experiments were performed, in which
the velocities in chip and work were used to estimate by
continuity the true chip thickness, and this was compared
with the apparent chip thickness. It was found that for rake
angles less than 30" the apparent thickness could be as NATURAL STRAIN
much as 20 per cent too small, but for larger rake angles the
effect was very much less. It was concluded that the Fig.3. Static Uniaxial Compression Test on Planished
* M.E.R.L.now N.E.L. Mild Steel Used in Cutting Experiments
R o c Instn Mcch Engrr Vol173 No 24 1959
626 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

tool exceeded the width of the specimen and, as the depth of grains were followed in this way, and a typical chart
of cut did not exceed 0.016 in., the process fulfilled the obtained from this method of plotting is shown in Fig. 5.
conditions for plane strain. Preliminary tests showed that It should be noted that this chart represents machining in
a continuous chip could be produced when cutting dry with which the tool was stationary and the work-piece was
high-speed steel tools of rake angles between 20" and 50". moved past it. In all subsequent discussions this state of
At 20" only light cuts were possible; with deeper cuts a dis- affairs is assumed.
continuous chip was produced. As the rake angle was All information about each test was derived from these
increased, continuous chips could be formed from deeper charts and the readings of the tool dynamometer. The
cuts. At the other end of the range it was evident visually nominal depth of cut was discarded in favour of the depth
and from the tool forces that the process was changing in on the chart, for it appeared that in general the tool cut
character; it appeared that it had started to assume the deeper than its set position.
nature of a wedge indentation.
In a typical test, after cleaning cuts, a nominal depth of EXPERIMENTAL R E S U L T S A N D
cut was applied by raising the machine table as indicated by PRELIMINARY D I S C U S S I O N
a dial gauge mounted on the machine head. Cutting was A series of tests were conducted with rake angles ranging
begun and continued until steady conditions were estab- from 20" to 50" in increments of 5" and with varying depth
lished as indicated by tool forces and chip curvature, that is, of cut. Tool forces were recorded and charts were prepared
for about in. in length of cut. Films were then shot of by plotting from the film of each test.
sufEicient length to allow individual particles of material to
be followed from the work, through the plastic zone, and General Character of the Plastic Zone
for some way up the chip. After development the negatives In all cases the plastic zone had substantial width with
were projected on to a paper screen to give an overall streamlines following smooth curves fiom the work into
magnification of 316. First, one frame was projected as a the chip; the curvature of these streamlines was relatively
still, and the outline of the tool, the machined surface, and small near the free surface and increased to values too high
the newly machined surface, were sketched on the paper. to be measured by the experimental technique near the tool
It was also possible to sketch the apparent boundary between point. The boundary between the work and the plastic
the work and the plastic zone, for this was clearly visible on zone, which was well defined, ran from the region near the
account of the sudden change in the reflecting power of the tool point as a more or less straight line until it bent up to
surface. A typical still of the area is shown in Fig. 4, Plate 1. meet the free surface at about 45". The upper boundary
A clearly defined grain was chosen and its position marked could be estimated only by judging the point at which the
on the paper. The film was then advanced a suitable number streamlines assumed the final curvature of the chip, and
of frames at a time, the screen being located by the image thus it was less definitely fixed. In general, it ran as a line
of the tool at each stage, and the subsequent positions of curved in the opposite sense to the lower boundary, from
this grain were marked. For each cut the paths of a number the region near the tool point, to the free surface.
The free surface was not clearly visible, although points
P could be followed on or near this surface. The final outer
surface of the chip was always rough, and this irregularity
appeared to originate near the exit of the material from the
plastic zone. This process could not, however, be observed
directly.
It must be stressed that in no test was there evidence of a
built-up edge, either from the films or from occasional
photomicrographs. This was confirmed by the very smooth
nature of the machined surface.
The general shape of the plastic zone is discussed under
the heading 'Theoretical Consideration'.
Cutting Forces, Cutting Ratio, a n d Angle of Friction
The horizontal (that is, in the cutting direction) and vertical
(that is, normal to the machined surface) cutting forces are
recorded in Fig. 6. From these values it is simple to deduce
the value of the mean angle of friction on the chiptool
interface, which has been plotted in Fig. 7. The cutting
ratio, defined as the ratio of the depth of cut to the chip
thickness, is often quoted as a useful parameter in cutting
research. In this study the cutting ratio represents the ratio
Fig. 5. Typical Chart Prepared from Films of mean chip velocity to the cutting speed, and is plotted in
a = 4
0
'
. t = 0.0142 in. Fig. 8.
Proc Insrn Mech Engrs VoI 173 No 24 I959
MECHANICS O F ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 627

The magnitude of the angle of friction was in most cases self-consistent. If the cutting ratio, which is a parameter
of the order usually observed during cutting. It can be seen, expressing the geometry of the process, were to be constant
however, that for the smaller cuts with the larger rake angles for all depths of cut at a given rake angle, it would seem
(that is, >357 the angle of friction was excessively large. reasonable for the cutting force to be directly proportional
These values may be misleading and were possibly the to the depth of cut. If, however, the cutting ratio increases
result of an upward force on the base of the tool, indicating as the depth of cut increases, a relatively thinner chip is
the onset of a change in cutting mechanism to wedge in- produced and a relatively lower cutting force might be
dentation. Thus the results obtained for the larger rake expected. In this case, the graph of cutting force against
angles should be treated with some caution. depth of cut would show a positive intercept for zero depth
I n common with previous work (2) (IS), an increase in of cut. If, on the other hand, as in the present experiments,
rake angle for a given depth of cut gave a decrease in cutting the cutting ratio decreases with increasing depth of cut, the
force and an increase in the angle of friction. Further, an argument is reversed and a negative intercept would be
increase in the depth of cut for constant rake angle gave a expected. It is interesting that for a rake angle of 20" there
decrease in the angle of fkiaion. was a large negative intercept and a large decrease in cutting
On the other hand, for rake angles up to 35" the graphs
of tool force show a negative force for zero depth of cut;
and in general for a given rake angle the cutting ratio
decreased with increase in depth of cut. So far as is known
all previous workers have reported a positive cutting force
intercept for zero depth of cut, and this has usually been
attributed to a size effect, or has been assumed to be the
force required to deform the machined surface (15). Also,
the corresponding graphs of cutting ratio have always
shown an increasing cutting ratio with increasing depth of
cut.
Although these two sets of observations-previous work
on the one hand and present results on the other-are con-
tradictory the following argument shows that each set is

O 0004 0008 OF CUT-in.


DEPTH 0012 0.016 0
0

Fig. 7 . Mean CoeDcient of Friction


o For a =30'
. v For a = 35'. + For a = 45'.
For a = 25'. x For a = 4
0'
. 0 For u = 50°.
A For a = 30'.

08

0.6

0
+
4
LL
"z 04

+
I-
3
U

0 0.004 0.m 0.012


DEPTH OF CUT-in.
0.016 0.020
o.2EIIII
OO 0.004 0.008 0.012

DEmH OF CUT-in
0.016 0020

Fk. 6. Cutting Forces Fig. 8. Cutting Ratio


o For a= 20". V For a = 35'. + For a = 45'. o For a = 20'. v For a = 35'. + For a = 45'.
For a = 25'. x For ri = 40'. For a = 50". For a = 25'. x For a = 40'. 0 For a = 50'.
A For u = 30". A For a = 30".
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Val 173 No 24 1959
628 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

ratio with increasing depth of cut, while for the larger rake Unfortunately the edge of the chip adjacent to the tool
angles, the graph of tool forces passed near the origin. was not clearly visible on the films. Although some films
In conclusion, these results prejudice the explanation of gave the impression of a gap between tool and chip near the
a positive intercept as the force required to deform the tool point, the definition was not good enough to term it
newly machined surface. Rather they suggest that these visual confirmation.
apparent intercepts are caused by changes in the overall One check was possible at t h i s stage on the feasibility of
geometry of the process as the depth of cut varies. The this type of contact between tool and chip. The implied
differences between these results and previous work may
well be connected with the exceptionally low speed of the
present work.
Without considering in detail the present results in
relation to previous analyses, it can be readily shown that
these results are incompatible with theories based upon a
shear plane. These theories, equations (1) and (2), may be
summarized for a given rake angle in the form
4 = A-BX
where A and B are constants.
For a given rake angle, it follows from geometry that an
increase in the inclination 4 of the shear plane should be
accompanied by an increase in the cutting ratio. Thus these
theories always predict an increase in the cutting ratio for
a decrease in the angle of friction. This is in direct con-
tradiction to the results recorded in Figs. 7 and 8.

Curvature of Chip and Position of Tool-ChiPContact


After the chart had been prepared from the film of each test,
it was possible to draw circular arcs about a common centre
through the points plotted within the chip. Thus a measure
of the chip curvature was obtained and this is recorded in
Fig. 9. A more interesting fact was that a single arc could 0
0 DMW 0008 0012 0016 0020
follow the points plotted for one grain from the exit of the DEPTH OF CUT-in.
plastic zone, through the stressed portion of the chip and Fig. 9. Radius of Curvature of Chip
into the free portion. This indicated that the main distortion
of the chip under the tool force was probably of the character
o For a = 20". v For rn = 35". + For a = 45'.
For a = 25". x For N = 40". For a = 50..
of local elastic flattening. Further, the process of drawing A For n =30
'.
the arcs had determined the centre of curvature of the
chip, and thus dropping a normal to the tool face defined
the centre of the presumed contact zone. This centre was
in general about a chip thickness above the cutting edge of
the tool, as demonstrated by Fig. 10, in which the distance
from the tool edge to the centre of the contact area is
expressed as a proportion of the chip thickness.
Continuing this line of argument, it should be possible to
obtain a rough estimate of the length of the tool-chip
contact zone implied by the tool forces. Taking the com-
ponent of the tool force normal to the tool-chip interface,
and ignoring the tangential component, the standard
Hertzian result for a cylinder on a plane was used to estimate
this total length of contact, and this is expressed as a pro-
portion of the chip thickness in Fig. 11. It can be seen that 0.m 0012 0.016 @mO
the total length, and more so the half-length, was much DEPTH OF CUT-in,
less than the discance from the tool edge to the centre of
contact. Thus this calculation would imply that tool-chip Fig. 10. Distance from Tool Tip to the Centre of Tool-Chip
contact occurred some distance from the tool edge, and that Contact Expressed as a Proportion of Chip Thickness
there was a gap between the tool and the chip on the tool- u For n = 20". v For a = 35'. + For a = 45".
For a = 25". x For a = 4
0
'
. For a = 50".
edge side of the contact. A For a = 30".
Proi Insrn Mech Engrs Val 173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 629

mean normal stress between the tool and chip was calculated, mental picture which has been presented. Secondly,
and this is recorded in Fig. 12. Although these stresses are plasticity theory was elaborated by allowing the flow stress
high, they are not impossible when the high degree of work- of the material to vary. Much more encouraging results
hardening, to which this portion of the chip had already were then obtained, but the analysis was so laborious that
been subjected, is borne in mind. it made detailed comparison with experiment impracticable.
The discussion concerning the nature of tool-chip con- Finally, an approximate analysis, which incorporated the
tact will be resumed later. The relevance of the suggested major features of the theory for a material of variable flow
type of contact to the common 'crater' wear of tools hardly stress, was used to examine the experimental results.
requires emphasis.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION Application of the Ideal Theory of Plasticity


In the first place an analysis of cutting was attempted based As a first attempt, it seemed reasonable to idealize the
upon the ideal theory of plasticity. It was impossible to find general shape of the plastic zone to BFDACEB in Fig. 13,
a consistent slip-line field that accorded with the experi- in order to examine the possibility of constructing a slip-
line field consistent with the ideal theory. In this picture the
tool point is shown in contact with the metal, whereas in
the experiments, it was suspected that the tool point did
not make contact : and the free surface is drawn as a smooth
curve parallel to the streamlines, which were plotted just
within it during the experiments, but in practice it was
noted that t h i s surface of the chip was always rough.

/
8 I
Ez
DEPTH OF CUT-In.

Fig. 11. Estimated h g t h of Elastic Contact Between Tool


and Chip Due to Tool Force Expressed as a Boportion
of Chip Thickness
o For u = 20'. v For a = 35'. + For u = 45".
For a = 25". x For a = 40". 0 For a = 50".
A For a = 3
0
'
.

Fk. 13. Idealized Plastic Zone

The boundaries of the plastic zone With the chip and the
work must be slip lines (3). These two boundaries, ADFB
and BEC, are shown meeting in a stress singularity at the
tool point B. A substantial portion of the zone (that is,
between BD and BE) may be approximated to a centred-
fan slip-line field with centre at the tool point; such a
field could give streamlines of the type observed over
the major portion of the zone.
It was noted experimentally that the boundary ADFB
bent up to meet the uncut surface at about 45" as should a
slip line in fulfilling a free-surface boundary condition. The
boundary BEC had not been so clearly defined :it has been
0 0004 0008 0012 0016 0020
DEPTH OF CUT-;". drawn in Fig. 13 meeting the free surface at 45" in the same
Fig. 12. Estimated Mean Interf'e Pressure Between sense as the other boundary, as the two boundaries must
Tool and Chip belong to the same family of slip lines on account of the
field near the tool point. The free surface AC was a sufficient
o For u = 20". v For a = 35O. + For a = 45". boundary condition to determine the slip-line field for a
For u = 25'. x For a = No. 0 For u = 50'.
A For a = 30'. substantial area (circu ACD).
Proc Znstn Mech Engrs V d 173 No 24 1959
630 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

Thus intelligent guesses could be made for the field in


two portions of the zone. The problem arose as to whether
the two parts could be married.
The Hencky equations, which express the condition of
equilibrium, show the change in mean normal stress u
along the two families of slip lines respectively, as the
orientation $ of the slip lines to some datum direction
changes.
Thus
du-2k d# = 0
du+2k d# = 0 I . . .(3)

where k is the shear yield strength of the material in plane


Strain.
The equations, together with the condition that the mean
normal stress has a unique value at each point within the
field, lead to the well-known Hencky-l’randtl theorems con- I -2.1 k I
cerning permissible curvature of slip lines. In the light of
these theorems, it becomes obvious that the two parts above
of the proposed slip-line field are incompatible. As soon as
velocity discontinuities are allowed in an attempt to gain Fig. 14. Distribution of Normal Compressive Stress on Plastic
internal consistency, the field rapidly degenerates to the Zone Boundary AB According to Ideal Theory of
usual shear plane, which is substantially different from the Plasticity, and Comparison of Resultant Force Across
experimental picture of the flow. AB with Observed Tool Force
At least one other major inconsistency arises in attempting Rake angle 28’ and depth of cut 0.0046 in.
to use the ideal theory of plasticity and it concerns the
direction and position of the resultant tool force. Consider
the stresses along the slip line ADFB (Fig. 13), which was mental tool resultant passing through the middle of the
well defined experimentally. At the free surface A the mean tool-chip contact. The disagreement between the two is
normal stress u must be equal to the shear yield stress k, substantial and this result was typical of all such estimates.
and is compressive on general grounds. The appropriate one It is worth noting that this argument applies equally to the
of equations (3) shows that along AD the mean normal shear plane type of solution and that previous theories of
stress increases somewhat in compression, until the rela- cutting have always ignored the position of the resultant.
tively straight portion of the slip line is reached at D, after Thus it appeared that, !%st, it was dficult to construct
which the normal stress is sensibly constant along DB. The a slip-line field similar to the observed plastic zone; and,
shear stress along the slip line is, of course, equal to the secondly, that if such a field were formed, it did not seem
shear yield stress k. Thus on the basis of the theory, the likely that the stresses would be consistent with the observed
stresses along the slip line ADFB are known. direction and positions of the tool force. This was all the
Now the chip is in equilibrium under the tool forces and more disappointing as the ideal theory has been relatively
the stresses on the line ADFB, assuming that no force is successful in analysing other metal-forming processes such
transmitted through the base of the tool. Thus the sum of as drawing and extrusion. One seeming relevant difference
these stresses should be equal and opposite to the tool force, between these processes and machining is that the tool,
and a comparison between the experimental and theoretical that is, the die, in these processes determines within fairly
direction of the resultant is possible. The character of the narrow limits the boundary conditions of the plastic
theoretical stress distribution along the line ADFB, that is, deformation. In machining, on the other hand, the work
the stress being almost constant along most of its length, material has more freedom, and thus other factors or pro-
implies that the resultant should pass approximately perties of the material may have a critical effect on the
through the middle of the line AB; on the other hand, in the character of the deformation. Consequently, the implica-
tests the centre of contact between tool and chip located tions to the theory of a material having a variable Aow stress
approximately the line of action of the tool force and thus have been examined. In practice, this variation may arise
a comparison is again possible. from work-hardening, the strain-rate effect, or temperature
In Fig. 14 the experimentally determined boundary variation. In the subsequent argument it is normally pre-
between the work and the plastic zone for one of the tests sumed to be due to work-hardening. There is some justifica-
has been approximated to two straight lines for ease of tion for this in that the experiments were performed at
calculation, and the distribution of normal stress is indicated, extremely low speeds and consequently at low temperatures,
From this the direction of the resultant has been estimated, and although the rates-of-strain were substantial, of the
and it has been placed passing through the middle of the order 8 per second near the free surface, the variation in the
boundary slip line. This can be compared with the experi- rates throughout the zone was not large.
Proc Insrn Mech Engrs 1’01 173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING Plare I

Fig. 2. General View o j Apparatus

Fig. 4. Typical View Through Microscope During Cutting

Proc l ~ s r nMech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 I YSY


Plure 2 W. B. PALMER A N D P. L . B. OXLEY

Fig. 16. Photomicrograph of Region Near Tool Point

Proc I m r n Mech Eugrs Vol 173 h'o 24 I Y L Y


MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 631

Plastic Theory for a Material ofVariable Flow Stress condition to determine by continuity the velocities through-
Let us assume, as in the ideal theory for a material of out the zone and at exit. The initial shape of the plastic zone,
constant flow stress, an homogeneous isotropic material, that is, the boundary BEC, was adjusted and the process
which is incompressible and in which rhe principal axes of repeated, until the streamlines and the magnitudes of these
stress and strain rate coincide. The relations concerning velocities corresponded approximately to the experimental
velocities are unchanged, but those expressing equilibrium values. Fig. 15 does in fact represent the shape of zone
are altered. The full derivation of these new relations, as which was finally derived. It is a point of more than a little
presented by Christopherson and others (14)~ is given in interest that a slip-line field, corresponding within the
Appendix I. Finally, a modified form of the Hencky accuracy of the experimental technique to the practical
equations, relating equilibrium to the slip lines, is obtained observations, could give within the chip a velocity distribu-

1..
Thus, tion which agreed with experimental chip curvature. It
would seem to indicate that chip curl is an integral part of
au
--2k
2 4 ak
-+- =0 the plastic process, and not associated with some subsidiary
as, as, as2
84 ak
. effect.
Before the stresses could be determined throughout the
au
-+2k
as2
-+-
as2 as,
=0
field, the value of the flow stress has to be found at each
where s1 and s2 are distances along slip lines of each family. point so that equations (4) could be used. Assuming that
It can be seen that the variation of mean stress u along work-hardening alone contributed to the variation in flow
a slip line no longer depends solely upon the curvature of stress, the effective rate of strain was integrated along the
that slip line, but also upon the rate of change of the flow streamline leading to the point in question to give the
stress of the material in a direction perpendicular to the effective strain; this is described in detail in Appendix 11.
slip line. The static stress-strain curve, Fig. 3, was then used to
The necessity for stress to be a unique function of posi- determine the flow stress. The whole of this procedure was
tion must persist, but it is no longer possible to express it in necessarily approximate.
simple geometric rules such as the Hencky-Prandtl Starting on the free surface boundary, where the mean
theorems. It may be possible to derive some limits to the compressive stress must be equal to the shear Aow stress,
curvature permitted by the modified form of the equilibrium the stresses were calculated throughout the field except in
relations, but for the present this has not been attempted. the neighbourhood of the tool point. It was found that the
Instead it has been assumed initially that any two orthogonal stresses were approximately consistent apart from the region
families of curves represent possible slip lines with the near the fiee surface at exit from the zone (that is, near C in
intention of a final check on stress consistency. Fig. 15). Many abortive attempts were made by varying the
In the theory of perfectly plastic solids the concepts of free surface and the final boundary of the zone to obtain a
velocity discontinuitiesand stress singularitiesare extremely self-consistent field near C. It will be remembered that this
valuable, but they become unusable in the case of a material surface of the chip was always rough and thus irregular
with variable flow stress. It follows directly from equa- behaviour would seem to have occurred in this region.
tions (4) that a velocity discontinuity would imply an Therefore this failure to find a consistent field near C may
infinite rate of change of stress along the discontinuity, and reflect a real condition, and would not seem to necessarily
that the stress at a singularity would be infinite. Thus these invalidate the field for the rest of the zone.
concepts must be abandoned if a material of variable shear The general nature of the calculated stresses may be
strength is considered. indicated by following the variation in mean stress along the
boundary between the work and the plastic zone. At the
free surface A the stress is compressive and equal to the
General Analysis of Machining a Work-hardening flow stress. Along the curved portion AD the curvature
Material tends to increase compression, but the term introduced by
To examine the consequences of introducing work-harden- work-hardening in equations (4) tends to decrease compres-
ing into the theory, an analysis of a single-cutting condition sion. Along the straight portion DB the curvature term no
was carried as far as possible in spite of its laborious nature. longer operates, and by about F the work-hardening term
The approximate shape of the plastic zone, which was has taken the material into tension. If the field were ter-
taken from the experimental chart, is shown in Fig. 15. It minated by a stress-singularity at the tool point, the tension
will be noticed that in this diagram, the plastic zone has would be infinite there. It is obvious that with this stress
again been terminated in a stress singularity at the tool distribution, there is more hope of satisfying the experi-
point in spite of the remarks of the previous section. This mental direction and position of the tool force; but it is not
was purely for convenience; for the moment the region near yet possible to place the theoretical resultant accurately, for
the tool point is ignored, but it receives consideration later. its position will be sensitive to the stresses near the tool
Two families of orthogonal curves were constructed point. Therefore it is the region near the tool point which
withinthis zone by a simple relaxation procedure. Assuming must be considered next.
that these curves represented slip lines, the velocity of the It will be recalled that the experimental results suggested
work entering the plastic zone was used as a boundary that contact between the tool and the chip occurred some
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 173 N o 24 1959
632 W. B. PALMBR AND P. L. B. OXLBY
-
Proc Instn Mech Engrs
Val 173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 633

WORK

Fig. 17. Suggested Sliplim Field for Region Near Tool Point and Consequent Distortion of Rectangular Grid

way up the face of the tool, and that the tool tip may not practical to develop some more approximate approach,
have been making contact with the work material. This was which incorporated the main features of the 111 analysis,
confirmed somewhat by photomicrographs (Fig. 16, Plate 2) for comparison with experiment.
which showed a smooth continuous surface between the
machined surface and the chip, whereas if the tip of the tool Approximate Analysis of Machining a Work-
were in contact a sharp impression would be expected. These hardening Material
indications led to a theoretical consideration of the possi- The general character of the plastic field as indicated by
bility of a free surface to the plastic zone near the tool tip. experiment may be broadly described as a centred fan,
Fig. 17 shows a suggestion for the manner in which the although the centre is probably not at the tool point but
main slip-line field might terminate near the tool point, the behind it, and there is some complication of the field at the
slip lines being consistent with the main part of the field outer free surface and near the tool point. The following
and with a mean tensile stress at this free surface. Con- limited analysis was based upon this general observation
tinuity has been applied to determine the deformation of a and that part of the field about which most is known, that
square grid as it passes through this zone. It can be seen is, the boundary between work and plastic zone on which
that the material undergoes very heavy straining with the shear yield stress holds its initial value (subject to rate-of-
theoretically infinite straining at a stagnation point on the strain effect). It was not hoped that a prediction of cutting
free surface. It is worth noting that the field extends into forces would be possible for given values of rake angle,
the uncut work and produces heavy straining on the friction, and depth of cut. Rather the aim was to show that
machined surface. There is a striking resemblance between the internal stresses and the position of the resultant were
the deformation of this grid, the deformation of the crystals consistent, if the magnitude and direction of the cutting
in the photomicrograph (Fig. 16) and deformations reported force were accepted as additional information.
by Henriksen (9). Stresses have not been checked in detail Let us assume that the boundary AB (Fig. 18) between
in this region, but qualitatively consistency would not seem the work and the plastic zone is a straight slip line inclined
improbable on the basis of equations (4). at an angle to the direction of cutting. This slip-line must
In conclusion, the introduction of work-hardening into in fact bend near the free surface to make 45" with the
the theory appeared to have regained consistency in the surface, but we assume it does so in a negligible distance,
field, and also produced a stress distribution more in line and that the angle turned through determines, by virtue
with physical reality and in particular with the position and of the Hencky equations, the mean stress on the boundary
direction of the tool force. Thus the main objections to the at A, that is,
ideal theory had been overcome, but the analysis was so U, = -ckl . . . (5) -
laborious that it was impracticable to consider investigating where c = 1+2(~/4-j?) and K 1 is the shear yield stress
a number of cutting conditions with it. It seemed more on AB.
Proc Insrn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 I959
634 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

Thus the angle 0 (measured anti-clockwise from AB)


made by the resultant cutting force with AB can be
expressed as

The moment M of the stresses acting on AB about the


fan centre may also be integrated:

These expressions could be used to determine the magni-


tude, direction, and position of the resultant cutting force
‘.\ , for given A, a and depth of cut, if appropriate values of
crB (the mean stress at the tool point) and D could be
Fig. 18. Geometry for Approximate Analysis determined. Presumably crB depends upon the character of
the field near the tool point, about which little is as yet
Assuming that the field in the’ neighbourhood of the known; and D depends on the properties of the material
boundary slip line is part of a centred fan with its centre 0 and the rate of straining on the boundary between the work
a distance REbehind the tool point B, let OE represent an and plastic zone. Thus, an independent determination of
adjacent slip line of the same family inclined at an angle Sg us and D would require again a full analysis. It is possible,
to the first. The strain and thus the shear yield stress k z however, to find an approximate relation between D, 6,
must be constant along this second line. Therefore the rate and 0 from the condition that AB and the adjacent slip line
of change of k in a direction perpendicular to these lines will must both transmit the total cutting force. For small S/l this
be inversely proportional to the distance from the fan- reduces to
centre 0. As it is the second of equations (4) which applies
along AB, this rate of change of k a distance R from 0 may D-cotfl-tanB . . (14)
be expressed as It is also possible to estimate the angle from esperi-
2k Dk, mental evidence. It was not measured from the charts as
these values might be suspect due to side spread. Instead,
using the fact that the line AB must transmit the experi-
where . . . . (6) mental tool force (magnitude and direction), g, and con-
sequently 0, were determined for a particular value of the
initial shear yield stress kl of the material. D was then
Applying equation (4) the normal or hydrostatic stress obtained from equation (14) and c from equation (9,after
on AB at a distance R from 0 is given by which the stress at the tool point was derived from equa-
tion (12). The moment about the fan centre and the force
normal to AB were found from equations (13) and (lo), and
thus the point at which the resultant tool force crossed AB
which may be integrated to was determined.
This calculation was performed for all the tests for three
different values of kl. In the first case the static shear yield
stress of about 22 ton/in2 was used, and subsequently the
At the tool point, this takes the particular value calculation was repeated with values of 25 ton/in2 and
28 ton/in2, as these seemed reasonable estimates of k1 at
uB= -ckl+DklInk) . . (9) the rates of strain involved.
The comparison between the calculated position of the
The total force per unit width P across the line AB can resultant and its experimental position is shown in Fig. 19.
be obtained by integrating again. Thus In these graphs the resultant arm about the tool point, that

{
p = -Ckl(RA-RB)+Dkl (RA-RB)-RBIn -
RB
. . -
“1 (10)
is, the length of a normal dropped from the tool point to the
resultant, is plotted against depth of cut for each rake angle.
The experimental values were obtained by presuming that
the tool force passed through the centre of contact between
The total shear force per unit width along AB is given by tool and chip. It can be seen that in general the calculated
K = -kl(RA-RE) . . * (11) results for the three values of initial shear yield stress
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 635

0014 0 , 0 2 8 7

0012

0-010
0014

0.010
I
t-
L
c'
TO030
r
d
<
I-
f
goo06 0.012
Ool
I:

0004

0008 I--
0002

0
0 0001 0001 0 0002 ow4
owp00 0
n 0008 0011 0016

0024
I I ' - - I

I I
0.020

0.0 I6

s'
7
5
;o.on
f0
/
!P
/

0004 p'

0
0 C
I
M 0008 0012

DEPTH OF CUT-In.
8 I 112

Fig. 19. Comparison of Moment Arms


a For a = 20'. b For a = 25'. c For a = 3
0'. d For a = 35'. e For a = 400. f For a = 450, g For a = 50'.
A Calculated for shear yield strength K 1 = 22 ton/in2.
+ Calculated for shear yield strength K 1 = 25 tonlinz.
x Calculated for shear yield strength kl = 28 ton/in2.
o Calculated on basis of shear plane assumption.
0 Observed position.
Proc Znstn Mech Engrs VoI I73 No 24 I959
636 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

straddled the experimental results, whereas the moment reached. The tool cutting edge is shown taking no part in
arm of the resultant calculated on the basis of a shear plane the cutting, the tool force being transmitted a distance above
solution with constant normal stress lies well away. this edge. This could explain the common 'crater' type of
wear without resource to temperature effects.
The stresses within the plastic zone varied from com-
pression near the outer free surface to high tension near the
tool point, the change in sense occurring about one third
of the way from the tool point. Thus it appeared that the
chip was produced by a combination of bending and
shearing actions as opposed to the normal assumption of
simple shear. Incidentally there is some confirmation of this
stress distribution in photo-elastic work of long stand-
ing (16). In an examination of the elastic stresses about the
plastic zone, it was shown that they changed from com-
pression to tension at about the same distance across the
zone.

DEPTH OF CUT-in. /
Fig. 20. Hydrostatic Stress Near Tool Point Obtained \ TOOL
from Approximate Analysis
o For a = 20'. V For a = 35'. + For a = 45'.
For a = 25'. x For a =4
0
'
. 0 For a = 50°.
a For a = 30".

In Fig. 20 the hydrostatic stress near the tool point uB has -


been plotted for a shear yield stress of 22 ton/in2. For the WORK

other values of shear yield stress this result is very similar. Fig. 21. Diagrammatic Sketch of Suggested Cutting
The value of uB was encouragingly consistent at a tensile Process
stress about twice the shear yield stress except for the light
cuts with large rake angle and it is on these results that
doubt has been cast in the experimental section. Lacking a It might be thought that, if this picture were true, a blunt
more detailed knowledge of the field in this region, this tool should cut just as effectively as a sharp one. But the
appears to be in reasonable accord with the suggestion of picture represents a steady state, and at the start of a cut
the previous section, that there was a free surface under the tool force must be transmitted at the cutting edge. As
tension near the tool point. the cut progresses and the chip is produced with decreasing
Thus the approximate analysis showed that there was a curvature, contact between the tool and chip presumably
large measure of consistency between the theoretical moves up the tool face and the line of action of the cutting
suggestions and experimental evidence. force is raised. Thus sharpness of the tool may af€ect the
final steady state indirectly by modifying the initial non-
DISCUSSION steady behaviour.
Enough agreement has been obtained between theory and It may well be that a built-up edge is normally formed
experiment to weld the various features of cutting, which by the collection in the free space near the tool point of
have been investigated, into a tentative physical picture, material from the final parting between work and chip.
which is considerably different from that normally assumed Under some conditions, this collection may weld to the
for metal cutting. It must be remembered that this picture tool and grow until it modifies the cutting operation. Then
is based upon experiments at an exceptionally low speed on the stresses imposed upon it may be excessive and the built-
one material. With this qualification the picture may be of up edge may break down; pieces being carried away on work
use in inspiring further work. and chip, and the cycle repeated. This suggestion would
Fig. 21 shows diagrammatically the suggested geometry seem consistent with the normal experience of a built-up
of chip formation once steady conditions have been edge.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 631

Similarly, it is not inconceivable that this picture of it acts). Suppose that the slip lines at P are inclined at an angle $
cutting with a continuous chip may hold the key to the to the axes. The state of stress at P may be represented by Mohr’s
onset of cutting with a discontinuous chip. Now that stress circle (Fig. 22b). To distinguish between the two families of
slip lines, let the top and bottom points of the stress circle corre-
tension has been shown to exist near the tool point, it is spond with I and I1 slip lines respectively.
feasible that brittle fracture may occur here at a particular The stresses UX, oy, and T X ~may be expressed in terms of
value of stress; this could give rise to the characteristic U, k, and 4 as follows:

fracture running ahead of the tool point of a discontinuous


chip.
CONCLUSIONS
In the fmt place, it was necessary to include the effect of
ux = o-k sin 24
uy = o + k ~ i n 2 +
7.q~ = k COS 24 I
Neglecting body forces, the equilibrium equations for IWO
dimensions may be written as
. . . .
(15)

work-hardening in the plasticity theory in order to obtain


consistency with experimental results. Theory then gave
hydrostatic stresses which varied from compression at the
outer free surface to tension near the cutting edge. This
stress distribution was vastly different from that predicted thus, substituting for ox, uy, and T ~ ,

by the ideal theory of plasticity, and usually assumed in a. a4 ak ak


--2k
ax
COS 24 -
ax
-sin 24 -+COS
ax
24 --2k
9
sin 24
cutting. Therefore it seems probable that work-hardening
must be considered if a consistent theory of cutting is to be a. 84 ak ak
5 + 2 k cos 2$ -+sin 24 -+COS 24 --2k
ax sin 24 ax
found. ?Y ?Y
Secondly, a number of limited conclusions can be drawn . . . (17)
concerning cutting under the condition used: Now let the axes x and y assume the directions of the I and I1
slip lines respectively, which gives
(1) The plastic zone was of considerable width and
the streamlines of flow were smooth curves passing from
the work to the chip.
(2) The chip was curled from the plastic zone.
(3) Contact between chip and tool occurred in a zone where s1 and s2 are distances along the I and 11 slip lines respec-
some distance up the tool face. The deformation was tively.
elastic at this contact. If the flow stress of the material, k, is constant, these equations
reduce to the familiar Hencky equations, that is,
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ao--2k a+ = o
. . . .
The authors wish to express their thanks to Professor D. G. aU+2k a+ = o } (19)

Christopherson, O.B.E., B.A., Ph.D., M.I.Mech.E., for


help and encouragement, and to the Institution of Mecha- APPENDIX I1
nical Engineers, whose award of a Clayton Grant to one of
the authors made this work at Leeds University possible. T H E M E A S U R E M E N T OF N A T U R A L S T R A I N A N D I T S
R E L A T I O N T O STRESS
In the main body of the theory, the velocity distribution was
known for a given field and it was required to find the shear yield
APPENDIX I stress k at each point. In general, it is obvious that the strain at
each point must first be estimated and then from some form of the
DERIVATION OF MODIFIED HENCKY EQUATIONS FOR
M A T E R I A L OF V A R I A B L E F L O W STRESS stress-strain curve a value for the shear yield strength may be
determined. Such a process presupposes that it is possible to use
Consider rectangular axes through the point P in Fig. 22a. Let the stress-strain curve obtained from a simple test on the material
ox and uy be the direct stresses in the x and y directions respec-
to express the relative stress and strain for a complex system of
tively, and T~~ the shear stress on the x and y planes (shear stress stresses.
is positive if it applies a clockwise moment to the element on which The effective stress for a three-dimensional state of stress may
be defined as
oeff =~l/r~ul-u2~2+(u*-oa)~+(u~-oI)Lj (20)
where ul, 02, and 0 3 are the principal stresses. The corresponding
invariant of natural strain-rate, the effective natural strain-rate,
may be defined as
ieff =~2/{(;1--;2)2+(h2-lj)Z+(23--11)2} . (21)
where I t , 22, and 63 are the principal natural strain-rates. This
expression may be integrated to give the effective natural strain:
<es = J i e R dt = $Jd{(il --2)2+(~z-ij)2+(;.3--1)2} dt (22)
a b
I t is assumed that for a given material, the effective stress is
Fig. 22. Stress Circle for Point P a unique function of the effective natural strain.
Proc Zmtn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 1959
638 W. B. PALMER AND P. L. B. OXLEY

I n uniaxial compression the effective stress reduces to the single (4) LEE,F. H. and SCHAFFER, B. W. 1951 J . appl. Mech.,
principal stress; and as straining is proportional and the principal vol. 18, p. 405, ‘Theory of Plasticity Applied to a
axes remain unchanged, the effective natural strain may be Problem of Machining’.
integrated and it reduces to the principal natural strain. Thus the ( 5 ) SHAW,M. C., COOK,N. H. and FINNIE, I. 1953 Trans.
stress-strain curve (Fig. 3) may be regarded as expressing the Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, vol. 75, p. 273, ‘Shear Angle
relation between effective stress and effective natural strain. Relationship in Metal Cutting’.
( 6 ) HILL,R. 1954 J. Mech. Phys. Solids, vol. 3, p. 47, ‘The
I n plane strain the effective stress reduces to Mechanics of Machining: A New Approach’.
ueff = 4 3 . Tmax . . . (23) (7) ERNST, H. and MERCHANT, M. E. 1940 Trans. Amer. SOC.
Metals, Preprint, ‘Chip Formation, Friction, and High
where 7mm is the maximum shear stress, which during flow is
equivalent to the shear yield stress k and for effective natural strain Quality Machine Surfaces’.
( 8 ) HAHN,R. S. 1953 Trans. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, vol. 75,
1
ceb = -J
43
imax d t . . . (24) p. 581, ‘Some Observations on Chip Curl in the Metal-
cutting Process under Orthogonal Cutting Conditions’.
where +m= is the maximum natural shear strain-rate. I t has not (9) HENRIKSEN, E. K. 1951 Trans. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs,
been possible to perform this integration to give an expression in vol. 73, p. 69, ‘Residual Stresses in Machined Surfaces’.
terms of the total natural direct and shear strains, because the (10) MERCHANT,M. E. 1951 Tram. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs,
principal directions change during straining. vol. 73, p. 465, ‘Stress Distribution i n the Continuous
Now in the main theory velocities were known throughout the Chip’.
plastic zone and, thus, these could be used to determine values (11) HERBERT, E. G. 1926 Trans. Amer. SOC. mech. Engrs,
for the maximum natural shear strain-rate +mm which were vol. 48, p. 705, ‘Work-hardening Properties of Metals’.
then integrated graphically along streamlines to give the effective
natural strain. Finally, the relevant value of the shear yield strc‘ss (12) ZLATIN,N. and MERCHANT, M. E. ‘The Distribution of
was determined from the static stress-strain curve. Hardness in Chips and Machined Surface’ (Cincinnati
Milling Machine Co.).
(13) HENRIKSEN, E. K. 1951 Trans. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs,
vol. 73, p. 461, ‘Stress Distribution in the Continuous
A P P E N D I X I11 C h i p A Solution of the Paradox of Chip Curl’.
(14)CHRISTOPHERSON, D. G., OXLEY, P. L. B. and PALMER, W.B.
REFERENCES 1958 Engineering, Lord., vol 186, p. 113.
(I) ERNST,H. 1938 Trans. Amer. SOC.Metals, ‘Symposium (15) THOMSEN, E. G., LAPSLEY, J. T. and GRASSI,R. C. 1953
on Machining of Metals, I. Physics of Metal Cutting’. Trans. Amer. SOC. mech. Engrs, vol. 75, p. 591, ‘Defonna-
(2) MERCHANT, M. E. 1945 J . appl. Phys., vol. 16,pp. 267,318, tion Work Absorbed by the Workpiece During Metal
‘Mechanics of the Metal Cutting Process’. Cutting’.
(3) HILL,R. 1950 ‘The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity’, (16)COKER,E. G. and FILON,L. N. G. 1931 ‘A Treatise on
p. 209 (Clarendon Press, Oxford). Photo-elasticity’ (Cambridge University Press).

Proc Imtn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 I959


639

Communications
Mr. P.Albrecht (Cincinnati, Ohio) wrote that a detailed Fig. 8, showed an unusual trend, i.e. decreasing with in-
study of the plastic flow occurring in the plastic zone of the creasing uncut chip thickness (depth of cut as termed in
metal-cutting process seemed to be a matter of increasing Fig. 8). The common experience in metal cutting was that
interest. Recent papers of the metal-cutting literature (17) the cutting ratio versus uncut chip thickness had generally
(IS)* presented results of such studies. an increasing trend in the usual ranges of the cutting
It had always been realized, in the development of metal- conditions. For example, recent experiments conducted for
cutting theory, that the 'shear plane' was only an idealiza- a research project in his firm's laboratory showed that in the
tion of a 'shear zone' which had certain physical dimensions range of cutting speeds from 200 to 800 ftlmin and rake
and shape. Analytical studies of the character of the plastic angle range between -20" and +30" the cutting ratio
flow in the shear zone were certainly very welcome contri- increased with increasing uncut chip thickness (as could be
butions. Such analytical studies were not very numerous seen in Fig. 23) for the above rake angles, at 600 fi/min.
and the authors of the paper should be congratulated for
their research in that direction.
Concerning the nature of the problem, it should be noted
that a sound judgement about the nature of the boundary
conditions of the plastic zone was essential in solving the
problem. The authors' approach of setting up of an
experimental study was certainly one way of gaining such
information. Another excellent source of such information
was existing metal-cutting literature presenting experi-
mental results which might be used advantageously for that
purpose. It presented the outcome of thousands of observa-
tions under different conditions and gave an overall physical
picture of the cutting process. Such a picture was, of course, UNCUT CHIP THICKNESS, i,-;hourandch of an Inch

needed as a starting point for an analytical study of the Fig. 23. Region Shown Indicates the Trend of the Curvesfur
problem. Rake Angles Between -20" and +30° at 600ftlmin
He would discuss some of the assumptions about the
boundary conditions of the shear zone as well as results of Further, common experience relating shear angle 4 to the
the conducted experiments. friction angle A showed that use of a lubricant in the cutting
The cutting conditions used in the experimental part of process (i.e. reduction of A) was accompanied by an increase
the authors' work had unfortunately been chosen too much of the shear angle 4.
out of the range of usual cutting conditions encountered in All those experiments confirmed the qualitative trend
metal-cutting practice. The cutting speed of 0.51 in./& given by equations (25) and (26). Numerous measurements
was extremely low and the range of rake angles, +20° to showed that shear angle q5 decreased with increasing A--cr
+50", was almost out of the range used in practice. It as the equations predicted:
would have been more appropriate had the experimental
771
work been conducted under a more practical set of cutting
conditions. However, the study of the behaviour of the
4 2
$=---(A-a) . . * (25)
cutting process at the extreme ends of usual ranges of the
cutting conditions was also of great interest, but it was
hardly possible to derive any general conclusions fiom Quantitatively, as was well known, the experimental values
results obtained in that way. The authors' conclusion about of q5 might differ somewhat fiom the shear angles obtained
the qualitative validity of equations (1) and (2) made on the from equations (25) or (26).
basis of the measurements presented in Figs. 7 and 8 could Further, it should be noted, regarding the concept of the
hardly be acceptable because the curve for the cutting ratio, gap around the extreme cutting edge, that there was con-
* A further list of references is given in Appendix ZV,p . 651. siderable experimental evidence showing that the extreme
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
640 COMMUNICATIONS

cutting edge as well as the part of tool face adjacent to it that the cutting edge contacted the ‘internal’ boundary of
was in intimate contact with the chip being formed in a the plastic zone, producing on it normal and tangential
steady-state cutting process. Such evidence could be loads which should be taken into account in the analytical
drawn from the character of the progress of abrasive wear study of the plastic flow in the shear zone.
on cutting tools. Numerous observations which had been
published showed that the abrasive wear of a cutting tool Dr. J. M. Alexander, B.Sc. (Eng.) (Mm6m), wrote that
always occurred on the tool flank, thus implying contact he thought the authors had made an outstanding contribu-
of the extreme cutting edge with the metal cut, contrary tion, both toward a better understanding of the mechanics
to the assumption advanced in the authors’ paper, pur- of the machining process and by pointing the way to a more
porting the extreme edge of the cutter to be surrounded by realistic treatment of other problems of metal plasticity. In
a gap. the latter connection he would like to ask the authors to
Another type of experiment conducted in his firm’s confirm whether he was right in thinking that the method
laboratory indicated also that the extreme edge was engaged they had established depended on the prior determination
in the metal being cut during the steady-state cutting of a slip-line field and hodograph from observation. That
process. I n those experiments the magnitude of the could then be used to establish the stress distribution
sharpness rounding of the cutting edge had been varied and throughout the field (by using equations (4)), which would
the effect of that variation upon the cutting forces observed. give the boundary stresses and allow comparison with
A natural sharpness rounding could be found on the edge experimentally observed forces. In other words, in treating
of any cutting tool and as that natural sharpness of the edge plasticity problems, it was not at present possible to build
was artificially altered (controlled sharpness) the effect of up a solution in the way that could be done by using the
such changes upon the cutting forces was measured. A constant yield stress slip-line field theory, and recourse had
marked effect of sharpness of the tool upon the cutting to be made to experiment.
forces had been observed. Of course, such effect would be If that were true it was easy to suggest that the treatment
impossible if the cutting edge were surrounded by a gap, was of little value, in that a large number of experiments
had to be performed anyway to determine the slip-line
field. Such an opinion would be very shortsighted, and
studies of that type were needed to elucidate the basic
fundamentals of such processes.
It would be useful if in Fig. 14 not only the normal but
also the shear stresses acting on the boundary AB were
indicated, as they played a large part in determining the
position and magnitude of the resultant force. Also he
found it hard to believe that the hodograph in Fig. 15
could be constructed to an accuracy sufficient to indicate
the small rotational velocity of the chip (as shown by the
curve Ei E; E; E; E; E; in the hodograph); i.e. the
GAP SUGGESTED BY curve Ei-E; was the image of the slip line E6-E1, but
PALMER AND OXLEY
orthogonal to it, indicating a slight rotation of the chip. He
CONTROLLED SHARPNESS asked if he was right in thinking that that was what was
meant by the authors in their statement in the top right-
hand paragraph on p. 631, and if so, could the hodograph
really be constructed to that accuracy 9
Another point which he found difficult to follow was in
the suggested approximate analysis. He wondered how the
‘NATURAL SHARPNFSS radii R, and R, were determined, for use in equations (10)
and (13).
Fig. 24. Diagram Showing that the Effect of Controlled The authors might be interested to see an experimental
Sharpness of the Tool Upon the Cutting Forces Would be result obtained by Mr. Shah at Imperial College in machin-
Impossible in Presence of the Gap Suggested by the ing experiments (20). He had used the scribed-grid
Authors technique on split specimens of commercially pure alu-
minium machined orthogonally under plane strain condi-
Fig. 24, excluding that part of the cutter from participation tions. Fig. 25 showed a typical slip-line field determined
in the cutting process. More about such experiments could experimentally by measuring the distortion of that interior
be found in the paper by himself entitled ‘New Develop- grid, from which the similarity with the authors’ results was
ments in the Metal Cutting Theory’ which was to be apparent. Shah had also found it necessary to allow neigh-
presented at the Annual Meeting of ASME in December bouring slip lines to have curvatures of opposite sense, and
1959 (19). to use the ‘work hardening’ relationships suggested by the
All that experimental evidence indicated undoubtedly authors. They hoped to publish the work shortly.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs VoI173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 641

Fig. 25. Slip-line Field 111


Material Commercially pure aluminium.
Depth of cut 0.1027 in.
Rake angle 45O.
Coefficient of friction p 1.018.
Friction angle 6 4 7 O 9’.

Mr. R. C. Brewer, B.Sc. (Associate Member), wrote that improve the agreement between theory and practice, was
the single shear plane hypothesis was first advanced by well justified. However, their conclusion, in the pen-
T h e (21)in 1870and further developed by Zvorikin (22), ultimate paragraph of the introduction, that the shear plane
but as long ago as 1896 Briks (23) had already criticized hypothesis was, ips0 fucto, wrong needed more support than
that hypothesis more severely than the authors had in the they had put forward. For example, Hill’s examination of
concluding paragraphs of their introduction. Furthermore, the permissible range of orientation of the shear plane did
Briks had proposed an alternative scheme which was quite not agree with experimental results but that was almost
similar to that of the authors, i.e. that plastic deformation certainly due to the fact that many of the assumptions of the
occurred in a family of planes, arranged fanwise but passing mathematical theory of plasticity were ill-justified, par-
through the apex of the tool. Briks’s scheme differed in one ticularly when considering the problem of machining.
other way from that of the authors; he had supposed that While appreciating the need for assumptions, he wondered
the transitional curve (AC in Fig. 13) did not merge whether, in the rigid-ideal plastic theory, the assumptions
smoothly with the outer surface of the chip but that there had not been made too much for subsequent facility in
was a discontinuity in slope which was a definite function of mathematical working and so little with regard to the
the rake angle. behaviour and properties of actual materials that the theory
Experimental confirmation of Briks’s hypothesis was, like could do no more than indicate general trends and focus
that of the authors, entirely at low cutting speeds. There attention on the more important variables.
was little, if any, evidence that the deformation at practical With regard to the experimental procedure, the engraved
cutting speeds took place in a fan-shaped sector such as the grid technique did have the possible disadvantage that the
authors had proposed. The zone was, in fact, so narrow deformed grid might not be representative of the conditions
that the size of the crystals made it extremely diilicult to say at the cutting speed but, at the speeds employed by the
whether the zone had parallel or converging sides. authors, that should not be serious. A more serious objec-
The authors’ criticism of the manner in which single tion to that technique was, that in the past, engraving
shear plane hypotheses had been adjusted in an attempt to techniques had not been entirely satisfactory and the
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 173 No 24 1959
642 COMMUNICATIONS

spacing of the lines forming the grid had been large, thus postulations. However, he felt that insuflicient evidence
requiring large depths of cut since at least five nodal was presented by the authors, to fully justifythe conclusion
points would be required in order to define the deformation that the chiptool contact area was simple Hertzian elastic
pattern satisfactorily. In its turn, that led to the use of very flattening, with the centre of contact at the point where a
soft materials so that the machining force might be kept normal from the centre of curvature of the chip met the
within reasonable limits. On the other hand, the authors’ tool face. Firstly, it would seem quite possible that a region
technique did not ensure that the results were typical of of plastic flow might exist in the chip, near the tool face.
plane strain conditions. The existence of such a plastic zone, at least near the tool
Since both techniques gave rise to uncertainty, it was point, had been indicated by the authors in the distortion
clearly important that the problem be resolved in some way. of the rectangular grid, Fig. 17, and was apparent in the
It seemed to him that the only convenient way in which photomicrograph, Fig, 16. Secondly, due to the high values
that might be done was to employ both techniques to cross- of coefficient of friction on the tool face (values obtained
check each other. He would suggest the following pro- between 0-8 and 1.8), the tangential load on the tool face
cedure: a split specimen should be prepared with one grid would be expected to have some effect on both the area of
engraved on an externalface and a second grid on an internal contact and the position of the centre of contact, regard-
surface-when machined, that would permit an assessment less of whether the contact was in fact elastic, plastic, or a
to be made of the difference, if any, between the de- combination of those.
formation patterns of an external face and a typical internal With the above considerations in mind it appeared that
plane. A second specimen, as nearly identical to the first as the argument presented did not preclude contact between
possible, should then be machined, under the same condi- the chip and the cutting edge of the tool. The photo-
tions, using the authors’ technique. A comparison of the micrograph, Fig. 16, did show a radius between the chip
deformation pattern obtained by that procedure with the and the newly formed work surface. The magnification of
other two patterns would verify whether the sudden the photomicrograph was not stated, but it appeared that
stopping of the process did, in fact, lead to unrepresentative the radius at the tool point was approximately equal to the
results. It was intended to perform such a cross-check at grain size of the work material; thus, the radius was
Imperial College in the near future. Such checks were, probably of the order of 0*0005in. A ‘sharp’ cutting tool
of course, possible by more refined methods of engraving was never mathematically sharp, but would generally have
specimens, one of which had been recently described by a point radius between 0.001 and 0.0005 in. It would be of
Brewer and Alexander (24). interest to know the actual value of the radius of the curve
The remarks which the authors had made about side shown in Fig. 16 and the radius of the cutting edge of
spread were in agreement with a more complete investiga- the tool used.
tion made recently by Shaw-Stewart and himself. It was A further objection which might be raised against the
hoped to publish the results of that investigation in the authors’ idealized picture of the cutting process concerned
near future since they covered a wide range of rake angles their implied assumption that no rubbing occurred between
and width/depth ratios. the clearance face of the tool and the new work surface.
The fact that wear always occurred on this face of the tool
Mr. R.H. Brown, B.Mech.E. (Melb.), S.M. (Graduate), appeared to be strong evidence ofrubbing and hence the
wrote that the authors were to be congratulated for the existence of a normal and ftiction force in that region.
development of their novel method for studying the move- Those forces had been discussed frequently in many
ment of grains during chip formation and for their deriva- previous papers, but no satisfactory means of evaluating
tion and application of the modified Hencky equations for their magnitude had been developed. Thomsen and others
material of variable flow stress. (15)had suggested one method which was open to serious
The width of the plastic zone as determined by the question and, in fact, could not sensibly be applied when
authors would appear to be of the same order as that ob- a negative force intercept was obtained, as in the authors’
tained by Kececioglu (25), from direct measurement of tests. However, evidence of clearance face wear was de-
grain distortion. That was seen in Fig. 15, where from the finite and some clearance face forces must be expected.
scale given, the maximum thickness of the plastic zone, Those might be small compared to the forces on the rake
measured in the direction of chip flow, was approximately face. On the other hand, if not small, the forces on the
0.0016 in. for a depth of cut of about 0.005 in. Kececioglu clearance face would have an influence on the calculated
obtained values for thickness of the plastic zone between values of coefficient of friction on the tool face, and on the
0.0007 and 0.0067in. and found that the thickness varied experimental values of the tool force moment arm.
with rake angle, depth of cut and cutting speed. His work He considered that the authors, by rejecting the well-
material had been SAE 1015, 118 Brinnell hardness known picture of a simple thin-shear plane, had made a
number seamless-steel tubing; both orthogonal and oblique valuable contribution to the mechanics of metal cutting.
cutting conditions had been employed, with cutting speeds At the same time he felt that some of the assumptions used
between 126 and 746 ftlmin. in developing the slip-line field needed closer examination.
The observation of chip curvature from the exit of the That particularly appeared to apply to the bases of the
plastic zone was a most interesting confirmation of previous contention that a free surface existed near the tool point.
R o c Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 643

Professor M. Kurrein, Dr. Tech. (Member),wrote that from the experimental values of the force (perhaps given in
before entering on the actual discussion he would like to an appendix) would be the best proof of their theory. Such
compliment the authors on their very careful’experimental experimentally found values of the cutting force (three
work, which introduced into the hitherto much abused components D, C, B) he had used to h d the balance of a
film-work on chip-cutting a very interesting new line, the lathe between the power input and the output at the
following up of the movement of the material. Also their cutting tool (29), where he introduced the parameter
very serious attempt to find a mathematical-graphical (‘cutting ratio’ mentioned by the authors on p. 626), in order
solution for that problem must be acknowledged. to complete the balance by means of the component N , in
On the other hand the authors based their theoretical the direction of the tool shaft (called by the authors
work, like many other research workers in that field had ‘vertical force’, Fig. 6).
done, on a homogeneous material, whereas all materials in Chip cutting was chiefly a plastic micro-deformation,
chip-cutting were a grainy conglomerate of several phases, which proceeded gradually and disappeared at some
which had quite different stress and strain qualities. That depth, while the force originating it proceeded unchanged
meant that their mathematical solutions could only as- through the whole body up to the abutment as in elastic
semble a very distant analogy to the actual state, as had loading (30)~that could be seen in Fig. 17, where the
already been voiced by very competent men. Dr. Nadai bending of the grid diminished gradually to the end of
had cited in his introduction to his James Clayton lecture the suggested slip lines at the upper free face of the
(26) of Mohr. In his presidential address to the Second material. (The chip should be shown thicker than the
International Congress of Rheology 1953 in Oxford Sir depth of the cut, otherwise the cutting ratio would
Geoffrey Ingram Taylor (27) had stated inter aZiu ‘by means be > 1.) The actual cutting action could not be deduced
of equations, but to solve these equations is usually beyond from an ideal force diagram, but must be found from
.
his power.. (the mathematician) will very seldom be the micro-deformation of the chip and the adjacent
able to give a satisfactory answer unless the shape has a layer of the machined surface. Although the authors had
.
very simple geometrical form. .’. When he had first based their work on the polished and etched section of the
shown the micro-deformation of the chip (discontinuous material, their curves represented only the macro-structural
and continuous) (28) (Fig. 26a, b), he had expressed the movement of the body, without taking into account the
micro-deformation of the grains singled out in their curves.
It was evident that the whole micro-deformation only took
place in a plastic zone, similar to the theoretical ABC, Fig.
15, but in practice differed, as the face of the tool par-
ticipated up to the cutting depth of that action. Fig. 27 (31)
should be compared with the above.

a Discontinuous. b Continuous.
Fig. 26. Macrostructure of Chips
Based on micro-deformation of grains.

opinion ‘dass fur den Aufbau der Spane nur ein Gesetz
giltig sein kann’(that for the formation of the chips only one
fixed rule can be made), that somebody might find from the a In continuous chip. b Stresses and slip lines.
micro-deformation of the chip and the basic constants of the
cutting (ultimate tensile stress of the machined material, Fig. 27. Distribution of Forces, Stresses and Slip Lines
section of the chip, cutting speed, face angle of the tool, etc.) x = oo.
a relatively simple formula for the cutting force, which the According to Rathje.
practical engineer might use. No such formula had been
found, and the authors had (like Nicolson 1904 and The micro-deformation of the cut appeared in Fig. 28
himself from 1913 onward) measured the cutting force (32)(30) as an orthogonal cut, but with a very thick chip,
experimentally and that was, in his opinion, the main and in contrast to that of the authors.
only reason that justified all researches into chip-cutting. As the cutting edge was never an actual line, but a
The authors had suggested on p. 634 that the expressions rounded cylinder, as shown by the authors in Fig. 17, the
of the moment M (equation (13)) should be used to deter- cutting edge pressed against the material and, at the same
mine the cutting force. He felt that an actual calculation time, the face of the tool, for the depth of the cut. The
Proc Instn Mcch Engrs Val 173 No 24 1959
644 COMMUNICATIONS

the plastic deformation of the grains gradually diminished to


zero. Below the cutting edge the grains were bent and
stretched until they were torn, while the deformed material
in front of the cutting edge and face of the tool moved
along the line of the least resistance ADB (Fig. 15) as
already explained by Thime (34) who called it Wirkungs-
winkel, the same action for discontinuous chip or continuous
chip formation. That action was shown in Fig. 16 by the
authors. It was to be regretted that the authors did not
show some similar photographs along their slip lines ADB,
etc., or of their singled-out grains in the consecutive points
of one of their curves.
He would like to draw attention to the remark on p. 626,
‘The final outer surface of the chip was always rough . ..
ff.’ He considered that fact very important. That roughness
was the outer ends of the thin layers of the deformed
material (Fig. 29), which slid forward along the slip lines.
Therefore the upper slip line BEC, Fig. 15, could not start
at the point R.
Fig. 28. Micro-deformation of Grain in Front of Cutting
Edge and Face of the Tool

rounded edge of the chisel, Fig. 28, pressed first against the
material and compressed the grains in front of it, thus
entering the material (cf. (33) and (30)).
At the same time the adjacent face of the tool pressed
on to the material in front of it, compressed the grains and,
as there was less resistance on the upper side of the ‘plastic
zone’ than on the lower side, machined where the chip
material was held by the whole body, moved it forward until

Fk. 30. ‘Nests’ on the Rough Side of Continuous Turning


Chip

Another point hitherto not observed must be mentioned.


At the outer rough surface of the continuous chip he had
observed ‘Nests’ (Fig. 30), which might explain the sliding
movement of the above-mentioned thin layers when leaving
the free surface of the material. The same ‘Nests’ he had
found in milling chips (Fig. 31) (35) where also the bending
of the deformed grains near the face of the tool and the
same micro-deformation of the grains in the inclined
Fig. 29. Mioo-defornzation in Front of Face of Tool layers were visible.
Showing the thin layers of deformed grains in As the authors had succeeded in co-ordinating Figs. 16
continuous chip. and 17 so excellently he felt sure that they would be able
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 64 5

solutions often gave close over-estimates of load in plasticity


problems.
A striking feature of practical machining, especially with
negative rake tools, was the heat liberated in the chip, and
it was tempting to ascribe the failure of the simple theory
to neglect of that factor. However, it could be shown that
allowance for that made little difference to the shock
angle d, (Fig. 1).
X 50 Consider, as the extreme cases, a cutting operation which
Fig. 31. Bent Grains Near Face of Tool Inclined took place so swiftly that conduction could be neglected.
Thin Layers In that case all the work done in shearing the chip appeared
'Nests' on outer side of milling chip. as heat if the small amount absorbed in altering the metal
structure was neglected. Tool-chip frictional heat might be
to co-ordinate also the micro-deformation of the chips, neglected because little of that heat would diffuse back to
identical for all chip-cutting operations, with their theory. the shock in fast cutting. However, where shock occurred
The micro-deformation of the machined surface and its at the entrance to the heated zone the yield stress was
connection with the shearing action he had dealt with in reduced (40). That was allowed for by assuming the
detail in 'Mechanical Metallurgy' and in his Guest lectures, shearing yield stress to be a function of the temperature
showing its coincidence with friction. rise t such that:
k = k,( 1-Pt)
Mr. R. F. Scrutton wrote that the authors were to be where /3 was a constant. The temperature rise was given by
congratulated on their new approach to a bafffing problem, the expression
namely the non-agreement between the results of plasticity
theory and the experimental facts of metal cutting. The k velocity discontinuity across shock
t=-x
suggested picture of the cutting process as drawn in Fig. 21 pc normal flow velocity through shock
at once raised questions such as the phenomenon of flank where p was the material density and c the material specific
wear. It would be enlightening if the authors could state heat.
whether any relief face wear had been observed on their Thus the temperature rise was
tools. That was all the more important, because they had t = (ko/pc)( 1-Pt) cos C I / S (b~ cos (+-a) (27)
indicated that there had been no observed built-up edge.
a being the top rake angle (Fig. 1).
Hence any flank wear would not be due to groove wear as
suggested by Albrecht (36) but to actual contact between Substituting in the usual expression for work rate and
the tool point and the workpiece material. Nevertheless he minimizing gave the following equation for d,
did know that the contribution to the cutting force from the cos (24+h-a) - (/3k,/pc) cos CI cos (295-CI)
flank face contact was very small, and that would appear to cos (++h--cr) cos(~-~~){sind, cos(+a)+@ko/pc)cos a>
be consistent with the authors' assumptions.
Kececioglu (37),had shown that the width of the plastic
. .. (28)
zone decreased with increasing speed. Also at higher speeds where h was the friction angle = tan-I(p), and where
p was the coefficient of friction. In a typical medium-
inertia effects might make for closer approach of the tool
point to the work-piece material even though actual
physical contact was never obtained. That would explain
carbon steel (ko N 22 tonlinz) the parameter ($)was
why the phenomenon observed by the authors had not been about 0.075.
reported. If h = n/4 were taken then 4 would be less than the
Usui and Takeyama (39) had observed that 'shear plane' Ernst-Merchant solution by 2"-3" over a range of CI from
normal stress varied along the shear plane and Reichenbach -10" to 30".Thus d, would be reduced by only about 15
(38) had observed an increase in temperature along the per cent when CI = -lo", which was insufficientto reconcile
'shear plane' toward the tool point. Those phenomena that solution with practice. That confirmed that the simple
might well be understood, in terms of the different approximate solution was inadequate for the machining
mechanism of plastic deformation in the vicinity of the tool problem. Although the authors' approach might not be the
point. The present work afforded a good basis upon which complete answer it was a step in the right direction.
future research concerning the cutting mechanism could be
built. Mr. N. N. Zorev (Moscow) wrote that he agreed
entirely (41)(42) with the picture of chip formation with a
Mr. R. I. Tanner (Graduate) wrote that though many fan-shaped pattern of shear planes, with the metal in the
of its faults had become well known, it was disappointing chip formation zone hardened, which the authors had
that the simple shock solution of Ernst and Merchant proposed, and he also confirmed a number of the other
should give such poor agreement with experiment, es- conclusions drawn after analysis of that picture. He
pecially as it was well known that approximate shock would like, however, to make the following comments :
Proc Znstn Mech Engrs Vol I73 No 24 I959
646 COMMUNICATIONS

(1) The authors had indicated that they had found that,
as opposed to the findings of other research workers, with
increase in the depth of cut the chip contraction factor
T = a/al did not increase but rather decreased, i.e. the
actual chip contraction E = a I / a increased.
Analysis of the experimental conditions used by the
authors showed that their experiments had been carried out
in the region of anomalous laws which had already been
described in references (41)(42).

Fig. 33. Effect of Cut Depth a on the Principal Projection


of Cutting Force in the Orthogonal Cutting of 20Kh
Steel in Air
Cut width b = 10 mm; cutting speed v = 0.7 m/min.

200

140
Fig. 32. Effect of Cut Depth a on Chip Contraction 4
During the Orthogonal Cutting of 20Kh Steel in Air 100

Cut width b = 10 mm; cutting speed v = 0.7 m/min. 70

It could be seen from Fig. 32 that at rake angles y 30", < ..a
50

the normal relationship between chip contraction* and 2


I 30
depth of cut disappeared in the small thickness zone, and ;"
that the relationships became anomalous. For example, 10
where the rake angle y = 20°, for a depth of cut a > 0.09
14
mm there was a normal relationship, i.e. with reduction in
the depth of cut a, chip contraction increased; at the same 10

time, where a < 0-09 mm the relationship was anomalous, 7


i.e. as the depth of cut a was reduced the chip contraction
decreased. 5
0
All the basic characteristics of the cutting process 0006 001 0014 0 0 2 DO3 0 0 5 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.3
a-mm
revealed that anomaly.
It could be seen, for example, in Figs. 33 and 34, which Fig. 34. Effect of Cut Depth a on Normal Projection of
gave experimental figures for the effect of a, the depth of Cutting Force for the Orthogonal Cutting of 20Kh
cut, on P,, the principal projection of the cutting force, and Steel in Air
P,, the normal projection of the cutting force. Cut width b = 10 mm; cutting speed v = 0.7 m/min.
The reason for the anomaly was that a built-up edge
formed at the front face of a cutter at very small depths of some critical depth of cut a built-up edge formed, and with
cut. As the depth of cut was reduced, the mean coefficient further reduction in depth of cut that exerted an increasing
of friction between chip and front cutter face increased effect on the cutting process. That was confirmed by the
(that had also been noted by the authors). As a result, at photomicrographs given in Fig. 35.
The authors had made no remarks about the built-up
* Translator's Note: I n regard to notation, Mr. Zorev has in some
edge, probably because they had been studying the cumng
cases used the Russian system, for instance v for rake angle (to the
Russians a is the bottom rake or angle of clearance), 4 and X are process by side-view cinematography. It was known that
the same. 'Chip contraction factor' used throughout this communica- owing to change in the stressed state at the cut edges, a
tion refers to chip thickness, but direct translation gave the writer's
meaning better. built-up edge was not present, and that it only formed
Proc Instn Mech Engrs 1701 173 N o 24 I959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 647

outside the zone in which the marginal effect operated.


That was illustrated by photomicrography of chip and
built-up edge carried out in a plane perpendicular to the
chip velocity vector (Fig. 36).
The effect of built-up edge on the chip-formation process
could be explained thus: that it increased the true rake
angle, thereby reducing chip contraction and cutting force.
That effect was so great that with reduction in depth of cut,
chip contraction also decreased, in spite of increase in the
mean coefficient of friction. That had been noted by the
authors, and they had concluded that equations (1) and (2)
were incorrect.
I n actual fact, equations (1) and (2) did not contradict
the authors’ experiments. Those equations proved that if
the true rake angle y increased with reduction in depth of
cut, the angle of shear might increase in spite of increase
in the angle of friction A.
(2) By extrapolation of the curves in Fig. 6, the authors
had obtained negative values for the principal projection of
the cutting force at zero depths of cut, while other research
workers had obtained positive intercepts on the ordinate
axis.
The paradoxical result obtained by the authors was due
to the fact that their extrapolation had been in the region of
anomalous relationships, and secondly that the rninimum
x 100 depth of Cut investigated had been still much greater than
a Cut depth a = 0.04 mm.
zero.

b Cut depth a = 0.058 mm. x 100 c Cut depth a = 0.073mm. x 100

Fig. 3.5, Photomicrographs of Longitudinal Chip Root Sections, Taken During the Orthogonal Cutting of 20Kh Steel in Air
Rake angle y = 20°; cut width b = 10 mm; cutting speed v = 0.7 m/min.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
648 COMMUNICATIONS

X 50 X 50
d Cut depth u = 0.09 mm. c Cut depth a = 0.15 mm.
Fig. 35--continued

That was illustrated by his experimental figures given in increased the effect of the built-up edge on the true rake
Fig. 37; those showed that where y = 20" extrapolation angle decreased, since the built-up edge could not have a
from experimental points in the range of cut depths rake angle of over 45" (41).Therefore as the tool rake angle
a = 0-04-0.09 mm actually gave a negative intercept on increased the anomalous laws 'became even weaker, and at
the ordinate axis. However it was obvious from Fig. 37 that y >
40"they were not to be found; that could be observed
that negative intercept was the result of incorrect extra- in Figs. 32,33, and 34.
polation. (3) On p. 628 the authors had stated that, according to
The authors noted that for a rake angle y = 20" the their observations, metal grains passed through the plastic
negative intercept on the ordinate axis was greater, and deformation zone along circular arcs. From those arcs the
there was a considerable decrease in chip contraction with authors had determined the centre of curvature of the chip,
>
increase in depth of cut, while for rake angles of y 40" the centre of its contact with the front tool face, and also
there were no negative intercepts on the ordinate axis and the contact area and mean contact pressures. From that
chip contraction scarcely depended on depth of cut. they had drawn the conclusion that the contact half-length
The reason for that was that as the tool rake angle was less than the distance from the tool cutting-edge to the

Fig. 36. Photomicrograph of Chip Cross-section and Built-up Edge at 0.4 mm from Cutting Edge
Cut depth a = 0-15 mm; rake angle y = 10"; cut width b = 5 mm.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 649

~~

0 045 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 035


a-mm

Fig. 38. Effect of Cut Depth a on Relationship of c, the Width


of Contact Between Chip and Front Face and fa, the
Chip Thickness
a-mm
Orthogonal cutting of 20Kh steel in air: cut width b = 10 mm;
rake angle y = 20'; cutting speed ZJ = 0.7 m/min.
Fg. 37. Linear Extrapolation of Experimental Relationship
in Anomalous Region Gives Negative Intercept on
Ordinate Axis ;f Range of Cut Depths Investigated is too authors for chip contact width and the specific front face
Small contact pressures did not agree with experimental results.
Orthogonal cutting of 20Kh steel in air: cut width b = 10 mm; The results of tests made by himself, which were given
rake angle y = 20'; cutting rate o = 0.7 m/min. in Fig. 38, proved that for a rake angle y = 20" the width
of chip contact with the front face, c, was 1.3-3.7
centre of contact. It was thus implied that the cutter edge multiplied by the chip thickness al = f a .
was not in contact with the metal, and the photomicro- According to the calculations made by the authors for the
graph in Fig. 16 was produced as proof. same angle y = 20°, c was only 0.3-0.4 times (a.
Those conclusions did not agree with well-known The specific normal pressures at the contact surface
experimental facts. between chip and front tool face found experimentally for
Research carried out by Rozenberg and Kufarev (43), that case were qN = 19-37 kg/mm2.
Krivoukhov and Bespakhotnii (44), and himself (41)had According to the authors' calculations, for y = 20" the
proved that the trajectories along which metal particles specific normal pressures were qN = 160-180 kg/mmz, i.e.
moved through the chip formation zone were curves whose 5-8 times greater.
curvature increased between the initial and final boundaries It had been established experimentally that the specific
of the chip-formation zone. Since the curvature altered, normal pressures qN at the front face rose considerably as the
those particular curves were not arcs of circles. That depth of cut a increased; by the authors' calculations, on
experimentally established fact was obvious, since as the the contrary, they decreased.
degree of deformation increased the metal hardening factor I n regard to the reference to Fig. 16, that could not be
dropped sharply. taken as proof that there was an empty space above the tool
He himself had never observed a gap between chip and edge. There were a number of indications that the photo-
front cutting-tool face either visually or by photomicro- micrograph in Fig. 16 had been taken with a built-up edge
graphy. On the contrary, all his experiments had proved present, and that that built-up edge did not fall in the
that the closer the observation to the cutting edge the more microsection plane when it had been prepared.
highly stressed did the contact between chip and front face (4) It should be noted that the authors had not
become; the result was that a zone of secondary-contact selected perfect experimental conditions for investigating
plastic deformation which formed a lower highly deformed the simplest case of orthogonal cutting.
chip layer could as a rule be seen at the contact In those conditions, in addition to the basic cutting-
half adjacent to the cutting edge. That was confirmed by process laws, laws peculiar only to the particular experi-
experiments carried out by Vasli'ev (49, Andreev (46), and mental conditions had also been present. Owing to that,
Kattwinkel(47); those authors had shown that the normal the relationships obtained had been more complex, and the
contact stresses increased steadily from zero at the point phenomena observed had been less suitable for analysis.
where the chip tore off to a maximum at the cutting edge. He had already referred to the anomalies caused by the
For those reasons, the calculated figures given by the appearance of a built-up edge. He would also point out the
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol I 73 No 24 I9S9
650 COMMUNICATIONS

complicating effect of plastic contact deformations of the to judge by the deformation curve in Fig. 3, the material
lower chip layer, that being the inevitable result of high used had previously been greatly hardened, and its ductility
coefficients of friction between chip and front face. Finally, had been low.
Owing to that, even at comparatively large angles,
3 -- , 1 - y = 20-25", the authors of necessity had obtained shear
chips even at cut depths a > 0.07-0.1 mm. That did not
permit tests to be carried out with depths of cut exceeding
0-1 mm, or the anomalies mentioned to be revealed.
Tests to establish basic laws for the cutting process
should be carried out with annealed carbon steel whose
carbon content was 0.18-0.22 per cent. It should preferably
be alloyed with 05-1-0 per cent chromium. The tests
, I I I I should not be carried out in the air, but in water at a cutting
0 0.05 0.19 0.1s 0.10 025 030 0.35
<,-- "lrn rate v z 0.7 m/min.
Under those conditions, the coefficient of friction between
Fig. 39. Efect of Cut Depth a on Chip Contraction
chip and front tool face was normally between p = 0.3-0.4;
During Ortkogona! Cutting of 20Kk Steel in Water
that prevented not only the formation of a built-up edge,
C.ut width h = I 0 mm; cutting speed 2; = 0.7 m/min.
but also secondary plastic contact deformations of the
lower chip-layer. Where the rake angle y = 20", a compact
continuous chip could be obtained between cut depths of
230
0.01 and 0-7mm. In the lower range of cut depths, a
220
compact chip could be obtained even at rake angles of
210 y = 10" and y = 0".
200 All the experimental relationships obtained were very
1% simple and suitable for analysis of the basic laws.
180 As an example, Figs. 39 and 40 showed the effect of cut
im depth a on chip contraction f and normal cutting force
I60 projection P, for various rake angles.
I50
The deformation picture for the metal being worked
I10
actually at the cutting edge was not darkened by secondary
contact deformations. In that case, as Fig. 41 showed, there
I30
was no need to assume the existence of a free surface or
120
empty zone at the cutting edge.
I10
Y IM)
1
2 90
80
70
60

50
40
30
20

10

0
-10

-20

-30
-40

-50
-0 x 100
(1-mm
Fig.41. Photomicrograph of Chip Root Longitudinal Section,
Fig. 40. Effect of Cut Depth a on Normal Projection P, of ' Taken During Orthogonal Cutting of 20Kh Steel in
Cutting Force, During Orthogonal Cutting of 20K k Water
Steel in Water Rake angle y = 20'; cut depth b = 10 mm; cut depth a = 0.23
Cut depth b = 10 mm; cutting speed v = 0.7 m/min. nun; cutting speed u = 0.7 m/min.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 65 1

APPENDIX I V
REFERENCES
17) KECECIOGLU, D. 1959 Production Engineering Conference, (33) KURREIN, M-. 1959 ‘Mechanical Metallurgy’ (in prepara-
Detroit, ‘Shear-zone Size, Compressive Stress and tion, Charles Griffin and Co., London).
Shear Strain in Metal Cutting and their Effect on Mean (34) THUIE, I. A. 1870 ‘Memoire Sure le rabotage des metaux’,
Shear-flow Stress’ (Amer. SOC.Mech. Engrs). Petersbourg.
18) NAKAYAMA,K. 1959 Bull. Fac. Engng, Yokohama Nar. (35) KURREIN,M. 1932 Werkstartstechnik, vol. 26, p. 41,
univ., vol. 8, ‘Studies of the Mechanism of Metal ‘Ueberblick uber die Zerspanungforschung’.
Cutting’. (36) ALBRECHT,P. 1956 Microtecnic, vol. 10, No. 3, p. 144, ‘An
19) ALBRECHT, P. 1959 Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, Paper No 59- Explanation of the Formation of Groove Wear on
A-243 ‘New Developments in Metal Cutting Theory’. Cutting Tools’.
(20) SHAH,S. C. 1959 MSc. Thesis London University, ‘Mode (37) KECECIOGLU, D. 1958 Trans. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, vol.
of Deformation in Metal-cutting under Plane Strain 80, p. 541, ‘Shear Zone Temperature in Metal Cutting
Conditions’. and Its Effects on Shear Flow Stress’.
(38) REICHENBACH, G. S. 1958 Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, vol. 80,
(21) THIME, I. A. 1870 ‘Resistance of Metals and Woods to p. 525, ‘Experimental Measurement of Metal Cutting
Cutting’. Temperature Distributions’.
(22) ZV~RIKIN, K. A. 1893 (Technical Collection and Reports (39) USUI, E. and TAKEYAMA, H. 1958 T. Mech. Lab.,Japan,
of Industry), ‘The Work and Effort Necessary for vol. 4, No. 1, p. 6, ‘A Photoelastic Analysis of Machining
Removing Metallic Chips’. Stresses on Rake Face’.
(23) BRIKS, A. A. 1896 ‘The Cutting of Metals’. (40) TANNER, R. I. and JOHNSON, W. 1959 Znr. J. mech. Sci.,
(24) BREWER,R. C. and ALEXANDER,J. M. 1959 J. Mech. vol. 1, No. 1, p. 29.
Phys Solids, vol. 8, p. 83, ‘A New Technique for (41) ZOREV,N. N. 1952 ‘Research into Elements of Cutting
Engraving and Measuring Grids in Experimental Process Mechanics’, Mashgiz.
Plasticity’. (42) ZOREV,N. N. 1956 ‘Problems of Metal Cutting Process
(25) KECECIOGLU, D. 1958 Trans. Amer. SOC.mech. Engrs, vol. Mechanics’, Mashgiz.
80, p. 158, ‘Shear Strain Rate in Metal Cutting and (43) ROZENBERG, A. M. and KUFAREV,G. L. 1958 Vestnik
Its Effects on Shear-flow Stress’. mashinoszroeniya, No. 6, ‘Determination of Degree of
(26) NADAX, A. L. 1947 PYOC. Instn mech. Engrs, Lond., vol. Metal Plastic Deformation During Cutting’.
157, p. 121. (44) KRIVOUKHOV, V. A. and BESPAKHOTNII, P. D. 1958 Zzves-
(27) TAYLOR, G. I. 1954 Proc. Second Int. Cong. on Rheology, tiva Vysshikk uchebnykh zavedenii, No. 1, ‘Investigation
p . . 1, ‘Rheology for Mathematicians’ (Butterworth of Deiormation During Metal Cutting’.
Suentific Publications, London). . ._.VASIL’EV,
(45) D. T. 1954 Mach. Tools Curt. Tools, MOSCOW, No.
4, ‘Forces on Tool Cutting Surfaces’.
(28) KURREIN, M. 1905 dst. W’schr. o~Baudienst,p. 1. (46) ANDREW, G. S. 1958 Vestnik mashinosrroeniya, No. 5,
(29) KURREIN,M. 1914 Stahl u. Eisen, No. 27, ‘Das Scneid- ‘Cinematographic Research of Stresses in Cutting
vermtigen der Werkzeugstihle’. Tool Working Regions in a Polarized Light Optical
(30) KURREIN, M. 1959 Maschinenrnarkt, No. 45, p. 9, ‘Mecha- Plant’.
nische Metallurgie’. (47) KATTWINKEL, W. 1957 1ndustr.-Am., No. 36, ‘Investiga-
(31) R A T H ~F. , H. 1931 Z. Ver. drsch. Zng. tion of Cutting Tool Chips Using Optical Strain
(32) KURREIN, M. 1930 2.MetaZlk., No. 11, p. 382. Gauges’.

Proc Inrtn Mech E q y s Vol173 No 24 1959


652

Authors’ R eId dv
Dr. W. B. Palmer and Dr. P. L. B. Oxley wrote, in reply qualitatively by those expressions, but that was hardly
to the communications, that it was a source of satisfaction to enough. As Mr. Albrecht had stated, it was well known that
them that their principal conclusion, which had been the quantitatively experimental values of 4 differed somewhat
only one that might have general validity, had not been from those predicted. Those differences did in fact imply
contested. That was, that the mean direct stress varied from large differences in overall geometry and cutting forces.
compression near the outer surface of the plastic zone They agreed with Mr. Albrecht that there was much
toward tension near the tool point, and that that had been published experimental information on cutting, but it had
predicted successfully by plastic theory as long as the effect been unusable for their investigation. Most of that experi-
of work-hardening had been included in the theory. Conse- mental work had been guided by a theory based upon the
quently they expected that any theory of metal cutting shear-plane assumption, and that had determined and
which might in the future help them to understand the limited the quantities which had been measured and
process, as opposed to being a rough framework for the col- recorded. From their viewpoint such information had
lection of empirical data, would have to take account of the therefore been incomplete.
variable nature of the flow stress of the work material. It was unfortunate that they had been unacquainted with
That view was confirmed by the work of Kececioglu (37), the extensive work performed in the Soviet Union, which
quoted by Mr. Scrutton. If the stress distribution described had been quoted by Mr. Zorev. Mr. Zorev had made
above had any general validity, the theory predicted that valuable comments upon the selection of good conditions
the plastic zone should be narrower when the slope of the for experimental work on the cutting process, but he had
stress-strain curve was decreased. As the speed of cutting concluded by specifying a unique set of condtions for tests
was increased, the stress-strain curve of most materials to establish the ‘basic laws’ of cutting. That insistence on a
became flatter due to the rate-of-strain effect, and thus the unique set of conditions provoked them to hesitate:
theory suggested a narrowing of the zone as reported by if nothing of those ‘basic laws’ could be revealed by
Kececioglu. It would appear therefore that the plastic zone other conditions, could the laws be very basic ?
adjusted itself to give more or less the same distribution of In the main they were unrepentant concerning their
stress. experimental conditions. The speed of cutting had been
dictated by the observations, which they had wished to
Experimental Conditions. Mr. Albrecht had suggested that
make, and the photographic equipment available. They had
the cutting conditions had been ‘too much’ out of the range
used a cold-worked material with a low rate of work-
of usual cutting conditions to derive any general con-
hardening for the tests, as their original intention had been
clusions. They would agree if their object had been to to analyse the process using the ideal theory of plasticity,
establish empirical laws for normal conditions, but it was which assumed zero work-hardening.
not. They had sought to make a small contribution to the
understanding of the mechanics of cutting, and they had in The Gap at the Tool Point. The tentative suggestion of the
fact reached a conclusion, which was mentioned above and possibility that there had been during the experiments a
which might be general. It would take much work to demon- gap near the tool point had aroused something of a storm.
strate or disprove its generality. They wished to make it clear that they had never been
Again they might agree with the criticism, if their object under the illusion that the tool point was always out of
had been to test the validity of expressions (25) and (26). contact and that they had been aware of the evidence of
But they had not attempted to conclude about the qualita- work on wear. That was why the suggestion had been so
tive validity of those expressions on the basis of their own severely qualified in the initial paragraph of the final
tests: a contradiction between their results and those ex- discussion.
pressions had merely been noted. They had taken the view Nor was the suggestion one to which the authors were
in their Introduction that the inadequacy of those expres- strongly attached, for they regarded the experimental
sions as explanations of the phenomena of cutting had been evidence as dubious, and it was not a necessary assumption
amply demonstrated by previous work, and more recent for the general field.
work had continued to confirm that*. Admittedly the trend However they had been convinced that there had been
of 4 with (A-a) for normal conditions might be predicted no contact between the clearance face and the work material
* EGGLESTON, D. M., HERZOG, R., and THOMSEN, E. G. 1959 during their experiments. That had been based on the
Trans. Amer. SOC. mech. Engrs, vol. 81, Series B, p. 263, ‘Obser-
vations on the Angle Relationships in Metal Cuttmg’. evidence of the films and on the absence of wear.
Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 1959
MECHANICS OF ORTHOGONAL MACHINING 653

The suggestion had been put forward because it appeared 3 Y.The material in the body of the chip had been severdy
to be a theoretical possibility, not vetoed by the experi- strained and its tensile yield stress had been probably of
mental evidence, and because the deformation then pre- the order 50-60 tonlin2, and the layer near the tool would
dicted near the tool point (Fig. 17) had been qualitatively have been harder still because of the very high strains
consistent with experimental deformation (Fig. 16). Such imposed near the tool point. Thus if normal pressure alone
deformation of the surface of the work and of the chip had had been involved stresses less than 150 ton/in2 could not
sometimes been ascribed automatically t o a rubbing action be dismissed as inconsistent with undetectable plastic flow.
on the rake and flank faces, and they wished to emphasize The problem was however complicated by large friction
that perhaps it had been produced by a different process, stresses, but it was possible that a considerable pressure
of which the principal characteristic had been tension. could still be supported before the body of the chip under-
Thus, speaking more generally, they believed that, went plastic deformation, rather than shearing taking place
whether or not the tip of the tool was in contact, the plastic in a microscopically thin surface layer.
zone would extend into the work as shown in Fig. 17, and On that argument the results quoted by Mr. Zorev for
also round into the chip in the same manner but rather contact stresses appeared low, and it would be interesting
more than in Fig. 17. to know the experimental technique used and also the work
material. Zorev had quoted normal pressures of 11-
The Character of Tool-Chip Contact. There was of course 21 ton/in*, and if the conditions of his experiments had
always some plastic deformation when two metal bodies been the same as for Figs. 33 and 34 the coefficient of
were in contact. When the load normal to the interface was friction would have been about 0.75 and the friction stress
small ,hat deformation was confined to asperities of the 8-16 tonlin2. The puzzle was that pressures of that order
surfaces which formed plastic junctions, and the shearing could only produce elastically a small proportion of the
of those junctions contributed to friction when one body contact length quoted, and it was also hard to conceive of
was slid relative to the other. Under such conditions the those pressures resulting in substantial plastic deformation
bodily behaviour was still elastic, and the apparent area of of highly worked steel. Perhaps the explanation of those
contact was determined by the elastic behaviour. figures was the existence of a built-up edge conforming to
At the pressures encountered during cutting such plastic the curvature of the chip.
junctions must form a relatively large proportion of the
apparent area of contact, but that need only be a surface On PZmticity Theory. With respect to Mr. Brewer’s third
effect. The question, which had interested them, had been paragraph, the assumptions of the ideal theory of plasticity,
whether the apparent area of contact had been determined as in any theory, had been made with a view to facilitating
by elastic and/or plastic deformation in the body of the chip. mathematical working. Both shear plane theories of cutting
The only evidence from their experiments consisted in were in the nature of coarse applications of the ideal theory
the particle paths plotted in the chip, as shown in Fig. 5. of plasticity and thus they involved the assumptions of the
Those paths appeared to be circular arcs from the exit of ideal theory and additional assumptions. They did not in
the main plastic zone. Two conclusions followed: firstly, their Introduction conclude that the shear plane assumption
any strain additional to that received in the main plastic had been wrong, but that probably it had been too coarse.
zone had been too small to be detected by the plotting The principal conclusion of the whole paper confirmed that
technique, and therefore deformation near the tool contact the shear plane and some of the assumptions of the ideal
had been either elastic or plastic with no appreciable flow. theory of plasticity had been too coarse for a fruitful dis-
Secondly, the final curvature of the unstressed chip had cussion of the mechanics of machining.
been unchanged from that imparted to the chip at exit With regard to Dr. Alexander’s query concerning
from the main plastic zone; if there had been a substantial plasticity theory for a work-hardening material, it appeared
second plastic zone in the chip, it would seem reasonable to them that logically it did not depend upon empirical
to expect a change of curvature. observation of a slip-line field, and that the approach could
Tool-chip contact had therefore been assumed to be be the same as in the ideal theory. To be more explicit, in
elastic and the Hertzian result had been used to calculate an either theory the main task of any solution was to determine
elastic contact length and the mean interface pressure as a slip-line field that was consistent with the boundary con-
given in Figs. 11 and 12. Exception had been taken by ditions. In the ideal theory the condition that stress was a
h4r. Zorev and Mr. Brown to the interface pressure of unique function could be expressed in terms of the simple
Fig. 12, and thus some expansion of the argument would Hencky-Prandtl geometric rules for the slip lines, and that
seem worth while. was of great assistance in constructing the slip-line field to
It was well known that when a strip load was applied to a fit the boundary conditions. In the work-hardening theory,
semi-infinite elastic-plastic medium, the yield criterion was on the other hand, the condition for uniqueness of stress
at first exceeded within the medium when the mean normal had not been expressed as simple geometric rules for the
pressure reached about 1-5Y,where Y was the tensile yield slip lines: lacking that, a guess for an orthogonal set of
stress of the material. However plastic flow was still con- slip lines would have to be made to fit the boundary con-
strained by elastic regions, and substantial plastic flow did ditions as well as possible, the implied strains and values
not take place until the mean normal pressure reached about for shear yield stress calculated, the uniqueness of stress
Proc Instn Mech EngrJ VoI 173 No 24 1959
654 AUTHORS’ REPLY

throughout the field tested, and the original guess adjusted Those values for R, and RB might then be used in
if that condition had not been met. Thus logically it would equations (10) and (13).
seem possible to find a solution with the work-hardening They looked forward to seeing the full account of Mr.
theory if the boundary conditions had been known ac- Shah’s work, and to hearing the result of the check pro-
curately enough, but at the expense of tremendous labour for posed by Mr. Brewer. They were grateful to Mr. Tanner
there was little to guide the original.guessat a slip-line field. for demonstrating so briefly their belief, expressed in their
In practice there was a need for observation to establish Introduction, that the plastic problem was primary.
the boundary conditions more accurately, especially in While agreeing with Professor Kurrein that real materials
regions where there would be a tendency to have a stress were neither isotropic nor homogeneous, they considered
singularity in the ideal theory, and to guide the guess at that some such assumptions had to be made if there was to
the slip-line field. be any progress. Later, no doubt, such assumptions could
It appeared to them that the value of the approach was be qualified.
that it could give information concerning stresses. They Mr. Zorev had criticized correctly the extrapolation of
had little, if any, confidence in stress distributions predicted their cutting force results, Fig. 6 , to zero depth of cut,
by the ideal theory. but they had attached no significance to the negative
intercept of cutting force. His criticism was really directed
Other Matters. Dr. Alexander’s interpretation of the para-
against any attempt to conclude positively from cutting
graph concerning the hodograph on Fig. 15 was essentially
in accordancewith their meaning. With regard to the query force intercepts such as that made by Thomsen and
others (15).
on the accuracy of the hodograph, they had varied the slip-
It was clear that Mr. Zorev had misread p. 628 of the
line field and constructed hodographs until a field had been
found which satisfied the condition of mean chip velocity paper. It was not stated there that the metal grains
passed through the plastic zone along circular arcs. It was
and of small rotational velocity, and they had considered
that that process had been significant. stated that they travelled along circular arcs once the chip
had been formed. The authors agreed entirely with Mr.
In the approximate analysis, after oB was derived from
equation (12), In (RA/RB) had been given by equation (9), Zorev and others that in the plastic zone the curvature of
and there was also the simple geometrical relation the trajectories increased from the initial to the final
boundary of the zone. That was shown clearly in Figs. 5
depth of cut = (RA- RB) sin ,f3 and 15.

Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol173 No 24 I959