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Engineering Design Criteria

a) Vessel Berthing Loads:

Berthing loads are in accordance with British Standard BS 6349, Part 4 –
Code of Practice for Design of Fendering and Mooring Systems and the
following parameters an angle of Approach: 10 degrees.

b) Berthing Velocity
Perpendicular to Wharf for 30,000 DWT is 0.12 m/sec (0.394 fps), and for
60,000 DWT is 0.092 m/sec (0.302 fps).

c) Allowable Hull Pressure

200 kPa (4.18 ksf). Bow Radius for 30,000 DWT is 55 meters (180 feet) and
for 60,000 DWT is 80 meters (263 feet).

d) Factor of Safety
Fender System is 2.0

e) Mooring Loads
Wind, Wave and Currents on ship (Ws, Wvs and Cs respectively) are
determined based on the British Standards BS 6349 – Part 4.

f) Maximum imposed load combinations on the port structures

Use OPTIMOOR model.

g) Seismic Loads (E):

Seismic loads will be determined in accordance with CUBiC, UBC and
SEAOC requirements for Zone 2+ 1 conditions. “Z” factors are: 0.50 (CUBiC
& UBC 1985) and 0.20 (UBC 1988 and SEAOC 1990) and SEAOC Zone 2+.
Structure Importance shall be Class I, I=1.5. Percentage of Live load to be
used shall be ten (10) percent in computing vertical loads

h) Temperature (T), Creep (R) and Shrinkage (S):

Steel Structures 10°C to 60°C (50°F to 140°F)
Concrete Structures: Starting from 27°C (80°F) rise 16C° (30F°), fall 10C°
Assume shrinkage strain of 0.0002 for concrete per AASHTO.

i) Wind – Operational and Hurricane (W and Wh): ASCE/SEI 7.

The basic wind speed is defined as a 3 second gust speed at 10 m above
ground in Exposure C conditions, associated with an annual probability of
occurrence of 0.02.
Operating Wind Velocity is 18 m/s (40 mph) with ships moored at facility
Design wind is 33 m/s (74mph) per CUBiC Building Code.
Hurricane design wind is 42 m/s (115 mph)

j) Current (C)
For normal currents a minimum speed of 0.5 m/s (1.0 knots) is used.
The port elevation +3.5m CD and the guideline for water levels are:
Water Level Project Datum MSL
Meters Feet Meters Feet
Highest Astronomical (HAT) 1.4 4.6 0.7 2.3
Mean Higher High (MHHW) 1.2 3.9 0.5 1.6
Water Level Project Datum MSL
Meters Feet Meters Feet
Mean High Water (MHW) 1.1 3.6 0.4 1.3
Mean Sea Level (MSL) 0.7 2.3 0.0 0.0
Mean Low Water (MLW) 0.5 1.6 -0.2 -0.7
Mean Lower Low MLLW) 0.2 0.7 -0.5 -1.6
Lowest Astronomical (LAT) 0 0 -0.7 -2.3

The design complies with the recommendation in applicable codes listed as follows:

 International Building Code (IBC) 2006 and Caribbean Unified Building Codes
(CUBiC) Code 1985 – 1986, whichever is more stringent.
 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ASCE/SEI 7-05 Minimum Design
Loads for Building and Other Structures (wind load)
 British Standards Institution (BSi) BS 6349 Maritime Structures 2000.
 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
- Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (vehicular
 United Facilities Criteria (UFC)
Geotechnical Engineering Procedures for Foundation Design of Buildings
and Structures, UFC 3-220-01N 15 August 2005 (superseding NAVFAC
DM 7.01, 7.02 and 38.4)
 Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC),
Approach Channels A Guide for Design, June 1997
 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Publications
Design of Sheet Pile Walls. Engineer Manual 1110-2-2504, 31 March 1994
 Coastal Engineering Manual. Engineer Manual 1110-2-1100, U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (in 6 volumes).
Hydrographic Surveying. Engineering Manual 1110-2-1003.
Design of Deep-Draft Navigation Projects. Engineering Manual 1110-2-
1613. Design of Coastal Revetments, Seawalls and Bulkheads.
Engineering Manual 1110-2-1614.

Design Code Guidelines

 Concrete:
American Concrete Institute (ACI)- Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete (ACI - 318-05)
Precast Concrete Institute (PCI) - Recommended Practice for Design,
Manufacture and Installation of Pre-stressed Concrete Piling; Prestressed
Concrete Piling Interaction Diagrams.
 Steel:
Structural Steel: American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Steel
Construction Manual (13th Edition)
Stainless Steel: ASCE Standard – Specification for the Design of Cold-
Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members – SEI/ASCE-8-02.
 Welding:
Steel: American Welding Society (AWS) Structural Welding Code-Steel D
Aluminum: AWS Structural Welding Code – Aluminum D 1.2.
Reinforcing Steel: - Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel AWS D
Stainless Steel: Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel D 1.6.
Rail: Recommended Practices for the Welding of Rails and Related Rail
Components for use by Rail Vehicles - AWS D15.2
 Aluminum: The Aluminum Association (AA)
Aluminum Design Manual (2005 Edition).
Specifications for Aluminum Structures
 Timber:
American Institute of Timber Construction (AITC) - Timber Construction
National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction.
Western Wood Preservers Institute (WWPI) - Best Management Practices
for the Use of Treated Wood in Aquatic Environments
American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA) – Preservatives Pressure
 Masonry:
Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structure ACI-530 and ACI-531
for Concrete Masonry Structures.
 Site Civil
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Guide for Design of Pavements Structures, AASHTO, Washington, D.C.,
A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, AASHTO,
Washington, D.C., 2004
Asphalt Institute, Thickness Design – Asphalt Pavements for Heavy Wheel
Loads, First Edition, 1996
American Concrete Pavement Association, Design of Heavy Industrial
Concrete Pavements, 1988
Portland Cement Association (PCA)
Guide Specification for Construction of Roller-Compacted Concrete
Pavements, 2004.
Structural Design of Roller-Compacted Concrete for Industrial Pavements,
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), 2003
 Buildings:
ASHRAE 90.1 (2001; various Errata) Energy Standard for Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential Buildings
USGBC LEED GBRS (Nov 2002) LEED Green Building Rating System,
Version 2.1
USGBC LEED RG (June 2001) LEED Reference Guide, Version 2.0
USGBC LEED NC (2002; R 2005) Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design(tm) Green Building Rating System for New
National Electrical Code, 2005
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 2006
IEEE Recommended practice for Electric Power Systems in Commercial
Uniform Plumbing Code, 2003
BICSI – Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual
Environmental Protection Agency Design Manual On-Site Wastewater
Treatment and Disposal Systems
Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards TTS.547: Specifications for the
Effluent from Industrial Process Discharge into the Environment –
Environmentally Sensitive Areas.

 Materials
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):

A 6/ 6M General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars,

Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Pilings
A 36/ A 36M Carbon Structural Steel
A 148/ A 148M Steel Castings, High Strength, for Structural Purposes
A 153/ A 153M Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware
A 185 Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete
A 193/ A 193M Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-
Temperature Service
A 252 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles
A 307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength
A 325 Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105ksi Minimum
Tensile Strength
A 416/ A 416M Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed
A 490 Structural Bolts, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, 150ksi Minimum
Tensile Strength
A 500 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural
Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A 572/ A 572M High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural
A 615/ A 615M Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete
A 653/ A 653M Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-
Coated (Galvannealed) by the Hot-Dip Process
A 706/ A 706M Low-Alloy Steel Deformed and Plain Bars for Concrete
A 924/ A 924M General Requirements for Steel Sheet, Metallic-Coated by
the Hot-Dip Process
A 934/ A 934M Epoxy-Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars
A 992/A 992M Structural Steel Shapes
B 221 Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods and
Wire, Profiles and Tubes
C 33 Concrete Aggregates
C 62 Building Brick
C 73 Calcium Silicate Brick (Sand-Lime Brick)
C 90 Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Units
C 150 Portland Cement
C 260 Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete
C 476 Grout for Masonry
C 857 Minimum Structural Design Loading for Underground Precast
Utility Structures
C 902 Pedestrian and Light Traffic Paving Brick
C 989 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete
and Mortars
C 1202 Electric Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion
D 25 Round Timber Piles
D 1557 Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using
Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3))
D 1751 Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and
Structural Construction (Non Extruding and Resilient
Bituminous Types)
D 1760 Pressure Treatment of Timber Products
D 2487 Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil
Classification System)
D 3282 Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for
Highway Construction Purposes
D 6109 Flexural Properties of Un-reinforced and Reinforced Plastic