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Reviewer in Rizal Midterms

Week 7
Poems & Correspondence
 To My Fellow Children
- Sa AkingMgaKababata
- It was written in 1869 when Rizal was 8 years old
- It was intended to his fellow Filipinos
- In the poem, Rizal says that people who truly love their native language will surely strive
for liberty.
- All of the languages in the world are equal and there should be no hierarchy. For
language is not only a communication tool but the expression of one's identity
 Our Mother Tongue
- Originally written in Tagalog when he was 8 years old
- a call for people to claim their nation as their own
- It is not to say that the nation is better than others-but rather that it is on the same footing.
- Taken from this poem is Rizal’s most famous quote:”Anghindimagmahalsasarilingwika,
daigpa anghayopat malansangisda.”
 Felicitation
- Written November 14, 1874
- As a birthday greeting to the husband of his sister Narcisa
- He wrote it while he was still in Ateneo
 My First Inspiration
- Also known as MiPrimeraInspiracion.
- Rizal wrote the poem My First Inspiration on 1874.
- First poem written byDr. Jose Rizalduring his third academic year inAteneode Municipal.
He was delighted to see his mother,Doña TeodoraAlonso, released from prison that same
year so he dedicated the poem to her.
 Goodbye Leonor
- Also known as Adios A Leonor.
- “Goodbye to Leonor” was written by Jose Rizal for his lady love, Leonor Rivera who
was only 13 years old when Rizal met her in Dagupan.
- They kept a long distance relationship by sending letters and photographs to one another
but their love affair was strongly disapproved by Leonor’s parents.
- Later on Rizal’s sweetheart for 11 years was married to Henry Kipping which saddened
Rizal terribly, thus this melancholic poem for Leonor.
- He wrote this poem as a goodbye, to Leonor Rivera for his departure to Europe.
 To The Child Jesus
- Al Niño Jesus
- It was written in 1875 when he was 14 years old
- He wrote this poem to show his devotion to his Catholic faith
 To The Virgin Mary
- Written in 1875 when he was 14 right after he wrote the ode “To The Child Jesus”
- The poem felt that if he wrote his prayer down and got it published, Mother Mary would
protect him even more by witnessing Jesus through his mother
- The poem shows Gratitude for whatever he had is a powerful prayer or calling to the
Virgin Mary
 Education Gives Luster To Motherland
- Written April 1, 1876
- This poem denotes the essence of education
- Likened to a golden sun and aurora
- Young and old benefit from it
 In Memories of My Town
- Written in 1876 when he was 15 years of age
- He wrote this for Calamba, his beloved hometown
- The poem In Memory of My Town by Jose Rizal is about the poet reminiscing about his
childhood. It talks about what he used to toas a child and the people he spent time with. It
also describes the sensations he felt as a child.
 To The Filipino Youth
- Also known as "A La Juventud Filipina“
- In the year 1879 , Rizal was 18 years of age, Artistic-Literary Lyceum of Manila held a
literary contest
- It was dedicated to the Filipino youth Theme, “Grow, O Timid Flower”
- In this poem, he won the first prize, a silver pen
- This winning poem of Rizal is a classic in Philippine literature for two reasons:
•It was the first great poem in Spanish written by a Filipino, whose merit was
recognized by Spanish literary authorities
•It expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the Filipinos, and not
the foreigners, were the “Fair hope of the fatherland”
 They Ask Me For Verses
- Me PidenVersos
- When Rizal arrived in Madrid, he joined CirculoHispano-Filipino
- Upon a request of one of the member in the society, Rizal wrote a poem entitled “They
Ask Me For Verses”
- He personally declaimed it during the New Year’s eve
- Dec. 31, 1882
- This poem talks about Rizal’s memories from the past that he cherished. He also talks
about the place where he originated and from, which is Philippines.
 Miss C.O. y R.
- Also known as a la SeñoritaC. O. y R.
- Jose Rizal dedicated this poem Miss Consuelo Ortigay Rey, Daughter of the Mr. Pablo
Ortigay Rey who was the vice president of the Council of the Philippines in Madrid.
Many Filipinos Habitually visited his house while in Madrid.
- The poem was written in August 22, 1883
- Rizal backed out on this relationship because he wanted to be loyal toLeonor Rivera.
- The poem speaks of Rizal not being happy and definitely confused on the relationship he
has with Consuelo.
 Hymn to Labor
- It was written by Rizal before he left Lipa
- He wrote this poem for the laborers in Lipa
- Jose Rizal’s patriotism is shown in this poem where he urge his fellowmen to strive and
work for their country whether in war or in peace.
- The main idea of the poem is that everybody has a role to play, and everybody should
stick to their role.
 Kundiman
- Kundimanwas wrote on September 12, 1891 by Jose Rizal.
- A kundimanis actually a traditional Filipino love song used by young man to serenade the
woman of his love.
- The Theme of Rizal’s kundimanis his intense love for his Motherland.
- His words reflected his optimism that Philippines would be freed from injustice and
bondage.
 Flowers among Flowers
- This poem had been originally written in Spanish, but was translated into English by
Nick Joaquin, another great Filipino writer.
- The 48-line verse talks of a romantic love for a girl, which is not surprising because Rizal
had a lot of girlfriends.
- The metaphor of a flower is obviously a girl who is more beautiful than all the girls in her
group that’s why it’s entitled Flower among Flowers.
 Hymn to Talisay
- Jose Rizal spent his days in Dapitanwith his pupils and he taught them not to be afraid of
anything including the ghosts on the baletetrees.
- Hymn to talisaywas written by Rizal for his pupils to sing while they rendezvous under
the talisaytree. However, the Spaniard fined the poem subversive, having this poem being
used by his opponents against him during his trial.
- The poem speaks of hope for tomorrow, despite of the late education. The children
believes that despite of being children, they will be their family’s guardian by means of
education.
 My Retreat
- MiRetiro
- Written during his exile in Dapitan, Zamboanga
- Portrays his loneliness in the still of the night, where only the sounds of the waves of the
sea, the chirping of the birds and other night insects could be heard.
- Dr. Rizal only expresses his longing for his family, his love ones while alone during his
exile.
 A Poem That Has No Title
“To my Creator I sing who did soothe me in my great loss; To the Merciful and Kind Who in my
troubles gave me repose.”
Pertaining to:
- God
- Life full of pain and difficulty
- Presence of God
“Thou with that pow'rof thine Said: Live! And with life myself I found; and shelter gave me thou
and a soul impelled to the good like a compass whose point to the North is bound.”
Pertaining to:
- Before he was born
- Having good will
“Thou did make me descend from honorable home and respectable stock, and a homeland thou
gavestme without limit, fair and rich though fortune and prudence it does lack.”
Pertaining to:
- Being in a respectable and honorable family
- Being in a country without limit
- Having the burden of the nation’s lack of prudence and fortune

 The Song of Maria Clara


- It is located in Rizal’s novel Nolime Tangere
- A song of Maria Clara in the novel, hence, the name
- It is about one’s utmost love in his motherland
 Song of the Wanderer
- The poem is dedicated to Rizal himself
- Even though he’s a wanderer being cast out, his brilliance and bravery are reflected in his
works and heroism.
- His name is etched in history and in peoples’ hearts
 MiUltimo Adios
- Also known as the “HulingPaalam”
- It is written on the eve ofhis execution on 30 December 1896
- The piece was one of the last notes he wrote before he was killed through firing squad;
another that he had written was found in his shoe but because the text was illegible, its
contents remain a mystery.
- The poem 'My Last Farewell' was Jose Rizal's patriotic goodbyes, first to his country, his
family and above all to his Heavenly Father. To his country he said, 'With gladness do I
give you my life.' He tried to comfort his parents and dear ones with these lines: 'I'll go
where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen; where faith does not kill and where God
alone does reign.' The last line of the poem says: 'To die is to rest.'

Rizal as a Novelist
~As a Poet~
- His poems reveals the nationalist idealism
- It was inspired by an ideal of human dignity and a passionate affirmation of the integrity
of human person, and heightened by an impassioned plea for the country
- It became the second nature to Rizal
Characteristics as a Poet:
 Sensitivity
 Versatility
3 Stages of Rizal’s Development
1. Early period (Initial)
- Written before 1874 under the guidance of his mother who constantly read poetry to him.
2. MiddlePeriod (Adolescent)
- Written from 1874-1881.
- Shows the work of a diligent, aspiring student newly exposed to profound ideas about
religion, classical philosophy, mythology, oral and written exposition and arguments,
exploits and heroism.
- 2 subjects: education of the masses; youth involvement in the affairs of the country.
3. Final period (Poetic Maturity)
- Written from 1882-1896; expounded on nationalism not only as sentiment but as a
passion that could develop to an ideology which eventually will lead to nation building.
Some of His Famous Poems
1. Sa Aking Mga Kabata
2. Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo(In Memory of my Town)
3. A La Educacion (To Education)
4. Alianza Intima Entre La Religion y La Buena Educacion(Intimate Alliance Between
Religion and Good Education)
5. Por La Educacion Recibe Lustre La Patria(Through Education Motherland
Receives Light)
6. A La Juventud Filipina(To The Filipino Youth)
7. Junto Al Pasig (Along the Pasig)
8. El Consejo de los Dioses(Council of the Gods)
9. Mi Piden Versos(They Ask me for Verses)
10. A Las Flores de Heidelberg(To the Flowers of Heidelberg)
11. Himno Al Trabajo (Hymn to Labor)
12. Hymn to Talisay
13. Kundiman
14. Mi Retiro (My Retreat)
15. Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell)
Characteristics of Rizal’s essays
 Scholarly and factual
 Socially relevant

Themes of his essays


- Abuses of the friars and the civil administrators
- Descriptions of the sufferings of the Filipinos
- Expression of love of country
- Appeal for the development of national consciousness

Love of the Country


- his first essay
- written when he was 21
- was published under the pen name ‘Laong Laan’ on August 12, 1882 in Diariong
Tagalog and on Oct. 31, 1890 in La Solidaridad
The Indolence of the Filipinos
- his longest essay
- published in 5 installments in the La Solidaridad
- written to defend the Filipinos from the charge that they were born indolent
Rizal’s Analysis:
- indolence does actually and positively exist
- indolence is NOT the CAUSE, but rather the EFFECT of disorder, economic stagnation
and backwardness in the country
- indolence in the Philippines is a chronic malady, but not a hereditary one
- Filipinos were NOT really born lazy, but they had a natural predisposition to laziness
because of the heat and climate
Factors which caused the people to lose their willingness to work.
- Heat and climate affect the people and foster indolence
- Strict colonial policies of the Spaniards
- Factors that discouraged Filipinos to see work and were the Filipinos’ own fault
The Philippines within a Century
First article
- Rizal analyzed the causes of the miseries of the country/origin of ‘ethical abasement’ of
Filipinos
Second article
- He presented the contemporary conditions in his time
Third article
- Identified the reforms and political transformation needed for the Philippines to remain
under the Spanish rule.
Fourth article
- Rizal ‚foresaw‛ the stages that lead to independence

Letter To The Young Women of Malolos


- 21 young women raised their petition to open a ‘night school’ but they were turned down
- For Rizal, the women ‚set example to those who long to have their eyes opened and be
delivered from servitude‛
- He was glad for asserting their rights to education and emerged to seek identity and
dignity
- He pleaded the women to bear in mind the following final reminders:
>on self-respect
>on unity
>on motherhood
>on equality
>on true religion
Noli Me Tangere
- means ‚Touch me not‛
- has 64 chapters
- dedicated to Motherland
- inspired by Uncle Tom’s Cabin which portrayed the brutalities of American slave owners
and the pathetic conditions of Negro slaves
- Maximo Viola financed the printing
- The objectives in writing were: to expose the social malady affecting the country and to
awaken and develop the national consciousness of his people.
The Original Cover Design of Noli and its Symbolism
Cross –Christianity
Tombstone -Religious faith
Laurel Leaves –Purity
Slihouette of a Woman -Nation and women who were victims of the social cancer
Burning Torch –Freedom.
Sunflower -Youth seeking more knowledge under the sun
Bamboo stalks -Resiliency: determination to rise after every fall
Chains –Slavery
Whips –Torture
Helmet of Guardia Civil -Arrogance and abuse of power
Friar’s feet -Friars’ oppression
Author’s name -Hope for renewal
Words partly hidden -Rizal’s inner dedication to his parents
Characters
- Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin-portrayed as Europe-educate and well-mannered
man
- Don Anastacio/Pilosopo Tasyo-regarded as fool of the majority who are pathetic to his
unconventional ideas
- Maria Clara Delos Santos-product of the illicit affair of Padre Damaso and Pia Alba,
but was regarded by Capitan Tiago as his own child
- Sisa-a sacrificing wife and mother who became crazy because of too much sufferings
- Basilio & Crispin-sons of Sisa who works as sextons (sacristan) in the church
- Don Rafael Ibarra-father of Crisostomo Ibarra Tiya Isabel-the loving aunt of Maria
Clara

El Filibusterismo
- Rizal’s second novel: a sequel to Noli
- Composed of 38 chapters
- Dedicated to GomBurza
Filibustero-a dangerous patriot
Characters
- Simoun-an influential jeweler; disguised behind dark glasses, long hair and a goatee
- Basilio-the surviving son of Sisa who was sent to medical school courtesy of Capitan
Tiago
- Isagani-the idealist poet nephew of Fr. Forentino; former fiance of Paulita Gomez
- Cabesang Tales-the farmer hounded into bandity because he was dispossessed of his
land in Tiani by the friars
- Huli/Juli-Daughter of Cabesang Tales

WEEK 8
Noli Me Tangere (1887) Rizal as a Novelist
Life in Berlin
- Rizal’s life in Berlin, particularly the winter of 1886, was one of the most difficult in his
life.
- He had no money, and his health was failing.
- But it was also one of the most memorable for it was during this time that Rizal’s first
novel was published.
Idea of Writing a Novel
- Harriet Stowe’s “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” which portrays the brutalities of American slave-
owners and the unfortunate conditions of Negro slaves inspired Rizal to prepare a novel
that would depict the miseries of his people under the Spanish rule.
Proposal of Writing a Novel
- On January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group
of Filipinos.
- His proposal was unanimously approved by the members of the Circulo Hispano-
Filipino.
- However, Rizal’s project did not materialize because the Filipinos were more interested
in writing about Filipino women.
- Disgusted, Rizal was determined to write the novel alone.
Objectives in Writing the Noli
1. To expose the social malady affecting the country;
2. To awaken and develop the national consciousness of the people.
 In Rizal’s letter to Blumentritt, he declared: “I wanted to write something for my
country.”
 In his letter to Del Pilar: “I wrote the Noli to arouse the feelings of my countrymen.”
 Rizal wrote the novel for the noble purpose of redeeming his people from their miserable
conditions.
 Rizal often said, “There are no tyrants if there are no slaves.”
Writing of the Noli
- Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished about one-
half of it.
- He continued writing the novel in Paris in 1885, and finished it in Germany where
scientific research and philosophy were free of State and Church control
- Rizal made the final revisions on the manuscripts of the Noli in February 1886.
- But sick and penniless, Rizal saw no hope of having it published that he almost hurled it
into the flames.
Viola as Savior of the Noli
- Dr. Maximo Viola, a scion of rich family in Bulacan, arrived in Berlin on December
1886.
- He found Rizal living in poverty and was deplorably sick because of poor nourishment.
- Viola agreed to finance the printing cost of the Noli and loaned Rizal some cash money
for living expenses.
Surveying for Printing Shops
- To save printing expenses, Rizal deleted some passages in the Noli, including the chapter
“Elias and Salome.”
- On February 21, 1887, the Noli was finally finished and ready for printing
- Rizal surveyed the cost of printing in Berlin and finally found a printing shop that
charged only p300.00 for 2,000 copies.
Printing of the Noli
- On March 21, 1887, the Noli Me Tangere came off the press.
- Rizal immediately sent the first copies of the printed novel to his close friends.
- As a token of appreciation to Viola, Rizal gave him the galley proofs of the Noli together
with a complimentary copy.

El Filibusterismo (The Subversive)


Writing of El Filibusterismo
- Rizal had begun writing the Fili in October 1887 and finished the manuscript on March
29, 1891—taking him three years to write the second novel.
- Rizal had been working on his second novel on and off ever since the publication of the
Noli. He had been haunted by fear that he would never finish it.
- He had premonitions for two months before his 29thbirthday, dreaming almost every
night of his dead relatives.
- Two unhappy events moved Rizal to work harder to finish the Fili:
1. Leonor Rivera’s infidelity;
2. Rizal’s humiliation in Madrid when he abdicates his leadership of the Propaganda
movement.
- In his letter to Blumentritt: “I am writing the Fili with more ardor than the Noli, and
although, it is not so cheerful, it is more profound and perfect.”
Printing of El Filibusterismo
- Rizal published the Fili in Ghent where he found a printing press that was willing to print
his book in installment basis.
- Rizal encountered severe difficulties in funding for the publication of the Fili.
o There was now no Paciano on whom to pin his hopes.
o His friends who promised to help him had abandoned him and did not send the
expected funds.
- In his letter to Base on July 1891, Rizal described his predicament as follows:
o “I have already pawned all my jewels. I live in a small room. I eat in the cheapest
restaurant in order to economize and be able to publish my book; soon I will have
to stop its publication if no money comes...”
- The printing of the Fili was suspended on August 1891 because of lack of funds.

Ventura, Savior of the Fili


- Once more, Rizal felt desperate and in a moment of bitter disillusionment, he almost
hurled the manuscript of the Fili into the flames, just as he almost did in the Noli.
- But help came from an unexpected source when Valentin Ventura heard of Rizal’s
predicament and immediately sent him the necessary funds.
- With Ventura’s assistance, the printing of the Fili was resumed.
The FiliComes off the Press
- On September 18, 1891, El Filibusterismo came off the press after a “long difficult
birth”.
- Because he was short of funds, Rizal was compelled to cut short the novel drastically.
- Rizal gave Ventura the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy of the
second novel.
- Almost all copies of the first edition were shipped to Hong Kong but they were
confiscated and the books were lost.
- The book became rare and the few available copies were sold at very high prices.
Dedication of the Fili to GomBurZa
- In all the years of his studies, travels and labors, Rizal had not forgotten the martyrdom of
the three priests as he dedicated his second novel in their memory.
Comparison of the Noli and the Fili
Noli and Fili Compared
- The two novels of Rizal vary in many respects, although they were written by the same
author and are supposed to be dealing with the same story and have the same characters.
- The Noli is a romantic novel—it is a “work of the heart,” a “book of feeling;” it has
freshness, color, humor, lightness and wit.
- The Fili is a political novel—it is a “work of the head”, a “book of thought;” it contains
bitterness, hatred, pain, violence and sorrow.
- In terms of length, the original intention of Rizal was to make the Fili longer than the
Noli.
- But lack of funds forced Rizal to drastically shorten the Fili to only 38 chapters compared
to Noli which had 64 chapters.
- Storyline and themes:
o In the Noli, Rizal had concentrated his fire on the friars.
o In the Fili, Rizal indicted the entire Spanish regime including its native defenders
and supporters.
- The Fili was more profound politically than the Noli because it prescribed a solution to
the problem when reforms would not be granted.
- Rizal had declared in the Fili that the Filipinos may eventually “prefer to die than to
endure the miseries any longer.”
- In the Fili, Rizal is no longer the loyal reformer.
- He has become the “subversive separatist,” making little effort to conceal this in the
title and in his dedication of his second novel.
- Both are good novels from the point of view of history.
- Both depict the realistic colors of the actual conditions of the Philippines during the
decadent days of Spanish rule.
- Both are instrumental in awakening the spirit of Filipino nationalism.
- Both are responsible in paving the ground for the Philippine Revolution that brought
about the downfall of Spain.
Which of the Noli and the Fili is more superior?
 On the opinion that the Noliis superior to the Fili:
- Rizal himself considered the Noli as superior to Filias a novel (perhaps because the latter
was drastically shortened), thereby agreeing with Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Wenceslao
Retana who had the same opinion.
 On the opinion that the Fili is superior to the Noli:
- Blumentritt, Rafael Palma and Graciano Lopez Jaena regarded the Fili superior to Noli.
- Blumentritt described the Nolias “the greatest literary work ever written by a Filipino... a
work written with the heart’s blood of a patriot,” but regarded the Fili superior than the
Noli.
- Graciano Lopez Jaena also considered the Fili superior to Noli, but he was not satisfied
with the conclusion saying, “The end is not a worthy climax to a work so beautiful.”
NOLI ME TANGERE’
 The title Noli Me Tangere was taken from the Gospel of Saint John.
 According to St. John, on the First Easter Sunday, Mary Magdalene visited the Holy
Sepulcher and to her our Lord Jesus, just arisen from the dead said:
o “Touch me not; I have not yet ascended to my Father but go to my brethren, and
say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God and your
God.”
1. It could refer to Rizal saying to the Spaniards, “Touch Me Not”
- Rizal had previously given a warning to Spain in the death of GOMBURZA. “Repeat the
execution and the fate of the executioners is sealed”. Precisely it did happen, Spain
executed Rizal and the future of the Spanish empire is doomed. Also one should never
forget that Rizal’s pen name is DIMASALANG –which connotes Untouchability!
2. It could refer to the Philippines saying to Spain, “Touch Me Not”
- A threat or a caution! Philippines is asking the colonial government to stop the abuses
and maltreatment of the people, otherwise such miserable conditions would soon spark a
revolution.
3. Noli Me Tangere “Touch Me Not”
- Sketches a wound painful even to the healer’s touch causing more agony and pain than
relief.
4. It could refer to the true “Social Cancer”, hence the title Noli Me Tangere”.
- Critical issues and problems are maligning Philippine society –least contact irritates it
causing the most acute pain.
5. It could refer to the book itself and its content
a. From the book itself it could mean WARNING!
- You are picking up an Explosive! Read it and you will be shocked! Read it and be ready
to face the consequences. Another warning of a different kind came from unexpected
quarter–the printer’s man delivering proofs to Rizal, though none of them spoke proper
Spanish, they realized that the work they are producing was “real dynamite”.
b. On the content
- The book contains things that nobody dares to talk about during those times.
- These things were so delicate that they cannot be touched by anyone. Examples of these
issues are; immorality of the friars, rampant graft and corruption, mal-administration of
justice and excessive human rights violations.
6. It could refer to someone suffering from a societal stigma- brought either by a
contagious disease, like leprosy. There’s a leper shown in one of the chapters of the
novel. The leper is ostracized and held outcast by the society. Even the leper is healed, a
sign hanging around his neck reads, “Touch Me Not”, or a societal stigma being labeled
as “Erehe or Filibustero”.
It could refer to someone suffering from a societal stigma- brought either of being
labeled as “Erehe or Filibustero” –the people whom no one dares to associate with in
colonial Philippines.
7. It could be a challenge to Filipino curiosity on the novel. By nature, the Filipinos are
naturally curious, so the more restrictions the authority imposed upon the book, the more
the book is banned, the more it becomes controversial –the higher is their curiosity, thus
more and more Filipinos would like to read it.

Reactions to the Novels


- The Noli and the Fili had a more tremendous effects on the people than all the writings
during the Propaganda period—they are the “gospels of Philippine nationalism.”
- In boldly exposing and criticizing Philippine social realities during the 19thcentury, they
are considered as two of the greatest Filipino social documents.
- The novels made Rizal known all over the world as the foremost Asian nationalist.
- However, while Rizal’s friends were praising the profundity of his novels, it made him
notorious from the standpoint of Spanish religious authorities and detractors.
- His novels evoked such favorable and unfavorable comments from his friends and foes
alike.
Negative Reactions to the Novels
- Rizal anticipated the attacks of his enemies as he told Blumentritt:
o “The government and the friars will probably attack my work, refuting my
statements, but I trust in the God of Truth and in the persons who have actually
seen our sufferings.”
- For Spanish religious authorities, the message conveyed by the novels was seditious.
- The Dominican priests of UST declared them as subversive, heretical and immoral.
- Fr. Jose Rodriguez—attacked the Noli in his pamphlet Caiingat Cayo.
- Wenceslao Retana—was also among the first persons to attack the novels; ironically he
would later become a Rizal biographer.
- Governor Emilio Terrero—ordered the prohibition and circulation of the novels but the
ban only aroused the curiosity of the people.
- In Rizal’s own opinion, the novels fame was really made by the rage which it aroused
among the rulers of the Philippines.
- Faculty Committee of UST, 1887:
o “The book is heretical, impious and scandalous to the religious order, and
unpatriotic and subversive to public order, libelous to the Government of Spain
and to its political parties in the Philippines.”
- Permanent Censorship Commission:
o “The importation, reproduction and circulation of this pernicious book shall be
absolutely prohibited.”
Positive Reactions to the Novels
 Felix Resurrecion Hidalgo:
o “I admire your courage in saying plainly what you think and the inspiration
reflected in your work, which makes one feel the palpitation of the heart of the
man who loves his country.”
 Prof. Ferdinand Blumentritt:
o “The Noli is the greatest literary work ever written by a Filipino... A work written
by a heart’s blood of a patriot.”
 Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor:
o “If Don Quixote immortalizes its author because it exposes to the world the
ailments of Spain, Rizal’s Noli will bring him an equal glory... Every Filipino
patriot will read his book. He will be inspired and will regard the book as the
masterpiece of a Filipino and proof that those who thought us as incapable of
producing intellects are mistaken or lying.”
 Rizal knew the dilemma of those who hesitated reading his novels, fearing arrest and
detention.
 In writing to Jose Basa, Rizal had said:
o “If the present generation does not want to read me because of fear, I shall keep
what I have written for the coming generation... What are we going to do? Our
countrymen are afraid to spend two or three days in prison for the sake of
enlightenment, perhaps the coming generation will be more daring. Let us hope.”
 From the author:
o “If I have detractors, on the other hand I do not lack admirers... But to expose
abuses and unmask hypocrisies, what do I care for the rest now that I have
achieved my purpose? My book has not yet been judged and cannot be judged
rightly because its effects are still being felt.”

I die without seeing the sun rise on my country. You who are to see the dawn, welcome it, and
do not forget those who fell during the night.”
- From Rizal’s book Noli Me Tangere