Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38
Joao Pimenta, PGTMM , October 13 t h , 2016 ABB Power Grids Capacitors and

Joao Pimenta, PGTMM , October 13 th , 2016

ABB Power Grids Capacitors and Filters

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 1

Joao Pimenta, PGTMM , October 13 t h , 2016 ABB Power Grids Capacitors and Filters

Capacitors in ABB History

Capacitors in ABB History © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 2 Pictures from old catalogues §
Capacitors in ABB History © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 2 Pictures from old catalogues §

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 2

Capacitors in ABB History © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 2 Pictures from old catalogues §

Pictures from old catalogues

§ 1932, started ASEA/ABB to deliver capacitors

§ This design remained the same until the beginning of the 60’s. During the 60’s and 70’s the design accelerated due to the early ASEA projects for HVDC and FACTS projects.

§ 2000, ABB started to manufactory capacitors at Xi´an facility, with focus at local HVDC and FACTS projects.

§ 2001, ABB introduced a revolutionary Dry type of capacitors for DC applications

More than 80 years of experience in the field of capacitors
More than 80 years of experience in the field of capacitors
a revolutionary Dry type of capacitors for DC applications More than 80 years of experience in

Advantage of a good Power Factor

Advantage of a good Power Factor • Current drawn from the network reduced • Transformers and
• Current drawn from the network reduced • Transformers and distribution cables unloaded ( í
• Current drawn from the network reduced
• Transformers and distribution cables unloaded ( í I)
• Reduced Joule losses ( RI²)
• Cables
• Transformers
• Protect devices
• Voltage drop reduced
• Cables
• Transformers
• Increased power available at transformer terminals
• No penalty from electricity supplier
© ABB
October 25, 2016
Slide 3

Advantage of a good Power Factor

Transformers and distribution cables lightened (íI)

§ Current drawn from the network reduced § Reduction in factor of: cos j 1
§ Current drawn from the network
reduced
§ Reduction in factor of:
cos
j
1
In (%)
(1
-
) * 100
cos
j
2
§ Cos j 1 = 1
In = 100%
(required useful current)
§ Cos j íÕ In í
27%
§ For the same kW, In is reduced by 27%
when PF rises from 0.7 to 0.95
0.95
0.7

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 4

27% § For the same kW, In is reduced by 27% when PF rises from 0.7

Advantage of a good Power Factor

Reduced Joule Losses (RI²)

% reduction in losses § Reduction factor of RI² watt (%): cos j 1 2
% reduction in losses
§ Reduction factor of RI² watt (%):
cos
j 1
2
RI² watt (%) =
1
- (
) *100
cos j final values
cos
j 2
46
§ For the same load, the losses are
reduced by 46% when PF rises from 0.7
to 0.95
cos j initial values

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 5

load, the losses are reduced by 46% when PF rises from 0.7 to 0.95 cos j

Locating Capacitors on System

Locating Capacitors on System Transmission SC SVC Distribution QBANK SVC SC Industry Load SVC CHARM ©
Transmission SC SVC Distribution QBANK SVC SC Industry Load SVC CHARM © ABB October 25,
Transmission
SC
SVC
Distribution
QBANK
SVC
SC
Industry
Load
SVC
CHARM
© ABB
October 25, 2016
Slide 6

Locating Capacitors on System

Locating Capacitors on System Capacitor location 1 2&3 4 Technical approach Best 1 2 Flexibility Least
Capacitor location 1 2&3 4 Technical approach Best 1 2 Flexibility Least Less Best Savings
Capacitor location
1
2&3
4
Technical approach
Best
1
2
Flexibility
Least
Less
Best
Savings
Least
Less
Max
Cost per kvar
Least
Lower
Highest
3
4
1. on the plant feeder (HV)
2. on the main LV bus
M
M
M
3. on the auxiliary/remote bus
4. at the individual load point
© ABB
October 25, 2016
Slide 7

Power Capacitor Unit Definition of capacitor unit

© ABB October 25, 2016

Unit Definition of capacitor unit © ABB October 25, 2016 § C a p a c

§Capacitor bank

Slide 8

unit © ABB October 25, 2016 § C a p a c i t o r

§Capacitor unit

unit © ABB October 25, 2016 § C a p a c i t o r

§Capacitor element

unit © ABB October 25, 2016 § C a p a c i t o r

Power Capacitor Unit Optimized capacitor design

Consideration of safety plenty level

§ Film layer (3-layers is normal)

§ Strong puncture- against ability

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 9

§ Foil auto-folding of electrode

§ Regular edge stress;

§ Excellent partial discharge ability

§Foil §Folded §Foil bulge edge §D §D =thickness of film §a = folded radius §
§Foil
§Folded
§Foil bulge edge
§D
§D =thickness of film
§a = folded radius
§
Film
§a

Power Capacitor Unit Capacitor Unit Construction

© ABB October 25, 2016

Unit Capacitor Unit Construction © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 10 § Connection terminal § Bushing

Slide 10

§Connection terminal

§Bushing

§Nameplate

§Element §Internal fuse §Discharge Resistor

§earth insulation

10 § Connection terminal § Bushing § Nameplate § Element § Internal fuse § Discharge Resistor

Power Capacitor Unit Technology of Fuse

© ABB October 25, 2016

Internally Fused
Internally Fused

Slide 11

§Fuse
§Fuse

§Discharge

§ Resistor

Externally Fused
Externally Fused
ABB Design
ABB Design
Conventional Design
Conventional Design
2016 Internally Fused Slide 11 §Fuse § Discharge § Resistor Externally Fused ABB Design Conventional Design

Fuseless

2016 Internally Fused Slide 11 §Fuse § Discharge § Resistor Externally Fused ABB Design Conventional Design

Power Capacitor Unit Element failure

A puncture creates a perfect weld (short-circuit)
A puncture
creates
a perfect
weld (short-circuit)

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 12

Power Capacitor Unit Element failure A puncture creates a perfect weld (short-circuit) © ABB October 25,

ABB’s unique features Expertise in all type of fusing technologies

ABB’s unique features Expertise in all type of fusing technologies © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 13

ABB’s unique features Expertise in all type of fusing technologies © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide

Application for Open Rack Solution

Voltage Level

• MV or HV Banks • Limitation of units: • Voltage: controls the n° of
• MV or HV Banks
• Limitation of units:
• Voltage: controls the n° of
capacitors in series of the bank;
• Case Insulation: define max.
capacitor in series at the same
rack;
• System Voltage level:
• Minimum air clearances
(Space Required)
• N° of Capacitors in Series
• Capacitor Bank’s height

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 14

(Space Required) • N° of Capacitors in Series • Capacitor Bank’s height © ABB October 25,

Application for Open Rack Solution

Rated Power

• Limitation of units: • Rated Power: Controls the n° of capacitors in parallel of
• Limitation of units:
• Rated Power: Controls the n° of
capacitors in parallel of the bank
• Rated Power:
• N° of Capacitors in Parallel
• Capacitor Bank’s width and
length (space required)
• Possibility of multi-step solution,
for automatic PF compensation.

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 15

(space required) • Possibility of multi-step solution, for automatic PF compensation. © ABB October 25, 2016

Application for Open Rack Solution

Local of Installation

• Indoor or Outdoor; • Conventional Solution; • Arrangement optimized for each installation: • Cable
• Indoor or Outdoor;
• Conventional Solution;
• Arrangement optimized for
each installation:
• Cable entry;
• Available Space;
• Air clearances and Magnetic
Clearances;
• Components inside the bank;

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 16

Space; • Air clearances and Magnetic Clearances; • Components inside the bank; © ABB October 25,

Application for Open Rack Solution

Safety

• Fence or Elevation Structures required • Restrict access to the area; • Earth and
• Fence or Elevation Structures
required
• Restrict access to the area;
• Earth and Disconnector Switch
(safety maintenance)

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 17

• Restrict access to the area; • Earth and Disconnector Switch (safety maintenance) © ABB October

Application for Open Rack Solution

Cost

• Most cost effective solution for MV and HV capacitor banks; • Components costs: •
• Most cost effective solution for
MV and HV capacitor banks;
• Components costs:
• Structure vs Panels
• Air core vs Iron core reactors
• Conventional equipment

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 18

• Structure vs Panels • Air core vs Iron core reactors • Conventional equipment © ABB

Open Rack Layouts

MV Capacitor Banks

§Standard features §Galvanised rack §Frame capacity: 3, 6 or 9 units §125kV BIL insulation §Four
§Standard features
§Galvanised rack
§Frame capacity: 3, 6 or 9 units
§125kV BIL insulation
§Four welded lifting lugs
§Provision for key components
§Optional features
§Aluminium structural grade

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 19

lugs §Provision for key components §Optional features §Aluminium structural grade © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide

Open Rack Layouts

MV Capacitor Banks

Open Rack Layouts MV Capacitor Banks © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 20

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 20

Open Rack Layouts MV Capacitor Banks © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 20

Open Rack Layouts

HV Capacitor Banks – Grounded Y/Y-Y

• High Voltage (≥69kV) • Elevation Structure (If required) • 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n°
• High Voltage (≥69kV)
• Elevation Structure (If required)
• 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n° SG)
• Fence required (If no elevation
structure)
• CT Unbalance sensing device (rated
voltage: 0.2 x Un)
• Progressive Insulation (racks with
defined potential)
• Bottom Insulators: ↓ BIL
• Costs: ↓

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 21

(racks with defined potential) • Bottom Insulators: ↓ BIL • Costs: ↓ © ABB October 25,

Open Rack Layouts

HV Capacitor Banks – Ungrounded Y-Y

• High Voltage (≥69kV) • 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n° SG) • Fence required •
• High Voltage (≥69kV)
• 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n° SG)
• Fence required
• 1 x CT Unbalance sensing device
(System Full BIL)
• Bottom Insulators: System Full BIL
• Costs: ↑↑
• Attention Point: Seismic Requirements

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 22

Insulators: System Full BIL • Costs: ↑↑ • Attention Point: Seismic Requirements © ABB October 25,

Open Rack Layouts

HV Capacitor Banks – Grounded H-Bridge

• High Voltage (≥69kV) • 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n° SG) • Fence required (If
• High Voltage (≥69kV)
• 1-ph Stacked Racks (↑ n° SG)
• Fence required (If no elevation
structure)
• 3 x CT Unbalance sensing device
(rated voltage must coordinate with
bridge midpoint voltage level)
• Progressive Insulation (racks with
defined potential)
• Bottom Insulators: ↓ BIL
• Costs: ↑↑

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 23

(racks with defined potential) • Bottom Insulators: ↓ BIL • Costs: ↑↑ © ABB October 25,

Methods of Capacitor Control

Fixed vs. Switched Capacitors

Methods of Capacitor Control Fixed vs. Switched Capacitors Generally, it is more economical to correct to
Generally, it is more economical to correct to near-unity power factor: 6 5 • At
Generally, it is more economical to
correct to near-unity power factor:
6
5
• At minimum load through the
application of fixed capacitors
4
3
• At higher loads through the
application of switched capacitors
2
• Ideal solution…fixed capacitors
compensate the fixed portion of
load, while switched capacitors
compensate peaks and troughs
1
0
0
24
Hour
© ABB
October 25, 2016
Slide 24
MVAR

MECB 36 SD 10 (with internal detuned reactors) Indoor/Outdoor, IP54, Switched, One Stage

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 25

MECB 36 SD 10 (with internal detuned reactors) Indoor/Outdoor, IP54, Switched, One Stage © ABB October
MECB 36 SD 10 (with internal detuned reactors) Indoor/Outdoor, IP54, Switched, One Stage © ABB October

33kV ABBACUS MECB

33kV ABBACUS MECB © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 26
33kV ABBACUS MECB © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 26

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 26

33kV ABBACUS MECB © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 26
33kV ABBACUS MECB © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 26

PQC-STATCON Shunt compensation

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 27

Shunt compensation © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 27 PQC-STATCON offers: § Enhancement of the grid

PQC-STATCON offers:

§ Enhancement of the grid – shunt technology makes the grid act in a more robust, flexible and predictable way

§ Control of reactive power injection or absorption

§ Unbalance compensation

§ Dynamic voltage control

§ Low noise levels

§ Optimized losses

§ Solution to MV/HV through Step up transformers

§ Flicker mitigation (Case to case basis, pls consult factory)

losses § Solution to MV/HV through Step up transformers § Flicker mitigation (Case to case basis,

Field report: Welding Loads - Automotive FIAT Automobiles, India

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 28

Slide 28

§ October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 28 Slide 28 Customer requirement • Fast response

Customer requirement

Fast response reactive power compensation for weld shop

To maintain power factor close to unity

Reliable reactive power system with power saving mode during lean hours / shift

ABB Solution

Ø Installation of 0/600 kvar & 0/1200 kvar Instantaneous stepless compensation consisting of 50% PQCT-STATCON and 50% filter bank.

Pf is maintained to unity.

STATCON in energy saving mode goes in sleep mode during no load condition

Voltage stabilization of bus.

unity. • STATCON in energy saving mode goes in sleep mode during no load condition •

Power factor graph with & without PQC-STATCON

§India §Pune
§India
§Pune

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 29

Slide 29

§Source PF of 2.5 MVA transformer (PQC Off)

§Source PF of 2.5 MVA transformer (PQC STATCON on)
§Source PF of 2.5 MVA transformer (PQC STATCON on)

§Customer benefits

§ Power saving, less wastage of welding electrodes

§ Up to 20% of saving in electricity consumption from grid

§ Reduction in electricity bill due to power factor improvement

Up to 20% of saving in electricity consumption from grid § Reduction in electricity bill due

Performance Letter from FIAT Automobile

Performance Letter from FIAT Automobile § © © ABB ABB Group October § October 25, 25,

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 30

Slide 30

§ October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 30 Slide 30 §We are happy to inform
§We are happy to inform you that with ABB make STATCON, we are able to
§We are happy to inform you
that with ABB make
STATCON, we are able to
maintain an average
monthly power factor above
0.995 lag to unity(1.0). This
has indubitably improved
performance of our plant
loads by improving the total
power quality.
lag to unity(1.0). This has indubitably improved performance of our plant loads by improving the total

PQF active filters Key features

PQF active filters Key features § © © ABB ABB Group October § October 25, 25,

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 31

Slide 31

§ Filters up to 50th order of harmonics

§ Selective harmonic filtering

§ Closed loop operation

§ Provides dynamic reactive power and power factor correction

§ Load balancing feature

§ Graphical display of all power parameters of loads and filter

§ Keeps running at maximum load if load requirement is too high

§ Easy commissioning

parameters of loads and filter § Keeps running at maximum load if load requirement is too

PQF for floatation plant drives Gold Mining in Greece

PQF for floatation plant drives Gold Mining in Greece § © © ABB ABB Group October
PQF for floatation plant drives Gold Mining in Greece § © © ABB ABB Group October

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 32

Slide 32

§ Operation and exploitation of mines

§ High power motors to crush the minerals

§ Significant level of harmonic currents

§ Bad voltage waveform

of mines § High power motors to crush the minerals § Significant level of harmonic currents
of mines § High power motors to crush the minerals § Significant level of harmonic currents

Customer benefits

Electrical values without filter

§I R §V R-Y
§I R
§V R-Y

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 33

Slide 33

 

Unit

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Voltage

Vrms

402

401

396

THD(U)

%

5.3

5.4

6.0

   

L1

L2

L3

Current

Arms

948

1001

959

THD(I)

%

34.1

31.6

34.0

 

Global

 

Active power

kW

617

 

Reactive power

kvar

179

 

Apparent power

kVA

657

 

PF

-

0.94

 

Cos (φ) (or DPF)

-

0.96

(Inductive load)

Apparent power kVA 657   PF - 0.94   Cos ( φ ) (or DPF) -

Customer benefits

Electrical values with filter

§V R-Y §I R
§V R-Y
§I R

Efficient filtering of harmonics

§ Reduced electrical pollution

Improved performance of electrical loads

§ Downtime reduction

§© © ABB ABB Group

October §October 25, 25, 2016 2016 | Slide 34

Slide 34

 

Unit

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Voltage

Vrms

397

396

392

THD(U)

%

1.5

1.5

1.9

   

L1

L2

L3

Current

Arms

809

850

817

THD(I)

%

7.1

7.1

7.3

 

Global

 

Active power

kW

524

 

Reactive power

kvar

154

 

Apparent power

kVA

564

 

PF

-

0.96

 

Cos (φ) (or DPF)

-

0.96

(Inductive load)

Apparent power kVA 564   PF - 0.96   Cos ( φ ) (or DPF) -
Capacitors and Filters World of ABB

Capacitors and Filters World of ABB

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 35

Capacitors and Filters World of ABB © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 35

Capacitors in ABB Manufacturing, Local assembly units, Power quality centers and Technical lead centers

Jumet, Belgium TLC LV / PQC LV Cap. factory Ludvika, Sweden TLC MV & HV
Jumet, Belgium
TLC LV / PQC
LV Cap. factory
Ludvika, Sweden
TLC MV & HV / PQC
MV & HV Cap. factory
Quebec, Canada
PQC / LAU
Bulgaria
LAU
Youngwood, PA
Galindo, Spain
PQC / LAU
Xian, China
MV & HV Cap. factory
LAU
Dubai, UAE
San Luis Potosi,
Mexico, PQC / LAU
PQC
Bangkok, Thailand
LV Cap. factory
Guarulhos, Brazil
PQC / LAU
Bangalore, India
MV & HV Cap. factory
Lilydale, Australia
PQC / LAU
TLC MECB
HV Cap. factory Lilydale, Australia PQC / LAU TLC MECB § No. of MV & HV

§No. of MV & HV Cap. Factories : 3

: 2

§Local assembly units (LAU)

§Power quality center (PQC)

§Technical lead center (TLC)

§No. of LV Cap. Factories

: 7

: 8

: 3

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 36

(PQC) § Technical lead center (TLC) § No. of LV Cap. Factories : 7 : 8

ABB’s unique features Performance in extreme ambient conditions

420 kV Substation, Norway

© ABB October 25, 2016

Slide 37

420 kV Substation, Norway © ABB October 25, 2016 Slide 37 Successful installations in various extreme

Successful installations in various extreme ambient conditions like

§ Extreme temperatures

§ High seismic activity

§ High altitudes

§ High pollution and corrosion levels

§ 100% humidity

no problem!

Increased network reliability due to robust design.
Increased network reliability
due to robust design.
§ High pollution and corrosion levels § 100% humidity no problem! Increased network reliability due to