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Study of literature is known as “study of life” Universality appeals to anyone.

Literature is the total preserved writings belongings Artistry appeals to our aesthetic sense.
to a given language or people. (Webster)
Intellectual Value stimulates our thought.
Literature consist of those writings which interpret
Spiritual Value inspires and brings out moral values.
the meanings of nature and life, in words of charm
and power, touched with the personality of the Style marked with the peculiar way
author, in artistic forms of permanent interest
(Henry Van Dyke) Suggestiveness appeals to our emotions.

Literature is a written record of man’s best thoughts Prose is discourse that follows the usual flow of
and feelings. conversation which uses sentences forming
paragraphs to express ideas, feelings and action.
Literature is the written or printed productions of
human mind collectively. DIVISION OF PROSE

Literature is the writings having excellent of form Fiction is the author’s imagination.
and expressing and ideas of permanent or universal
 Short Story narrative involving two or more
interest or the body of written works.
Literature gives us a picture of life.  Novel divided into chapters.
 Play scripted story executed on stage.
Literature is an expression of meaning articulated
 Legend origin of man, place, event and
through form. happenings.
Literature is a faithful reproduction of life.  Fables characters are animals.

Literature is an oral or written reproduction of Non-fiction

human experiences.
 Essay – viewpoint and opinion of the writer.
Literature gains force from the universality of its Formal Essay
thought and appeal. Informal Essay
 Oration intended to be spoken before a
Oral Literature pleasure of being able to tell the  Biography life account of a person written
story. (unwritten) by another person.
 Autobiography author writes his own life
Written Literature form from the use of pen by account.
literary genius.  News – report of expected and expected
 Letters
 For self-expression  Diaries and Journal
 To spread knowledge and information.
Poetry combines the sound and meaning of language
 To pass on ideas and values.
to create and express ideas and feelings.
 To impart truth, accuracy, and evaluation.
The spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings
taking its origin from emotion. (William
Permanence stands through the ages. Wordsworth)
It is the rhythmical creation of beauty. (Edgar Allan Figurative Language makes language more colorful,
Poe) suggestive, powerful and therefore exciting.

It is a record of the best and happiest moments of THE FIGURES OF SPEECH

the best minds, the very image of life expressed in its
Simile explicit or direct comparison.
eternal truth. (Percy Bysshe Shelly)
Metaphor bolder than simile and the comparison is
The chief work of poetry is not to teach anything,
implied or indirect.
nor to explain anything-though it may both teach
and explain-it is to intensify life. (Wallace Stevens) Personification gives human qualities or attributes to
non- human or inanimate object.
It is a type of literature in which words are selected
for their beauty, sound and power to express feeling. Synecdoche part of an object to stand for a whole.
It uses a kind of language that is more intense and Metonymy use of a term connected with an object
expressive than everyday speech. to represent that object.
It presents the speaker’s emotions as they are Hyperbole deliberate exaggeration used for effect.
aroused by beauty, experience, or attachment.
Oxymoron putting side by side of two normally
It provides a fresh, unexpected way of looking at contradictory words.
Paradox something seems true.
It gives pleasure, whether it appeals to the senses,
emotions or intellectual. Allusion casual reference either directly or
borrowing familiar phrases from the bible, history or
3 TYPES OF POETRY literature.
Narrative Poetry tells stories and has 2 forms: Irony a discrepancy between the expected and what
actually happen.
 Epics long poems that exemplify the
adventures of epic heroes and divine forces. Onomatopoeia use of words having a sound that
They are the oldest surviving form of imitates what they denote.
 Ballads narrative poems intended to be Litotes deliberate understatement used to affirm by
sung. negating its opposite.

Dramatic Poetry tells stories but one or more Apostrophe direct address to someone absent.
characters act out the poem. Alliteration repetition of the initial constant sound.
Lyric Poetry short poem that expresses the poet’s Assonance repetition of the middle vowel sound.
thoughts and feeling.
Consonance called “slant” rhyme.
 Haiku shortest lyric poems.
 Ode lyric poem full of high praises. ART APPRECIATION IN GENERAL
 Elegy poem of meditation on life and death.
Purpose of Art is to express man’s feelings about his
 Sonnet has pattern of rhyme and rhythm.
 Song lyric poem intended to be sung.

Architecture structural materials for buildings.

Imagery refers to the sensation that language
creates in the mind. Sculpture material for caving, casting, modelling.

Painting pigment on smooth surface.

Music & Dance sounds-vocal or man-made, body •The Legend of Olongapo
Folk Tales stories about life, adventure, love, horror
Literature language. and humor.

Theater & Cinema picture frames, story and music or •The Moon and the Sun
visual performing arts.
Epics long narrative poems. Series of heroic
WHY WE STUDY LITERATURE: Its Importance achievements and events.

Literature is a transmitter of values. •Biagni Lam-ang (Life of Lam-ang

Literature is preserver of ideals, customs, and •The Agyu or Olahing of the Manobos
Literature is a mirror of culture.
Literature is an agent of change.
Literature is a source of pleasure.
Myths describes and portrays symbolic language.
Literature uses languages. The origin of the basic element of assumptions of a
Literature is experience.
Folk Songs oldest forms of Philippine literature that
Literature promotes individual as well as social
emerged in the Pre-Spanish period.
•Kundiman is a song of love.
Literature is an expression of man’s emotion and
ideas. •Kumintang is a song of war.

Literature, perhaps born out of social need, has •And Dalit o Immois a worship song.
always had a social function.
•AngOyayi and Hele is a lullaby song.
Literature enlarges the mind.
•Soliranin is a labour’s song.
Literature helps student make real choices.
•Talindaw is a fishing song.
Literature is a way knowing.

Literature fulfils a double role: it helps us understand

ourselves better and it brings us into closer
communion with our fellowmen. Epigrams (Salawikain) – laws or rules on good
Riddles (Bugtong) – consist of 4 to 12 syllables.
During this period our ancestors already had their
own literature stamped in the history of our race. Chant (Bulong) – witchcraft or enchantment.
PRE-SPANISH LITERATURE IS CHARACTERIZED BY: Maxims – couplets of 5, 6, or 8 syllables.
Legend origin of a thing, location or name. Sayings (Kasabihan) – used in teasing or giving
remarks or comments on a person’s actuation.
•The Legend of MountMakiling
Sawikain (Sayings) ¬– does not have meaning.
SPANISH PERIOD (1565 – 1898)
•Why Woman Wash the Dishes
The Spanish period colonized Philippines for more  Libro de losCuatros Post Primeras de
than three centuries. Hombre (in Spanish and Tagalog)

They embrace the catholic religion, changed their This is the first book printed in typography.
names, and baptized.
 AngBarlaan at Josephat
They build houses made of stones and bricks, used
kitchen utensils and furniture like the piano. This is the first biblical story printed in the
Philippines and translated from Greek to Tagalog by
Carriages, trains and boats were used as means of Fr. Antonio de Borja.
 The Passion
They held fiestas to honor the saints, the pope and
the governors. This book is about life and sufferings of Jesus Christ
and it is read only during the lent.There were 4
SPANISH INFLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE LITERATURE versions in Tagalog, and each version is according to
the name of the writer.
 ALIBATA was the first Filipino alphabet w/c
was replaced by the Roman alphabet. Pilapil version by Mariano Pilapil of Bulacan, 1814.
 Lesson on Christian Doctrine became the
basis of religious practices. The de Belen version by Gaspar Aquino de Belen of
Bataan, 1704.
 The Spanish language which became the
medium of instruction and literary language The de la Merced version by Ancieto de la Merced of
during this time this time lent many of its Norzagaray, bulacan, 1856.
words to use language.
 Legends and traditions from Europe were The de Guia version by Luis de Guia in 1750.
assimilated in our songs, Corridos, and
 Urbana at Felisa
 Ancient literature was collected and This book was written by Modesto de Castro, known
translated to Tagalog and other dialects. to as the Father of Classic Prose in Tagalog.
 Grammar books were printed in Filipino,
 AngMga Dalit Kay Maria (psalms for Mary)
like Tagalog, Ilocano, and Visayan.
 Our magazines and periodicals gained This is a collection of songs praising Virgin Mary.
religious tones.
It was written in 1865 by a Filipino priest, Fr.
Mariano Sevilla.

 The Christian Doctrine (Doctrina Cristiana) FOLK SONGS

This was the first book printed in the Philippines in During the Spanish period, each region had its own
1593 in xylography. It was written by Fr. Juan De national song from lowlands to the mountains of
Plancenia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, in Tagalog and Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.
Examples of Folk Songs are:
 Nuestra Senora del Rosario
 Leron-leronSinta
This was the second book printed in the Philippines  Dandansoy
written by Fr. Blancas de San Jose in 1602.  Atin Cu PungSingsing
Contains the biographies of saints, novenas, and  Pamulinawen
questions and answer on religion.  Sarong Banggi
RECREATIONAL PLAY Free publication made knowledge and information
accessible to all Filipinos.
These recreational plays in poetic forms were
performed by Filipinos during the Spanish era: During the period of apprenticeship, (1910-1930) the
Filipino writers imitated English and American
Tibag means to excavate. This is a ritual to remind
people about the search of Saint Helena for the Holy
Cross where Jesus Christ was nailed and died. The period of Emergence (1920-1930) was highly
influenced by western literary trends like
Lagaylay is a special occasion to get together during
Romanticism and Realism.
the month of May for the Pilaneros of Sorsogon.
Jose villa Garcia earned the international title “poet
Cenaculo is a dramatic performance to re-enact the
of the century”.
passion and death of Jesus Christ. Cantada chanted
like the Passion. Hablada more dignified. SHORT STORIES

Panunuluyan is a reactment of Virgin Mary and Saint •Dead Stars was the first short story written in
Joseph in search to an inn to deliver the baby jesus. English by Paz Marquez Benitez.

Salubong is an easter play that dramatizes the •The Small Key was written by Paz Latorena.
meeting of risen Jesus Christ and his mother.
•Footnote to Youth by Jose Garcia Villa.
Carillo or Shadow play is a dramatic entertainment
performed on dark nights projecting cardboard
figures before a lamp against a white sheet. •Child of Sorrow was the first novel in English by
Zarzuela is considered the father of Drama.

Moro-Moro is performed during town fiestas to  EL NUEVO DIA (The New Day)
entertain the people and to remind them of their Established by Sergio Osmenia in 1900.
Christian religion.
The Americans censored, twice banned and
Karagatan is a poetic contest where a ritual is threatened Osmenia with banishment of his
performed based on a legend about a princess who nationalistic writings.
dropped her ring into the middle of the sea and who
offered her hand in marriage to anyone who can find  EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO (The Call of the
it. Nation)

Balagtasan is a poetic joust or a contest of skills in Established by Pascual Poblete in 1900.

debate on a topic or issue.
Dung- Aw is a chant in free verse by a bereaved
Founded by Rafael Palma in 1901.
person beside the corpse of the dead.
The following plays during the America period have
The introduction of free instruction for all children of
consistent theme in nationalism.
school age.
Kahapon, Ngayon, at Bukas (Yesterday,Today and
The use of English as medium of instruction in all
Tomorrow)– written by Aurelio Tolentino.
levels of education in public schools.
TanikalangGinto of Juan Abad
Malaya by Tomas Remigio •Juan Crisostomo Soto Father of Kapampangan
Walangsugat by Severino Reyes
•Aurelio Tolentino translated kahapon, Ngayon at
Bukas into KapampanganNapon, Ngeni at Bukas.
•Cecilio Apostol wrote poems dedicated to Rizal,
Visayan Literature
Jacinto, mabini and all other heroes.
•EribertoGumban Father of Visayan Literature.
•Fernando Ma. Guerrero shared with Apostol the
title Balagtasan during their time. •MagdalenJalondoni wrote the novel tunuksan Isa
•Jesus Balmori is famous of his pen name Batikuling.

•Manuel Bernabe is a lyric poet exemplified his

•Claro M. Recto is also famous for his nobility of
speech and theme. Philippine literature was interrupted in its
development when we were conquered by japan
Tagalog Short Stories
There was no freedom of speech and of the press.
•MgaKwentongGinto was published in 1936.
Victoria Abelardo describes Filipino writings during
•KwentongGintoKwentista was published in 1939. the Japanese occupation as pessimistic and bitter.

Tagalog Poetry The weekly magazine liwayway was placed under

strict surveillance until it was managed by Japanese
Tagalog Poets during the American Period were able named Ishiwara.
to compose beautiful poems.
The common theme of most poems during the
Poet of the Heart (MakatasaPuso) Japanese occupation was nationalism, love and life
in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts.
•Inigo Ed. Regalado
The only contact with the outside world was done
•Carlos Gatmaitan
with utmost secrecy through the underground radio
•Pedro Deogracias Del Rosario program called “Voice of Freedom”.

•Ildelfonso S During this period, Tagalog was favored by the

Japanese military authority, and eventually
Poet of the Laborers (MakatangManggagawa) influenced and encouraged the Filipinos to develop
•Amandi V. Hernandez he pictures in his poems the the vernacular literature.
intense love the poor workers or laborers. Filipino writers who were able to write freely were
Ilocano Literature those residing in the United States.

•Pedro Bukaneg father of Ilocano literature. Movie Houses showing American Films were closed.

•Claro Caluya prince of Ilocano poets. •Jose Ma Hernandez wrote PandayPira

•Leon Pichay known as the best bukanegero. •Francisco Soc Rodrigo wrote Pula saPuti

Kapampangan Literature •Clodualdo Del Mundo wrote Bulaga(Hide and Seek

•Julian Cruz Balmaceda wrote Sino ba The post liberation period was marked by a “struggle
kayo?,DahilsaAnak, and HigantengPatay. of mind and spirit”.

The usual and common form of poetry that emerged ILOCANO LITERATURE
during the Japanese period is the haiku.
It is one of the most vibrant Filipino literatures
Tanaga is similar to Haiku. throughout the ages.

Many wrote short stories during this period. Purely alive in form of written and oral literature.

Carlos P. Romulo was an outstanding writer of the Dallot is an improvised, versified and impromptu
period. long poem delivered in a sing-song manner.

Playing and listening to music were among the  The Molave and the Orchid (Young Adult
leisure activities that made life bearable during the Fiction, 2007) by F. Sionil Jose
Japanese rule.
Francisco Sionil Jose is one of the most widely
Western music identified with the allied nations of read Filipino writers in the English language.
war was prohibited.
Ilocano poems written by Melvin Banggollay:
Music remained a popular pastime in Filipino homes.
Only You (English) IkawLamang (Tagalog)
Opera and classical music flourished during the war. SiksikaLaeng (Ilokano)

All these prove that even during turbulent times, A Love that Endures
Filipinos’ love of music could never be
underestimated. MelvingBanggollay is presently residing at
Tabuk, Kalinga and working at the Department
Palanca Awardees for Literature: of Trade and Industry as a senior specialist.


Nick Joaquin Has its roots in orally transmitted poems and

mythical narratives that reflect the history of
NVM Gonzales
the people.
Bienvenidos Santos
Luis GuevarraDato worked as a newspaperman
Gregorio Brillantes for the Bicol star, Naga times. He was also
considered as an “authority on the Bicol
Gilda Cordero Fernando language and culture”
National Artist Awards Day on the Farm
Jose Garcia Villa Manila: A collection of Verses
Nick Joaquin My Book of Verses
PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN POST WAR- The Land of Mai: A Philippine Epic, Volume l
Marne L. Kilates is an author and published poet,
The rebirth of Freedom (1946-1970) editor and translator.
Historical Background A Cloud Named Looking-for-You
The Americans returned to the Philippines in 1945 to Children of the Snarl and Other Poems
end the Japanese rule.
Poems en Route
Mostly in Monsoon Weather The least Miracle (Carlos A. Angeles)

DamianaLigon Eugenio is known as the mother of SOUTHERN MINDANAO LITERATURE

Philippine Folklore, was also a Filipino female author
Southern Mindanao is composed of Compostela
and has several publications in the field of Philippine
Valley, Davao Del Norte, Davao Del Sur, and Davao
Oriental. Compostela Valley is mainly agricultural
ANG DUWENDE while the eastern part is mostly mountainous.

CEBUANO LITERATURE A Story of the Orphan Girl (Subanon)

Refers to the literary works written in Cebuano, a THE LITERATURE OF NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION
language widely spoken in the southern Philippines.
Tagalog region is the birthplace of a rich tradition of
Visayan Folklore: The Santo Nino of Cebu Philippine culture in language, politics, economy and
Visayan Poetry: Usahay: A Visayan Love Song
University of Sto. Manila is located in Manila where
in this is the oldest university in the Philippines. The
The lingua franca of the West Visayas in Central first printing press was established in Manila.
Philippines is called Hiligaynon
Doctrina Christiana in xylography (1593)
Kinaray-a or Hiraya is the mother language of West
Bible’s first translated in Tagalog in Barlaan and
Visayas, the language spoken by the central and
Josephat (1708 & 1712)
southern towns of Iloilo, all of the province of
Antique and most of Capiz. Elegy: To my Sweetie Polly (Dr. Kristine Molina-
Ilonggo Folktale: The Story of the First Durian (The
Hermit’s Three Wishes) Balete: Home of Spirits (Vicente Paolo Langit)

Western Visayas-Ilonggo Folklore: Hinilawod Only God can make an Egg (Dr. Abe V. Rotor)

EASTERN VISAYAS LITERATURE Analogously, according to Joyce Kilmer, “ Only God

can make a tree”
Refers to the written in Waray and Cebuano by
writers from the region.

Fr. Ignatio Francisco (Spanish Jesuit) documented

the poetic forms such as the candu, haya, ambahan,
canogon, bical, balac, siday and awit. He also
described the susumaton and posong, early forms of

Balac is a poetic love joust between a man and a


Balac was called amoral during the Spanish period

and was renamed ismayling during the American
occupation which is a term derived from the English
word “smile”.

Flowers of May

Like a Joke that Seems True