Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 1

Polar Coordinates
and Vectors

“Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day in and day out.”
- Robert Collier

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 2

CHAPTER 1: POLAR COORDINATES AND VECTORS

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Parametric Equations

1.2 Three Dimensional Coordinate Systems

1.3 Cylindrical and Quadric Surfaces

1.4 Lines and Planes

1.5 Polar Coordinates

Lesson Outcomes:
Determine the parametric equations.
Plot and sketch coordinate and surfaces in three dimensional systems.
Solve problem in three dimensions
Sketch and analyze the graph of function of two variables, quadratic surfaces,
cylindrical and spherical coordinates.
Solve the problem involving equation of lines and planes.
Determine the change between polar systems and Cartesian systems.
Solve the problem involving polar coordinates.

Note:
This document is used only as a supplement material for course BUM2123 Applied
Calculus. Students are advised to refer to other related materials.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 3

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we learn how to sketch curves in the plane. We start with studying
parametric curves which are described in terms of component functions. Our attention is
now turn to a review of the basic properties of conic sections such as parabolas, circles and
ellipses and express the curves in three dimensional coordinate system. This chapter also
discusses the equations of lines and planes. We then introduce the polar coordinate system.

1.1 PARAMETRIC EQUATIONS

By the end of this section, the student should be able to:


• sketch the curve by plotting;
• find the rectangular equation by eliminating the parameter t;
• sketch the curve of the rectangular equation; and
• determine the orientation of the parametric equations.

Definition 1.1.1 Suppose a particle moves along a curve C in the xy-plane


such that its x- and y-coordinates, as a function of time, t, are

x = f (t ) , y = g (t )
as shown in Figure 1.1. These equations are the parametric equations of the
motion for the particle and C is the trajectory of the particle. The variable t is the
parameter of the equations. The direction of increasing values of the parameter is
called the orientation. The curve together with the orientation is called the
parametric curve or the graph of the parametric equations.

Figure 1.1

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 4

Analogously, if f, g, and h are all well-behaved functions, then the parametric equations
x = f (t ) , y = g (t ) , z = h (t )
generate a curve in space.

Suppose the value of t is restricted between a and b, i.e.

x = f (t ) , y = g (t ) at b
The point ( f (a), g (a)) is called the initial point and the point ( f (b), g (b)) is called the
terminal point.

Example 1.1.1 Sketch the graph of the following parametric equations by plotting
the xy-coordinates and indicate the orientation. Find the rectangular equation, y = f ( x )
by eliminating t from the parametric equations

x = t, y = 2t − 3 0t 4

Solution
In order to sketch the graph we have to sketch the curve, C, and indicate the orientation.
First, we construct a table of values of x and y at parameter values t = 1, 2, 3, 4.

t 0 1 2 3 4

x 0 1 2 3 4

y −3 −1 1 3 5

Using this table, we plot the points (0, −3), (1, −1), (2,1), (3,3) and (4,5) showing the
corresponding values of t, i.e. t = 0, t = 1, t = 2, t = 3 and t = 4. Then we draw the curve
(in this case a straight line) through these five points.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 5

We eliminate t by replacing t with x in the second equation to get the rectangular equation
y = 2x − 3 0 x4

Since the orientation is the direction determined by increasing values of the parameter t,
the orientation is as shown by the arrow on the line.

Example 1.1.2 Sketch the graph of the given parametric equations by plotting the
xy − coordinates and indicate the orientation. Then, find the rectangular equation.

x=t y = t −1 1  t  10
Solution
We construct a table of values of x and y at times 1, 2, 5, 10 .

t 1 2 5 10

x 1 2 5 10

y 0 1 2 3

We plot the points (1, 0), (2,1), (5, 2), and (10,3) together with the corresponding values
of t. Then, we sketch the curve with the orientation.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 6

Since x = t , we have the rectangular equation

y = x −1 1  x  10

Remark

Do not square the equation y = x − 1 because it is not equivalent to the equation

y 2 = x − 1 . However, it is perfectly alright if the rectangular equation is written as

y 2 = x − 1, y0
whereby the condition y  0 is necessary.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 7

Example 1.1.3 Find the parametric curve of the given parametric equations by
eliminating the parameter t.

x= t y = t −1

Solution

Squaring both sides of the first equation, we have


x2 = t
Using this result, the second equation becomes
y = x2 −1 x0

y = x2 −1 x0

x
t=1
−1
t=0

In order to determine the orientation, we select two different values of the parameter, for
example t = 0 and t = 1 . The first value, t = 0 give us the first point ( 0, −1) and the
second value t = 1 give us the second point (1,0 ) , so the orientation is as shown by the
arrow.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 8

Example 1.1.4 Sketch and identify the parametric curve represented by the
parametric equations. Then, find the rectangular equation.

x = t 2 − 2t , y = t +1

Solution

We construct a table for −2  t  4 .

t −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4

x 8 3 0 −1 0 3 8

y −1 0 1 2 3 4 5

We plot the points in xy-coordinates and sketch the curve.


y
t=4
t=3
t=2

t=1

t=0
x
t = -1
t = -2

Now, we find the rectangular equation by eliminating the parameter t. From the second
parametric equation we have

t = y −1

Using this result, we have

x = t 2 − 2t
= ( y − 1) − 2( y − 1)
2

= y2 − 4y + 3

By completing the square, this equation is equivalent to the standard form

1
( y − 2) 2 = 4 ( x + 1)
4

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 9

 3 
which represents a parabola with the vertex at (−1, 2), focus at  − , 2  .
 4 

Example 1.1.5 What parametric curve is represented by the following parametric


equations?

x = cos t y = sin t 0  t  2

Solution

We construct a table for 0  t  2 .

 3
t 0  2
2 2
x 1 0 −1 0 1
y 0 1 0 −1 0

Using this results, we sketch the following curve.

It appears that the curve is a circle. This can be confirmed by eliminating t in the parametric
equations.

x 2 + y 2 = cos 2 t + sin 2 t = 1

It is indeed true that the curve is a circle with center at the origin and radius 1. Notice that
as the parameter t increases from 0 to 2 , the point (x, y ) moves once around the circle in
counterclockwise direction starting from the point (1,0) and return to the same point. ■

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 10

Example 1.1.6 Describe the parametric curve represented by the parametric


equations
x = 2 cos t , y = 2 sin t

Solution

In order to eliminate t, we square both sides of the equations and add them together.

x 2 + y 2 = 4 cos 2 t + 4 sin 2 t = 4(cos t 2 t + sin 2 t ) = 4


To find the orientation we find two coordinates ( x, y ) , say t = 0 and t = 
2
t = 0: x = 2cos0 = 2 y = 2sin 0 = 0 Point ( 2, 0 )
    
t= : x = 2 cos   = 0 y = 2sin   = 2 Point ( 0, 2 )
2 2 2

Since t = 0 gives the point ( 2, 0 ) and t = gives ( 0, 2 ) the orientation is as shown
2
(counterclockwise).


t=
2

t =0

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 11

Example 1.1.7 Find the parametric curve represented by

x = 2 cos t , y = 3 sin t

Solution

By eliminating t we have

x y
cos t = sin t =
2 3
2 2
x  y
  +   = cos t + sin t
2 2

2 3
2
x y2
 + =1
4 9

To find the orientation we find two coordinates ( x, y ) , say t = 0 and t = 
2
t = 0: x = 2cos0 = 2 y = 3sin 0 = 0 Point (3,0)
    
t= : x = 2 cos   = 0 y = 3sin   = 3 Point ( 0,3)
2 2 2

Since t = 0 gives the point ( 2, 0 ) and t = gives ( 0,3) the orientation is as shown
2
(counterclockwise).

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 12

Example 1.1.8 Find the parametric curve is represented by the parametric


equations

x = sin 2t y = cos 2t 0  t  2

Solution

By eliminating t, the curve as Example 1.1.5 is obtained.

x 2 + y 2 = sin 2 2t + cos 2 2t = 1

As t increases from 0 to 2 , the point (x, y ) starts at (0,1) and moves twice around the
circle in the clockwise direction.

Remark

It is important to note that t is the parameter and not the angle.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 13

Example 1.1.9 Sketch the parametric curve represented by parametric equations

x = sin t , y = sin 2 t .

Solution

By eliminating t, it can be obtained that the curve is a parabola.

y = (sin t ) = x 2
2

But, since −1  sin t  1, we have −1  x  1 . Note that also, since sin t is periodic, the
point ( x, y ) moves back and forth infinitely often along the parabola from ( −1,1) to
(1,1) .

y
( −1,1) ( 1,1)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 14

EXERCISES 1.1

Sketch the parametric curve of the given parametric equations and indicate the
orientation.

1. x = 3t − 5 y = 2t + 1

2. x= t y = 1− t
3. x = 1+ t y = 5 − 2t −2  t  3
4. x = sin  y = cos  −    

5. x = 5cos y = 2 sin  0    2

6. x = 3cos t +1 y = 3sin t − 2

7. x = sin t + 4 y = cos t + 4

8. 1 − y = sin t x + 3 = 2cos t

y−2 1− x
9. = cos t + 1 = sin t − 2
3 2

10. x = t −1 y = t +3 1 t  4

11. x = 1− t y = 2+t

12. x = t +1 y = 2−t

13. x=t y = t2 −1
14. x = 1 − 2t y2 = 1− t
15. x = 1 − cos 2 t y = cos t

16. x = sin t y = 1 − sin 2 t


17. x = 5cos 2t y = 3sin 2t 0t 

18. x = 5cos 2t y = 3sin 2t 0t 
2

19. x = 2sin 4t y = 4 cos 4t 0t 
8

20. x = 2sin 4t y = 4 cos 4t 0t 
4

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 15

Answers
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

1 2

1 5

7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 16

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19. 20.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 17

1.2 THREE DIMENSIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

By the end of this section, the student should be able to:

• plot a point in 3D;


• sketch a box, surface; and
• find the distance between two points in 3D.

3rd Octant
2nd Octant

4th Octant 1st Octant

6th Octant

8th Octant 5th Octant

Figure 1.2

The three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system is often denoted by 3 . Analogously, the


two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) coordinate systems are denoted as 2
and  respectively. Figure 1.2 shows the standard placement of the axes in 3D.

The three coordinate axes determine the three coordinate planes. They are xy-plane, yz-
plane and xz-plane. These three coordinate planes divide space into eight parts, called
octants. The one (all positive axis) that shown in Figure 1.2 is the first octant.

For example, the point (2, 3, 4) is in the first octant, the point ( −2, 3, 4) in the second
octant, (−2, −3, 4) in the third, (2, −3, 4) in the fourth, (2, 3, −4) in the fifth, (−2,3, −4) in
the sixth, (−2, −3, −4) in the seventh, and (2, −3, −4) in the eighth octant as depicted in
Figure 1.3.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 18

Figure 1.3

Now if P is any point in space, P will be presented by the ordered triple (x, y, z ) of real
numbers and we call x, y and z the coordinates of P; x is the x-coordinate, y is the y-
coordinate, and z is the z-coordinate. As an illustration, the points
(−3, 6, 4), (−5, 6,3), (−5, −4, −2) and (2, −3, −4) are plotted in Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 19

Example 1.2.1 Sketch a box in the first octant, of length 3, and has the origin as
one of its vertex.
Solution

• (3,3,3)

y
3
3

Example 1.2.2 Sketch a box in the second octant, having the length, width and
height 3, 2, and 4 respectively, having origin and ( −3, 2, 4) as two of its vertex.

Solution

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 20

1.2.1 Line, Plane and Space

In 1D, the domain of the set of points is on a line. In 2D, the domain is the set of points on
a plane. In 3D, the domain is the set of points in space.

Example 1.2.1.1 Interpret the graph of x = 3 in 1D, 2D and 3D.

Solutions

In 1D, x = 3 is a point on a (real) line.

In 2D, x = 3 is a straight In 3D, x = 3 is a plane


line of distance 3 and of distance 3 from yz-
parallel to y-axis plane.

Generally, in 3D, if k is a constant, then x = k represents a plane parallel to the yz-plane,


y = k is a plane parallel to the xz-plane, and z = k is a plane parallel to xy-plane.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 21

Example 1.2.1.2 Describe and sketch the surface of y = x, x  0 .

Solution

The equation represents the set of all points in 3D whose x- and y-coordinates are equal.
This is a vertical plane that intersects the xy-plane in the line y = x, z = 0 shown as in the
following figure. Since z does not appear in this equation, it means that z is arbitrary.
Therefore the graph will be generated parallel along the z-axis.

z
y

x
y

y = x is a line in plane y = x is a plane in space.

(This shaded plane is only a


portion of actual plane)

1.2.2 Surfaces (Planes)

We know that in 1D, the equation x = 2 represents a point, and in 2D, x = 2 represents
a line parallel to y-axis. Now, in 3D, x = 2 represents a plane which is parallel to both y-
axis and z-axis.

In order to sketch the graph, first we draw the three dimensional coordinate system with
the xyz-axis. Then, plot the point (2,0,0) and through this point we draw two straight lines
one parallel to y-axis and the other parallel to z-axis. Finally, using these two straight
lines as the middle lines, we draw a parallelogram. This parallelogram is a portion of the
plane x = 2.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 22

Figure 1.5

Example 1.2.2.1 In each part, sketch the surface.

(a) x=4 (b) z = 5 (c) y = x


(d) x+ y = 2 (e) 3x + z = 6

Solution

(a) Since there is no y and z in the equation, the plane is parallel to both y and z axis.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 23

(b) Since there is no x and y in the equation, the plane is parallel to both x and y axis.

(c) Since there is no z in the equation, the plane is parallel to z axis.

(d) Since there is no z in the equation, the plane is parallel to z axis.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 24

(e)Since there is no y in the equation, the plane is parallel to y axis

Remark
A line and a plane are parallel if they do not intersect.

1.2.3 Distance in Three-Dimensional System

Theorem 1.2 The distance d between two points P1 (x1 , y1 , z1 ) and P2 (x2 , y2 , z 2 ) in
3D is

d= (x2 − x1 )2 + ( y2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2

Example 1.2.3.1 Find the distance between the points ( 2, −1,7 ) and (1, − 3,5) .

Solution

Using the formula, the distance is

d= (1 − 2)2 + (− 3 + 1)2 + (5 − 7)2 = 1+ 4 + 4 = 3

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 25

EXERCISES 1.2

1. Sketch the points (2,4,6) and (4, −3, −2) on a single coordinate system.

2. Interpret the graph of y = 2 in the contexts of


(a) one dimension (b) two dimensions (c) three dimensions
3. Sketch a box in the eight octant, having the length, width and height 8, 10, and 7
respectively and the origin as one of its vertex.
4. Sketch a box in the seventh octant, having the length, width and height 4, 5, and
11 respectively and the origin as one of its vertex.
5. Sketch a box in the sixth octant, having the length, width and height 5, 6, and 10
respectively and the origin as one of its vertex.
6. Find the distance from the point (2,3,4) to the
(a) xy-plane (b) xz-plane (c) yz-plane
(d) x-axis (e) y-axis (f) z-axis
7. Find the distance from the point (−3,4,−5) to the
(a) xy-plane (b) xz-plane (c) yz-plane
(d) x-axis (e) y-axis (f) z-axis
8. Find the distance between the points ( −11,8, − 6 ) and ( −5, − 7,9) .
9. Find the distance between the points ( 0, − 8, 5) and ( −11, 9, − 3) .
10. Sketch the following planes.
(a) x = 8 (b) y = −2 (c) x = z (d) x + z = 1
(d) 2 y − 3z = 6 (f) x − y = 2 (g) x + 2 y + 3z = 6

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 26

Answers

1.

2. 1D 2D 3D

3. 4.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 27

5.

6. (a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 2

(d) 5 (e) 2 5 (f) 13

7. (a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 3

(d) 41 (e) 34 (f) 5

8. 22.0454

9. 27.7715

10. (a) (b)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 28

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 29

1.3 CYLINDRICAL AND QUADRIC SURFACES

By the end of this topic student should be able to:


• Sketch the level curves of a given function
• Recognize a function graphed using level curves.
• Identify and sketch the graph of function of two variables and quadric surfaces.

In previous sections, one type of surface had been looked into; planes. Now, other type of
surfaces will be investigated: cylinders and quadric surfaces.

1.3.1 Level Curves

Level curves or contour lines are another way to represent a function z = f ( x, y ) . By


letting z equal to some constant k, we obtain a single level curve. If we do this for several
values of k we have a set of level curves to represent a function. A set of level curves for
z = f ( x, y ) is called the contour plot or contour map of f. Real life examples of level
curves are pressure map (level curves are called isobars), temperature map (level curves
are called isotherms) and altitude map (level curves represent the height above sea level).

Construct a contour map for the given function f ( x, y) = 2 x + y


2 2
Example 1.3.1.1
using level curves of height k = 0, 2, 4,8 .

Solution

If z = f ( x, y ) = k , then 2x 2 + y 2 = k .
Thus,
k = 0  2 x2 + y 2 = 0
x2 y 2
k = 2  2x2 + y 2 = 2  + =1
1 2
x2 y 2
k = 4  2x2 + y 2 = 4  + =1
2 4
x2 y 2
k = 8  2x2 + y 2 = 8  + =1
4 8

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 30

Example 1.3.1.2 Sketch the contour plot of f ( x, y ) = 5 − x + y using level curves of


height k = −3, 0,5, 7,9.

Solution

If z = f ( x, y ) = k , then x − y = 5 − k .
Thus,
k = −3  x− y =8
k =0  x− y =5
k =5  x= y
k =7  y−x=2
k =9  y−x=4

The level curves are parallel lines.

Example 1.3.1.3 Construct a contour map for the given function

f ( x, y ) = 25 − x 2 − y 2 using level curves of height k = 0,3, 4.

Solution

If z = f ( x, y ) = k , then x 2 + y 2 = 25 − k 2 .
Thus,
k = 0  x 2 + y 2 = 25
k = 3  x2 + y 2 = 16
k = 4  x2 + y 2 = 9

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 31

1.3.2 Cylindrical Surfaces

A cylinder is a surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment,
the axis of the cylinder. In differential geometry, a cylinder is defined more broadly as any
ruled surface spanned by a one-parameter family of parallel lines. A cylinder whose cross
section is an ellipse, parabola or hyperbola is called an elliptic cylinder, parabolic
cylinder or hyperbolic cylinder respectively.

(A) Parabolic Cylinder

The general equation of a parabolic cylinder is


y = ax 2
where a is a constant. Since there is no z in the equation, the parabolic cylinder is parallel
to the z-axis.

Example 1.3.2.1 Sketch the graph of the surface z = x 2 .

Solution

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 32

Example 1.3.2.2 Sketch the graph of y = x 2 in 2D and in 3D.

Solution

Graph of y = f ( x ) in 2D Graph of z = f ( x, y ) in 3D

The graph of y = f (x) is represented as The graph of z = f (x, y ) is represented as a


a line in 2D with respect to x-axis and surface/plane with respect to x-axis, y-axis
y-axis. and z-axis.

Example : y = x 2 in 2D Example : y = x 2 in 3D

y z

y
x
x

Notice that the equation of the graph does not involve y. This means that the curve with
equation z = x 2 will be traced along y-axis. The graph is formed by extending the
parabola z = x 2 in the xz-plane to the direction of the y-axis. The surface is called
parabolic cylinder.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 33

Example 1.3.2.3 Sketch the following parabolic cylinders.

(a) z = 3x 2 (b) y = − x 2 (c) z = x 2 + 1

(d) z = 4 − x 2 , z  0 (e) y = 5 + x 2

Solution

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 34

(B) Cylinder

The general equation of a cylinder is

x2 y 2
+ =1
a 2 b2

where a and b are constants.

Example 1.3.2.4 Identify and sketch the surfaces.

(a) x 2 + y 2 = 4 (b) x 2 + z 2 = 4 (c) y 2 + z 2 = 4

(d) 4 x 2 + y 2 = 16 (e) 3 y 2 + z 2 = 9

Solution

(a) Circular cylinder (b) Circular cylinder (c) Circular cylinder


z z

y y
2
2

-2
x x

(d) Elliptic cylinder (e) Elliptic cylinder

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 35

1.3.3 Paraboloid

The general equation of a paraboloid is

x2 y 2 z
+ = .
a 2 b2 c

Steps to sketch the surface z = f (x, y ) :

Step 1 : Set z = k for some values of k to obtain traces for f (x, y ) on the plane z = k .
The graphs obtained in this way are level curves of the function. It is important to
note that as a point (x, y ) moves along a level curve, the values f (x, y ) of the
function are constants.
Step 2 : Set y = 0 to obtain xz-trace on the xz-plane.

Step 3 : Set x = 0 to obtain yz-trace on the yz-plane.

Those three steps will constitute frames for the required surface. The projection of the
curve f (x, y ) = k for some k’s, on xy-plane will give a set of curve on the plane and they
are called contour lines. For example : Sketch the surface of z = 9 − x 2 − y 2 .

Step 1
y

Let z = k , thus x 2 + y 2 = 9 − k .
If k = 0 : x2 + y2 = 9
If k = 3 : x2 + y2 = 6
If k = 6 : x2 + y2 = 3
x
If k = 8 : x2 + y2 = 1

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 36

Step 2 Step 3

Let , thus . Let , thus .

Finally z

z=8

z=6

z=3

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 37

Example 1.3.3.1 Identify and sketch the paraboloid.

(a) z = x2 + y2 (b) z = 2x 2 + 3 y 2 (c) x = y2 + z2


(d) z = 4 − (x 2 + y 2 )

Solution
z
(a) z z (d)
(b) z (c) 4

y
y y
x
x x
x
Note that the cross sections (level curves) of paraboloid in (a) and (d) are circles whereas
the cross sections in (b) are ellipses.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 38

1.3.4 Spheres

The general equation of a sphere with center at the origin and radius a is

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2 where r  0.

A sphere is the set of all points P(x, y, z ) whose distance from the center C (h, k , l ) is r
(Figure 1.6). Using the formula of the distance between the points, we have

( x − h)2 + ( y − k )2 + ( z − l )2 = r

Squaring both sides leads to the general equation of a sphere

( x − h )2 + ( y − k )2 + ( z − l ) 2 = r 2
z

P(x, y, z )
r

C(h, k , l )

Figure 1.6

Equation of a sphere

An equation of a sphere with center C (h, k , l ) and radius r is


( x − h )2 + ( y − k )2 + ( z − l ) 2 = r 2

For the sphere with the center at the origin and radius 2, the equation is

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4

Solving for z, we have

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 39

z 2 = 4 − x2 − y 2
z =  4 − x2 − y 2

We find that the equations z = 4 − x2 − y 2 and z = − 4 − x2 − y 2 represents upper


hemisphere and lower hemisphere respectively.

z z
2

y
2 2
y
2
2 x
-2
x

Similarly, solving for x and y, we have

y =  4 − x2 − z 2

x =  4 − y2 − z2

z z
2 2

-2 -2
y y
2 -2
2 2
x x
-2 -2

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 40

z z
2 y 2 y

2
x x
2 -2
-2

-2 -2

Show that x + y + z + 4 x − 6 y + 2 z + 6 = 0 is the equation of a


2 2 2
Example 1.3.4.1
sphere, and find its center and radius.

Solution

By completing the square, we have

(x + 2)2 − 2 2 + ( y − 3)2 − 32 + (z + 1)2 − 12 = −6


(x + 2)2 + ( y − 3)2 + (z + 1)2 = −6 + 4 + 9 + 1
(x + 2)2 + ( y − 3)2 + (z + 1)2 = 8

This represents a sphere with center at ( −2,3, −1) and the radius r = 2 2 .

Remarks

In general, completing the square for equation x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + Gx + Hy + Iz + J = 0 ,


produces an equation of the form ( x − x0 ) + ( y − y0 ) + ( z − z0 ) = k .
2 2 2

• If k  0 , then the graph of this equation is a sphere with center (x0 , y0 , z0 ) and
radius k .
• If k = 0 , then the sphere has a radius zero, so the graph is the single point
(x0 , y0 , z0 ) .
• If k  0 , the equation is not satisfied by any values of x, y and z, so no conclusion
can be drawn.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 41

Example 1.3.4.2 Describe the surface whose equation is given as follows

(a) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 8 x + 10 y − 6 z + 56 = 0

(b) 3x 2 + 3 y 2 + 3z 2 − 6 x + 6 y − 12 z + 18 = 0
Solution
(a) ( x − 4)2 − 42 + ( y + 5)2 − 52 + ( z − 3)2 − 32 = −56
( x − 4 )2 + ( y + 5)2 + ( z − 3)2 = −56 + 16 + 25 + 9
( x − 4 )2 + ( y + 5)2 + ( z − 3)2 = −6
Since k  0 , thus no conclusion can be drawn.

(a) (
3 x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 x + 2 y − 4 z + 6 = 0 )
( x −1)2 −12 + ( y + 1)2 −12 + ( z − 2)2 − 22 = −6
( x − 1)2 + ( y + 1)2 + ( z − 2 )2 = −6 + 1 + 1 + 4
( x − 1)2 + ( y + 1)2 + ( z − 2 )2 = 0
Since k = 0 , thus the sphere has a radius zero, so the graph is the single point
(1, −1, 2) .

Example 1.3.4.3 Identify and sketch the sphere and hemisphere.

(a) x2 + y2 + z 2 = 4 (b) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 16 , z  0
(c) y = 1− x2 − z 2 (d) x = − 9 − y2 − z2
( x − 3) + ( y + 4 ) + ( z − 5 ) =4
2 2 2
(e)

Solution

(a) Sphere centered at the origin with radius 2.


(b) Hemisphere of radius 4.
(c) Hemisphere of radius 1.
(d) Hemisphere of radius 3.
(e) Sphere centered at ( 3, − 4,5) with radius 2.

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 42

(a) (b) (c)


z z z

2 4
1

y y
2 y 1
2 4 1
4
x x
x

(d) (e)
z

−3

3 y

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 43

1.3.5 Ellipsoids

The general equation of an ellipsoid with center at the origin is

x2 y 2 z 2
+ + =1 where a, b and c are constants.
a 2 b2 c 2

Example 1.3.5.1 Identify and sketch the ellipsoids.

(a) 4 x2 + y 2 + 4 z 2 = 16 (b) 5x2 + 5 y 2 + z 2 = 25


x2 y 2 2
(c) + + z =1
9 4
Solution

(a) (b) (c)

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 44

1.3.6 Cones

The general equation of a cone with center at the origin is

x2 y 2 z 2
+ = where a, b and c are constants.
a 2 b2 c 2

Example 1.3.6.1 Identify and sketch the cones.

(a) z 2 = x2 + y2 (b) z = x2 + y2 (c) y = − x2 + z2

Solution
z z
(a) z
(b)
(c)

y
y
y
x
x
x

Summary

Name General Equation

Parabolic Cylinder y = ax 2
x2 y 2
Cylinder + =1
a 2 b2
x2 y 2 z
Paraboloid + =
a 2 b2 c
Sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2

x2 y 2 z 2
Ellipsoid + + =1
a 2 b2 c 2
x2 y 2 z 2
Cone + =
a 2 b2 c 2

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 45

EXERCISES 1.3

1. Identify and sketch the quadric surface.


(a) x2 + z 2 = 9 (b) y = 4 − x2

(c) z = y2 (d) y = − x2

(e) z= y (f) 9 y 2 + 4 z 2 = 36

(g) x2 + z 2 = y 2 (h) x2 + 4 y 2 + 4 z 2 = 4

(i) z = 1 − x2 − y 2 (j) y = − 1 − x2 − z 2

(k) y = −( x2 + z 2 ) (l) z = 4 − ( x2 + y 2 )
(m) z = ( x2 + y 2 ) − 9 (n) z = 1 − (2 x 2 + 3 y 2 )

(o) z = 2 − x2 + y 2 (p) y = 1 − x2 + z 2

(q) z =9− x2 + y2 (r) z = 4 + x2 + y 2


2. Identify the name of each of the following surfaces

(a) x 2 + y 2 = 25 (b) y = 2 x2 − 4

(c) x2 + 3 y 2 + 4 z 2 = 1 (d) 4 x2 + z 2 = 16

(e) x2 = y 2 + z 2 (f) 3x = 36 − 9 y 2 − 9 z 2

(g) z = 9 − y2 (h) x = y2 + 4z2

(i) z = 16 − x2 + y 2 (j) (
3 y = − x2 + 9z 2 )
3. Find the equations of the sphere
(a) with center (−3,0,2) and radius 3.
(b) with center (2,−3,−1) and radius 2.
4. Find the center and radius of the sphere that has (1,−2,4) and (3,4,−12) as endpoints
of a diameter.
5. Find the center and radius of the sphere

(a) x + y + z + 2 x + 6 y − 4 z + 10 = 0
2 2 2

(b) x + y + z − 4 x + 6 y − 8 z + 20 = 0
2 2 2

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 46

6. Find the equations of the sphere with center (−4,2,5) and tangent to the xz- plane.
7. Describe the surface whose equation is given.

(a) 2 x + 2 y + 2 z − 2 x − 3 y + 5z − 2 = 0
2 2 2

(b) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 3x + 4 y − 8z + 25 = 0

Answers

1(a) 1(b) 1(c)


z

-3
x

1(d) 1(e) 1(f)


z

y
y
-2 2

-3

x x

1(g) 1(h) 1(i)


z z
1

y
y
1
1
x x

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 47

1(j) 1(k) 1(l)


z z
1 z

4
-1
y
-1 y
-2
1
x y
-1 -2 2
x 2
x

1(m) 1(n) 1(o)


z
z z
-3
1 2
y
-3 3
3
x
-2
y
-9 y
-2 2
2
x x

1(p) 1(q)
z z

1 9

-9
y
1 y
-9 9
x 9
-1 x

2. (a) Circular cylinder (b) Parabolic Cylinder


(c) Ellipsoid (d) Elliptic Cylinder
(e) Cones (f) Hemisphere
(g) Parabolic Cylinder (h) Paraboloid
(i) Cone (j) Paraboloid

3. (a) x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 6 x − 4 z + 4 = 0

(b) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 4 x + 6 y + 2 z + 10 = 0

4. Radius = 74 , center (2,1,−4)

5. (a) Center ( −1, −3, 2 ) , radius = 2

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus


Chapter 1: Polar Coordinates and Vectors 48

(b) Center ( 2, −3, 4) , radius = 3

6. x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 8 x − 4 y − 10 z + 41 = 0

1 3 5 3 6
7. (a) Sphere; center  , , −  , radius
2 4 4 4
(b) No conclusion

Universiti Malaysia Pahang BUM2123 Applied Calculus