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ALCATEL 1000 E10 (0CB283)

INTRODUCTION:

Telecommunication networks are constantly changing. The rapid growth of


the digital networks, mobile network and intelligent network and the
proliferation of new services constantly being offered to subscribers mean
that equipment must be continuously adapted to new requirements

The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) exchanges, also known by its shorter name
as the E10 (OCB283), is designed to cater for evolving networks and the
need to rationalize equipment operation, Its modular architecture means that
new services can be added and processing capacity can be increase without
interrupting operation of the exchange.

The E10 (OCB283) is multipurpose exchange. It can be used for a specific


function as well as being capable of combining several applications in the
same equipment. The multipurpose properties of the E10 (OCB283) mean
that it can be used in widely varying contexts.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:

Architecture of the Alcatel 1000 (OCB283)

The E10 (OCB283) is constructed according to the following principles:


-It has a modular architecture.
-System functions are distributed over its component modules.

The principle of modularity is applied to both hardware and exchange


software.

The system’s modular architecture means:


-Ease of adaptation
-Reliability
-Dependability
-Easy upgrades
Control stations

The SMs (control station) are the hardware module of E10 (OCB283). An
SM is a set of boards in a subrack powered via converters. The boards
supporting the processors and the memories are linked together via a bus.
Each SM is connected to the communication local area network.

There are five types of SM:

-SMCs (main control stations) supporting the switching functions


(translation, charging, etc).
-SMTs (trunk control stations) connecting the PCM links.
-SMAs (auxiliary equipment control stations) supporting auxiliary (service
circuit) functions.
-SMXs (matrix control stations) for operating and maintaining the system.

Main control stations

The SMCs (main control station) handle the control functions:

-Call handling (setting up disconnecting calls).


-Charging.
-Circuit observation.
-Connection management.
-Signaling network management.
-Server management.

Trunk control stations

The SMT are the connecting the PCM links and preprocessing the channel
associated signaling. The SMTs are the interfaces between OCB283 and
remote network elements.

There are two SMT versions:

-SMT1G capable of connecting 32PCM links.


-SMT2G capable of connecting 128PCM links.

Auxiliary equipment control stations


The SMAs house the system’s auxiliary equipment.

The SMA functions are:

-management of voice frequency signals.


-time management.
-processing of common channel signaling.
-management of the interfaces for connecting the access networks.

Matrix control stations

From hardware point of view, a matrix consists of SMXs. In a minimum


configuration, a matrix has 8 SMXs each processing 256 LREs (incoming
matrix lines) and 256 LRSs (outing matrix lines). Each SMX receives the
LCXEs (incoming switching links) from the other SMXs.

Maintenance station

The SMM (maintenance station) is for:

-System management (administration, configuration, initialization).


-Operating the exchange.
-Supervising the system and its environment (defence, alarms).
-Maintaining the equipment (tests, settings).
-Storing data.

The control and connection units can operate independently, but it is the
central defence function handled by SMM that ensures continuity of service.

The SMM is for connecting:


-Computer devices and operating terminals locally.
-Operation and maintenance equipment remotely via interface.

The SMM is fully duplicated. Both subsystems, SMMA and SMMB are
called PROCESSING SUBSYSTEMS and operate in worker stand by mode.

In addition to an SM’s basic equipment, each system has:


-A dedicated adapter for managing switchovers from the worker subsystem
to the standby subsystem.
-A dedicated adapter for connecting to the SCSI (Small Computer
Subsystems Interface) buses which provide access to the backing store.
-A dedicated adapter for accessing a bus, called the telecommunications bus,
to which are connected:
* Central alarms adapters, for concentrating hardware alarms.
* Asynchronous link couplers, for access to the operating and
maintenance devices.
* Link adapters for remote operation and maintenance.

The backing store consists of different types of devices:

-The disk drives


-Magnetic tape units
-Streamer

The operation and maintenance software machine is the SMM’s functional


software machine. It has a particular structure designed to ensure that the
software is independent of the supporting machine.

The software machine comprises:


-The RTOS (Real Time Operating System) which is the operating system
supporting the SMM.
-The OMAP (Operation and Maintenance Application Part).
-The OM application.

DEPENDABILITY:

The E10 (OCB283) is designed to provide uninterrupted service in all


circumstances. The system’s defence function reacts automatically to unit
failures in the exchange or to abnormal situation which may be due to the
circumstances outside the exchange.

Defence principles

Defence is based on the following principles:

-Redundancy of the system’s components.


-Automatic fault detection.
-Automatic reconfiguration of resources.
-Containment of failures.

Redundancy of the system’s components


The redundancy principle can be summarized as follows:
Any component essential to the smooth operation of the system is at least
duplicated in the system. This principle applies to both hardware and
software components.

Automatic fault detection

The E10 (OCB283) audits its units. The audit operates on two levels:

-Locally, with each SM supervising its components and environment.


-Centrally, with defence function marshalling the information and
correlating the events signaled.

Several methods are used to detect failures:

-Hardware detection devices.


-Background task event counting.
-Routine tests.
-Statistical analysis of detected malfunctions.

Failure containment

When a serious fault is detected, the faulty unit is taken out of service to
prevent the fault penalizing the system too much. A unit can de taken out of
service because of redundancy and the resource configuration capability.

Automatic reconfiguration if resources

When a unit is taken out of service, the exchange can have of its handling
capacity cut. The defence function then uses backup source. Its assigns the
backup resource to the functions that were previously handled by the faulty
unit. This automatic reconfiguration allows the exchange to recover its
original processing capacity.
Local defence and Central defence

The E10 (OCB283) defence function is divided into:

-Local defence, handled by each unit.


-Central defence, located in the SMM.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE:

Organization of E10 (OCB283) operation and maintenance

Operation and maintenance of E10 (OCB283) is based on terminals


connected to the SMM.

Operation and maintenance can be:

-Local: the terminals are connected to the SMM via asynchronous links.
-Remote: the terminals used are those of the telecommunications
management network.

These two terminals can be combined and operation and maintenance can be
mixed.

The E10 (OCB283) operation and maintenance operator communication


with the system the operation interface to:

-Transmit commands.
-Observe command results.
-Observe system reactions.

The operator has the following types of terminal:

-Command input and message display consoles.


-PC workstations.
-Workstations for remote operation and maintenance.
-Printers.

Operation
The operation tasks are specifying how the exchange performs its functions.
The tasks to be performed are divided into domains that reflect the
exchange’s main functions.

The table below shows some operating domains along with some typical
tasks required for E10 (OCB283) operation.

DOMAIN TYPICAL TASKS REQUIRED


Telephone environment -construct and manage circuit groups
-manage data links
Translation -manage preanalysis, analysis and
routing
-define charging parameters
Charging -manage charging parameters and
codes
-define the charging calendar
Observations -monitor load on exchange units
-observe traffic dispersion
-observe behaviour of subscriber
lines and groups

Maintenance

Maintenance ensures that the system operates correctly. It is divided into:

-Preventive maintenance, which combines all the routine system servicing


tasks.
-Corrective maintenance, which covers the operations required to restore the
system following a unit failure.

The maintenance operator observes the messages the system generates.


Several types of messages are used, but the main ones are alarm messages.

Alarms messages are classified by priority:

-Alarm requiring no immediate action (SI category).


-Deferred action alarm (ID category).
-Prompt action alarm (IM category).

Depending on the urgency, lamp and audible signals may accompany the
alarm message. Remote control interface circuits enable the operator to link
specific signaling resources to alarms to suit the particular needs of the
system.

The system makes maintenance tasks easier:


-It runs automatic tests to determine the origin of a fault.
-It can run verification tests after repairs.
-It provides the option of running operating tests.

MAIN CHARACTERSTICS:

Applications

The E10 (OCB283) can be used for all switching applications:

-Local exchange.
-Transmit exchange.
-Signaling transfer point.
-Service switching point (intelligent network access).
-Mobile service switching point.

Performance

The performance of an exchange is closely linked to its environment. The


performance of the E10 (OCB283) is therefore calculated against a
benchmark environment defined by:
- a MIX of calls (percentage of completed calls, unanswered calls, busy
conditions, false seizures, etc).
- operating conditions (percentage usage of different signaling types,
itemized billing, meter pulse transmission etc).

Maximum call handling capacity

The E10 (OCB283) maximum call handling capacity is 1200000 BHCA


(busy hour call attempts) which is equivalent of 336 call attempts per
second. In a maximum configuration, the switching matrix can connect 2048
PCM links or 6000 circuits. So it can handle of 25000 erlangs.
Such handling capacity provides the capability to connect:

-200000 fixed subscribers.


-400000 to 900000 mobile subscribers.

Hardware characteristics

The Alcatel E10 (OCB283) consists of SMs (control station) which


communicate via a local network. The SMs and ancillary equipment are
housed in subracks installed in racks.

Racks

Rack dimensions with their EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) cladding


are:

-Height: 2200mm
-Width: 900mm
-Depth: 650mm

Each rack has five or six subracks separated by air baffles. Cooling is by
natural convection.

Each rack has a duplicated power supply system. The converters have two
power sources using independent routes.

Subracks

Subrack dimension are:

-Height: 234mm
-Width: 782mm

The subrack backplanes are multilayer printed circuits.

Connection
All links between subracks and between racks are via shielded cables.

Boards

There are 32 types of boards with the following dimensions:

-Height: 234mm
-Length: 350mm
-Thickness: 1.6mm

The boards are multilayer. For handling, the boards have a hard plastic strip
that prevents direct electrostatic discharge. The strip has a latching and
release device with two extraction levers. The boards are fitted the CMOS
technology surface mount components. On average, aboard consumes less
than 7 watts.

Local area network

The local area network consists of multiplexes. Each multiplex has two
token rings complying with the IEEE standard.

Software characteristics

The Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283) software is organized into software


machines that are totally independent of SMs (control stations) that support
them. Depending on the configuration and operating environment, an SM
supports one or more software machines.

The software is stored on disk where it is organized into archives. It is


loaded into the SMs via the local network the system is initialized.
INDEX:

S.No TOPIC

1. Introduction
2. System description
3. Dependability
4. Operation and maintenance
5. Main characteristics
6. Glossary
ALCATEL 1000 E10
(OCB283)
GLOSSARY:

Auxiliary equipment control station (SMA)


An SM for connecting the auxiliary equipment for processing signaling
and managing interfaces.

Central defence
A software unit which supervises and manages SM states. It reacts
automatically in the event of system failure.

Control station (SM)


A hardware entity of the OCB283 that supports several software machines.
The machine SMs are interconnected via communication multiplexes.

Intelligent network (IN)


A telecommunication network architecture with flexibility to facilitate the
introduction of new capacity and new services, including user-controlled
services.

Main control station (SMC)


An SM that handles switching functions. It is connected to the intra station
multiplex and main control station access multiplex.

Maintenance station (SMM)


An SM dedicated to operation and maintenance of Alcatel E10 (OCB283).
It provides access to the backing stores, the communication terminals.

Matrix control station (SMX)


An SM which is a subset of the RCX and sets up the connection.

PCM Link
2 Mbps link using pulse code modulation.

Software machine
Software which performs one of the Alcatel 1000 E10 (OCB283)
functions and is supported by an SM.

Trunk control station (SMT)


An SM consisting of two basic SMs that operate in worker standby mode
and share the adapters providing the interface for PCM link connection,
resynchronization and channel associated signaling processing.
OPTICAL FIBRE
COMMUNICATION
INDEX:

S.No TOPIC

1. Introduction
2. Optical Communication Theory
3. Optical Fiber Principle
4. Optical Communication System Basis
5. Technology
6. Gigabit Ethernet
7. 10 Gigabit Ethernet
8. Fiber Distributed Data Interface
9. HIPPI
10. Fiber Channel
11. Limitation of Optical Fiber Networking
12. Limitation of Optical Fiber Communication
13. Applications
14. Comparison with Electrical Transmission
15. Conclusion
OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION

Introduction:

The reason that only human beings, among the other species that exist on
earth, created civilization is the ability of speech and communication.
Therefore, any form of communication was always among the primaries
objective of our kind.

The objective of any communication is the transfer of information from one


point to another. Therefore, a media is always involved with communication
used as the carrier of the information. Hence, communication can be divided
according to the carrier. The reason that the carrier is important is because
the amount of information transmitted is directly related to the bandwidth of
the modulated carrier. It can be observed that frequencies in the optical
range will have a usable bandwidth about 1,00,000 times that of a carrier in
the RF range. Therefore, optical communication has emerged as a field of
special technology interest.

Fiber optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one


place to another by sending light through an optical. The light forms an
electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. First
developed in the 1970s, fiber optic communication systems have
revolutionized the telecommunication industry and played a major role in
the advent of the Information age. Because of its advantages over electrical
transmission, the use of optical fiber has largely replaced copper wire
communication in the developed world.

Optical Communication History:

The need for reliable long distance communication systems has existed since
antiquity. The first written evidence is at the end of sixth century BC
Aeschylus Oresteia he mentioned passing the news on of Troy’s by fire
signals via long chain of relay stations from Asia Minor to Argos. At the end
of eighteenth century AD Claude Chappe’s optical telegraph allowed the
transmission of a signal over the 432 km distance from Paris to Strasbourg
within a time of six minutes. However, although optical communication
exhibited low practical importance in the next decades, its development
proceeded.
The invention of laser boosted the development of optical communication
and opened new sections of research. As early as 1880 Alexander Graham
Bell invented the photo phone, which demonstrated the transmission of
speech using light. The first demonstration of ruby laser in 1960 followed by
a demonstration of laser operation in semiconductor of laser operation in
semiconductor devices in 1962 were the early stepping stones which led to
continuous operation of room temperature long life time laser diodes are that
are in common use today. Optical fiber was finally developed in 1970 by
Corning Glass Works with attenuation low enough for communication
purposes (about 20dB/km), at the same time GaAs semiconductors lasers
were developed that were compact and therefore suitable for fiber optic
communication systems.

After a period of intensive research from 1975 to 1980, the first commercial
fiber optic communication system was developed, which operated at a
wavelength around 0.8µm and used GaAs semiconductor lasers. The first
generation system operated at a bit rate of 45Mbps with repeater spacing of
up to 10 km.

The second generation of fiber optic communication developed in 1980s,


operated at 1.3µm and used in GaAs semiconductor lasers. In 1981, the
single mode fiber was revealed to greatly improve system performance. By
1987, these systems were operating at a bit rate of up to 1.7Gbps with
repeater spacing up to 50 km. The first transatlantic telephone cable to use
optical fiber was TAT-8, which went into operation into 1988. TAT-8 is
more than 3000 nautical miles in length and had an estimated life span of 20
years.

The third generation fiber optic systems at 1.55µm and had loss of about
0.2Db/km. They achieved this despite earlier difficulties with pulse
spreading at that wavelength using conventional in GaAs semiconductor
lasers. Scientists overcome this difficulty by using dispersion shifted fibers
designed to have minimal at 1.55µm. These developments eventually
allowed third generation systems to operate commercially at 2.5Gbps with
repeater spacing in excess of 100 km.

The fourth generation of fiber optic communication systems used optical


amplification to reduce the need for repeaters and wavelength division
multiplexing to increase fiber capacity. These two improvements caused a
revolution that resulted in doubling of system capacity every six months
starting in 1992 until a bit rate of 10Tbps was reached by 2001. Recently, bit
rates of up to 14Tbps have been reached over a single 160 km line using
optical amplifiers.

Optical Fiber Principle:

Light waves may be carried by an optical fiber which is simply a cylindrical


glass waveguide consisting of core and cladding region. The core refractive
index is slightly greater than the cladding. Light traveling in the core-
cladding interface. An important fiber parameter is the loss which is usually
given in the 1.3mm and 1.55mm wavelength region. In the latter region the
fiber bandwidth is greater than 25,000 GHz.

RAY OUTSIDE OF
ACCEPTANCE ANGLE N2 CLADDING

RAY WITH IN ACCEPTANCE


ANGLE N1 CORE

FIGURE (a) optical fiber


Optical Communication System Basis:
The object of the system is to transmit information using an optical carrier
wave from a transmit station to a receive station over optical carrier wave
from a transmit station to a receive station over optical fiber. Electrical data,
usually represented as a series of ‘0’s and ‘1’s, modulates a semiconductor
laser. The laser output is a series of light pulses representing ‘0’s and ‘1’s.
The modulated laser light is then sent down an optical fiber. At appropriate
points in the transmission link, the light signal is either optically amplified
or completed regenerated. Optical amplification is required to overcome the
fiber loss. Regeneration means that the light signal is detected, reshaped,
retimed and retransmitted. It is required when the light signal becomes
distorted by the fiber (this effect is called dispersion) or when the signal
picks up too much noise. At the receiver the light signal is detected
amplified and sent to a decision circuit. The decision circuit decides if a ‘0’
or ‘1’ bit has been received. With today’s technology it is possible to
modulate a semiconductor laser at speeds of 10Gbps and beyond. At this
speed it would take less than half a second to carry over 1, 50,000 telephone
calls. However there are limitations as how fast a laser can be modulated. A
speed of 10Gbps, while fast, is still only a small fraction of the intrinsic
optical fiber capacity.

Technology:

Modern fiber optic communication systems generally include an optical


transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into
the optical fiber, a fiber optic cable routed through underground conduits
and buildings, multiple kinds of amplifiers, and an optical receiver to
recover the signal. The information transmitted is typically digital
information generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television
companies.

Transmitters

The most commonly used transmitters are semiconductors devices such as


Light Emitting Diode (LEDs) and laser diodes. The difference between
LEDs and laser diodes is that LEDs produce coherent light.

Amplifiers
The transmission distance of a fiber optic communication system has
traditionally been limited primarily by fiber attenuation and second by fiber
distortion. The solution to this has been to use opto-electronics repeaters.
These repeaters first convert the signal to an electrical signal then use the
transmitter to send this signal again at a higher intensity. Because of their
high complexity, especially with modern wavelength division multiplexed
signals, and the fact that they had to be installed about once every 20 km, the
cost of these repeaters was very high.

Receivers

The main component of an optical receiver is photo detector that converts


light into electricity through the photoelectric effect. The photo detector is
typically a semiconductor based photodiode, such as p-n photodiode, a p-i-n
photodiode, or an avalanche photodiode. Metal-semiconductor-metal photo
detectors are also used due to their suitably for circuit integration in
regenerators and wavelength division multiplexers.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is the practice of dividing the


wavelength capacity of the optical fiber into multiple channels in order to
send more than one signal over the same fiber. This requires a wavelength
division multiplexer in the transmitting equipment and a wavelength
division demultiplexer in the receiving equipment. Arrayed waveguide
gratings are commonly used for multiplexing and demultiplexing in WDM.
Using WDM technology now commercially available, the bandwidth of a
fiber can be divided into as many as 80 channels to support a combined bit
rate into range of terabits per second.

Bandwidth-Distance product

Because the effect of dispersion increases with the length of the fiber, a fiber
transmission system is often characterized by its bandwidth-distance
product, often expressed in units of MHz*km. This value is the product of
bandwidth and the distance because there is a trade off between the
bandwidth of the signal and the distance it can be carried.
LED is a forward-biased p-n junction, emitting light through spontaneous
emission, a phenomenon referred to as electroluminescence. The emitted
light is incoherent with a relatively wide spectral width of 30-60 nm. LED
light transmission is also inefficient, with only about 1% of input power, or
about 100 microwatts.

Communication LEDs are made from GaAsP or GaAs, suitable primarily for
local area network application with bit rates of 10-100 Mbps and
transmission distances of few kilometers. LEDs are currently in use for local
area wavelength division multiplexing networks.

A semiconductor laser emits light through stimulated emission rather than


spontaneous emission, which results in high output power (~100 mW) as
well as other benefits related to the nature of coherent light. The output of a
laser is relatively directional, allowing high coupling efficiency (~50%) into
single-mode fiber. The narrow spectral widths also allows for high bit rates
since it reduces the effect of dispersion. Furthermore, semiconductor lasers
can be modulated directly at high frequencies because of short
recombination time.

For use in optical communications, semiconductor optical transmitters must


be designed to be, compact, efficient and reliable, while operating in an
optimal wavelength range and directly modulated at high frequencies.

Fiber

Two main categories of optical fiber used in fiber optic communications are
multi-mode optical fiber and single-mode optical fiber. Multimode fiber has
a large core (>50µm), allowing less precise, cheaper transmitters and
receivers to connect to it as well as cheaper connectors. However,
multimode fiber introduces multimode distortion which often limits the
bandwidth and length of the link. Furthermore, because of its higher dopant
content, multimode fiber is usually more expensive and exhibits higher
attenuation. Single mode fiber’s smaller core (>10µm) necessities more
expensive components and interconnection methods, but allows much
longer, higher performance links.

In order to package fiber into a commercially viable product, it is


protectively coated, typically by using ultra violet cured polymers, and
assembled into a fiber optic cable. Once deployed, such cables require
substantially less maintenance than copper cable.

Gigabit Ethernet:

Gigabit Ethernet is the term describing various technologies for transmitting


Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by IEEE
standard.

Gigabit Ethernet History:

A result of research done at Xerox Corporation in the early 1970’s, Ethernet


has evolved into the most widely implemented physical link layer protocol
today. Fast Ethernet increased from 10 to 100 Mbps. Gigabit Ethernet was
the next iteration, increasing the speed to 1000 Mbps. The initial standard
for Gigabit Ethernet was standardized by the IEEE in June 1988 is
commonly referred to as 1000BASE-X (where-X refers to either -CX, -SX,
-LX or (non standard) –ZX).

IEEE defines Gigabit Ethernet transmission over unshielded twisted pair


cabling and became as 1000BASE-T. Gigabit Ethernet became a desktop
technology as organization could utilize their existing copper cabling
infrastructure.

Initially, Gigabit Ethernet was deployed in high capacity backbone network


links. In 2000, Apple’s Power Mac G4 and Power Book G4 were the first
mass produced personal computers featuring the 1000BASE-T connection. It
quickly became built in feature in many other computers.

Fiber Gigabit Ethernet has recently been overtaken by 10 Gigabit Ethernet


which was ratified by IEEE in 2002 and provided data rates 10 times that of
Gigabit Ethernet.

Summary

There are four different physical layer standards for Gigabit Ethernet using
optical fiber, twisted pair cable and copper cable.
The IEEE standard includes 1000BASE-SX for transmission over
multimode fiber, 1000BASE-LX for transmission over single mode fiber
and the nearly obsolete 1000-BASE-CX for transmission over copper cable.
These standards use 8bit/10bit encoding and use NRZ line coding for
sending the symbols.

1000BASE-X

1000BASE-X is used in industry to refer to Gigabit Ethernet transmission


over fiber, where options include 1000-BASE-SX, -LX, -BX10, or the
nonstandard –LH/-ZX implementation.

1000BASE-SX

1000BASE-SX is a fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet standard. It operates over


multimode fiber using a 850 nm, near infrared light wavelength, 1000BASE-
SX will usually work over significantly longer distances. Typical optical
power parameters of SX interface: maximum mean output power= -5dBm;
stressed receiver sensitivity= -14dBm.

1000BASE-LX

1000BASE-LX is a fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet standard, using a log


wavelength laser. Signaling speed 1.25±100 ppm, wavelength 1270 to 1355
nm, RMS spectral width (max) 4 nm. 1000BASE-LX is specified to work
over a distance up to 2 km over 9 µm single mode fiber.

1000BASE-ZX or 1000BASE-LH

1000BASE-ZX OR 1000BASE-LH are nonstandard but industry accepted


terms to refer to Gigabit Ethernet transmission using 1550 nm wavelength to
achieve distances of at least 70 km over single mode fiber.

1000BASE-BX10

This latest addition to the standard also includes transmission over a single
strand of fiber, with one different wavelength going to each direction. The
terminals on each side of fiber are not equal, one uses 1490 nm wavelength
while other uses 1310 nm wavelength.

NAME MEDIUM SPECIFIED


DISTANCE
1000BASE-SX Multi-mode fiber 500 m
1000BASE-LX Single-mode fiber 2 km
1000BASE-ZX Single-mode fiber at ~70 km
1550 nm
1000BASE-BX10 Single-mode fiber 10 km

10 Gigabit Ethernet:

10 Gigabit Ethernet is the most recent and faster of Ethernet standards. It


defines a version with a nominal data rate of 10 Gbps, 10 times as fast as
Gigabit Ethernet.

The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard encompasses a number of different


physical layer (PHY) standards. Each physical port in a device can support
any of the many different LAN or WAN PHY standards.

LAN PHY

The most common optical variety referred to as LAN PHY, used for
connecting directly between routers and switches. Although called LAN, this
can be used with 10GBASE-LR AND –ER up to 80 km. LAN PHY uses a
line rate of 10.3 Gbps and a 64 bit/ 66 bit encoding.

10GBASE-SR

10GBASE-SR (“short range”) is designed to support short distance over


deployed multi-mode fiber cabling, it has a range of between 26 m and 82 m
depending on cable type. It also supports 300 m operation over new, 50 µm
2000 MHzkm multi-mode fiber (using 850 nm).

10GBASE-LR
10GBASE-LR is a long range optical technology delivering serialized 10
Gigabit Ethernet via over 1300 nm single-mode fiber.

Optical transceivers are interconnected with a host device by 4 channel


parallelized ridge. LR optical cabling is used to interconnect transceivers at a
distance spaced at 10 km, but it can often reach distance of up to 25 km with
no data loss.

10GBASE-ER

10GBASE-ER (“extended range”) supports distance up to 40 km over


single–mode fiber (using 1550 nm).

10GBASE-ZR

Recently several manufactures have introduced 80 km range ER pluggable


interfaces under the name 10GBASE-ZR. This 80 km PHY is not specified
within the IEEE standard and manufactures have created their own
specifications based upon the 80 km PHY described in the STM-64
SDH/SONET specifications.

WAN PHY

10GBASE-SW, -LW, -EW and –ZW are varieties that the WAN PHY,
designed to interoperate with STM-64 SDH/SONET equipment using a light
weight SDH/SONET frame running at 9.953 Gbps. WAN PHY is used when
an enterprise user to transport 10 G Ethernet across Telco SDH/SONET or
previously installed wave division multiplexing systems without having to
directly map the Ethernet frames into SDH/SONET. The WAN OHY
variants correspond at the physical layer to 10GBASE-SR, -LR, -ZR
respectively, and hence use the same types of fiber and support the same
distances.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI):

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) provides a standard for data


transmission in local area network that can extend in range up to 200 km
(124 miles). Although FDDI protocol is a token ring network, it does not use
the IEEE token bus timed token protocol. In addition to covering large
geographical areas, FDDI local area networks can support thousands of
users. As a standard underlying medium it uses optical fiber. FDDI uses a
dual attached counter rotating token ring topology.

FDDI is a product of American National Standards Institute. A FDDI


network contains two token rings, one for possible backup in case the
primary ring fails. The primary ring offers up to 1000 Mbps capacity. When
a network has no requirement for the secondary ring to do backup, it can
also carry data, extending capacity to 200 Mbps. The single ring can extend
the maximum distance, a dual ring extend 100 km (62 miles). FDDI has a
larger maximum frame size than standard 100 Mbps Ethernet, allowing
better throughput,

Designers normally construct FDDI rings in the form of a ‘dual ring of


trees”. A small number of devices connect to both rings, hence the term
“dual attached”. Host computers then connect as single attached devices to
the routers. The dual ring in its most degenerate form simply collapses into a
single device. Typically, a computer room contains the whole dual ring,
although some implementations have deployed FDDI as a Metropolitan area
network.

FDDI requires this network topology because the dual ring actually passes
through each connected device and requires each such device to remain
continuously operational. Devices such as workstations and minicomputers
that may not come under the control of the network managers are not
suitable for connection to the dual ring.

As an alternative to using a dual attached connection, a workstation can


obtain the sane degree of resilience through a dual homed connection made
simultaneously to two separate devices in the same FDDI ring. One of the
connection fails, the backup line takes over with no perceptible delay.

Due to their speed, cost and ubiquity, fast Ethernet and Gigabit have largely
made FDDI redundant.

HIPPI:

HIPPI (High Performance Parallel Interface) is a computer bus for the


attachment of high speed storage devices to supercomputers. It was popular
in the late 1980’s and into the mid-to-late 1990’s, but has since been
replaced by ever faster standard interfaces.

The first HIPPI standard defined a 50 wire twisted pair cable, running at 800
Mbps, but was soon upgraded to include a 1600 Mbps mode running on
fiber optic cable. An effort to improve the speed resulted in HIPPI-6400,
which was later renamed GSN (Gigabit System Network) but saw little use
due to competing standards.

HIPPI was first “near Gigabit” ANSI standard for network data
transmission. It was specially designed for supercomputers and was never
intended foe mass market networks such as Ethernet. Many of the features
developed for HIPPI in the late 80s and into the 90s are now being
integrated into such technologies as Infinite band. What was remarkable
about HIPPI is that it came out when Ethernet was still a 10 Mbps data link
and SONET was considered leading edge technology.

Meanwhile Fiber Channel offered simple interconnect simple interconnected


with HIPPI and speed of up to 3200 Mbps on other and 800 Mbps on a
single pair of twisted pair copper wires.

Fiber Channel:

Fiber channel is a Gigabit speed network technology primarily used for


storage networking. Fiber channel is standardized in the technical committee
of the International Committee for Information Technology Standards
(INCITS), an American National Standards Institute (ANSI)- accredited
standards committee. It started connection type for storage area networks
(SAN) in enterprise storage. Despite common connotations of its name, fiber
channel signaling can run on both twisted pair copper wire and fiber optic
cables.

HISTORY

Fiber channel started in 1988, with ANSI standard approval in 1994, as a


way to simplify the HIPPI system then in use for similar roles. HIPPI used a
massive 50 pair cable with bulky connectors with simplifying the
connections and increasing distances, as speed and far greater number of
connected devices.
FIBER CHANNEL VARIANTS

NAME LINE RATE (Gbps) THROUGHPUT


(Mbps)
1GFC 1.0625 800
2GFC 2.125 1600
4GFC 4.25 3200
8GFC 8.5 6400

Fiber Channel Topologies

There are three major Fiber channel topologies

»Point to point: Two devices are connected back to back. This is the
simplest topology with limited connectivity.
»Arbitrated loop: In this design all devices are in loop or ring, similar to
token ring networking. Adding or removing a device from the loop causes
all activity on the loop to be interrupted. The failure of one device causes a
break in the ring. Fiber channel hubs exist to connect multiple devices
together and may bypass failed ports. A loop may also be made by cabling
each port to the next in a ring. Often an arbitrated loop between two ports
will negotiate to become a point to point connection, but this is not required
by the standard.
Switched fabric: All devices or loops of devices are connected to fiber
channel switches, similarly conceptually to modern Ethernet
Implementations. The switches manage the state of fabric, providing
optimized interconnections.

Fiber channel layers

Fiber channel is a layered protocol. It consists of five layers, namely:

»FC0 The physical layer, which includes cables, fiber optics, connectors,
pin outs etc...
»FC1 The data link layer, which implements the 8bit/10bit encoding and
decoding of signals.
»FC2 The network layer, consists of the core of fiber channel and defines
»FC3 The common services layer, a thin layer that layer, a thin layer that
could eventually implement function like encryption.
FC4 The protocol mapping layer. Layer in which other protocols are
encapsulated into an information unit for delivery to FC2.

Ports

The following types of ports are defined by the Fiber channel:

E_port is the connection between two fiber channel switches. Also known
as an EXPANSION PORT.
EX_port is the connection between fiber channel router and fiber channel
switch.
F_port is a fabric connection in a switched fabric topology. Also known as
a FABRIC PORT.
FL_port is a fabric connection in a public loop for an arbitrated loop
topology. Also known as FABRIC PORT LOOP.
G_port or Generic port on a switch can operate as an E_port or F_port.
L_port is the loose term used for any arbitrated loop, NL_port or FL_port.
Also known as LOOP PORT.
N_port is the node connection pertaining to hosts or storage devices in a
point to point or switched topology. Also known as NODE PORT.
NL_port is the node connection pertaining to hosts or storage devices in an
arbitrated loop topology. Also known as NODE LOOP PORT.
TE_port is the term used for multiple E_port trunked together to create
high bandwidth between switches. Also known as TRUNKING
EXPANSION PORT.

Synchronous optical networking:

Synchronous optical networking is a method for communicating digital


information using lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs) over optical fiber.
The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
(PDH) system for transporting large amounts of telephone and data traffic
and to allow for interoperability between equipment from different vendors.

There are multiple, very closely related standards that describe synchronous
optical networking.
SDH or synchronous digital hierarchy standard developed by the
International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

SONET or synchronous optical networking standard as defined


from Telcordia.

Both SDH and SONET are widely used today: SONET in the U.S. and
Canada and SDH in the rest of the world. Although the SONET standards
were developed before SDH, their relative penetrations in the worldwide
market dictate that SONET now be considered the variation.

Synchronous networking differs from PDH in that the exact rates that are
used to transport the data are tightly synchronized across the entire network,
made possible by atomic clocks. This synchronization system allows entire
inter country networks to operate synchronously, greatly reducing the
amount of buffering required between elements in the network.

Both SONET and SDH can be used to encapsulate earlier digital


transmission standards, such as the PDH standard or used directly to support
either ATM or so called Packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. As
such, it is inaccurate to think of SDH or SONET as communications
protocols in and of themselves, but rather as generic and all purpose
transport containers for moving both voice and data.

Structure of SONET/SDH signals

SONET and SDH often use different terms to describe identical features or
functions, sometimes leading to confusion that exaggerates their differences.
With a few exceptions, SDH can be thought of as a superset of SONET. The
two main differences the two:

SONET can use either of two different basic framing units while SDH has
one SDH has additional mapping options which are not available in SONET.

Basic unit of transmission

The basic unit of framing in SDH is an STM-1 (Synchronous Transport


Module level-1), which operates at 155.2 Mbps.
SONET/SDH and relationship to 10 Gigabit Ethernet

Another fast growing circuit type amongst data networking equipment is 10


Gigabit Ethernet. It encapsulates is data using a light weight SDH/SONET
frame so as to be compatible at low with equipment designed to carry those
signals.

However, 10 Gigabit Ethernet does not explicitly provide any


interoperability at the bit stream level with other SDH/SONET systems. This
differs from WDM systems transponders, including both Coarse and Dense
WDM systems (CWDM and DWDM) that currently support SONET
signals, which can normally support thin SONET framed 10 Gigabit
Ethernet.

SHH Data rates

SDH level and Payload (Kbps) Bandwidth Line


frame format rate (Kbps)
STM-0 48,960 51,840
STM-1 150,336 155,520
STM-4 601,344 622,080
STM-8 1,202,688 1,244,160
STM-16 2,405,376 2,488,320
STM-32 4,810,752 4,976,640
STM-64 9,621,504 9,953,280
STM-256 38,486,016 39,813,120
STM-512 79,972,032 76,626,120
STM-1024 153,944,064 159,252,240

In single mode fiber performance is primarily limited by chromatic


dispersion, which occurs because the index of the glass varies slightly
depending on the wavelength of light, and light from real optical transmitters
has non-zero spectral width. Dispersion limits the bandwidth of the fiber
because the spreading optical pulse limits the rate that pulses can follow one
another on the fiber and still be distinguishable at the receivers.

Attenuation
Fiber attenuation, which necessitates the use of amplification systems, is
caused by a continuous of material absorption, Rayleigh scattering, Mie
scattering and connection losses. Although material absorption for pure
silica is only around 0.03 dB/km, impurities in the original optical fibers
caused attenuation of about 100 dB/km. Other forms of attenuation are
caused by physical stresses to the fiber, microscopic fluctuations in density
and imperfect splicing techniques.

Application:

Fiber optic cable is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit


telephone signals, internet communication and cable television signals,
sometimes all on the same optical fiber.

Due to much lower attenuation and interference, optical fiber has large
advantages over existing copper wire in long distance and high demand
applications. However, infrastructure development within cities was
relatively difficult and time consuming and fiber optic system were complex
and expensive to install and operate. Due to these difficulties, fiber optic
communication systems have primarily been installed in long distance
applications, where they can be used to their transmission capacity,
offsetting the increased cost.

Comparison with electrical transmission

In short distance and relatively low bandwidth applications, electrical


transmission is often preferred because of its

*Lower material cost, where large quantities are not required.


*Lower cost of transmitters and receivers.
*Ease of splicing.
*Capability to carry electrical power as well as signals.

In certain situations fiber may be used for short distance or low bandwidth
applications, due to their important features:

*Immunity to electromagnetic interference.


*High electrical resistance.
*Lighter weight.
*No sparks, important in flammable or explosive gas environments.
*Much smaller cable size.

Conclusion:

The ideal communication network is the one which offers the customer a
wide variety of services with fast and cheap access. The rapid development
and employment of optical fiber communication will accelerate progress
towards this goal. Optical fiber will indeed become the Communications
Highway for the 21st century.
BROADBAND
COMMUNICATION
INDEX

S.NO. TOPIC

1. Broadband
2. Tri-Band
3. Ethernet
4. Digital Subscriber Line
5. Asymmetric Digital
Subscriber Line
6. MTNL Broadband Services
7. Installation of ADSL Router
UT-304R2
8. Configuring IP Settings in
Windows XP
9. Quick Reference
BROADBAND COMMUNICATION

Broadband:

Broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies


is available to transmit information. Because a wide band of frequencies is
available, information can be multiplexed and sent on many different
frequencies or channels within the band concurrently, allowing more
information to be transmitted in a given amount of time (much as more lanes
at highway allow more cars to travel on it at same time). Related terms are
wide band (a synonym), baseband (a one channel band), and narrowband
(sometimes meaning just wide enough to carry voice, or simply “not
broadband” and sometimes meaning specially 64 Kbps).

Tri-band:

Tri-band phones are mobile phones that support three frequency bands.
Having more than one frequency in one device is useful to enable roaming
between different countries that peg the allowed transmission frequency at
different values or to allow better coverage in the same country.

Ethernet:

Ethernet is the most widely installed local area network (LAN) technology.
Specified in a standard, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an
earlier specification called Aloha net and then developed further by Xerox,
DEC and Intel. An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special
grades of twisted pair wires. Ethernet is also used in wireless LANs. The
most commonly installed Ethernet systems are called 10 BASE-T and
provide transmission speeds up to 10 Mbps.

Ethernet was named by Robert Metcalfe, one of its developers, for passive
substance called “luminiferous (light transmitting) ether” that was once
thought to pervade the universe, carrying light throughout. Ethernet was
named to describe the way that cabling, also a passive medium could
similarly carry data everywhere throughout the network.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL):


DSL is a technology for bringing high bandwidth information to homes and
small business over ordinary copper telephone lines. xDSL refers to
different variations of DSL, such as ADSL etc. A DSL line can carry both
data and voice signals and the data of the line is continuously connected.

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL):

ADSL is a high speed internet access service that utilizes existing copper
telephone lines to send and receive data at speeds that far exceed
conventional dial up modems.

ADSL allows data stream speeds from 1.5 to 8 Mbps, depending on the
grade of ADSL service purchased. Since is operating on a different
frequency, the telephone can be used normally, even when surfing the web
with ADSL service.

MTNL Broadband services:

MTNL is providing Broadband Internet Services (ADSL) to its users.


MTNL is the first service provider in India to introduce ADSL technology
based Broadband Internet Services. It enhances the web browsing speed and
consumes less power. It provides simultaneous availability of phone and
Internet on the existing telephone lines.

Main features of Broadband/ADSL service

*High speed data download starting from 256 Kbps to 8 Kbps.


*Simultaneous availability of phone and internet.
*High on value low on cost.
*Help line and technical support.

Using Broadband services

1. Connection and Installation:


For extending the service, the telephone cable coming to the customer’s
premises is connected to ADSL port using POTS splitter. The ADSL port
acts as an interface between the telephone cable and the computer. The
‘POTS Splitter’ is used to separate voice and data signals, enabling both
voice and internet, simultaneously on the same telephone line. One cable
out of the POTS splitter is connected to the telephone instrument. MTNL
Broadband comes with a user account consisting of a Username and
Password. This is used for establishing connection to the MTNL
Broadband network.

The MODEM and the splitter shall be connected as per the given figure:

Telephone Telephone
POTS Splitter
Instrument Line

Other
Telephone ADSL CPE
Lines

USB or LAN
Connection

2. Username/login ID:

MTNL will activate the Broadband service using customer’s MTNL


telephone number digits as Username/login ID.

3. Password:

The password given by MTNL would be for the first time login and
thereafter customer needs to change and customize his/her password.

How to change the password for Broadband connection?

1. log on to web self care website http:/register.bol.net.in


2. Click ‘Login’.
3. In the next window, click on ‘Change Service Password’, under the
Account Maintenance Menu on left side.
A window showing ‘Change Service Password’ shall be displayed.
4. In the table that appears on the right side, select the login ID for which
you want to change the password.
5. Click on the ‘Current Password’ field and enter the existing password.
6. Click on the ‘New Password’ field and enter the new password, the
new password should have more than 4 alphanumeric characters.
7. Click on ‘Confirm New Password’ field re-enter the new password.
8. Click on ‘Change Password’. A confirmation message will be
displayed.

Installation of ADSL Router UT-304R2:

The ADSL ROUTER UT-304R2 package contains the following


components:
-UT304R2 ADSL router.
-CD ROM containing manual.
-Ethernet cable.
-Telephone cable.
-Power adapter.

Connecting the Router to the computer

1. First, connect the power adapter to the receptor at the back panel of
the Router and then plug the other end of the power adapter to a wall
outlet or power strip. The power LED will turn on to indicate proper
operation once the power button is pushed.
2. Insert one end of the cable into the Ethernet port on the back panel of
the Router and the other end of the cable to an Ethernet adapter or
available Ethernet port on the computer.

Configuring the Router

To use web browser to access the web pages used to set up the Router, the
computer must be configured to “Obtain an IP address automatically”, that
is, we must change the IP network settings of the computer so that it is a
DHCP Client. If we are using windows XP and do not know how to change
network settings, then read the instructions below:
-Open web browser and type “http://192.168.1.1” into the URL address box.
Then press ‘Enter’ or ‘Return key’.
-Type ‘admin” for the Username and “admin” in the password field.
-Click OK.

Once we have logged in, the ‘Home’ directory tab featuring the ‘setup
wizard’ window opens. Most users will be able to use the setup wizard
established the ADSL connection to our ISP. To begin using the setup
wizard, click on the ‘Run’ Wizard in the middle of the web page. The first
pop-up ‘Setup Wizard’ window opens.

The Setup Wizard procedure consists of three general steps:

-Set the time zone


-Set the internet connection
-Restart the Router

When we setup the internet connection, we will need to enter information


provided by our ISP. If we have been given information related to the
connection type, the VPI and VCI numbers, as well as other information
related to the connection type, we will not be able to complete the setup.

The first setup wizard window lists a summary of the steps required to
complete the setup. Click the ‘Next’ button to begin setup.

The initial step is to configure the ‘Time Zone’ used for the Router’s system
clock. Select the appropriate time zone for the location. Click the ‘Next’
button when done.

Next we will select the “Internet Connection Type” for the WAN interface.
ISP has given this information to us. The setup wizard window that appears
when we click the ‘Next’ button depends on what connection type we select.
The connection types available in the setup wizard window are
PPPoE/PPPoaA. Dynamic IP Address, static IP Address and Bridge Mode.

PPPoE/PPPoaA Connections

If we selected this connection type in the previous window, we will see a


new setup wizard window. Type in the ‘Username’ and ‘Password’ used to
identify and verify account to the ISP. If we have been instructed to change
the VPI number (i.e. 0) and VCI number (i.e. 32), type in the new values.
Select the “Connection Type” used for encapsulation specific to our service.
Click ‘Next” when you are ready to continue to the setup completed
window.

Dynamic IP Address Connections

If we selected the Dynamic IP Address connection type, select the


‘Connection Type’ used for encapsulation. If we have been instructed to
change the VPI number and VCI number, types in the new values. Click
‘Next’ when you are ready to continue the ‘Setup Completed’ window.

Static IP Address Connections

If we selected the Static IP Address connection type, change the ‘WAN IP


Address, WAN Subnet mask, WAN ISP Gateway Address, Primary DNS
Server address and (if available) Secondary DNS Server address as
instructed by ISP’. Select the Connection Type used for encapsulation. If we
have been instructed to change the VPI number and VCI number, type in the
new values. Click ‘Next’ when you are to continue the ‘Setup Completed’
window.

Bridge Connection

If we selected the Bridge connection type, select the ‘Connection Type’ used
for encapsulation. If we have been instructed to change the VPI number and
VCI number, type in the new values. Click ‘Next’ when you are ready to
continue the ‘Setup Completed’ window.

Configuring IP Settings in Windows XP:

Use the following steps to configure a computer running Windows XP to be


a DHCP Client.

-From the ‘Start’ menu on your desktop, go to ‘Control Panel’.


-In the Control panel window, click ‘Network and Internet Connections’.
-In the Network and Internet Connections window, click ‘Network
Connections’.
-In the Network Connection window, right-click on ‘Local Area
Connection’, then click ‘Properties’.
-In the ‘General’ tab of the ‘Local Area Connection Properties’ window,
highlight ‘Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) under “This connection uses the
following items” by clicking on it once. Click on the ‘Properties” button.
-Select “obtain an IP address automatically” by clicking once in the circle.
Click the “OK” button.

The computer is now ready to use the Router’s DHCP server.

SONET/SDH Network Architectures

Currently, SONET and SDH have a limited number of architectures defined.


This architecture allows for efficient bandwidth usage as well as protection
and, is key in understanding the almost worldwide usage of SONET and
SDH for moving digital traffic. The three main architectures are:

• Linear APS (Automatic Protection Switching):


This involves 4 fibers: 2 working fibers in each direction, and two
protections in fibers.
•UPSR (Unidirectional Path Switched Ring):
In a UPSR, two redundant copies of protected traffic are sent in either
direction around a ring. A selector egress node determines the higher quality
copy and decides to use the best copy, thus copying if deterioration in one
copy occurs due to a broken fiber or other failure. UPSRs tend to sit nearer
to the edge of a SONET network and, as such are sometimes called
“collector rings”. Because the same data is sent around the ring in both
directions.
•BLSR (Bidirectional Line Switched Ring):
BLSR comes in two varieties, a 2-fiber BLSR and 4-fiber BLSR. BLSRs
switch at the line layer. Unlike UPSR, BLSR does not send redundant copies
from ingress to egress. Rather, the ring nodes adjacent to the failure reroute
the traffic “the long way” around the ring. BLSR can operate within a
metropolitan region, or will move traffic between municipalities.

Limitations of optical fiber communication:

Through a combination of advances in dispersion management, wavelength


division multiplexing, and optical amplifiers, modern day optical fibers can
carry information at around 14 tetra bits per second over 160 kilometers of
fiber. Engineers are always looking at current limitations in order to improve
fiber optic communications, and several of these restrictions are currently
being researched.

Dispersion

For modern glass optical fiber, the maximum transmission distance is


limited not by attenuation but by dispersion, or spreading of optical pulses as
they travel along the fiber. Dispersion in optical fibers is caused by a variety
of factors. Intermodal dispersion caused by the different axial speeds of
different transverse modes, limits the performance of multimode fiber.
Because single mode fiber supports only transverse mode, Intermodal
dispersion is eliminated,

Quick Reference:

MTNL Delhi Website


http://mtnldelhi.in, http://delhi.mtnl.net.in

Broadband Tariff Plan: - http://mtnldelhi.in/

Complaint booking dial 198

Broadband helpdesk: - dial toll free tel.no.1504 or 22221504

Email address of Broadband helpdesk:


Helpdesk.delhi@bol.net.in or 1504@bol.net.in

For Tariff plan details and booking of Broadband connections


-Dial 1500 or 22221500

Mail Server address

O/G Mail Server (SMTP) smtp.bol.net.in


I/C Mail Server (POP) pop.bol.net.in
Web link for Email: http://mtnldelhi.in ; http://delhi.mtnl.in

DNS Server address


Preferred DNS (primary): 59.179.243.70
Alternate DNS (secondary): 203.94.243.70
Web link for Broadband user guide:
http://bol.net.in/adsl1/download.htm
Web link for Broadband Account Password change:
http://register.bol.net.in
Web link for Email address registration
http://register.bol.net.in
Web link to view Usage:
http://register.bol.net.in
Web link to view bill details:
http://bol.net.in/billing/
Link for ADSL Interface:
http://192.168.1.1