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The PIM has been a centre of management excellence for the past

three decades. Its success largely depends on developing leaders


having global presence with local pulse. Professional communication
has played a key role in this noteworthy endeavour.

Report writing is an essential skill for professionals. These reports


serve varied purposes, and therefore, they would need to conform
to different presentation requirements. It means that these
presentations call for standardization. Such an effort requires
disciplining ourselves to a set of rules or guidelines in accordance
with the type of report we submit for assessment. Therefore, this
handbook titled ‘PIM PRESENTATION GUIDELINES’ is designed to
bring about uniformity in the writing and presentation of different
reports needed for fulfilling the PIM’s academic requirements.

This handbook lays down a standard set of rules and guidelines for
compliance by students, based on those adopted by reputed seats
of learning, and more specifically those set out in the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), and also
faculty inputs.

These guidelines would help achieve uniformity and consistency


in our students’ academic work submitted to the Institute for
assessment.

Prof. Ajantha S. Dharmasiri


Director
January 01, 2018.

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PIM Presentation Guidelines
Assignments, Reports & Papers

First Edition : January 2011


Second Edition : January 2013
Third Edition : January 2015
Fourth Edition : January 2016
Fifth Edition : January 2017
Sixth Edition : January 2018

ISBN 978-955-8969-12-0

Postgraduate Institute of Management


University of Sri Jayewardenepura

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in


a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written
consent of the Director, Postgraduate Institute of Management.

Postgraduate Institute of Management


28, Lesley Ranagala Mawatha
Colombo 8, Sri Lanka
Tel: +94 11 2 689 639 - 42
Fax: +94 11 2 689 643
Web: www.pim.sjp.ac.lk
e-mail: admin@pim.sjp.ac.lk

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction 1
2. Rules for Formatting 2
3. Rules for Presenting Tables and Figures 6
4. Rules for Referencing 10
5. Presentation of Assignments 23
6. General Guidelines for Presentation of Final Projct Options 29
7. Management Research Paper/Management 43
Research Thesis Proposal Format
8. Management Research Paper Format 46
9. Management Research Thesis Format 55
10. Management Skills Project Proposal Format 59
11. Management Skills Project Report Format 62
12. Entrepreneurship Skills Project Proposal Format 68
13. Entrepreneurship Skills Project Report Format 71
14. Management Case Study Proposal Format 75
15. Management Case Study Report Format 79
16. Guided Independent Study Proposal Format 85
17. Guided Independent Study Report Format 89
18. Industry Survey Project Proposal Format 95
19. Industry Survey Project Report Format 98
20. Management Policy Paper Proposal Format 103
21. Management Policy Paper Format 105
22. Management Field Project Proposal Format 108
23. Management Field Project Report Format 112
24. Guidelines for Oral Presentation of Final Project Options 118
25. Doctoral Research Proposal 124
26. Sri Lankan Journal of Management 128
27. Publication of a Management Case Study 130
28. Preparing a Manuscript 132
29. The Professional Manager 134
30. Conclusion 135

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Students who have registered for different study programmes at the PIM are
required to submit academic reports ranging from assignments to research
papers. This hand book of presentation guidelines prescribes a set of guidelines
for students to follow when presenting their academic work to the Institute.
They are designed to achieve standardization across all academic programmes
conducted by the PIM.

The general rules relating to presentation, referencing and formatting are set
out first, followed by additional details pertaining to the submission of specific
reports such as assignments, theses/research papers, skills project reports,
case study reports, industry survey reports and field project reports.

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Type written reports
All reports and papers submitted must be typewritten on A4 size white paper.
Typing should be done only on one side of the A4 paper.

Font and size


Times New Roman, 12 point.

Neatness of report
Reports and papers must be free of erasures and manual corrections.

Margins
Keep a margin of 3.18 cm (1.25 inches) on the left hand side and 2.54 cm (1
inch) on all other sides.

Spacing
One and a half spaces must be maintained, between every two lines. Paragraph
spacing should be maintained at 6 pts (either before or after a paragraph). All
paragraphs start left aligned and justified.

Headings
Headings are formatted according to their levels. The levels of headings have to
be indicated clearly in the reports.

Level 1: First Level Heading is the main heading. In multi-chapter reports,


this will be the chapter heading.

Level 1 heading should be centered, Times New Roman 14, in boldface,


uppercase or title case. In case of title case, the first letter of any proper noun
should be in upper case.

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Examples:

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2
PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION

Level 2: Second Level Headings should be flushed left, Times New Roman 12,
boldface, title case (first letter of any proper noun should be in upper case).

Examples:

1.2 The Project


2.3 Organisational Analysis

Level 3: Third level headings should be indented, Times New Roman 12,
boldface, with a lower case paragraph heading (the first letter of the first word
is uppercase and the remaining words are lower case) ending with a period.

Examples:

2.3.1 PESTEEL analysis.


4.3.1 Current situation analysis.

Level 4: Fourth level headings should be indented, italicised, boldface, lower


case paragraph heading (the first letter of the first word is uppercase and the
remaining words are lower case) ending with a period.

Examples:

2.3.1.1 Political environment.


4.3.1.1 Cause and effect analysis.

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Level 5: Fifth level heading should be indented, italicised, lower case paragraph
heading ending with a period.

Examples:

2.3.1.1.2 Conclusions of political environmental analysis.


4.3.1.1.5 Implications of the root causes.

Use of numerals (numbers)


Numerals are used when the number has two digits or more. In addition, any
number which forms the first word or the last word in a sentence must be
spelled out.

Page numbering of document


The entire report must be consecutively numbered from the introductory
chapter to the very end, including the appendices, using Arabic numerals.

The cover page will be assigned simple Roman number i but will not be
indicated on the cover page. The pages following the cover page up to Chapter
1 will be numbered with simple Roman numerals.

Page number should be placed at the bottom of the page and centred.

General
In the case of papers and reports, the proper point of view to be adopted is
the third person singular, i.e., ‘the researcher’, ‘the writer’, ‘the author’, ‘the
entrepreneur’ as appropriate.

Papers and reports submitted to the PIM for evaluation should be in PDF
format, and should be uploaded to the ‘Prajna’ learning portal. In case reports
are required to be submitted as hard copies (example Final Project Reports)
students will be notified by the relevant resource person. In such cases reports
less than 20 pages, can be stapled, (three vertical staples equally spaced parallel
to the left margin) without a transparent cover page and a hard back cover. In

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reports exceeding 20 pages, a transparent cover and a hard back cover with
spiral binding is expected. Papers and reports must be error-free. The entire
document must be carefully checked for grammar, syntax and spelling errors
before submission.

The use of English (United Kingdom) and spelling (except for the word
“Postgraduate” with regard to the PIM) is recommended.

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Tables

 Tables are used for the purpose of simplifying the text. Information with two
or fewer columns and rows should be presented in text format instead of a
table.

§ In the text, every table should be referred to by the numbers assigned:


Example “As shown in Table 1” or “see Table 1’. Tables should not be referred
to as “the table above” or “the table below.”

§ Consistency should be maintained in the formatting and vocabulary of all


tables when writing a paper.

§ Numbering of tables should be in the order they are first mentioned in the
text.

§ Standard abbreviations and symbols, such as % or no. may be used in


headings without further explanation.

§ Each column should have a heading. The first letter of the first word of all
headings should be capitalized. If a word is a proper noun, however, the first
letter should be capitalized. If the table is from another source, it should be
specified below the table, whether it is from another source or adapted from
another source.

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Table 1: Methods of Promoting and Restricting Trade

Trade Promotion Trade Restrictions


Subsidies Tariffs
Export financing Quotas
Foreign trade zones Embargoes
Special government agencies Local content requirements
Administrative delays
Currency controls
Source: Wild, J. J., & Wild K.L. (2014, p.185).

Tables used in a report must:


§ Have a clear purpose.

§ Have a title set in bold letters (Times New Roman, 12 point).

§ Carry details such as the time period, units of measurement, and the currency
unit.

§ Have a heading for each column and row.

§ Source should be indicated. This should appear immediately below the


table.

§ In a report divided into chapters, tables would be identified with the chapter.
Thus, in Chapter 2 of the document, tables would be numbered sequentially
as Table 2.1, 2.2; and in Chapter 3 as 3.1, 3.2, etc.

§ In short reports/assignments without distinction of separate chapters, the


tables would be numbered sequentially as Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 etc.

§ Carry a description and interpretation of the information contained in the


table.

A table should not contain too much of statistical data. Tables with 4 rows and
4 columns each are desirable. Tables containing a lot of statistics can be placed
in an appendix, and basic data can be summarized in a simple table in the body
of the report.

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Source should be denoted as primary data or survey data if a table is compiled
on data collected by the writer.

Figures used in a report must:

§ Have a clear purpose (The term “figure” includes diagrams, illustrations,


and exhibits).
§ Have a title set in bold letters (Times New Roman, 12 point).
§ Carry a number and be referred to by that number in the text, rather than by
terms such as “the figure above” or the “figure below”.
§ Carry details such as the time period and the units of measurement.
§ The source should be indicated. This should appear immediately below the
figure.
§ In short, reports/assignments without distinction of separate chapters, the
figures would be numbered sequentially as Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 etc.
§ Carry a description and interpretation of the information contained in the
figure.
§ Be identified with the chapter. Thus, in Chapter 2 of the document, figures
would be numbered sequentially as Figure 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, etc.
§ Carry a description and interpretation of the information contained in the
figure.

The source should be denoted as primary data or survey data if a figure is


compiled on data collected by the writer.

The figure legend should be placed within the borders of the figure.

Axis labels on graphs should be parallel to their axes.

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Figure 1: The Learning Gap

Source: Armstrong, M. (2012, p.291).

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Based on the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style 6th
edition.

1. General Principles of Referencing

a) Reference List
A reference list is an alphabetically arranged list of sources used in a paper. It
starts on a new page immediately after the last page of the paper and before
the appendices. The list has the heading References (centered, not in italics,
and not underlined). There should be no bullets or numbers for the references
in the list.

Only the references cited in the work should be included in the reference list.

All references should have a hanging indent. That is, all lines of a reference
subsequent to the first line should be 1 cm indented.

References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author
of each work.

Names of authors within a reference should appear in the order listed on the
title page, and not in alphabetical order. The names of up to and including
seven authors are listed, with all of their names inverted (e.g. Smith, P. G.). An
ampersand (&) joins the last two names in the series.

If a work has eight or more authors, the first six are listed in full, followed by an
ellipsis, and then the last author’s name.

An ellipsis (. . .) is three periods with a space before each and a space after the
last.

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Special Reference List cases:
§ In the case of works by different authors with the same family name,
references should be listed alphabetically by the authors’ initials.

§ In the case of multiple works by the same author in different years, references
should be listed chronologically (earliest to latest).

§ In the case of multiple works by the same author in the same year, references
should be listed alphabetically by title in the Reference List. They should be
identified by simple letters, e.g., 2014a, 2014b both in the text and in the list
of references.

§ When referring to books, book chapters, article titles or webpages, only the
first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and proper nouns should
be capitalized.

§ The edition number of a text book is placed immediately after the title of the
text.

§ When referring to journal titles, all major words should be capitalized


(words such as ‘of’, ‘and’, & ‘the’ should not be capitalized unless they are
the first word in the title).

Example: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, Sri Lankan Journal of


Management

b) In- text citations


When a work has two authors, both names should always be cited every time
the reference occurs in the text.

When a work has three, four, or five authors, all authors should be cited the first
time; in subsequent citations, only the surname of the first author is included,
followed by et al. (not italicized) and the year.

When a work has six or more authors, only the surname of the first author is
cited, followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

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Within a paragraph, it is not necessary to include the year in subsequent
references so long as this does not lead to confusion.

e.g.: McLean (2004, p. 32) has shown that the effect of the drought on rural
towns . . . McLean also demonstrated ….

c) Page numbers
For direct quotations, the author, year and page number are given.

When using direct quotations where page numbers are not provided, a section
identifier and/or paragraph number should be given instead.

Example: (Leech, 2006, para. 13), (Boland, 2001, Conclusion section,


para. 13).

When paraphrasing, “or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are
encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number” (APA, 2010, p 171, para.
6.04).

For a single page, the number is given as p. 27. For a range of pages: pp. 245-
246.

Rules for referencing based on the APA referencing style are illustrated by the
examples below (adapted from Charles Sturt University, 2010, APA Referencing
Summary).

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2. Printed Resources
a) Books

Reference List In – text citation


APA allows three forms for in-
text citations:
One Daft, R. L. (2014). New Era of 1. Anne Boleyn died “with
author Management. New Delhi: dignity” on 19 May 1536
Cengage Learning. (MacCulloch,1996, p. 159).
MacCulloch, D. (1996). Thomas 2. MacCulloch (1996, p. 386) has
Cranmer: A life. New Haven: suggested. . .
Yale University Press.
3. MacCulloch (1996) argues that
“...” (p. 231).
Note the hanging indent for Note the space before page
reference list items. In titles of numbers. Quotations of 40 or
books and articles in reference more words are set off as a block
lists, capitalize only the first quotation, indented about 1cm.
word, the first word after a colon Quotation marks and italics are not
or em dash (—), and proper used in this case.
nouns.

Where more than one place of


publication is given, show only
the first listed place.
Two Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (Nelson & Cox, 2005, p. 897).
authors (2008). Principles of
Marketing. New Delhi: PHI OR
Learning. Nelson and Cox (2005) describe
Nelson, D. L., & Cox, M. M. Buchner’s “pioneering discovery”
(2005). Principles of
(p. 45) in biochemistry
Biochemistry (4th ed.). New
York: Freeman.
Three List all authors. First in-text citation: Cite all
to five names (Booth, Colomb, & Williams,
authors 1995, p. 25)
Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Second and subsequent citations:
Williams, J. M. (1995). The (Booth et al., 1995, p. 25)
Craft of Research. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

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Six to List all authors. For six or more authors, cite only
seven the first author, followed by et al.
authors (not italicised, and with a stop after
et al) for all citations.
(Bloggs et al., 2009, p. 23)
No author When no author or editor is (“United Press International
or editor named, place the title in the stylebook,” 1992)
named author position
For in-text references: use a short
United Press International title in place of the author name. No
stylebook: The authoritative quotation marks and no italics.
handbook for writers, editors,
and news directors (3rd ed.).
(1992). Lincolnwood, Il:
National.

Corporate In this case the author and the Stage 6 students can “critically
author publisher are the same. analyse the opinions of others”
(NSW Board of Studies, 2003, p.
NSW Board of Studies. (2003).
69).
Science years 7–10 syllabus.
Sydney: Author.

Edited Burchfield, R. W. (1996). The (Burchfield, 1996, p. 707).


book New Fowler’s Modern English
Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford:
Oxford University Press.

Multi- Abrams, M.H., & Stillinger, J. (Abrams & Stillinger,2001, p. 32).


volume (2001). The Norton Anthology
work of English Literature: Vol. 2A. Abrams and Stillinger (2001, p. 4)
The romantic period (7th ed). maintain . . .
New York: Norton.
Abrams and Stillinger (2001)
suggest “. . ” (p. 57).

Article or Rospond, R. M. (2003). Pain (Rospond, 2003) writes that “The


chapter in assessment. In R. M. Jones classic pain pathway consists of a
an edited & R. M. Rospond. Patient three-neuron chain” (p. 85).
book assessment in pharmacy
practice (pp. 160–170).
Baltimore: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins.

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b) Periodicals – Print Articles
(Journals, Weekly and Monthly Magazines, Newspapers )

Reference List In- text citation


One author: For all Crispin, G. (1996). Trial by (Crispin, 1996, p. 18)
journal articles (both Fire. Pottery in Australia,
print and online) 35(3), 18–19.
always include the
The volume number is
journal issue number
italicized, but the issue
(if available) along with
number (and its parentheses)
the volume number.
are not.
Two authors Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (Klimosky & Palmer,
(1993). The ADA and 1993)
the Hiring Process in
Organisations. Consulting
Psychology Journal:
Practice and Research,
45(2), 10–36.
Print article with DOI, Charman, R. E., & Vasey, (Charman & Vasey, 2008,
two authors J. R. (2008). Surgical p. 196)
Treatment of Carpal
Flexural Deformity in
72 Horses. Australian
Veterinary Journal, 86(5),
195–199. doi:10.1111/
j.1751-813.2008.00275.x
Three, four, or five Corfield, G. S., Read, R. A., First in-text citation:
authors Nicholls, P. K., & Lester, Cite all names
N. (2007). Gall bladder (Corfield, Read, Nicholls,
torsion and rupture in a & Lester, 2007)
dog. Australian Veterinary
Subsequent citations:
Journal, 85(6), 226–231.
(Corfield et al., 2007)

Six or seven authors List all authors Cite only the first author,
followed by et al., (not
italicised, and with a
stop after et al) for all
citations.
(Bloggs et al., 2009, p. 23)

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No author named Improving ADR reporting.
(2002). The Lancet, 360,
1435.
When no author or editor is
named, place the title in the
author position.
Conference Paper Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending (“Improving ADR
against business crises Reporting,” 2002)
with the help agent based
In-text, use a short title.
early warning solutions.
The first and major words
Paper presented at the
are capitalised, and
International Conference
quotation marks are used.
on Enterprise Information
No italics.
Systems. Abstract
retrieved from http:// (Liu, 2005)
www.icsis.org/ iceis
2005/abstracts

Published Herculeno- Houzei, S., Colins, (Herculeno- Housei et al.,


Proceedings C.E., Wong, Pl, Kass, J. H., 2008)
& Lent, R. (2008). The
basic nonuniformity
of the cerebral cortex.
Proceedings of the
Academy of Sciences 105,
12593-12598.
Unpublished thesis Healey, D. (2005). Attention (Healey, 2005)
deficit/hyperactivity
disorder and creativity:
An investigation into their
relationship (Unpublished
doctoral thesis).
University of Canterbury,
Christchurch, New
Zealand.
Monthly magazine Reid, T. (2005, January). (Reid, 2005, p. 31)
article Caffeine. National Geographic,
207, 2–33.
The volume number and
the following comma are
italicized.

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Weekly magazine Gasparino, C. (2005, July 25). (Gasparino, 2005)
article Good news: You’re fired.
Newsweek, 146, 48.
Newspaper article Murray, L. (2006, September (Murray, 2006)
26). PM at war with
Telstra’s $9m man. The
Sydney Morning Herald, p.
1.
Publications of Central Bank of Sri Lanka, (Central Bank of Sri
institutions (2014). Annual Report. Lanka, 2014)
Colombo.
UNDP, (2015). Human (UNDP, 2015)
Development Report. New
York: Oxford University
Press.
Postgraduate Institute of (Postgraduate Institute of
Management, (2017). PIM Management, 2017)
Presentation Guidelines.
Colombo.

3. Electronic Sources
a) On Line Journals

Reference List In- text citation

Article with DOI McDougall, K. L. (2007). (McDougall, 2007, p. 43)


assigned Grazing and fire in two
subalpine peatlands.
Australian Journal of
Botany, 55(1), 42–47.
doi:10.1071/BT06096

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Article with no DOI Drury, V., Francis, K., & (Drury, Francis, &
assigned Chapman, Y. (2009). Chapman, 2009, p. 41)
Mature learners becoming
registered nurses: A
grounded theory model.
Australian Journal of
Advanced Nursing, 26(2),
39–45. Retrieved from
http://www.ajan.com.au/

b) Electronic Books

Reference List In- text citation


Entire book (Book Grant, G. (2008). Family wars: (Grant, 2008, p. 45)
found through Classic conflicts in family
database) business and how to deal
with them. Retrieved from
EBook Library.
Entire book (Book O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & (O’Keefe, n.d.)
found on public the Crisis in Western Values.
website) Available from http://
www. onlineoriginals.com/
showitem. asp?itemID=135
Note the use of “Available
from” in this example, as
the whole text must be
purchased.
Book chapter Mitchell, H. W. (1913). (Mitchell, 1913, p. 290)
(Book found through Alcoholism and the
database) alcoholic psychoses.
In W. A. White & S. E.
Jelliffe, The modern
treatment of nervous
and mental diseases (1,
287–330). Retrieved from
PsychBOOKS database.

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c) Newspaper Article

Reference List In- text citation


Mannion, J. (2009, May 25). (Mannion, 1999)
Military chiefs back
Obama on Guantanamo.
The Sydney Morning
Herald. Retrieved from
http://news. smh.com. au/

d) Websites

Reference List In- text citation


Chapter or section Ogilvie, D. (n.d.). Why I don’t (Ogilvie, n.d.)
in an internet eat honey. In Why be
document—author vegan. Retrieved from
named http://www. vnv.org.au/
WhyBeVegan. htm

(n.d.) means that the date of


publication was unavailable.
The name of the site, why be
vegan, is in italics. The article,
or section (Why I don’t eat
honey), is not in italics.
Internet document— Effects of global warming on (“Effects of Global
no author whales. (n.d.). Retrieved Warming,” n.d., para. 3).
from http:// www.
In-text, use a short title.
stopwhaling.org/site/c.
foJNIZOyEnH/b.2660179/ The first and major words
kBB’/Stop_Effects_of_ are capitalized, and
Global_ Warming_on_ quotation marks are used.
whales_IFAW_ US.htm No italics.

Company website Ford Motor Company. (2007). (Ford Motor Company,


Fast Forward:2006 annual 2007)
report. Retrieved from
http://www. ford.com/
doc/2006_AR.pdf

4. Secondary Sources

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Reference List In- text citation
a) Book Truss, Lynne. (2003). Eats, According to Paul
shoots, and leaves: The Robinson (as cited in
zero tolerance approach Truss, 2003, p. 124).
to punctuation. London:
Profile.
Record the book that you
actually read.
b) Journal Article Bourke, C. A. (2005). A Peet et al. (as cited in
review of kikuyu grass Bourke, 2005, p. 264),
(Pennisetum clandestinum) examined the stomachs of
poisoning in cattle. affected sheep . . . . . .
Australian Veterinary
Journal, 85(7), 261–267. (Peet et al., as cited in
doi: 10.1111/j.1751- Bourke, 2005, p. 264).
0813.2007.00168.x
Record the journal that you
actually read.

5. Bibliography

A bibliography will cite sources that have influenced the writer’s thinking but
have not been cited in the main body of the report.

Based on the above discussion, a sample Reference list is given below.

References

Aaker, D. A., Kumar, V., & Day, G. S. (2001). Marketing Research. New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Adair, S. R., & Mowsesian, R. (1993). The meanings of motivations of learning during
the retirement transition. Educational Gerontology, 19(2), 317-330.

Andruske, C. L. (2000). Self-directed learning as a political act: Learning projects


of women on welfare. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Adult Education Research
Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia.

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Atherton, J. S. (2003). Learning and teaching: Knowles’ andragogy. Retrieved
January 24, 2013, from http://www.dme.ac.uk/~jamesa/learning/knowlesa.
htm

Baldwin, T. T., & Ford, J. K. (1988). Transfer of training: A review and directions for
future research, Personnel Psychology, 41(1) 63-105.

Beedles, M. T. F. (2002). The uncertain role of alliances in the strategic armoury of


the dominant firms in the global pharmaceutical industry (Unpublished Doctoral
Thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th
ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.

Daft, R. L. (2014). New Era of Management (11th ed.). New Delhi: Cengage Learning.

Daniel, L. G. (1989, November). Comparisons of exploratory and confirmatory factor


analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational
Research Association, Little Rock, AR. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED 314 447).

Eisenberger, R., Cummings, J., Armeli, S., & Lynch, P. (1997). Perceived organizational
support, discretionary treatment, and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 82(5), 812-820.

Huitt, W. (2004). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Educational psychology interactive.


Retrieved from Valdosta State University website: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/
whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2008). Principles of Marketing. New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Landy, F. J., & Becker, W. S. (1987). Motivation theory reconsidered. Research in


Organizational Behavior, 9(1), 1-38.

Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and


organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence
employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845-855.

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Ogles, M. T. (1990). The outcomes of using “learning contracts” with adult beginning
readers in a one-on-one literacy program. (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Colorado at Boulder, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(06), 1875A.

Pearson, E., & Podeschi, R. (1997). Humanism and individualism: Maslow and his
critics. Proceedings of the Adult Education Research Conference, no. 38 (May,
1997). Stillwater: Oklahoma State University.

Rowling, L. (1993, September). Schools and grief: How does Australia compare to
the United States. In Wandarna coowar: Hidden grief. Paper presented at the
Proceedings of the 8th National Conference of the National Association for Loss
and Grief (Australia), Yeppoon, Queensland (pp. 196-201). Turramurra, NSW:
National Association for Loss and Grief

Rosner, B. (1990). Fundamentals of biostatistics. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing


Company.

Spector, P. E. (1994). Job Satisfaction Survey. Retrieved July 24, 2013 from http://
chuma.cas.usf.edu/~spector/scales/jsspag.html

Tan, J. A., Hall, R. J., & Boyce, C. (2003). The role of employee reactions in predicting
training effectiveness. Journal of Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(4),
397-411.

Wickramasinghe, G. L. D., & Wickramasinghe, V. (2010). Perceived organizational


support, job involvement and turnover intention in lean production in Sri Lanka.
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 55(5-8), 817-
830. doi: 10.1007/s00170-010-3099-z

Yoon, J.K., & Lim, J.C. (1999). Organizational support in the workplace: The case of
Korean hospital employees. Human Relations, 52(7), 923-945.

Zumrah, A. R., Boyle, S., & Fein, E. (2011). The moderating effect of perceived
organizational support on the relationship between learning and transfer of
training. Retrieved on 8th July, 2013 from, http://www.wbiconpro.com/429-
zumrah.pdf

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An assignment is a brief report consisting of approximately 12-15 pages. In
assignments, it is advisable to arrange the contents under sections rather than
chapters. Each section will address a key area of the assignment. A Table of
Contents and an Executive Summary are not required, except for longer reports.
A model cover page for assignments appears on page 26.
The contents of the report should be arranged as follows:

Level 1 heading: This is the main heading.

Level 1 heading
should be centered, Times New Roman 14, in boldface, uppercase or title case.
In case of Title case, the first letter of any proper noun should be in upper case.

Level 2 headings should be left aligned, Times New Roman 12, bold, initial
capital letter for any proper noun.

Level 3 headings should be indented 1 cm, Times New Roman 12, bold,
upper case for the first letter of the first word, the rest of the words being
in lower case, ending with a period.

Level 4 headings should be indented 1 cm, Times New Roman 12, bold,
italicised, initial upper case letter for the first word, the rest of the words
being in lower case, ending with a period.

Level 5 headings should be indented 1 cm, Times New Roman 12,


italicized, initial capital letter for the first word, the rest of the words
being in lower case, ending with period.

- 23 -
Example:

Being Diligent in Becoming Digital

1. Introduction

A brief paragraph, describing the aims of the paper.

2. Organisational Analysis

2.1 SWOT matrix.


2.1.1 Strengths.
2.1.2 Weaknesses.
2.1.3 Opportunities.
2.1.4 Threats.
2.1.5 Conclusions/Key learnings from SWOT analysis.

2.2 Internal and external factor analysis.


2.4.1 Internal factor analysis.
2.4.1.1 Conclusions from internal factor evaluation.
2.4.2 External Factor Analysis.
2.4.2.1 Conclusions from external factor evaluation.

3.

4.

5.

6. Conclusion

- 24 -
References

References should start on a new page, centred. Both hard sources and online
sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a common list (Refer Chapter
3 on Rules for Referencing).

Appendices

Appendices (Should be started on a new page. Page numbering should be


continued until the last page).

Student’s declaration for assignments

Assignments and other forms of evaluations during the term should be certified
by the student with the following declaration just after the cover page of the
assignment:

I am fully aware of the content under plagiarism stated in the PIM Student
Handbook, and I hereby declare and affirm that I have strictly observed
the law relating to intellectual property, copyright and plagiarism in this
exercise (Student Handbook, 2018).

Student submissions will be subjected to screening by ‘Turnitin’ software. The


punishment for plagiarism is severe and is described in the Student Handbook.

- 25 -
Individual Assignment

Being Diligent in Becoming Digital

MBA/18/4025 A. A. Albert
Sub Group No.: A–5

Course : MBA 525: Contemporary Organisations


Instructor : Prof. D. D. Dassanayake
Term : January - March 2018

Postgraduate Institute of Management


University of Sri Jayewardenepura

- 26 -
Group Assignment

COMPARISION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF


XYZ BANK AND PQR GROUP

MBA/18/4025 A. A. Albert
MBA/18/4050 G. G. Gilbert
MBA/18/4075 W. W. Wilbert

Sub Group No.: A–5

Course : MBA 525: Contemporary Organisations


Instructor : Prof. D. D. Dassanayake
Term : January - March 2018

Postgraduate Institute of Management


University of Sri Jayewardenepura

- 27 -
The font sizes for the cover page of Individual/Group Assignments are given
below:

Individual Assignment Times New Roman,


14, Bold

Being Diligent in Becoming Times New Roman,


16, Bold.
Digital
(Title)
MBA/186/4025: A. A. Albert Times New Roman,
Sub Group No.: A – 5 14, Bold

Course: MBA 525: Contemporary Organisations


Instructor: Prof. D. D. Dassanayake
Term: January - March 2018
Postgraduate Institute of Management Times New Roman,
14
University of Sri Jayewardenepura Times New Roman,
10

- 28 -
MBA students of the PIM are offered nine options to complete the ‘Final Project/
Research Component’ in their study programmes, viz., (i) A Management
Research Thesis (ii) Management Research Paper (iii) Management Skills
Project (iv) Entrepreneur Skills Project (v) Management Case Study. (vi)
Industry Survey Project, (vii) Management Policy Paper (viii) Management
Field Project and (ix) Guided Independent Case Study.

Management Research Management Skills Management Case


Project (MRP)/ Project (MSP) / Study(MCS)/ Industry
Management Research Entrepreneurship Survey Project (ISP)/
Thesis (MRT) Skills Project (ESP)/ Management Policy
Management Field paper (MPP)/ Guided
Project (MFP) Independent Case
Study (GIS)

Length of MRP: MSP/ESP: MCS and MPP:


Report Individual effort: Individual effort: Individual effort:
(excluding 12,500-15,000 words 12,500-15,000 12,500 - 15,000
References (pp. 50-60). words (pp. 50-60). words (pp 50-60).
and Appen-
dices). + GIS:
max 10% Individual effort:
7,500 - 10,000 words
(pp 30-40).
Two-member teams: Two member teams: Two member teams:
20,000-25,000 words 20,000-25000 words 20,000- 25,000
(pp. 80-100). (pp. 80-100). words (pp. 80 – 100).

MRT: MFP: ISP:


Individual effort: Individual effort: Two member teams:
20000-25000 words 7,500-10,000 words 12,500-15,000
(pp. 80-100). (pp. 30-40). words (pp. 50-60).

- 29 -
Sample size If a quantitative Skills projects MCS: Should be
and meth- approach is are organisation- based on at least 10
odology used, at least five specific, and the in-depth interviews
organisations must project should be and 4 to 5 focus
be covered with an completed to meet groups. In addition,
appropriate sample the objectives quantitative data
size (at least 300 and the projected relevant to the study
respondents). If a benefit-cost. should be presented.
qualitative approach Entrepreneurship- For 2 member teams,
is used, at least 10 in- based skills projects at least 20 in-depth
depth interviews and should achieve the interviews and 8 to
4 to 5 focus groups projected objectives 10 focus groups.
should be used. and benefit-cost.
ISP: Two-member
Two-member teams: team will cover 10%
Quantitative organisations in the
approach – 10 selected industry.
organisations and
600 respondents. GIS: Should be based
on at least 10 in-
depth interviews and
three focus group
interviews.
Credit MRP: 15 MSP/ESP: 15 MCS/MPP/ISP: 15
points MRT: 30 MFP: 13 GIS: 5

All options involve a sound theoretical background, a clear framework, careful


data collection and analysis, followed by a clear presentation of findings,
conclusions and recommendations.

NB:

1. Students taking the Research/Thesis option (MRP and MRT) are


required to compile a report that could be condensed into a 20 - page
article publishable in the Sri Lankan Journal of Management (SLJM). The
article must be submitted to the PIM along with the final Management
Research paper/Thesis.

2. Students taking the Skills Project option (MSP and ESP) are required
to compile a report that could be condensed into a 6-8 page article
publishable in the Professional Manager magazine of the PIM. The article

- 30 -
must be submitted to the PIM along with the final Management Skills
Project report.

3. Students taking the Case Study option (MCS)/Industry Survey Project


(ISP)/Management Policy Paper (MPP)/ are required to compile a
report that could be condensed into a 6-8 page article publishable in the
Professional Manager magazine of the PIM. The article must be submitted
to the PIM along with the final Management Case Study/Industry Survey/
Management Policy Paper report.

4. Students taking the Management Field Study option (MFP) are required
to take a compulsory elective course (a reading course with a take home
exam) in addition to taking another elective course of their choice in order
to meet the required credit requirements.

Cover Pages
Cover pages for proposals and final reports are illustrated in the pages
indicated. Instead of ‘A Management Research Project Report’, substitute
as deemed appropriate, the phrase ‘A Management Research Thesis’ or ‘A
Management Skills Project Report’ or ‘A Management Case Study Report’ or
‘An Entrepreneurship Skills Project Report’ or ‘An Industry Survey Report’ or
‘A Management Policy Paper’ or ‘A Management Field Project Report’. The year
declared on the cover page is the year of the oral presentation.

Attention should be paid to the inner cover page format and the use of capital
letters and simple letters, and the way the writer’s academic qualifications
are presented. The name of the university/institute awarding the degree
qualification should be indicated. Qualifications which are not recognized by
the PIM as entry qualifications for its postgraduate study programmes should
be omitted.

The cover pages should carry the title of the report/paper as follows:
§ Title must be brief (approx: 12 words).
§ It must give the reader a clear idea of the topic studied.

- 31 -
§ It is desirable to state the title as a relationship between variables.
§ The topic should not be stated as a question.

Proposal

Proposal cover page (Page 33)


Proposal approval page (Page 34)

Final report
Cover page (Page 35)
First inner cover page (Page 36)
Second inner cover page (Page 37)

The page numbers of the cover pages, as they appear in the PIM Presentation
Guidelines, should not be indicated in the student report.

- 32 -
Proposal

JOB MOBILITY AND CAREER ADVANCEMENT

MBA/17/4047 A. Amerasinghe

Course : MBA 525: MRP/MRT/MSP/ESP/MCS/ MFP/


ISP/MPP/GIS
Instructor : Prof. D. D. Dassanayake
Term : January - March 2018

Postgraduate Institute of Management


University of Sri Jayewardenepura

- 33 -
Proposal approval

Name: ...................................................................................................................................................

MBA Registration Number: ................................................................

The above proposal is submitted for approval.

Student Signature: ……………………………………… Date: ………………………….

Review of proposal

The Skills Project of ………………….…………………………………………….…............. is


acceptable to proceed/not acceptable to proceed.

The final date of submission will be: ..................................................................

Coordinator: ………….…………………………………... Date: …………………………..

Director’s Approval

The above proposal is accepted.

For records to Senior Assistant Registrar.

Director:…………………………………. Date: …………………...........

- 34 -
JOB MOBILITY AND
CAREER ADVANCEMENT

A. Amerasinghe

2018

- 35 -
JOB MOBILITY AND
CAREER ADVANCEMENT

By
A. Amerasinghe
B.Sc. (Col.), ACA (SL)

A Management Research Project report/ Management


Research Thesis/Management Skills Project report/
Entrepreneur Skills Project report /Management Field
Project report/Management Case Study report /Industry
Survey Project report /Management Policy paper/Guided
Independent Study report submitted to the Postgraduate
Institute of Management, University of Sri Jayewardenepura,
in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the
Master of Business Administration Degree/Executive Master
of Business Administration Degree

Colombo - Sri Lanka


2018
- 36 -
This is to certify that the Management Research Paper on

JOB MOBILITY AND


CAREER ADVANCEMENT

By
A. Amerasinghe
(MBA/16/4047)

has been accepted by the Postgraduate Institute of


Management of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura,
in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Master of
Business Administration Degree.

........................................ ........................................
Supervisor Director

.............................. ..............................
Date Date

- 37 -
Font sizes for the cover pages are given below:

Proposal/ Report Cover Page

JOB MOBILITY AND Times New Roman,


CAREER ADVANCEMENT 18, Bold, Upper case

A. Amarasinghe Times New Roman,


18, Bold.

2018 Times New Roman,


14, Bold

Inner Cover page

JOB MOBILITY AND Times New Roman,


CAREER ADVANCEMENT 18, Bold, Upper case

By Times New Roman,


16, Bold

A. Amarasinghe Times New Roman,


18, Bold

B.Sc. (Col.), ACA (SL) Times New Roman,


16

has been accepted by the Postgraduate Times New Roman,


Institute of Management of the 14
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, in
partial fulfilment of the requirements of
the Master of Business Administration
Degree
Colombo - Sri Lanka Times New Roman,
18, Bold
2018

- 38 -
Declaration for a Management Research paper/Management Research
thesis, Management Skills Project report/Management Case Study
report/Entrepreneurship Skills Project report/Management Policy
Paper/Industry Survey report/Management Field Project report/
Guided Independent Study report.

Every student must include the under-mentioned declaration on a separate


page immediately after the second inner cover page. The student thereby
certifies that materials submitted for a previous degree are not being re-
submitted for another award. S/he also certifies that all documents used for
the report have been duly acknowledged. The practice of presenting another
writer’s idea as your own is termed ‘plagiarism’ and is considered a serious
academic offence.

I/We certify that this Management Research paper/Thesis/Management


Skills Project report/Management Case Study report /Entrepreneurship
Skills Project report/Policy Paper/Industry Survey report/ Management
Field Project report/ Guided Independent Study report does not
incorporate without acknowledgement, any material previously
submitted for a degree or a diploma in any university, and to the best of
my/our knowledge and belief it does not contain any material previously
published or written by another person, except where due reference is
made in the text.

(Signature)
A. Amerasinghe
December 03, 2017.

- 39 -
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This must appear at the beginning of the report, and should be centred on the
page. Indicate the chapter numbers and sub-headings and the relevant pages.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
To be limited to a half page. The acknowledgement must be
§ First, to the project supervisor.
§ Second, to the Director, faculty and the PIM’s administrative staff.
§ Third, to participants who shared the information for the study.
§ Finally, to student’s spouse and family members.

ABSTRACT/EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
§ A Research Paper/Thesis should have an Abstract (not more than one page).
§ A Skills Project/Case Study/Industry Survey/Policy Paper/Field Project/
Guided Independent Study should have an Executive Summary (not more
than three pages).
§ The Abstract/Executive Summary is written in the past tense, as it is written
after completing the study.
§ The Abstract/Executive Summary provides the essence of the entire
report/paper. It should be a ‘stand-alone’ document, and therefore, must
be written concisely with separate paragraphs giving a statement of the
problem, purpose of the study, methodology of the study, key findings and
key conclusions. It should not contain sub-headings or statistical tables.
§ An Executive Summary, in addition, must incorporate the key
recommendations.
§ Each chapter, other than Chapter 1 should have an introduction and a
summary. The chapter introduction contains a brief outline of the structure
of the chapter. Similarly, the chapter summary compiles the contents of the
chapter.

- 40 -
§ The appendix should contain the relevant data sheets and any other
information to support the project, and should be formatted according to
the PIM Presentation Guidelines.

Preparation/formatting of report
§ The report should be printed only on one side of the paper.
§ Each new chapter should begin on a new page.
§ Each chapter, except Chapter 1 must have an Introduction. Each chapter
other than Chapter 1 and 6 should have a summary.
§ As chapter 1 is titled ‘Introduction’, the first sub-heading in Chapter 1
should read as Background; the last sub-heading in Chapter 1 should read
as Chapter Framework.
§ Each chapter should carry a chapter number, and one line below it the
relevant chapter heading. They should be centred at the top of the page (e.g.,
Chapter 1 in Times New Roman, font size 12, boldface).
Chapter heading is in Title case (initial capital letter for every proper noun).
e.g. Chapter 1
§ The chapter title is typed immediately below the chapter number. (e.g., DATA
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS in Times New Roman, font size 14, capital letters
and in bold type).
§ Use of exaggerated phrases and colloquial expressions in academic reports
should be avoided.
§ The report should be written in the third person. Instead of using words ‘I’
and ‘my view,’ use phrases such as ‘the writer (researcher) is of the view,’/‘it
can be stated that’ etc.

Use of Verb Tense


§ The suggestions on which verb tense is appropriate for various sections/
chapters of a thesis/project report (adapted from APA manual) are given
below. However, trying to be consistent with the chosen verb tense within a
section, is advocated, as much as possible.

- 41 -
§ Past tense for Abstract/ Executive Summary.
§ Future tense for chapter introduction.
§ Past tense (e.g. “Smith showed” or past participle (“researchers have
shown”) for literature review.
§ Past tense (e.g. “anxiety decreased significantly” to describe results.
§ Present tense (e.g. “the analysis of Focus Group Interview 2 indicates “to
discuss implications of the results and to present the conclusions.
§ Past tense for summary/conclusion.
The entire report should be free of grammatical, spelling and syntactical errors.

The number of copies to be submitted for the viva voce


§ For the oral presentation and defense, the student must submit to the PIM,
three spirally-bound copies of the report, along with a CD.
§ Along with the report incorporating the changes specified for at the viva
voce, s/he should submit a separate report listing each query and indicating
the page(s) on which each query has been addressed.

The number of hard bound copies to be submitted to the PIM


§ Once approval is granted for hard-binding of final report, one hard-bound
copy should be submitted for the records of the Institute.
§ The format for the cove page of the hard-bound copy is shown in page 35.
Use font size 18 for the cover page of the hard-bound copy.

Colour of hard cover


Black: For Final project reports of MBA/MPA programmes
Red: For Ph.D. thesis

- 42 -
The Management Research Paper/Management Research Thesis proposal helps
the researcher clarify the nature of his/her investigation, and the methodology
to be adopted. The format for the proposal is given below.

Topic - The topic should be stated clearly so that they convey to the reader
the subject matter of the proposed work. It is ideally stated as a relationship
between two concepts. The title should be brief (approx. 12 words). The topic
should not be stated as a question.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

Cover page (format given on page 33).

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Problem Statement (a clear and brief statement of the management
problem should be presented, substantiated by specific evidence)
1.3 Behaviour of the Problem (description of the nature of the problem
with support of preliminary data, preferably with pilot study. Empirical
and theoretical gaps should be identified and research questions raised)
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study (to be stated specifically using action verbs)
1.6 Significance of the Study (the significance of the study should be stated
from a research perspective and managerial standpoint. It should be
clearly shown how the study intends to fill a knowledge gap, and how
the practical recommendations made by the researcher would help
organisational planning and decision making)

- 43 -
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Summary

2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Relationship between the Literature and the Problem Statement
(the current state of knowledge on the subject to be summarized and
critically reviewed)
2.3 Relationships between the Important Variables (literature review
should logically lead to the conceptual framework)
2.4 Summary

3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/ STUDY FRAMEWORK


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Definition of the Concepts (with literature support. Derivation of
hypotheses/propositions, supported by the literature)
3.3 Conceptual Framework/Study Framework (conceptualisation based
on the above, leading to the Conceptual Framework/Study Framework)
3.4 Identification of Key Measures (key measures to be identified)
3.5 Operationalisation of Concepts (concepts used to be reduced to
variables, indicators and measures, if a quantitative approach is taken)
3.6 Summary

4. METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Approach to Data Gathering (quantitative and/or qualitative)
4.3 Data Measurement Methods and Justification

- 44 -
4.3.1 Data gathering techniques: questionnaire, interview guide.
4.3.2 Reliability and validity of instruments.
4.3.3 Limitations.
4.4 Sample (description and selection procedure)
4.5 Summary

5. PLAN OF STUDY
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Time Schedule (an estimate of resources, and how the researcher will
devote time during the project period)
5.3 Summary

6. REFERENCES
Both hard sources and online sources to be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list (Refer Chapter 3 on Rules for Referencing).

7. APPENDICES
7.1 Copies of Instruments used
7.2 Results of Pilot Studies (actual data)
7.3 Other Relevant Information

Length of Research Project/Thesis proposal: 12 - 15 pages.

NB: The research project/thesis proposal has to be approved by the PIM. The
proposal approval page (Format given on page 34) to be attached.

- 45 -
Cover page (format given on page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)

Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Abstract vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Methodology
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Chapter Framework

- 46 -
Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

2.1 Introduction
2.2 .........................
2.3 .........................
2.4 Summary

Chapter 3
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/STUDY FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Theorisation of the Research Problem
3.3 Hypotheses/Propositions Supported by Literature
3.4 Conceptual Framework/Study Framework
3.5 Key Definitions of Variables
3.6 Operationalisation (quantitative & qualitative methods)
3.7 Methodology (research design; measurement scales of variables; data
analysis procedure)
3.8 Summary

Chapter 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Validations of Measurement Properties
4.3 Data Analysis Design (sample profile; data screening, analytical
procedure, statistical analysis, structural models and hypothesis testing/
qualitative procedures)

- 47 -
4.4 .........................
4.5 Summary

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of Findings
5.3 Discussion of Findings
5.4 .........................
5.5 Summary

Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Overview of the Study
6.3 Key Conclusions
6.4 Theoretical Implications
6.5 Practical Implications
6.6 Social Implications (if any)
6.7 Limitations and Further Research
6.8 Summary

References

Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list (Refer Chapter 3 on Rules for Referencing)
Bibliography (if needed)

Appendix I: Questionnaire

- 48 -
Appendix II: Interview Guide

Appendix III: Details of Respondents

Appendix IV: Summary of Processed data

Description of the Contents of a Research Paper

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

§ Each chapter number and heading should be stated as shown above at the
top of a new page.

§ Each chapter should begin on a new page.

§ The problem/issue should be stated clearly, described in details going into


all its dimensions and aspects, and substantiated with hard evidence to
show that it is a real (and not an imaginary) problem.

§ The purpose of the study should be clearly stated.

§ The specific objectives of the study should be stated using action verbs
(SMART objectives).

§ The significance of the study should be stated, both from a research angle
(fills a knowledge gap), and its practical significance (i.e., offered through
the researcher’s recommendations).
§ The methodology of the study should be stated (in brief).
§ The scope of the study should be stated (e.g., limited to the private sector,
Colombo City, time period - post 1977, etc.)
§ The limitations of the study should be stated (e.g., size of sample,
confidentiality of information, tendency to provide responses that are
socially acceptable/desirable).

- 49 -
Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

§ The literature review must be a critical review of literature relevant to the


research problem and not an unconnected assemblage of excerpts from
texts.
§ It must cover the important readings on the problem/issues studied. At least
12 journal articles, including Sri Lankan Journal of Management should be
referred to.
§ It must be current.
§ Any excerpts drawn from texts must be acknowledged. Plagiarism is a
serious offence.
§ The literature review must help the researcher develop the conceptual
framework and identify the variables to be studied.
§ It also helps the researcher conduct a useful discussion of the findings later
(i.e., in Chapter 5 of the report).

Chapter 3
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/STUDY FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY

§ An overview of the research should be provided, based on Chapter 2.


Hypotheses/propositions should be supported, based on literature. The
conceptual framework/study framework must be derived from the literature
review in Chapter 2. Study framework is applicable in case of inductive/
qualitative research.

§ Independent variables explaining the dependent variable must be clearly


identified and described.
§ Hypotheses/Propositions must be clear and specific.
§ Hypotheses/Propositions must be testable - variables must be reduced to
observable and measurable/describable terms.

- 50 -
§ Hypotheses/Propositions must not be truisms, but should be open to
challenge and falsification.
§ Hypotheses/Propositions must be stated in advance (before the conceptual
framework is derived).
§ In case of quantitative research study, hypotheses should be indicated by
use of subscripts (H1, H2, etc.), and in case of qualitative research study
propositions should be indicated by use of subscripts (P1, P2, etc.).
§ Concepts used should be operationalised, reducing them to variables,
indicators and measures.
§ The procedure for data collection (questionnaire, interview guide, etc.)
should be clearly indicated linking it to previous studies.
§ Issues of validity and reliability must be addressed through the
questionnaire/interview guide.
§ Scheme for allocating points must be indicated before doing the field study.
§ The sample must be selected carefully so as to be representative of the
population.

Chapter 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

§ Based on the study design the quantitative and qualitative data should be
presented. In a study using quantitative methods, appropriate data analysis
techniques (e.g. AMOS, Smart plus. etc.) should be used to support the
hypotheses. A study using qualitative method should have a broad study
framework/concept indicator model, present the interview/focus groups/
secondary data to support the propositions. Studies using single case study
/multiple case studies should have detailed case analysis supported by a
cross case analysis (in multiple case studies) to support the propositions.
A clear interview schedule must be presented, and appropriate qualitative
data analysis methods should be used.
§ Data should be classified using tables and figures.

- 51 -
§ Tables and figures should be clear, and a description should be provided
under each.
§ Tables must have a number and a title at the top, and the source at the
bottom. (Refer Chapter 4 Rules for Presenting Tables and Figures)
§ Data analysis should be followed by clearly listed and described findings,
which must relate directly to the hypotheses/propositions.
§ In case of reporting interview quotes in Sinhala/Tamil, in the report, a
translation should be included in an appendix.

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

§ Description of key findings and discussion of findings.


§ Findings must be derived from the data analysis, and should not be based on
the researcher’s personal experiences and biases.
§ The discussion must relate to the hypotheses/propositions that were
formulated. It should be a descriptive account of the findings and their
implications.
§ The discussion should be related to previous studies (compare and contrast).
Cross-case comparisons should be provided, for case study research.

Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS

§ Conclusions must flow from the discussion of the findings.


§ The data collected should be presented at the end of the report, in appendices
(preferably as an Excel sheet).

General
§ The student must demonstrate authoritative knowledge of the subject area
in which s/he is doing the research study.

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Sample
§ The sample used for a research study, in the case of the deductive approach,
must be large in order to satisfy the attribute of generalisability of research
findings.

Use of Questionnaires/Interview Guides


§ Data may be gathered using either quantitative or qualitative methods or
a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods. If quantitative
methods are used, at least five organisations must be covered with a sample
size of a minimum of 300 respondents. Data should be triangulated using
interviews/focus groups. In case of two member teams, 600 respondents
from 10 organisations would be required.

If only qualitative methods are used, the number of interviews and focus
groups should be exhaustive and adequate in order to reach saturation
of evidence. Data should be triangulated using appropriate methods. For
a single member research a minimum of 10 in-depth interviews and 4-5
focus group interviews are required. In case of two-member team research
projects, 20 in-depth interviews and 8-10 focus group interviews should be
conducted.

§ Data for all research work must be collected systematically based on


questionnaires and/or interview guides. These must be error-free, and
receive the supervisor’s approval. Use the phrase: ‘Dear Participant’ instead
of ‘Dear Respondent’, in communications.

§ When questionnaires are used, they should be based on validated survey


instruments, and references of such survey instruments must be presented.
A copy of the questionnaire/interview guide must appear in the report as an
appendix.

§ In instances where interviews have been conducted in Sinhala/Tamil, the


Sinhala/Tamil version of the questionnaire should be attached to the report,
in addition to its English translation.

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Need for empirical research
§ It is important to note that MBA research goes beyond pure desk-research.
It must have empirical content, and investigate the reasons why managers
behave in the way they do when confronted by organisational problems or
when adopting solutions to such problems.

Requirement: A paper for the SLJM based on the research project for final
evaluation should be submitted.

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Management Research Thesis is a research study of 30 credit point weightage.
It is a 20,000-25,000 word document (In addition to the requirements of the
format of the Management Research paper, The Management Thesis option
should include a detailed description of the methodology (Chapter 4 below).

Cover page (format given on page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)

Declaration (page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Abstract vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study

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1.4 Objectives
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Methodology
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of the Study
1.9 Chapter Framework

Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

2.1 Introduction
2.2 .........................
2.3 .........................
2.4 Summary

Chapter 3
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Theorisation of the Research Problem
3.3 Hypotheses/Propositions Supported by Literature
3.4 Conceptual Framework (study Framework in the case of inductive/
qualitative approach)
3.5 Key Definitions of Variables
3.6 Operationalisation (quantitative & qualitative methods)
3.7 Summary

- 56 -
Chapter 4
METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Overall Design of the Main Study
4.3 Measurement Scales for Variables
4.4 Validity and Reliability of Measurement Properties
4.5 Data Analysis Design (data screening, analytical procedure, statistical
analysis, survey, sample, measurement development/qualitative
procedures)
4.6 Summary

Chapter 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Validations of Measurement Properties
5.3 Data Analysis (Sample profile; data screening, analytical procedure,
statistical analysis, structural models and hypothesis testing /qualitative
procedures)
5.4 .........................
5.5 Summary

Chapter 6
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Summary of Findings
6.3 Discussion of Findings
6.4 .........................
6.5 Summary

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Chapter 7
CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Overview of the Study
7.3 Key Conclusions
7.4 Theoretical Implications
7.5 Practical Implications
7.6 Social Implications (if any; optional)
7.7 Limitations and Further Research
7.8 Summary

Requirement: Students should submit a paper for the SLJM based on the
research project for the final evaluation.

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list (Refer Chapter 3 on Rules for Referencing).
Bibliography (if needed)
Appendix I: Questionnaire
Appendix II: Interview guide
Appendix III: Details of respondents
Appendix IV: Summary of processed data

- 58 -
A Management Skills project (MSP) addresses either a significant performance
issue in a company such as a decline in competitiveness or an attractive
opportunity that would enhance current profitability. It offers an excellent
opportunity for MBA students to use the knowledge gained from their study
programme to address an organisational issue, and demonstrate their skills by
resolving that issue.

The unit of analysis in an MSP, is a company employing not less than 25


employees. Special cases of companies with less than 25 employees can be
considered, if the company’s revenue is significant.

In the event of selecting development of entrepreneur, as skills project


(Entrepreneur Development Project), the business should have a minimum
revenue of Rs. 500,000 per month. In this project option, the implementation
will be monitored by the Genesis.

The format for the Proposal of MSP is given below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

All areas must be addressed

Cover page (format given on page 33)


1. Brief description of the organisation: general and task environment,
products, revenue, profits/losses, value additions, etc.

2. Brief description of the current situation leading to problem or opportunity


identification: clearly illustrate with data the performance gaps in any
selected area; marketing, manufacturing, services, human resources, etc.

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and how they affect financial performance. Completion of the project
should lead to reduction of costs incurred by or benefits accrued to the
organisation, which will reflect on the company’s financial performance.

3. Identification and justification of the management method/techniques


used to address the defined problem or opportunity.

4. Brief statement of the project: this should fill the gap between what is
expected and the current situation. The project should resolve the problem
or exploit the opportunity identified in Section 2 above. It should be clearly
stated how the student(s) proposes to address the performance gap in the
selected area.

5. Brief description of the project components. Project Component 1 will


be the Current Situation Analysis. The project may have a number of
components, but should be restricted to three to six components.

6. Brief indication of resource allocation: resources required and how they


will be allocated. This should address what is required to implement
the different project components, leading to the budget and benefit-cost
analysis.

7. Projection of the estimated cost to implement the project and a benefit-


cost analysis.

8. The expected outputs (quantifiable) and the resulting outcomes of the


project should be clearly stated.

9. Brief time plan for project implementation should be given.


Week Week Week Week
No. Item
1-2 3-5 6-10 11-13
1 Project proposal
2 Resource allocation
3 Project component 1
Project component 2
Project component 3
Project component 4
4 Evaluation
5 Benefit-cost analysis
6 Writing of report and submission

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10. Remarks: limitations (if any), and the extent to which the project
components can be completed should be indicated.

11. A student who has opted to conduct a skills project should attach a letter
from the relevant organization authorizing him/her to conduct such a
project. The letter of authority should be attached to the project proposal.
In case of two-member projects, the letter of authorisation should indicate
approval for both students to carry out the project at the organisation.
The student is expected to inform the company of the components
(implementation plan) for the project, and the letter of authorisation
should clearly indicate that the company is agreeable to implementation
of the specific components.

12. In selecting a skills project, a student must ensure that the project outputs
s/he intends to achieve are entirely within the control and capability of
that organization, and that project success does not depend on initiatives
to be taken by other institutions.

NB: The project proposal has to be approved by the PIM.


Proposal Approval page (format given on page 34) must be attached.

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In a Skills Project report, Chapter 1 will introduce the general nature of the
project. This will include a brief background of the problem/opportunity
addressed in the project, brief description of the project, the significance of
the project/benefits to organisation through resolving the problem/issues,
limitations of the project (scope of project, constraints anticipated). The
chapter framework will indicate the outline of the structure/contents of each
of the subsequent chapters.

Chapter 2 will be devoted to a description of the organisational profile and


an analysis of the organisation using appropriate frameworks such as the
Internal Factor Evaluation and External Factor Evaluation, Porter’s Five Forces
Model (to assess the attractiveness of an industry), SWOT and PESTEEL.
These analyses should help identify problematic issues or opportunities for
organisations. An accurate identification of the industry in which the firm
operates is important, e.g., designer wear and not basic garments, gift tea and
not bulk tea. The performance gaps or opportunities must be highlighted based
on company performance data for the past several months. Description of the
problem should be linked to organisation profitability/ costs/revenue, analysis
and diagnosis of the problem. The performance gaps or opportunities must be
highlighted based on company performance data for the past several months.
Costs, delays in delivery, etc. must be quantified.

Chapter 3 will give an account of the literature survey carried out to understand
the concepts which will help formulate the theoretical framework. In case
of Entrepreneur Development projects, the literature review will lead to
formulation of a study framework. At least twelve journal articles should be
used for the literature review, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal
of Management. The theoretical framework thus drawn through the literature

- 62 -
survey, is clearly linked to the project components used to resolve the selected
problem. The techniques identified to resolve the problem will be identified,
justified and described in this chapter.

Chapter 4 consists of two to four SMART project objectives, achievable within


the project period. Three to six project components, linked to the theoretical
framework are identified in Chapter 4. These components include activities
which would address critical issues, and would help resolve the problem. Current
situation analysis is always the first project component. The current situation
analysis component of Entrepreneur Development projects will include the
current business model, business plan, marketing strategies, production and
technical strategies and financial analysis. Detailed activities proposed under
each project component should be described. All resources required, and the
allocation for different project components as well as project team structure/
responsibilities should be identified. Projected outputs and outcomes should
be identified for each project component/activity. Cost estimates/benefit - cost
analysis, and detailed activity-wise project plan should be included.

Chapter 5 will deal with the implementation of the project. In this chapter, a
detailed account of implementation of activities in each project component
should be given. Variations in projected cost, delivery and time of each project
component should be accounted for with justification for such variation.
Issues/challenges encountered in carrying out the project should be discussed.

Chapter 6 will present the results of the project, tangible outputs of the project
and the long term impacts (outcomes). Activity, benefit-cost analysis will be
presented in this chapter. The technical, conceptual and interpersonal skills
used in the project as well as the skills developed during the project by the
student should be described. It is useful to draw up a schedule listing specific
situations and the manner in which the skills were displayed/developed in
each situation.

The contents of each chapter are given in the under-mentioned format for the
Management Skills Project Report.

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Cover page (format given on page 35)
First inner cover page (format given on page 36)
Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)
Declaration (page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Appendices v
List of Abbreviations (if needed) vi
Acknowledgements vii
Executive Summary viii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1
1.2 Project
1.3 Significance of the Study
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Limitations
1.6 Chapter Framework

Chapter 2
PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Organisational Profile

- 64 -
2.3 Organisational Analysis (using appropriate frameworks such as SWOT
analysis, PESTEEL, Porter’s Five Forces Analysis, Internal and External
Factor Evaluation). In case of Entrepreneur Development projects,
analytical frameworks such as Strategy Canvas, 4R to be used to identify
problem, issues)
2.4 Key Issues and Problem/Opportunity (identification and description
of key issues and problems with evidence; linked to Organisational
profitability/cost/revenue)
2.5 Summary

Chapter 3
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSIS
(STUDY FRAMEWORK in case of Entrepreneur Development Project)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Theoretical Background to the Problem/Opportunity (at least
12 journal articles including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)
3.3 Theoretical Framework/Study Framework
3.4 Description of the Techniques Identified to Address the Problem/
Opportunity
3.5 Summary

Chapter 4
THE PROJECT
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Project Objectives
4.3 The Project; Project Components
4.4 Resource Allocation
4.5 Cost estimates/Benefit-cost

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4.6 Projected Outputs and Outcomes
4.7 Project Plan
4.8 Summary

Chapter 5
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Project Implementation
5.3 Variations from Projected Cost, Delivery and Time
5.4 Issues in Project Implementation
5.5 Summary

Chapter 6
PROJECT OUTPUTS AND SKILLS DISPLAYED
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Outputs and Outcomes
6.3 Activity, Benefit-Cost Analysis
6.4 Conceptual Skills
6.5 Interpersonal Skills
6.6 Technical Skills
6.7 Management of the Project (e.g. present a Gantt chart)
6.8 Summary

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list, and in accordance with Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing.

- 66 -
Bibliography (if required)

Appendices (if relevant)

On completion of the project, the student must attach a letter from the
organisation certifying that the project or the named components of the project
have been duly completed, and the outputs and outcomes stated in the report
have been achieved.

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All areas must be addressed;
The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.
Justifiable investment should be clearly detailed.

1. Brief description of the idea leading to the entrepreneurship project,


and the competency of entrepreneurs related to doing the project. The
significance in relation to both tangible and intangible benefits it delivers
to the stakeholders should be stated. How it meets the customers’ needs
should also be specified.

2. The business case should be presented by outlining the business model


and the project plan to achieve the business objectives. The customers’
needs should be addressed in detail. The means through which results
will be produced to justify the project must be shown. Support should be
provided with a start-up business model and plan.

3. A detailed feasibility study including market feasibility; technical and


production feasibility; economic feasibility and financial feasibility should
be provided. Financial feasibility is essential, and should include projected
cash flow, Profit & Loss analysis up to breakeven, and a balance sheet. Any
proposal that comes without clearly addressing the above feasibilities will
not be approved.

4. The project should be defined with clear outputs, outcomes and a project
plan, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), project controls and project team
should also be included.

5. Brief indication of resource allocation; resources required and how they


will be deployed should be stated. This should address what is required

- 68 -
to implement the different project components identified in the work
breakdown structure (WBS).

6. The estimated cost to implement the project should be projected, and


abenefit-cost analysis provided.

7. The expected outputs (quantifiable) and outcomes should be clearlystated.

8. Brief time plan for implementation should be spelt out.

Week Week Week Week


No. Item
1-2 3-5 6-10 11-13
1 Project proposal
2 Resource allocation
3 Project component 1
Project component 2
Project component 3
Project component 4
4 Evaluation
5 Benefit-cost analysis
6 Writing of report and submission
* Project components refer to major elements of WBS.

9. Remarks: limitations, if any.

NB: The project proposal has to be approved by the PIM.


Proposal Approval page (format given on page 34) to be attached.
All projects must be run as a business for at least 3 months before
submitting final project. P and L, Cash flow for 3 months and Balance
sheet as at submission day should be provided certified by an auditor/
charted accountant.
Projects that require special regulatory approval such as medical/
cosmetics and drugs should not be selected. Students should register
with the Genesis. Progress of the project should be online on the PIM
Genesis website.

- 69 -
Stages of projects identified: (a) idea generated, business registered and
operated by the student as part time work (b) idea generated, business
registered and operated by the student with few employees on a full time
basis, may not breakeven (c) idea generated, business registered and
operated by the student with full time employees and showing monthly
revenue exceeding Rs. 300,000. Category (a) and (b) will have a lower
evaluation compared with category (c) irrespective of investment

- 70 -
Cover page (format given on page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)

Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (If needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Executive Summary vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1
1.2 Project
1.3 Significance of the Project
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Limitations
1.6 Chapter Framework

- 71 -
Chapter 2
OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Background of the Project
2.3 The Opportunity and Project Idea
2.4 Business Case (customer needs; customer requirements; target
beneficiaries)
2.5 Project Deliverables (output/outcome/impact)
2.6 Summary

Chapter 3
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSIS
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Theoretical background of the project (at least 12 journal articles,
including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of Management should be
used)
3.3 The Value Proposition
3.4 The Business Model and Business Plan
3.5 Marketing Strategies (wedges of entry)
3.6 Technical and Production Feasibility (innovations)
3.7 Economic Feasibility (projected benefit-cost analysis)
3.8 Financial Feasibility (sources of funding; sales plan and revenue for
three years; cash flow and budget; projected operating cost for three
years; time value of money (TVM); net present value (NPV); break even
analysis (BEA)
3.9 Ecological/Environmental Feasibility
3.10 Social/Political/Ethical/Legal Feasibility
3.11 Summary

- 72 -
Chapter 4
THE PROJECT
4.1 Introduction
4.2 The Project; Project Components
4.3 Project Plan (stages of implementation of the project/project
components)
4.4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
4.5 List of Tasks (resource allocation)
4.6 Procurement Plan (raw material supply)
4.7 Project Team Structure
4.8 Project Controls (quality; cost delivery; earned value analysis allocation;
progress reports)
4.9 Summary

Chapter 5
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Project Implementation (describe the implementation of each project
component)
5.3 Key Variances (from projected cost, delivery and time)
5.4 Issues in Project Implementation
5.5 Profit and Loss Statement and Balance Sheet for 3 months period.
5.6 Summary

- 73 -
Chapter 6
PROJECT OUTPUTS AND SKILLS DISPLAYED
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Outputs and Outcomes
6.3 Activity, Benefit-Cost Analysis
6.4 Conceptual Skills
6.5 Interpersonal Skills
6.6 Technical Skills
6.7 Management of the Project (e.g. give a Gantt chart)
6.8 Summary

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

Bibliography (if needed)

Appendices: The Promoter’s Competencies, Experience


Any other relevant Appendices.
§ Financial feasibility must be established before commencing the project,
and sources of funds should be clearly indicated.
§ The theoretical background should be developed through a literature review
using at least twelve journal articles including articles from the Sri Lankan
Journal of Management (SLJM).

- 74 -
Case studies highlight a significant outcome such as a success or failure of
a company. It can also bring out a case of success or failures in projects of
significance which can lead to lessons for other companies.

Management Case Study (MCS) projects begin with the awareness of significant
events surrounding the behaviour of an organisation in the market, and with
the use of qualitative methods in data collection and analysis narrate the events
that led to the significant outcome along a timeline. As such, case study projects
differ from research in that they bring out a story, a narration as opposed to
theory building.

Unit of analysis of a case study is the company/a project run in a period not less
than 3 years. Case study must be based on a currently running company.

A brief outline on the case study proposal is given below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters
1. Identification of a company selected to showcase an excellent
performance/a failure/a significant outcome/or a specific event such as
a project. Justification of the selection of the company based on the above
criteria should be provided. Conduct a brief survey of the company to
justify the selection.
2. A timeline should be focused upon (years/months), which will span
to narrate “the story”. The timeline will focus on the critical period in
which significant management drivers could be observed to act within a
moderating environment, depending on the case.

- 75 -
3. Investigation of the series of significant events over the time period
and description of these events. It is important to identify key drivers,
environmental moderators, outcomes, issues etc. based on an initial study,
using secondary data, preliminary interviews, focus groups etc. Qualitative
methods are to be followed for data collection and analysis.
4. From the preliminary study described in 3 above, key drivers, environmental
moderators and outcomes of significance should be identified along the
timeline.
5. Based on 4 above, the case framework should be developed. The case
framework could sometimes be approximate to models already existing in
literature.
6. A brief preliminary literature survey should be carried out on the identified
drivers, environmental moderators and outcomes.

Cover page (format given on page 33)

1. Case Background

i) Organisational Information: Organisational information as a


backdrop to the case.

ii) Case Theme: Identification and brief description of a particular theme


with respect to the selected organisation. For example, sustaining
market leadership through innovation; turnaround strategies;
enhancing productivity, etc.

iii) Case Study Objectives: Statement of the objectives of the case study:
Highlight the expected achievement.

iv) Limitations: Scope and limitations of the case: the confines of the
narrative.

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2. Description of Case Study
i) Selection of Company/project: Briefly describe the justification
for selection of the company based on the initial survey done in the
company.
ii) Timeline: the selected timeline for the proposed narration should be
given.
iii) Significant Events: From the initial survey of the company, events
significant to the selected theme/case study should be identified. These
events should be briefly described.

3. Case Framework
Based on the initial survey, the key drivers and environmental moderators, that
would have led to outcomes should be identified.

The proposed case framework should be derived from these. It should be stated
whether this case framework is similar to any framework available in literature.

A brief literature survey to support the framework should be presented.

4. Methodology
Specification and justification of the type of data planned to be collected,
instruments for data collection, planned interviews and secondary sources of
information, and data analysis techniques. The choice of the various elements
of methodology will have to be guided by the objectives of the study.

A student who proposes to write a case study should attach a letter from an
authorized officer from the relevant organisation, permitting him/her to
conduct the project, collect data, conduct and record interviews. The letter of
authority should be attached to the proposal.

- 77 -
5. Prior approvals
Students must submit timeline, case framework, interview guide, focus group
questions and interview schedule before commencement of data gathering, to
the supervisor and for review to the Research Centre.

Students should conduct minimum 10 interviews and 4 – 5 focus groups and


should follow research/thesis option guidelines on data collection.

Data collection should commence after approval not later than 10 weeks before
final submission.

Students should bring all interviews transcribed, approved by the supervisor,


to the viva.

NB: The case study proposal has to be approved by the PIM. The proposal will
not be approved if a timeline as described in 2(ii) is not submitted.

Attach the Proposal Approval page (format given on page 34).

- 78 -
Case studies highlight a significant outcome such as success or failure of
a company. It can also bring out a case of success or failures in projects of
significance which can lead to lessons for other companies.

In an MCS report, Chapter 1 will introduce the general nature of the project.
This will include a brief background of the case, information about the
selected company, the theme of the case study, objectives of the study, scope
and limitations of the study. The theme of the case study should reflect the
learning from the study, and generally in a <if>, <then> format. Example: ‘value
innovation leading to success of a social business’. The chapter framework
will indicate the outline of the structure/contents of each of the subsequent
chapters.

Chapter 2 will give an account of the literature survey done to understand the
drivers, environmental moderators and outcome which will help formulate the
case framework, reflecting the reality of the case. MCS projects should reflect
a sound theoretical foundation. At least twelve journal articles must be used
for the literature review, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management (SLJM).

The case framework will be presented in Chapter 3. The framework should be


derived from the evidence of what actually happened regarding the case, and
should find adequate support from appropriate frameworks already available
in literature, i.e. it can be developed by the student, based on the initial study of
key events, derived from preliminary data collection etc. The case framework
elements will include outcomes, drivers and environmental moderating
factors. If clarification to the case framework emerges during the subsequent

- 79 -
stages of the study, which better supports the narration, then the clarified case
framework should be considered as the case framework in Chapter 5.

Data collection includes secondary data, in-depth interviews, focus group


interviews etc. Qualitative methods should be followed. While the data can be
primary, secondary, quantitative or qualitative, their analysis should be logically
consistent and convincing. In a case study, adequate in-depth interviews, in
gathering data and three focus groups with supportive observations should be
used. In addition, published company performance data should be presented
as supportive quantitative data. Further, supportive data can be gathered based
on newspaper reports, correspondence, etc.

Chapter 4 is dedicated to a detailed narration of the case study. A timeline with


sequenced significant events should be presented in a graphical format in this
chapter, highlighting the events along the selected time frame, along with key
behaviours of drivers, and environmental moderators.

Detailed interview data should be given supported by evidence.

A timeline as gathered in data collection process should be presented in a


narrative form. All writing must be in relation to the specific theme selected,
and the case must be written in a style that will engage and sustain the interest
of the reader. Focus on the critical challenges faced by the company, strategies
adopted, and internal business processes supporting the strategy, points of
departure, competitor actions, etc. The sequential unfolding of events evoking
the elements of the case framework will provide interesting reading, and lead
up to an understanding of the connections between performance drivers
and outcomes; actions and results of the organisation. The narrative of the
case along the events in the timeline will be based on the elements (drivers,
environmental moderators/outcomes) of the case framework. There will, of
course, be “gaps” in the story narrated. In this regard, the reader will attempt
to find answers to specific questions (say, five) that the writer will pose at the
end of the case. The analysis of the qualitative data gathered, coding etc. should
be presented in appendices.

- 80 -
The case narrative must be self-contained, and a “stand alone” chapter could be
published separately.

The discussion of the study will be written in Chapter 5. This discussion must
reflect objective findings in the case, and should not be based on the writer’s
own perceptions and assumptions. The discussion must relate to the case
framework that was formulated, and reflect the literature sourced. It should
be a descriptive account of the implications of the findings, and their relevance
and usefulness in particular organisational/market settings.

Conclusions, presented in Chapter 6 must flow directly from the discussion of


the findings. At the end of the case, the writer must include case study questions
in order that the reader can make reasonable assumptions and offer solutions,
and fill the “gaps” in the case. The case study questions reflect the general
learning for the reader from the case. Questions should be related to the case
but should be applicable to similar organisations/industry

The contents of each chapter are given in the undermentioned format for the
MCS project report.

Cover page (format given on page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)

Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables iii


List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Executive Summary vii

- 81 -
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Company Information
1.3 Theme of Case Study
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Limitations of the Study
1.7 Chapter Framework

Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

2.1 Introduction
2.2 .........................
2.3 .........................
2.4 .........................
2.5 Summary

Chapter 3
CASE FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Key Drivers, Environmental Moderators, Outcomes
3.3 Case Framework
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis
3.5 Summary

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Chapter 4
CASE NARRATIVE

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Timeline
4.3 - 4.5 Narration Supporting the Key Elements of the Framework, on a
Timeline
4.6 Summary

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction
5.2 .........................
5.3 .........................
5.4 Summary

Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS

6.1 Introduction
6.2 .........................
6.3 Lessons Learned (Managerial, Social, etc.)
6.4 Case Study Questions

References

Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

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Bibliography (if needed)

Appendix I: Questionnaire

Appendix II: Interview Guide

Appendix III: Details of Respondents

Appendix IV: Any Other Relevant Information

NB: On completion of the project, the student must obtain a letter from the
organisation certifying that the case study data collection (in-depth
interviews, focus groups, secondary data) has been conducted at the
organisation. This letter should be attached to the final report.

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The EMBA students are required to undertake a Guided Independent Study
(GIS) as the final project, which contains 05 credits, and it is the culmination
of their study programme. This is, in addition to the core modules and the
electives. This project will commence at the end of the third term, and move on
parallelly to the final term electives.

The EMBA students should undertake a Guided Independent Study, in either


his/her own organisation or any other organisation of choice, preferably a local
entity. This study is an individual student project. The study can be on one of
the following themes.
a) Success story of organisational transformation,
b) Leadership development,
c) Surviving in a turbulent time or
d) Any other relevant topic

Guided Independent Studies highlight a significant outcome such as success


or failure of a company. It can also bring out a case of success or failures in
projects of significance which can lead to lessons for other companies.

GIS projects begin with the awareness of significant events surrounding the
behaviour of an organisation in the market and with the use of qualitative
methods in data collection, and analysis narrate the events that led to the
significant outcome along a timeline. As such, GIS differ from research in that
they bring out a story, a narration as opposed to theory building.

The unit of analysis of a GIS is the company/a project run in a period not less
than 3 years. The study must be based on a currently running company.

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A brief outline on a GIS proposal is given below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

Cover page (format given on page 33)

1. Identification of a company selected to showcase an excellent


performance/a failure/a significant outcome/or a specific event such as a
project.

2. Justification of the selection of the company based on above the criteria


should be provided. Conduct a brief survey of the company to justify the
selection.

3. A timeline should be focused upon (years/months), which will span


to narrate “the story”. The timeline will focus on the critical period in
which significant management drivers could be observed to act within a
moderating environment, depending on the case.

4. Investigation of the series of significant events over the time period


and description of these events. It is important to identify key drivers,
environmental moderators, outcomes, issues etc. based on an initial study,
using secondary data, preliminary interviews, focus groups etc. Qualitative
methods are to be followed for data collection and analysis.

5. From the preliminary study described in 3 above, key drivers, environmental


moderators and outcomes of significance should be identified along the
timeline.

6. Based on 4 above, the case framework should be developed. The case


framework could sometimes be approximate to models already existing in
literature.

7. A brief preliminary literature survey should be carried out on the identified


drivers, environmental moderators and outcomes.

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The proposal format is given below:

Cover page (format given on page 33)

1. Case Background
i) Organisational Information: Organisational information as a
backdrop to the case.
ii) Case Theme: Identification and brief description of a particular theme
with respect to the selected organisation. For example, sustaining
market leadership through innovation; turnaround strategies;
enhancing productivity, etc.
iii) Case Study Objectives: Statement of the objectives of the case study:
Highlight the expected achievement.
iv) Scope and limitations of the case: the confines of the narrative.

2. Description of Case Study


i) Selection of Company/project: Briefly describe the justification
for selecting the company, based on the initial survey done in the
company.
ii) Timeline: the selected timeline for the proposed narration should be
given.
iii) Significant Events: From the initial survey of the company, events
significant to the selected theme/case study should be identified.
These events should be briefly described.

3. Case Framework
Based on the initial survey, the key drivers and environmental moderators
that would have led to outcomes should be identified.

The proposed case framework should be derived from these. It should be


stated whether this case framework is similar to any framework available
in literature.

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A brief literature survey to support the framework should be presented.

4. Methodology
Specification and justification of the type of data planned to be collected,
instruments for data collection, planned interviews and secondary sources
of information, and data analysis techniques. The choice of the various
elements of methodology will have to be guided by the objectives of the
study.

A student who proposes to write a case study should attach a letter from
an authorized officer from the relevant organisation, permitting him/her
to conduct the project, collect data, conduct and record interviews. The
letter of authority should be attached to the proposal.

Prior approvals: Students must submit timeline, case framework, interview


guide, focus group questions and interview schedule to the supervisor before
commencement of the data gathering.

The students should conduct a minimum 10 interviews, and five focus groups
and should follow research/thesis option guidelines on data collection.

Data collection should commence after approval not later than 10 weeks before
final submission

The students should bring all interviews transcribed to the viva and should be
approved by the supervisor.

NB: The case study proposal has to be approved by the PIM. The proposal will
not be approved if a timeline as described in 2(ii) is not submitted.

Attach the Proposal Approval page (format given on page 34)

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A Guided Independent Study (GIS) highlights a significant outcome such as
success or failure of a company. It can also bring out a case of success or failures
in projects of significance, which can lead to lessons for other companies.

In a GIS report, Chapter 1 will introduce the general nature of the project.
This will include a brief background of the case, information about the
selected company, the theme of the case study, objectives of the study, scope
and limitations of the study. The theme of the case study should reflect the
learning from the study and generally in a <if>, <then> format. Example: ‘value
innovation leading to success of a social business’. The chapter framework will
indicate the outline of structure/contents of each of the subsequent chapters.

Chapter 2 will give an account of the literature survey done to understand the
drivers, environmental moderators and outcome which will help formulate the
case framework, reflecting the reality of the case. MCS projects should reflect a
sound theoretical foundation. At least five journal articles must be used for the
literature review, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of Management
(SLJM).

The case framework will be presented in Chapter 3. The framework should


be derived from evidence of what actually happened regarding the case and
should find adequate support from appropriate frameworks already available
in literature, i.e. it can be developed by the student, based on the initial study of
key events, derived from preliminary data collection etc. The literature review
should be based on at least 3 journal articles, including articles in the Sri
Lankan Journal of Management (SLJM). The framework elements will include
outcomes, drivers and environmental moderating factors. If clarification to the
framework emerges during the subsequent stages of the study, which better

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supports the narration, then the clarified framework should be considered as
the case framework in Chapter 5.

Data collection includes secondary data, in-depth interviews, (at least 10


individual interviews) and 03 focus group interviews etc. Qualitative methods
should be followed. While the data can be primary, secondary, quantitative or
qualitative, their analysis should be logically consistent and convincing. In a case
study, adequate in-depth interviews, and three focus groups with supportive
observations should be used in gathering data. In addition, published company
performance data should be presented as supportive quantitative data. Further,
supportive data can be gathered based on newspaper reports, correspondence,
etc.

Chapter 4 is dedicated to a detailed narration of the case study. A timeline with


sequenced significant events should be presented in a graphical format in this
chapter, highlighting the events along the selected time frame, along with key
behaviours of drivers, and environmental moderators.

Detailed interview data should be given supported by evidence.

A timeline as gathered in data collection process should be presented in a


narrative form. All writing must be in relation to the specific theme selected,
and the case must be written in a style that will engage and sustain the interest
of the reader. Focus on the critical challenges faced by the company, strategies
adopted and internal business processes supporting the strategy, points of
departure, competitor actions, etc. The sequential unfolding of events evoking
the elements of the case framework will provide interesting reading, and lead
up to an understanding of the connections between performance drivers
and outcomes; actions and results of the organisation. The narrative of the
case along the events in the timeline will be based on the elements (drivers,
environmental moderators/outcomes) of the case framework. There will, of
course, be “gaps” in the story narrated. In this regard, the reader will attempt
to find answers to specific questions (say, five) that the writer will pose at the
end of the case. The analysis of the qualitative data gathered, coding, etc. should
be presented in the appendices.

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The case narrative must be self-contained and a “stand alone” chapter which
could be published separately.

The discussion of the study will be written in Chapter 5. This discussion


must reflect objective findings in the case, and should not be based on the
writer’s own perceptions and assumptions. The discussion must relate to the
framework that was formulated, and reflect the literature sourced. It should be
a descriptive account of the implications of the findings, and their relevance
and usefulness in particular organisational/market settings should be related
to the literature discussed in Chapter 2. Comparatively, this chapter is short.

Conclusions, presented in Chapter 6 must flow directly from the discussion of


the findings. At the end of the case, the writer must include case study questions
in order that the reader can make reasonable assumptions and offer solutions,
and fill the “gaps” in the case. The case study questions reflect the general
learning for the reader from the case. Questions should be related to the case
but should be applicable to similar organisations/industry

The contents of each chapter are given in the undermentioned format for the
MCS project report.

The length of the report should be 7500 to 10000 (+ max 10%), 30 to 40 pages,
excluding references and appendices.

Cover page (format given on page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)

Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv

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List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Executive Summary vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Company Information
1.3 Theme of Case Study
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Limitations of the Study
1.7 Chapter Framework

Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
2.2 .........................
2.3 .........................
2.4 .........................
2.5 Summary

Chapter 3
CASE FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Key Drivers, Environmental Moderators, Outcomes

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3.3 Case Framework
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis
3.5 Summary

Chapter 4
CASE NARRATIVE

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Timeline
4.3 - 4.5 Narration Supporting the Key Elements of the Case Framework,
on a Timeline
4.6 Summary

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction
5.2 .........................
5.3 .........................
5.4 Summary

Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 .........................
6.3 Lessons Learned (Managerial, Social, etc.) ……………......
6.4 Case Study Questions

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References

Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

Bibliography (if needed)

Appendix I: Questionnaire

Appendix II: Interview Guide

Appendix III: Details of respondents

Appendix IV: Any other relevant information

Viva: As usual for all Masters’ Degree programmes, students have to participate
in a viva voce examination in front of a panel of examiners. Students
should submit a summarized version (3-4 pages) of the study to the
panel.

Few well written summarized studies will be selected for publication in the
Professional Manager magazine, with due recognition and acknowledgement.

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An Industry Survey Project (ISP) can be undertaken by a group of students
comprising of 3-5 teams, each team consisting of 2 students. Based on a
common framework for the industry, each team of 2 students will analyse 10%
companies in the selected industry, which would constitute one project. In
total the 3-5 team group would analyse 70% of the industry where the unit of
analysis is the company. A sample of a minimum of 12000 (3 student groups
of two members each covering 4000 responses) respondents is required if
individual responses form the basis of the data collection.

The initial proposal for the industry survey will be prepared by a faculty
member, and the approved proposals will be available at the Research Centre.
Students who are willing to undertake the survey should discuss with the
Research Centre and obtain clarifications.

Based on the initial proposal, students willing to undertake the survey are
required to work on a literature survey, propose a study framework, and design
a questionnaire. Based on the initial proposal the student is required to submit
a project proposal, the format of which is given below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

Cover page (format given on page 33)

Industry Background
i) Industry information as a backdrop to the survey
ii) Identification and brief description of a particular theme with respect
to the selected industry. For example, competitiveness, innovation etc.

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Objectives of the Survey
The objectives of the survey: (given in initial proposal)

Scope and Limitations


Statement of the scope and limitations of the survey including the confines of
the survey.

Theoretical Description and Study Framework

Description of the identified theme and conceptualisation by a review of


literature with regard to key terms that underpin the theme. An Industry
Survey must rest on a sound theoretical foundation.

At least twelve journal articles must be used for the study, including articles
from the Sri Lankan Journal of Management (SLJM).

Based on the above literature review, the project theme must now be
conceptualised, and a study framework developed. Example: Identification of
key determinants (independent variables) of successful turnaround strategies
(the dependent variable). The variables should be clearly defined and the
linkages between variables shown.

Methodology
The type of data to be collected, instruments of data collection, population and
samples of study, and data analysis techniques should be specified and justified.
The choice of the various elements of methodology will have to be guided by
the objectives of the study.

Study Plan
Time schedule, an estimate of resources required, and how the researchers will
devote their time during the plan period should be presented in the study plan.

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NB: The project proposal has to be approved by the PIM.

Proposal Approval page (format given on page 34) should be attached.

In the event 50% of survey data not collected by end September, students
will be asked to take a Management Field Project (MFP) option, and one
elective course. Field Project can be based on the data collected (Option 2 of
Management Field Projects).

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The completed report of the Industry Survey Project (ISP) will include the
following:

Introduction
Industry information as a backdrop to the survey.

Identification and description of a particular theme with respect to the selected


industry (example: competitiveness, innovation etc.), purpose/objectives of
the survey and statement of the scope and limitations of the survey including
the confines of the survey.

Literature Review
Description of the identified theme and conceptualisation by a review of
literature with regard to key terms that underpin the theme. The literature
review should relate to the industry selected, referring to the Central Bank
reports; Key Economic Indicators, Industry Trends, past performance data and
comparison with other industries; similar industries – local and global.

Based on the literature review the project theme must be conceptualised, and
a study framework developed. Example: Identification of key determinants
(independent variables) of successful turnaround strategies (the dependent
variable). The variables should be clearly defined, and the linkages between
variables shown.

An Industry Survey must rest on a sound theoretical foundation. At least twelve


journal articles must be used for the study, including articles from the Sri
Lankan Journal of Management.

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Survey Design
In an industry survey study, 50 % of the industry sample should be covered (by
3 – 5 teams). Data can be gathered based on observations, newspaper reports,
correspondence, etc.

The type of data to be collected, instruments of data collection, population and


samples of study, and data analysis techniques should be specified and justified.
The choice of the various elements of methodology will have to be guided by
the objectives of the study.

Study plan should include the time schedule, an estimate of resources required,
and how the researchers will devote their time during the plan period.

Data Analysis and Findings


Industry performance data should be presented as quantitative data.

Quantitative data should be presented first, and thereafter, supported with the
qualitative data gathered through interviews, observations and correspondence.

Data should be classified using tables and figures. Tables and figures should be
presented clearly with a description provided under each.

The data analysis should be followed by clearly listed and described findings
which must relate directly to the study framework

Discussion of Findings and Conclusions


The key findings of the study should be discussed as in a research paper. The
findings must be derived from the data analysis and should not be based on
researchers’ own impressions and assumptions.

The discussion must relate to the framework that was formulated. It should be
a descriptive account of the implications of the findings, and their relevance
and usefulness in particular industry/market settings.

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Conclusions and recommendations must flow directly from the discussion of
the findings.

The contents of each chapter for the Industry Survey project report are given
in the formant below.

Cover page (format given on Page 35)

First inner cover page (format given on Page 36)

Second inner cover page (format given on Page 37)

Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Executive Summary vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Industry Information/Key Points
1.3 Theme of Survey Study
1.4 Project Objectives
1.5 Significance of Study
1.6 Methodology
1.7 Limitations of the Study
1.8 Chapter Framework

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Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

2.1 Introduction
2.2 ……………......
2.3 ……………......
2.4 Summary

Chapter 3
BUSINESS ANALYSIS

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Business Analysis (industry locations; business sizes; production/
service; marketing; investment; current performance indicators; product
life cycle; supply chain, etc.)
3.3 Study Framework
3.4 Summary

Chapter 4
SURVEY DESIGN

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Methodology
4.3 Survey Instruments
4.4 Implementation Plan
4.5 Summary

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Chapter 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction
5.2 .........................
5.3 .........................
5.4 .........................
5.5 Summary

Chapter 6
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Discussion of Findings
6.3 Principal Conclusions
6.4 Recommendations
6.5 Areas for Future Study
6.6 Summary

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

NB: Students undertaking Industry Survey Projects should submit a


monograph of 30 pages and the survey report.

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A Policy Paper option will be available for selected study programmes. A policy
paper addresses a significant shortcoming or weakness in the current policy
of an organisation which prevents the organisation from achieving its mission
and goals. This could be in areas such as recruitment and selection, training,
performance management, promotion, rewards, procurement, or inventory
management. The objective is to re-design the current policy to eliminate the
weaknesses. It may even involve the formulation of a policy where none exists
at present such as in the areas of knowledge management or occupational
health and safety.

Students undertaking a policy paper option are required to submit a Policy


Paper proposal. This has to be approved by the PIM.

The proposal should be written under separate sections, and not as chapters.

Cover page (format given on Page 33)

1. Introduction
Background of the organisation; Vision, Mission, Goals, Objectives, Structure,
Profile of Human Resources, Organisational Performance.

2. Statement of the Policy Problem/Issue


Description of the policy problem/issue and the negative consequences;
Purpose of the study

3. Literature Review

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4. Study Framework and Methodology
Method of Data Collection
Questionnaire (if the questionnaire is in Sinhala/Tamil, attach the English
version)
List of References
Length of Proposal: 12-15 pages.

NB: The Management Policy Paper proposal has to be approved by the PIM.

Attach the Proposal approval page (format given on page 34).

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Cover page (format given on page 35)
First inner cover page (format given on page 36)
Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)
Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Appendices v
List of Abbreviations vi
Acknowledgements vii
Executive Summary viii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Organisation (insert the page no.) 1
1.2 Organisation’s Vision and Mission
1.3 Organisation’s Goals and Objectives
1.4 Organisation Structure
1.5 Profile of Human Resources
1.6 Organisational Performance
1.7 Chapter Framework

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Chapter 2
DESCRIPTION OF THE POLICY ISSUE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Description of Current Policy (state policy stakeholders) area studied
2.3 Statement of the Problem and its Consequences
2.4 Purpose of the Study
2.5 Objectives of the Study
2.6 Significance of the Study
2.7 Methodology (in brief)
2.8 Scope of the Study
2.9 Limitations of the Study
2.10 Summary

Chapter 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from the Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Review of Literature
3.3 Causes Underlying the Problem
3.4 Summary
Chapter 4
STUDY FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Study Framework
4.3 Method of Data Collection

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4.4 Selection of Sample
4.5 Summary

Chapter 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Analysis of Data
5.3 Findings of the Study
5.4 Discussion of Findings
5.5 Summary

Chapter 6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Conclusions
6.3 Policy Recommendations
6.4 Policy Guidelines and Implementation Plan

Recommendations must address the problem. These should be practical and


implementable. Recommendations should be arranged according to their
priority order of importance and the temporal dimension (short-term, mid-
term, long- term).

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

Bibliography (if needed)

Appendices

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The Management Field Project option requires a student to undertake one
additional elective course and a field project to be placed on a par with the 15
credit Management Skills Project option. The elective course will be worth 2
credits and the field project will be allocated 13 credits. There will be a viva
voce at the end of the project. The project will be carried out as an individual
student project.

Prerequisite: The field project should be linked to a core course or an elective.

For example, an HR related Management Field Project such as high employee


turnover, will be based on a core HR course and/or additional electives in HR;
An organisational process improvement related MFP such as low capacity
utilization/productivity will be based on the Management of Business
Operations core course and Quality and Productivity Techniques elective
course; Low market share/declining sales will be based on the core course of
Marketing Management.

There are 2 options for the Management Field Project.

OPTION 1: Based on the Management Skills Project model (Organisation-


specific)

As in a Management Skills Project, a Management Field Project addresses


either a significant performance issue in a company, such as a decline in
competitiveness or an attractive opportunity that would enhance current
profitability. It offers an excellent opportunity for MBA students to use the
knowledge gained from their study programme to analyse an organisational
issue and to develop recommendations for resolving the issue. The project will

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be linked to literature. As in Management Skills Projects the unit of analysis is
the organisation, with minimum 25 employees.

In the Management Field Project, the student is required to describe the current
situation related to the problem, through a survey based on the organisation’s
performance records, previous reports, interviews, and gather data based
on the overall objective of the study. Identification of key issues and problem
should be based on the survey.

Example: If high employee turnover is the performance gap being surveyed,


key issues for this problem are identified through survey data, and
thereon recommendations are developed. The recommendations
should offer solutions which will lead to the reduction of the
identified performance gap.

The components for implementing the recommended solutions and the


projected outputs and outcomes should be identified and described.

Contents to be included in the Management Field Project proposal (Option 1)


are outlined below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections, and not as chapters.

All areas must be addressed

Cover page (format given on page 33)

1. Brief description of the organisation: Name of organisation, year


established, products/market, revenue, profits/losses, value addition,
etc.

2. Brief description of the current situation leading to the problem or


opportunity identification. The performance gap should be illustrated in
any selected area: marketing, manufacturing, services, human resources,
supply chain management, etc. with a description of how it affects the
organisation’s performance

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3. Identification and justification of the management methods/techniques
which can be used to address the identified problem.

4. Brief description of the recommended project components. Project


component 1 will be always the current situation analysis. The
recommended project may have a number of components, but should be
restricted to three to four. Current situation analysis should identify the
causes of the problem, and the other project components (i.e., component
2, 3, etc.) should address those identified causes.

5. A time plan for the implementation of the proposed project

6. Brief indication of resource allocation: resources required and how they


may be allocated. This should address what is required to implement the
different project components, leading to the budget and benefit – cost
analysis.

7. The expected outputs (quantifiable) and the resulting outcomes of the


project.

The project proposal should be approved by the PIM.

Proposal Approval page (Format given on page 34) should be attached to the
proposal document.

OPTION 2: Based on Field Survey Project Model (Industry/Organisation


Level)

This option addresses a performance issue observed at Industry level.

Students undertaking this project option should identify a performance


gap in industry through a field survey (with a sample of a minimum of 1000
respondents), and offer recommendations to solve the problem/reduce the
performance gap.

This option can be done only as an individual member project.

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Contents to be included in the Management Field Project proposal (Option 2)
are outlined below.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

1. Industry/Organisation Background
Industry/Organisation information as a backdrop to the survey

2. Brief description of the current situation leading to problem or


opportunity identification. The preliminary performance gap identified
should be illustrated in any selected area – marketing, manufacturing,
services, human resources, supply chain management, etc. with a
description of how it impacts the industry.

3. Brief description of the project: methodology and how the survey would
be conducted.

4. Limitations: Scope of the project, the extent to which the survey can be
conducted.

5. A time plan for the project.

The project proposal should be approved by the PIM.

Proposal approval page (Format given on page 34) should be attached to the
proposal.

NB: The final report takes the role of a consultant; acceptable to a CEO/Board
of Directors.

Option 2 is under special approval; a minimum sample of 1000 with 3 focus


groups and a minimum of 6 in-depth interviews. One-member project.

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As in a Management Skills Project, a Management Field Project addresses
either a significant performance issue in a company/industry such as a decline
in competitiveness or an attractive opportunity that would enhance current
profitability. It offers an excellent opportunity for MBA students to use the
knowledge gained from their study programme to analyse an organisational/
industry issue, and to develop recommendations for resolving the issue. The
project will be linked to literature.

In the Management Field Project Option 1, the student is required to identify


problem/opportunity from organisation’s performance records, previous
reports, interviews and gather data based on the overall objective of the study.
In the case of Option 2, the student will identify problem/opportunity based on
the survey findings. Example: if high employee turnover is the performance gap
being surveyed, key issues for this problem are identified and recommendations
are developed.

In a Management Field Project report, Chapter 1 will introduce the general


nature of the project. The project is the mechanism to resolve the identified
problem. This will include a brief background of the problem addressed
in the project, the project, the significance of the project and benefits to the
organisation/industry through resolving the problem/issues, limitations of the
project (scope of the project, constraints anticipated). The chapter framework
will indicate the outline of the structure/contents of each of the subsequent
chapters.

Chapter 2 will be devoted to the description of the organisational/industry


profile, and an analysis of the organisation/ industry in its wider environmental
context using appropriate tools such as SWOT and PESTEEL. These analyses

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should help identify broad problems or opportunities. An accurate identification
of the industry/industry in which the firm operates is important, e.g., designer
wear and not basic garments; gift tea and not bulk tea. Description of the
problem highlights the significance of the problem to the organisation’s or
industry outcomes.

Chapter 3 will give an account of the literature review done to understand the
concepts which would help formulate a theoretical framework which will lead
to recommendations to resolve the problem identified.

Chapter 4 in Option 1 consists of two to four SMART project objectives. Three


to six components, linked to the theoretical framework are identified in
Chapter 4. These components include activities which would address critical
issues, and would help resolve the problem. Current situation analysis is the
first component. Detailed activities proposed under each component should
be described. All resources required and the allocation for different project
components as well as project team structure/responsibilities should be
identified. Projected outputs/ outcomes should be identified for each project
component/activity. Cost estimates/benefit – cost analysis should be included.

Chapter 4 in Option 2 will detail the survey objectives and the methodology
adopted for the project. The survey project will be described in detail in this
chapter. This survey should be carried out based on the performance records,
previous reports, interviews, and data should be gathered based on the
overall objective of the study. The issues identified through the survey will be
presented. Examples of issues identified through the survey may be (i) low
employee engagement (ii) lack of motivating factors.

Chapter 5 will focus on discussion of findings and present the recommendations


for resolving the identified problem/opportunity. As far as possible, the
discussion should be linked to literature.

The contents of each chapter are given in the under-mentioned format for the
Management Field Project report.

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Cover page (format given on page 35)
First inner cover page (format given on page 36)
Second inner cover page (format given on page 37)
Declaration (format given on page 39)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables iii
List of Figures iv
List of Abbreviations (if needed) v
Acknowledgements vi
Executive Summary vii

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background (insert the page no.) 1


1.2 Project
1.3 Significance of the Study
1.4 Methodology
1.5 Limitations
1.6 Chapter Framework

Chapter 2
ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS AND PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY
IDENTIFICATION

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Organisational/Industry Profile

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2.3 Organisational Analysis (using appropriate frameworks such as SWOT
analysis/PESTEEL)

2.4 Key Problem(s)/Opportunities

2.5 Description of the Problem(s)/Opportunities (to be linked to


organisation’s profitability/cost/revenue or Industry outcomes. Any
one of the problem/opportunity or problems (s) identified in 2.4 can
be addressed and described and work to resolve the problem(s)/
opportunity)

2.6 Summary

Chapter 3
LITERATURE REVIEW
(At least 12 journal articles, including articles from Sri Lankan Journal of
Management should be used)

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Theoretical Background to the Problem
3.3 Study Framework
3.4 Summary

Chapter 4
THE PROJECT (OPTION 1)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Field Project Objectives
4.3 The project: Project Components
4.3.1 Problem analysis.
4.3.2 Solution development.
(Several solutions to be developed and evaluated, (a), (b), (c), addressing
each component)

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4.4 Resource Allocation

4.5 Cost Estimates/Benefit – Cost

4.6 Projected Outputs and Outcomes

4.7 Summary

THE PROJECT (OPTION 2: SURVEY)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Field Project (survey) objectives

4.3 Methodology

4.4 The Survey

4.5 Identification of Issues (identified through survey)

4.6 Summary

Chapter 5
DISCUSSION OF SURVEY FINDINGS/IDENTIFIED COMPONENTS

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Discussion of Survey Findings/Identified Components

5.3 Recommendations

5.4 Summary

References
Both hard sources and online sources should be cited in alphabetical order as a
common list. (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing).

Bibliography (if needed)

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Appendices (if relevant)

§ On completion of the project the student is required to submit one hard copy
of the report on the Management Field Project, limited to 7500 words (30
pages). In addition, a soft copy of the report in a CD (word format) should
be submitted. There will be a viva-voce in case of the MFP The submission
of the report should follow the PIM guidelines as in all other course work
submissions, and should be submitted on or before the same timelines set
for Research/Case/Skill projects.

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Students are allowed 20 minutes to orally present their research work. A
presentation must be confined to ten to twelve slides, arranged as follows:

MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PAPER/MANAGEMENT THESIS

1. Title of Research Study with student’s name.

2. Outline of the Presentation.

3. Problem/issue studied with specific evidence. State the negative


consequences; justify the study.

4. Objectives of the Study.

5. Significance of the Study (From a knowledge perspective and a practical


perspective).

6. Hypotheses/Propositions supported by literature, Conceptual framework

7. Methodology: Instruments for data collection; sample size; scoring


scheme (inductive/qualitative research - state aspects under which data
were collected).

8. Survey Data - number responding to questionnaire/interviews and


number of usable questionnaires/interviews.

9. Principal Findings (from quantitative and qualitative study) and


discussion; statistical tables and figures.

10. Principal Conclusions and Recommendations.

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MANAGEMENT SKILLS PROJECTS

1. Title of Project and student’s name.

2. Outline of the Presentation.

3. Organisation (brief background, size, revenue, customers, product/


services, market share, performance)

4. Key Issues addressed: problem identification; performance/ opportunity


gaps. (use data in describing problem/issue, gaps, significance)

5. Theoretical Framework for study

6. Project Objectives, components and techniques

7. Project Implementation (more than one slide can be used to illustrate


how the components were implemented)

8. Resources and Budget

9. Outputs (projected vs actual; in case of process improvements show


before and after scenarios)

10. Outcomes

11. Skills Gained/Displayed

12. Summary

ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS PROJECTS

1. Title of Project and student’s name.

2. Outline of the Presentation

3. Background of the Project

4. Business Case; customer needs, customer requirements, target


beneficiaries, the value proposition.

5. The Business Model and Business Plan, the promoter’s competencies,


experience

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6. Feasibility of the study: technical and production feasibility; innovations,
economic feasibility; projected benefit-cost analysis, financial feasibility;
sources of funding; sales plan and revenue for three years; cash flow
and budget; projected operating cost for three years; time value of
money (TVM); net present value (NPV); break even analysis; ecological/
environmental feasibility; social/political/ ethical/legal feasibility.

7. Marketing Strategies, wedges of entry.

8. The Project; Project Objectives, Project Controls; quality; cost delivery;


earned value analysis allocation, progress reports.

9. Project Plan: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), list of work packages;


resource allocation; procurement plan; raw material supply.

10. Project implementation; implementation of each project component,


variations from projected cost, delivery and time, issues in project
implementation.

11. Project Outputs and Outcomes; Benefit-Cost Analysis.

12. Skills - conceptual, interpersonal and technical skills displayed.

MANAGEMENT CASE STUDIES

1. Title of Case Study and student’s name

2. Outline of Presentation

3. Company Information as a backdrop to the case

4. Theme of Case Study

5. Objectives of the Case Study

6. Literature Review of the underpinning theme

7. Case Framework linking drivers, environmental moderators and outcome

8. Data Collection Methodology: instruments, sample.

9. Timeline of significant events, presented in a graphical format.

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10. Narration: along a timeline, linked to elements of framework -
performance drivers and outcomes; actions taken and results achieved,
points of departure.

11. Case Study Questions.

INDUSTRY SURVEY PROJECT


1. Title of the Survey Project and students’ name
2. Outline of Presentation
3. Industry Information as a backdrop to the survey
4. Theme of the Survey
5. Literature Review of the underpinning theme
6. Study Framework
7. Business Analysis
8. Data Collection Methodology: instruments, sample (to be validated)
9. Findings and Discussion
10. Principal Conclusions
11. Recommendations

MANAGEMENT POLICY PAPER


1. Title of the paper and student’s name
2. Outline of Presentation
3. Organisational information as a Backdrop to the Paper
4. Objectives of the Study
5. Significance of Study
6. Literature Review
7. Study Framework

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8. Data Collection Methodology; Sample
9. Findings and Discussion
10. Principal Conclusions and Policy Recommendations (short term, midterm
and long term recommendations)

Management Field Projects

Option 1

1. Title of Project and student’s name


2. Outline of the Presentation
3. Organisation (brief background, size, revenue, customers, product/
services, market share, performance).
4. Key Issues Addressed: Problem Identification; Performance / Opportunity
Gaps (use data in describing problem/ issue, gaps, significance).
5. Study Framework
6. Project Objectives, Components and Techniques
7. Benefit – Cost Analysis
8. Projected Outputs
9. Projected Outcomes
10. Skills Gained/Displayed
11. Summary

Option 2 (Survey)

1. Title of the Survey Project and student’s name


2. Outline of the Presentation
3. Industry Information as a Backdrop to the Survey
4. Theme of the Survey
5. Literature Review of the Underpinning Theme

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6. Study Framework
7. Data Collection
8. Methodology: Instruments, Sample (to be validated)
9. Findings and Discussion
10. Principal Conclusions
11. Recommendations

For All Oral Presentations,

1. Students are required to bring a hard copy of the report, a set of completed
questionnaires, interview schedules, copies of transcripts and any other
relevant documents.

2. In the case of online surveys, students are required to produce a document


containing the website details and other relevant evidence.

3. Students’ dress code must reflect the importance of the event. Males
should wear a tie.

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Writing a research proposal, particularly for a Ph.D. is a challenging task. The
task calls for a high level of commitment, diligence and hard work. However, a
methodologically sound research proposal would serve as a useful blueprint
for the empirical work to follow.

Research is an exercise in the creation of knowledge. When a Ph.D. candidate


produces knowledge through a research study, there is an expectation that
this knowledge would enrich the current understanding of issues under
study, and contribute to the existing body of knowledge. Research at doctoral
level is an important intellectual exercise, and should address a significant
theoretical or conceptual puzzle, which also has some implications for the
practice of management. Hence, a doctoral thesis must display a high degree of
originality and some relevance to the practice of management. This is the first
requirement expected from a Ph.D. candidate. A Ph.D. thesis should address
a theoretical or knowledge gap. Consequently, addressing of a theoretical gap
which has a significant contribution to the advancement of knowledge is a
prime requirement.

In order to identify a knowledge gap, it is essential that the researcher


undertakes a comprehensive and critical study of the existing literature on the
research topic/theme selected. The literature review requires a careful scrutiny
of articles published on the chosen topic/theme appearing in reputed journals,
texts and classics. It requires substantial background knowledge of the area
of study, and calls for considerable intellectual preparation before writing
the research proposal. Hence, the second requirement expected from a Ph.D.
candidate is that s/he must display authoritative knowledge on the chosen
topic. It is suggested that the literature review be organized and presented in a
thematic rather than a chronological order.

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A third requirement is the adoption of a sound research methodology. The Ph.D.
candidate is expected to demonstrate mastery over the chosen methodology.
Research is a systematic process of investigation and is guided by methodologies
and techniques. The final research output must be acceptable to the scientific
community and its acceptance highly depends on the mastery of methodology,
which could also be outlined through the thesis.

Finally, a candidate must ensure that the University or Institute formally


approves the proposal before s/he embarks on the empirical research.

The Ph.D. research proposal format appears below.

Title/Topic
The topic and theme should be stated clearly so that they convey to the reader
the subject matter of the proposed work. The title should be brief.

The proposal should be written under separate sections and not as chapters.

Introduction
A proposal starts with the introduction of the research problem or issue, some
background information that supports or validates the existence of the stated
problem/issue and the need for the proposed research. The research problem
must be based on literature gaps or try to explain a phenomenon/issue from
a different point of view which has not been previously addressed. Doctoral
work is viewed as an addition to the existing knowledge, and hence, careful
consideration should be given to identifying the gaps/issues. A proposal
introduces the purpose of the study.

Research Questions and Objectives


This section indicates the research questions to be addressed followed by the
purpose and objectives of the research.

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Justification and Scope for the Study
Brief explanation of why the research study is significant. It should address a
few key points that will highlight the significance of the research. The scope of
the study should be briefly indicated.

Literature Review
A literature review summarizes the nature of studies which have already
been done in the field of the proposed research. It will bring out the gaps and
arguments in the existing research that support the need for the proposed
research, and how the proposed research will fill those gaps. It is important
that the study covers the previous studies done in the area selected, highlight
literature gaps and support the framework to follow.

Theoretical Framework for the Study


Based on the literature review, the theoretical framework should be developed.
This should be well supported by previous studies. The variables should be
defined, and be supported by previous studies. Candidate’s own definition of
variables should be avoided. Based on the type of methodology, hypotheses/
propositions which will address the research questions should be proposed.

Methodology
The methodology section gives the details of how the proposed research
will be conducted. Here, the candidate needs to provide information on the
data required, process of data collection, various data sources, data analysis,
methods and techniques to be applied and research presentation. The type of
methodology used and quantitative; qualitative; mixed, etc., should be justified.
Survey instruments should be indicated. It should also be noted that candidates,
especially those who adopt a non- positivistic approach, should explain and
justify their philosophical stance.

Ethical Considerations
If the research involves questionnaires or interviews with individuals, an
ethical approval is required prior to the beginning of the research. This is done

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to safeguard the personal freedom of the participants. In the research proposal,
the candidate student needs to mention that ethical approval will be taken
prior to the beginning of the field research involving people.

Results of the preliminary study should be given in the proposal.

Timeline and Outputs


Usually, most Ph.D. students take three or more years to complete their doctoral
programme. The detailed timeline for the project, such as the time spent on the
literature review, primary and secondary data collection, data analysis, writing
and presentation should be indicated. It should also spell out a submission of a
journal article as the output or part of the work-in- progress.

References
A complete list of references should be provided, as per the PIM guidelines.
(Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing)

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The Sri Lankan Journal of Management (SLJM) is a forum for management
scholars and professionals worldwide. Concerned with the importance of
management in a fast-changing global environment, the journal focuses on
several areas such as human resource management, drawing on empirical
research in the areas of strategic management, international business,
organisational behaviour, operations management and industrial relations that
arise from changing managerial environments.

This journal accepts research papers based on quantitative and qualitative


methods, conceptual studies and international business studies for publication.
Its main focus is on the contribution to research based on studies conducted in
both qualitative and quantitative methods. Complete guidelines for preparing a
manuscript to this journal are provided in the Sri Lankan Journal of Management
link in the ‘Prajna’ learning portal.

Submissions should be in English, typed in double spacing with wide margins,


preferably of A4 size. Articles should not exceed 8,000 words in length including
tables and the abstract, but excluding references. Tables and figures should not
be inserted in the pages of the manuscript but should be on separate sheets.
They should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals with a descriptive
caption. The desired position in the text for each table and figure should be
indicated in the manuscript. Permission to reproduce copyright material must
be obtained by authors before submission, and any acknowledgements should
be included.

Footnotes should be used only where necessary to avoid interruptions to


the continuity of the text. They should be numbered consecutively using
superscript Arabic numerals. They should appear at the end of the main text,

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immediately before the list of references. The journal follows the APA guidelines
for referencing.

Submission of a paper to the journal will be taken to imply that it presents


original, unpublished work not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the exclusive rights to
reproduce and distribute the article have been given to the Postgraduate
Institute of Management.

All review papers in this journal have undergone editorial screening and peer
review.

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Font: Times New Roman, 12 point, margins of at least 2.54 cm (1 inch).

Title: Boldface font to be used for the article title, with an initial capital letter
for any proper nouns.

Authors’ names: Names of all contributing authors to be given on the title


page exactly as they should appear in the published article.

Affiliations: The affiliation of each author (department, university, city, country


to be listed.

Correspondence Details: An institutional email address for the corresponding


author should be provided. Full postal details are also needed by the publisher,
but may not necessarily be published.

Abstract: The abstract paragraph should be indicated with a heading or by


reducing the font size.

Keywords: Five or six keywords should be provided to help readers find your
article.

Headings: The level of the section headings in article:

Level 1 heading
should be centered, Times New Roman 14, in boldface, uppercase or title case.
In case of Title case, the first letter of any proper noun should be in upper case.

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Level 2 headings should be left aligned, Times New Roman 12, bold, initial
capital letter for any proper noun.

Level 3 headings should be indented 1 cm, Times New Roman 12, bold,
upper case for the first letter of the first word, the rest of the words being
in lower case, ending with a period.

Level 4 headings should be indented 1 cm, Times New Roman 12, bold,
italicised, initial upper case letter for the first word, the rest of the words
being in lower case, ending with a period.

Referencing: Referencing guidelines described in this document (based


on the APA specifications) should be followed (Refer Chapter 4 on Rules for
Referencing)

Tables and Figures: The intended positioning of tables and figures in the text
should be indicated. For example, (insert Table 1 here]. The actual tables and
figures should be supplied either at the end of the text or in a separate file
as requested by the Editor. Ensure that permission to use any figures being
reproduced from another source is available.

Running heads and received dates are not required when submitting a
manuscript for review. If the article is accepted for publication, it will be copy-
edited and typeset in the correct style for the journal.

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Font: Times New Roman, 12 point. Use margins of at least 2.54 cm (1 inch).

Title: Use bold type for your article title, with an initial capital letter for any
proper nouns.

Authors’ names: Give the names of all contributing authors on the title page
exactly as you wish them to appear in the published article.

Affiliations: List the affiliation of each author (Department, university, city,


country).

Correspondence Details: Please provide an institutional e-mail address for


the corresponding author. Full postal details are also needed by the publisher,
but will not necessarily be published.

Abstract: Indicate the abstract paragraph with a heading or by reducing the


font size. Advice on writing abstracts is available here.

Keywords: Please provide five or six keywords to help readers find your article.

Headings: Please indicate the level of the section headings in your article:

§ First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be centered,


in bold, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.

§ Second-level headings should be left aligned, in bold face, with an initial


capital letter for any proper nouns.

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§ Third-level headings should be indented, in boldface, with an initial
capital letter for the first word and lowercase for the rest of the words.

§ Fourth-level headings should indented, in boldface, italics, with an initial


capital letter for the first word and the rest of the words are in lower case.

Referencing: Please follow guidelines described in this document (Refer


Chapter 4 on Rules for Referencing).

Tables and Figures: Indicate in the text where the tables and figures should
appear, (for example, by inserting Table 1 here). The actual tables and figures
should be supplied either at the end of the text or in a separate file as requested
by the Editor. Ensure that you have permission to use any figures you are
reproducing from another source.

Running heads and received dates are not required when submitting a
manuscript for review. If your article is accepted for publication, it will be copy
edited and typeset in the correct style for the journal.

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The Professional Manager, is a biannual publication of the Postgraduate Institute
of Management. The main intent of this magazine is to disseminate cutting-
edge-know-what, and importantly do-how knowledge on best management-
thinking and practices.

The Professional manager is different from the research-based SLJM as it


attempts to provide useful knowledge that has immediate relevance to the way
managers ought to see that which is around them, and in fact, within them.

The Professional Manager, provides much freedom both in the selection


of subject matter and the style of writing. Other than any issue aimed at a
particular event or theme, the contributors of articles to this publication are at
liberty to select any subject, provided they carry substantial managerial inputs
that will be of value to the readership. They should add value to the subjects
the contributors select, and that they should be couched in grammatically and
syntactically acceptable language.

The Professional Manager is published with the objective of providing the Sri
Lankan managerial community with current knowledge of interest and value.
Written in an easy to read style they should be able to read them amidst their
busy work schedules. Findings of extensive research can also be presented in
a simple style without bringing much jargon. Ideally, the word count would be
between 1500 - 2500 words. There is no need to have a list of references.

Anyone wishing to contribute an article to the Professional Manager should


accompany with the article a short resume of the writer and a high-resolution
passport size photograph.

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The Institute’s continuous assessment of students’ learning via assignments
helps students relate theory to practice and thereby understand theory better.
In a sense, it Makes Business-learning Action-oriented (MBA). This, in fact, is
the PIM’s credo.

The final project/research options will not only help the students integrate and
reinforce their learning from the many courses followed during the Master’s
programme, but also, importantly, help them markedly develop their analytical,
conceptual, and presentation skills, in particular. This has been the Institute’s
experience over the past two decades.

Whatever the kind of research project undertaken, it is necessary to


communicate and present the approach and findings precisely and clearly. The
importance of communicating research findings to readers is best summed up
in the following quotation:

“Facts never speak for themselves. They must be selected, marshalled, linked
together and given a voice. Obviously, research is not an end in itself. The day
comes when the pleasures and the drudgery of the detective hunt are over and
the report must be written. At that point, fit expression no longer appears as
a mere frill added to one’s accumulation of knowledge. The expression is the
knowledge. What is not properly presented is simply not present and its purely
potential existence is useless” (Barzun & Graff, 1977).

References
American Psychological Association, http://search.apastyle.org? query=&facet=
styletopics: References, retrieved on 3 January 2017.

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Barzun, J., & Graff, H. E. (1977). The Modern Researcher. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Charles Sturt University, (2010). APA Referencing Summary. Retrieved on December
20, 2014, from http:// www.csu.edu.au/division/library/research/ endnote/
index.html
The Writing Center at The University of Oklahoma, http://write.ou.edu/

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