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Subdivisions: Axial and Appendicular

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Dr. Alma Sorrera-Banua Faculty, BUCN

Lecture Outline

II. Axial Skeleton: Bones that form longitudinal axis

A.

Skull

1.

Cranium

2.

Facial Bones

3.

Hyoid Bone

4.

Fetal Skull

B.

Vertebral Column (Spine)

1.

Cervical Vertebrae

2.

Thoracic Vertebrae

3.

Lumbar Vertebrae

4.

Sacrum

5.

Coccyx

C.

Thoracic Cage

1.Sternum

2.Ribs

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Lecture Outline

III. Appendicular Skeleton: Bones of limbs and girdles that attach to axial skeleton

A.

Bones of Shoulder Girdle

B.

Bones of Upper Limbs 1. Arm

2. Forearm

3. Hand

C. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

D. Bones of the Lower Limbs

1.Thigh

2.Leg

3.Foot

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2 Subdivisions of the Skeletal System

2 Subdivisions of the Skeletal System 1. Axial skeleton © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 2. Appendicular
2 Subdivisions of the Skeletal System 1. Axial skeleton © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 2. Appendicular

1. Axial skeleton

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2. Appendicular

Axial Skeleton

Forms the longitudinal axis of the body

Composedof100 bones

Three parts

1.

Skull

2.

Vertebral column

3.

Bony thorax

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Figure 5.8a The human skeleton.

Cranium Skull Facial bones Clavicle Thoracic cage Scapula (ribs and Sternum sternum) Rib Humerus Vertebra
Cranium
Skull
Facial bones
Clavicle
Thoracic cage
Scapula
(ribs and
Sternum
sternum)
Rib
Humerus
Vertebra
Vertebral
Radius
column
Ulna
Sacrum
Carpals
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges
(a) Anterior view

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Appendicular Skeleton

Composed of 126 bones

Three parts

Limbs (appendages)

Pectoral girdle

Pelvic girdle

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 Limbs (appendages)  Pectoral girdle  Pelvic girdle © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. attached to

attached to axial

skeleton

Figure 5.8b The human skeleton.

Cranium Bones of pectoral Clavicle girdle Scapula Sternum Upper Rib limb Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones
Cranium
Bones of
pectoral
Clavicle
girdle
Scapula
Sternum
Upper
Rib
limb
Humerus
Vertebra
Radius
Bones of
Ulna
pelvic
Carpals
girdle
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Lower
limb
Tibia
Fibula
(b) Posterior view

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What are the parts of the Axial Skeleton?

1. Skull 2. Vertebral column

3. Bony thorax

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1) Axial Skeleton: Skull

Two sets of bones form the skull

A. Cranium bones enclose the brain B. Facial bones

Hold eyes in anterior position

Allow facial muscles to express feelings

Bones of the skull are joined by interlocking

joints called sutures

Only the mandible/lower jaw is attached by a

freely movable joint

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Bones of the Skull

A) 8 Cranial bones- protect the brain

1

Frontal bone

2

Occipital bone

3

Ethmoid bone

4

Sphenoid bone

5, 6

Parietal bones (pair)

7, 8

Temporal bones (pair)

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Figure 5.9 Human skull, lateral view.

Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone Ethmoid bone Lambdoid Lacrimal bone
Coronal suture
Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Sphenoid bone
Temporal bone
Ethmoid bone
Lambdoid
Lacrimal bone
suture
Squamous suture
Nasal bone
Occipital bone
Zygomatic process
Zygomatic bone
Maxilla
External acoustic meatus
Mastoid process
Alveolar processes
Styloid process
Mandible (body)
Mental foramen
Mandibular ramus

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Figure 5.10 Human skull, superior view (top of cranium removed).

Frontal bone Cribriform plate Crista galli Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone Optic canal Sella turcica Foramen
Frontal bone
Cribriform plate
Crista galli
Ethmoid
bone
Sphenoid
bone
Optic canal
Sella turcica
Foramen ovale
Temporal bone
Jugular foramen
Internal
acoustic meatus
Parietal bone
Occipital bone
Foramen magnum

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Bones of the Skull

B) 14 facial bones

1, 2

Maxillae (pair)

3, 4

Palatine bones (pair)

5, 6

Lacrimal bones (pair)

7, 8

Zygomatic bones (pair)

9, 10

Nasal bones (pair)

11

Vomer bone

12, 13 Inferior nasal conchae (pair) 14 Mandible

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Figure 5.11 Human skull, inferior view (mandible removed).

Maxilla (palatine process) Incisive fossa Hard palate Palatine bone Maxilla Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone (greater
Maxilla
(palatine process)
Incisive fossa
Hard
palate
Palatine bone
Maxilla
Zygomatic bone
Sphenoid bone
(greater wing)
Temporal bone
(zygomatic process)
Foramen ovale
Vomer
Mandibular fossa
Carotid canal
Styloid process
Jugular foramen
Mastoid process
Occipital condyle
Temporal bone
Parietal bone
Foramen magnum
Occipital bone

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Figure 5.12 Human skull, anterior and posterior views.

Coronal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Nasal bone Superior orbital fissure Sphenoid bone Optic canal
Coronal suture
Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Nasal bone
Superior orbital fissure
Sphenoid bone
Optic canal
Ethmoid bone
Temporal bone
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Infraorbital foramen
Middle nasal concha
of ethmoid bone
Maxilla
Inferior nasal concha
Vomer
Mandible
Alveolar processes
Sagittal suture
Mental foramen
Anterior view
Parietal bone
Lambdoid suture
Occipital bone
Mastoid process
of temporal bone
Posterior view

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Bones of the Skull

C. Hyoid bone

Not considered as skull bone

Closely related to mandible and temporal

bones

Serves as a movable base for the tongue

Aids in swallowing and speech

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Figure 5.14 Anatomical location and structure of the hyoid bone.

Greater horn Lesser horn Body
Greater horn
Lesser horn
Body

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2. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column

Vertebral column (spine) provides axial support

Extends from skull to the pelvis

26 vertebral bones are separated by intervertebral

discs

What comprises the vertebral column?

7 cervical vertebrae are in the neck

12 thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region

5 lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back

Sacrum (formed by fusion of 5 vertebrae)

Coccyx (formed by fusion of 35 vertebrae)

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Figure 5.15 The vertebral column.

Anterior Posterior 1st cervical vertebra (atlas) 2nd cervical Cervical curvature (concave) 7 vertebrae, C 1
Anterior
Posterior
1st cervical
vertebra (atlas)
2nd cervical
Cervical curvature
(concave) 7 vertebrae,
C 1 – C 7
vertebra (axis)
1st thoracic
vertebra
Transverse
process
Thoracic curvature
Spinous
(convex) 12 vertebrae,
process
T 1 – T 12
Intervertebral
disc
Intervertebral
foramen
1st lumbar
vertebra
Lumbar curvature
(concave) 5 vertebrae,
L 1 – L 5
Sacral curvature
(convex) 5 fused
vertebrae
Coccyx 4 fused
vertebrae

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Vertebral Column

Vertebral Column  Primary curvatures  Spinal curvatures of thoracic and sacral regions  Present from

Primary curvatures

Spinal curvatures of

thoracic and sacral regions

Present from birth

Form a C-shaped curvature in newborns

Secondary curvatures

Spinal curvatures of cervical and lumbar regions

Develop after birth

Form an S-shaped curvature in adults

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Difference in curvature

vertebral column of

neonate and adult

3. Axial: Thoracic Cage

Bony thorax, or thoracic cage, protects

organs of the thoracic cavity

Consists of three parts

1. Sternum

2. Ribs

True ribs (pairs 17)

False ribs (pairs 812)

Floating ribs (pairs 1112)

3. Thoracic vertebrae

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Figure 5.20a The bony thorax (thoracic cage).

T 1 vertebra Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium Sternal angle Body Sternum Xiphisternal True joint
T 1 vertebra
Jugular notch
Clavicular notch
Manubrium
Sternal angle
Body
Sternum
Xiphisternal
True
joint
ribs
Xiphoid
(1–7)
process
False
ribs
(8–12)
Intercostal
spaces
L 1
Floating
vertebra
Costal cartilage
ribs (11, 12)
(a)

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Figure 5.20b The bony thorax (thoracic cage).

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T 2 Jugular notch T 3 T 4 Sternal angle Heart Xiphisternal T 9 joint
T 2
Jugular
notch
T 3
T 4
Sternal
angle
Heart
Xiphisternal
T 9
joint
(b)

Thoracic vertebrae

Appendicular Skeleton

Composed of 126 bones

1. Pectoral girdle

2. Upper Limbs

3. Pelvic girdle

4. Lower Limbs

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Figure 5.8b The human skeleton.

Cranium Bones of pectoral Clavicle girdle Scapula Sternum Upper Rib limb Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones
Cranium
Bones of
pectoral
Clavicle
girdle
Scapula
Sternum
Upper
Rib
limb
Humerus
Vertebra
Radius
Bones of
Ulna
pelvic
Carpals
girdle
Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Lower
limb
Tibia
Fibula
(b) Posterior view

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1. Bones of the Pectoral/Shoulder Girdle

Composed of two bones that attach upper limb to

the axial skeletal:

1) Clavicle 2) Scapula

Allows upper limb exceptional flexibility

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Figure 5.21a Bones of the shoulder girdle.

Acromio- clavicular Clavicle joint Scapula (a) Articulated right shoulder (pectoral) girdle showing the relationship
Acromio-
clavicular
Clavicle
joint
Scapula
(a) Articulated right shoulder (pectoral)
girdle showing the relationship to
bones of the thorax and sternum

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Figure 5.21b Bones of the shoulder girdle.

PosteriorPosterior Sternal (medial) end Acromial Anterior (lateral) end Superior view Acromial end Anterior
PosteriorPosterior
Sternal (medial)
end
Acromial
Anterior
(lateral) end
Superior view
Acromial end
Anterior
Sternal end
Posterior
Inferior view
(b) Right clavicle, superior and inferior views

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Figure 5.21c Bones of the shoulder girdle.

Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior Acromion angle Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Spine Medial border
Coracoid process
Suprascapular notch
Superior
Acromion
angle
Glenoid cavity
at lateral angle
Spine
Medial
border
Lateral border
(c) Right scapula, posterior aspect

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Figure 5.21d Bones of the shoulder girdle.

Acromion Suprascapular notch Superior border Coracoid Superior process angle Glenoid cavity Lateral angle
Acromion
Suprascapular notch
Superior border
Coracoid
Superior
process
angle
Glenoid
cavity
Lateral
angle
Lateral
(axillary)
Medial
border
(vertebral)
border
Inferior angle
(d) Right scapula, anterior aspect

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2. Bones of the Upper Limbs

Humerus

Forms the arm

Single bone

Proximal end articulation

Head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the

scapula

Distal end articulation

Trochlea and capitulum articulate with the bones of the forearm

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Head of Greater humerus tubercle Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck Intertubercular sulcus Deltoid tuberosity
Head of
Greater
humerus
tubercle
Lesser
tubercle
Anatomical
neck
Intertubercular
sulcus
Deltoid
tuberosity
Radial
fossa
Medial
epicondyle
Coronoid
fossa
Capitulum
Trochlea

(a) Figure 5.22a Bones of the right arm and forearm.

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Head of humerus Anatomical Surgical neck neck Radial groove Deltoid tuberosity Medial Olecranon epicondyle
Head of
humerus
Anatomical
Surgical
neck
neck
Radial
groove
Deltoid
tuberosity
Medial
Olecranon
epicondyle
fossa
Lateral
Trochlea
epicondyle

(b)

Figure 5.22b Bones of the right arm and forearm.

2. Bones of the Upper Limbs

The forearm has two bones

Ulna

medial bone in anatomical position

Proximal end articulation

Coronoid process and olecranon articulate with the humerus

Radius

lateral bone in anatomical position

Proximal end articulation

Head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus

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Figure 5.22c Bones of the right arm and forearm.

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Trochlear notch Olecranon Head Coronoid process Neck Proximal Radial radioulnar tuberosity joint Radius Ulna
Trochlear
notch
Olecranon
Head
Coronoid
process
Neck
Proximal
Radial
radioulnar
tuberosity
joint
Radius
Ulna
Inter-
osseous
membrane
Ulnar
Radial
styloid
styloid
Distal
process
process
radioulnar
joint
(c)

Bones of the Upper Limbs

Hand

Carpalswrist bones

8 bones arranged in two rows of 4 bones in each

hand

Metacarpalspalm bones

5 per hand

Phalangesfingers and thumb

14 phalanges in each hand

In each finger, there are 3 bones

In the thumb, there are only 2 bones

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Figure 5.23 Bones of the right hand, anterior view.

Distal Middle Phalanges (fingers) Proximal 3 2 4 Metacarpals 5 1 (palm) Hamate Trapezium Carpals
Distal
Middle
Phalanges
(fingers)
Proximal
3
2
4
Metacarpals
5
1
(palm)
Hamate
Trapezium
Carpals
Pisiform
Trapezoid
(wrist)
Triquetrum
Scaphoid
Lunate
Capitate
Ulna
Radius

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3. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones

Composed of three pairs of fused bones

1. Ilium

2. Ischium

3. Pubis

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coxae) bones  Composed of three pairs of fused bones 1. Ilium 2. Ischium 3. Pubis

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

Total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis

 Total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis Function?  Pelvis protects 

Function?

Pelvis protects

Reproductive organs

Urinary bladder

Part of the large intestine

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Figure 5.24a The bony pelvis.

Iliac crest Sacroiliac joint llium Coxal bone (or hip bone) Sacrum Pelvic brim Pubis Coccyx
Iliac crest
Sacroiliac
joint
llium
Coxal bone
(or hip bone)
Sacrum
Pelvic brim
Pubis
Coccyx
Ischial spine
Acetabulum
Ischium
Pubic arch
(a)

Pubic symphysis

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Figure 5.24b The bony pelvis.

Ilium Iliac crest Posterior superior iIiac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior Anterior
Ilium
Iliac crest
Posterior
superior
iIiac
spine
Anterior superior
iliac spine
Posterior
inferior
Anterior inferior
iliac spine
iIiac spine
Greater sciatic
notch
Acetabulum
Ischial body
Body of pubis
Ischial spine
Pubis
Ischial
tuberosity
Inferior pubic
ramus
Ischium
Obturator
Ischial ramus
foramen
(b)

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Figure 5.24c The bony pelvis.

False pelvis Inlet of true pelvis Pelvic brim Pubic arch (less than 90º) False pelvis
False pelvis
Inlet of
true
pelvis
Pelvic brim
Pubic arch
(less than 90º)
False pelvis
Inlet of
true
pelvis
Pelvic brim
Pubic arch
(more than 90º)
(c)

Which is male

and female

pelvis?

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4. Bones of the Lower Limbs

Femurthigh bone

The heaviest, strongest bone in the body

Proximal end articulation

Head articulates with the acetabulum of the coxal (hip) bone

Distal end articulation

Lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia in the lower leg

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Figure 5.25a Bones of the right thigh and leg.

Surgical neck Head Inter- trochanteric Lesser trochanter line Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Patellar
Surgical
neck
Head
Inter-
trochanteric
Lesser trochanter
line
Lateral
epicondyle
Medial
epicondyle
Patellar
surface
(a)

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Figure 5.25b Bones of the right thigh and leg.

Greater Head trochanter Inter- trochanteric Lesser trochanter crest Gluteal tuberosity Intercondylar fossa
Greater
Head
trochanter
Inter-
trochanteric
Lesser trochanter
crest
Gluteal tuberosity
Intercondylar
fossa
Medial
Lateral
condyle
condyle
(b)

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4. Bones of the Lower Limbs

2 bones of lower leg

1. Tibiashinbone; larger and medially oriented

Proximal end articulation

Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the femur to form the knee joint

Distal end articulation

Medial malleolus forms the inner part of the ankle

2. Fibulathin and sticklike; lateral to the tibia

Has no role in forming the knee joint

Distal end articulation

Lateral malleolus forms the outer part of the ankle

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Figure 5.25c Bones of the right thigh and leg.

Intercondylar eminence Lateral Medial condyle condyle Head Tibial tuberosity Proximal tibiofibular joint
Intercondylar
eminence
Lateral
Medial
condyle
condyle
Head
Tibial
tuberosity
Proximal
tibiofibular
joint
Interosseous
membrane
Anterior
border
Fibula
Tibia
Distal
tibiofibular
joint
Medial
Lateral
malleolus
malleolus
(c)

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Bones of the Lower Limbs

Foot

Tarsals7 bones

Two largest tarsals are the:

Calcaneus (heel bone)

Talus

Metatarsals5 bones form the sole of the foot

Phalanges14 bones form the toes

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Figure 5.26 Bones of the right foot, superior view.

Phalanges: Distal Middle Proximal Tarsals: Medial Metatarsals cuneiform Tarsals: Intermediate Lateral cuneiform
Phalanges:
Distal
Middle
Proximal
Tarsals:
Medial
Metatarsals
cuneiform
Tarsals:
Intermediate
Lateral
cuneiform
cuneiform
Navicular
Cuboid
Talus
Calcaneus

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Bones of the Lower Limbs

Arches of the feet

Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong

arches

Two longitudinal

One transverse

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Figure 5.27 Arches of the foot.

Medial longitudinal arch Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch
Medial longitudinal arch
Transverse arch
Lateral longitudinal
arch

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