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Hazard- iis any object, situation, or behavior that has the potential to cause injury, ill health, or

damage to property or the environment.

Mitigation- lessening the force or intensity of something unpleasant, as wrath, pain, grief, or
extreme circumstances.

Adaptation- any change in the structure or behavior of a species which helps it to become
better fitted to survive and reproduce in its environment. .

Risk - is a term in accounting and finance used to describe the uncertainty that a future event with a
favorable outcome will occur.

Vulnerability- is the quality of being easily hurt or attacked. Some seniors think it's funny to pick on the
ninth graders because of their vulnerability.

Disasters- is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously disrupts the functioning of a community or society
and causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses that exceed the community's or
society's ability to cope using its own resources.

Exposure- the state of having no protection from something harmful, the revelation of something secret,
especially something embarrassing

Geologic Process-are dynamic processes at work in the earth's land forms and surfaces. The
mechanisms involved, weathering, erosion, and plate tectonics, combine processes that are
in some respects destructive and in others constructive.

Earthquake-any sudden shaking of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves
through Earth's rocks.

Elastic Rebound Theory- is an explanation for how energy is released during an earthquake.

Seismology-s the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves
through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

Seismic waves-is a wave that travels through the Earth, most often as the result of a tectonic earthquake,
sometimes from an explosion.

Seismometer- equipped for measuring the direction, intensity, and duration of earthquakes by measuring
the actual movement of the ground.

Body waves- A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to
surface waves that travel near the earth's surface.

Primary waves- are the first earthquake waves to reach reporting stations.

Secondary waves- is a wave motion in a solid medium where the medium moves perpendicular
to the direction of the travel of the wave.
Magnitude- is a number that characterizes the relative size of an earthquake.

Intensity- is a number (written as a Roman numeral) describing the severity of an earthquake

in terms of its effects on the earth's surface and on humans and their structures.

Epicenter- is the point on the earth's surface vertically above the hypocenter (or focus), point in
the crust where a seismic rupture begins.

wave amplitude- in physics, the maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a

vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position.

duration of vibration - periodic back-and-forth motion of the particles of an elastic body or

medium, commonly resulting when almost any physical system is displaced from its
equilibrium condition and allowed to respond to the forces that tend to restore equilibrium.

nature of bedrock- it is solid and tightly bound. Overlying material is often unconsolidated rock,
which is made up of loose particles.

design of structure- is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material

object or system, or the object or system so organized.

Volcano- is a rupture in the Earth's crust where molten lava, hot ash, and gases from below the Earth's
crust escape into the air.

Volcanic eruption-occurs when molten rock, ash and steam pour through a vent in the earth's crust.

volcanic hazards- refers to any potentially dangerous volcanic process (e.g. lava flows,
pyroclastic flows, ash). A volcanic risk is any potential loss or damage as a result of the
volcanic hazard that might be incurred by persons, property, etc.

lava-is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in
an eruption,

pyroclastic flow- s a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as
tephra) that moves away from a volcano about 100 km/h (62 mph) on average but is capable
of reaching speeds up to 700 km/h (430 mph).

Lahar- A wet mass of volcanic fragments flowing rapidly downhill.

Gas - is defined as a state of matter consisting of particles that have neither a defined
volume nor defined shape.

Ash - or ashes are the solid remains of fires. Specifically, it refers to all non-aqueous, non-
gaseous residues that remain after something is burned.

Volcano monitoring - To fully understand a volcano's behavior, monitoring should include

several types of observations (earthquakes, ground movement, volcanic gas, rock chemistry,
water chemistry, remote satellite analysis) on a continuous or near-real-time basis.

pacific ring of fire - also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean
characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.

ground movement - Subsidence is the sudden sinking or gradual downward settling of the
ground's surface with little or no horizontal motion.

gas release- is a sample of matter that conforms to the shape of a container in which it is held
and acquires a uniform density inside the container, even in the presence of gravity and
regardless of the amount of substance in the container.

anamabus thermal signatures- The infrared energy emitted by an object is known as its heat
signature. In general, the hotter an object is, the more radiation it emits.

Hydrometeorological- is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of

water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.

tropical cyclones - also called typhoon or hurricane, an intense circular storm that originates
over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds,
and heavy rain.

Tornado- is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a
cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a
funnel cloud".

Typhoon- is a tropical cyclone with winds faster than 74 miles per hour that occurs in the North Atlantic
Ocean, the Northeast Pacific

hurricane-is a large rotating storm with high speed winds that forms over warm waters in
tropical areas.

storm surge- is the abnormal rise in seawater level during a storm, measured as the height of
the water above the normal predicted astronomical tide.

Monsoons - cause wet and dry seasons throughout much of the tropics.

northeastern wind- n climatology, the movement of air relative to the surface of the
Earth. Winds play a significant role in determining and controlling climate and weather.

southwestern wind- is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the
Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air.

precipitationis-rain, snow, sleet, or hail — any kind of weather condition where something's falling from the

Barometers- is a scientific instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure, also called

barometric pressure.
surface currents- is an ocean current that extends to depths of about 3 meters near the shore
and 10 meters in deep water.
Shore- can be used for any body of water.

Shoreline- is the place where a large body of water, like an ocean, lake, or river, meets the
land. There are a lot of fun beaches along the Atlantic shoreline

coast - also known as the coastline or seashore, is the area where land meets the sea or
ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

Coastlines - is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the
land and the ocean or a lake.

Tides - are the rise and fall of the levels of the ocean. They are caused by the gravitational pull
of the Sun and Moon as well as the rotation of the Earth.

spring tide - in which the difference between high and low tide is the greatest.

neap tide - n which the difference between high and low tide is the least. Neap tides occur
twice a month when the Sun and Moon are at right angles to the Earth.

Tsunamis- is a series of waves caused by earthquakes or undersea volcanic eruptions.

Liquefaction - is a process that generates a liquid from a solid or a gas or that generates a
non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics.

karst collapse - terrain usually characterized by barren, rocky ground, caves, sinkholes,
underground rivers, and the absence of surface streams and lakes.

land reclamation - is the gain of land from the sea, or wetlands, or other water bodies, and
restoration of productivity or use to lands that have been degraded by human activities or
impaired by natural phenomena.