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“WATER- THE PROBLEM OF PURITY”

PRESENTED BY GROUP NO. 1


Hajra Naveed 2015-AE-07
Saira Sandal 2015-AE-13
Shanza Khursheed 2015-AE-14
Hira Farooq 2015-AE-37
Zoha Fatima 2015-AE-51
Yasir Omer 2015-AE-54
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Drinking Water quality
• Public Health
• Rules and standards for quality of water
• Water Treatment Process
1. Coagulation
2. Sedimentation
3. Filtration
4. Disinfection
• Testing and Reporting
• Conclusion
WATER TREATMENT
The basic goal is to protect public health. However, the broader goal is
to provide potable water that is safe to drink , pleasant in appearance,
pleasant in taste and odor, and cost-effective to produce.

The two reasons for treating water:


1) to remove those contaminants that are
harmful to health
2) to remove contaminants that make the water look,
taste, or smell bad.
WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES
There are different treatment processes which are used to treat
infected and polluted water:
➢ Basic water treatment process
➢ Surface water treatment systems
➢ Groundwater treatment systems
➢ Specialized water treatment processes
BASIC WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM
This system depends on two different types of treatments which are:
1. Primary treatment processes
• Pumping and containment
• Screening
• Storage
• Pre-conditioning

2. Secondary treatment processes


• Coagulation and Flocculation
• Sedimentation
• Filtration
• Disinfection
PRIMARY TREATMENT SYSTEM
• Pumping and containment
The majority of water must be pumped from its source and directed into
pipes or holding tanks.
• Screening
The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such as
sticks, leaves, trash and other large particles which may interfere with
subsequent purification steps.
• Storage
Water from rivers may also be stored in bankside reservoirs for periods
between a few days and many months to allow natural biological purification
to take place.
• Pre-conditioning
Many waters rich in hardness salts are treated with soda ash (Sodium
carbonate) to precipitate calcium carbonate.
SECONDARY TREATMENT SYSTEM
This system includes different processes that are necessary
for water treatment

Physical Process • Most


Chemical Process commonly used

• For wastewater
Biological process treatment
SCHEMATIC THEME OF SECONDARY
TREATMENT

SECONDARY
TREATMENT

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL


PROCESS PROCESS PROCESS

SEDIMENTATION COAGULATION BIOLOGICAL


ACTIVATED
CARBON
FLOCCULATION DISINFECTION
FILTRATION
COAGULATION
Coagulation is a chemical water treatment technique typically applied prior to
sedimentation and filtration to enhance the ability of a treatment process to
remove particles
OR
The process of decreasing the stability of the colloids in water is called coagulation.
COLLOIDAL MATERIAL:
material that is less than one micrometer (0.001 mm) in size, called colloidal
material that contributes to color and turbidity.
Two types of colloidal materials:
1.Hydrophobic (water fearing) 2.Hydrophillic (water loving)
COAGULATION
Some common coagulants include the following:
• Aluminum Sulfate (Alum29) Al2
• Sodium Aluminate – NaAlO2
• Ferric Sulfate – Fe2
• Ferrous Sulfate – FeSO4
• Ferric Chloride – FeCl3
• Poly-aluminum Chloride (PAC)
• Cationic Polymers
FLOCCULATION
“Flocculation is a physical process of slowly mixing the
coagulated water to increase the probability of particle
collision”. This process forms the floc.
FLOC:
Floc is a snowflake-looking material that is made up of the
colloidal particles, microorganisms, and precipitate.

FLOCCULANTS:
•Either primary coagulant
•Or anionic polymers
COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION
• The chosen coagulant and the pre-conditioning water is slowly mixed in a large tank
called a flocculation basin.
• The flocculation paddles turn very slowly to minimize turbulence. The principle
involved is to allow as many particles to contact other particles as possible
generating large and robust floc particles.
SEDIMENTATION(CLARIFICATION)
Clarification of water involves removing contaminants through simple
gravity sedimentation

Water exiting the flocculation basin enters the sedimentation basin, also
called a clarifier or settling basin.
• The outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer-furthest from
the sediment exits.
• As particles settle to the bottom of the basin a layer of sludge is formed
on the floor of the tank. This layer of sludge must be removed and
treated.
• Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is called sludge, and is
piped to drying lagoons.
FILTRATION
Filtration is a physical process of separating suspended and colloidal particles
from water by passing the water through a filter media.
Filtration involves a number of physical processes:
• Straining
• Settling
• Adsorption.
FILTRATION:
•As particle contaminants pass into the filter, the spaces between the filter grains
become clogged, which reduces the openings (straining)
•Some contaminants are removed because they settle onto a media grain.
•Others are adsorbed onto the surface of individual filter grains.
•This adsorption process helps to collect the contaminants (floc) and thus reduces
the size of the openings between the media grains.
FILTRATION
TYPES OF FILTERS
The two three types of filters used in small systems including
Rapid sand filter Gravity filter Pressure filter
ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANES
Ultrafiltration membranes are a relatively new development; they use
polymer film with chemically formed microscopic pores that can be used
in place of granular media to filter water effectively without coagulants.
The type of membrane media determines how much pressure is needed
to drive the water
through and what sizes can be filtered out.
DISINFECTION
Disinfection is defined as the process used to control
waterborne pathogenic organisms and thus prevent waterborne
disease.

DISINFECTION: control waterborne pathogenic organisms


STERILIZATION: killing of all organisms
Disinfection can be done in different ways:
• Chlorination
•Chloramines
• UV light
• Ozone
DISINFECTION (CHLORINATION)
Chlorine is the most common method of disinfection used today.

•it is standard method of disinfection because


•it costs less than most of the other methods
•more knowledge about chlorine than any other disinfectant.
•effective residual that it pro-duces. (A residual indicates that disinfection is
completed, and the system has an acceptable bacteriological quality)
DISINFECTION
CHLORAMINES
• Chloramines are another chlorine-based disinfectant.
• Although chloramines are not as effective as disinfectants, compared to chlorine gas or
sodium hypochlorite, they are less prone to form THMs.
ClNH2 + H2O --------- HOCL +NH3
HOCl ---------- HCl + [O]
UV RADIATION
UV radiation is very effective at inactivating cysts, as long as the water has a low level of
color so the UV can pass through without being absorbed.
OZONE (O3)
• Ozone is made by passing oxygen through ultraviolet light or a electrical discharge.
• To use ozone as a disinfectant, it must be created on site and added to the water by
bubble contact.
• Some of the advantages of ozone include the production of relatively fewer dangerous
by-products (in comparison to chlorination) and the lack of taste and odor produced
by ozonation.
• But disadvantages include high cost and no residual disinfectant in the water.
FLOURIDATION
•Fluoride is added to drinking
water systems to reduce
tooth decay.
•Fluoridation is effective for
children up to the age of
eight to 10 years of age.
•The amount that is fed
depends on the air
temperature and on the
natural fluoride levels in the
raw water.
TYPICAL CONVENTIONAL PACKAGE
TREATMENT PLANT
TESTING AND REPORTING
Water Filtration Systems Water Fluoridation Systems
1. Turbidity – raw and finished water 1. Fluoride residual
2. pH – raw and finished water 2. Quantity of fluoride used
3. Alkalinity – raw and finished water 3. Fluoride dosage
4. Temperature – raw and finished water 4. Check fluoride tank, fill valve, check
valve, and anti-siphon protection
5. Amount of chemicals used
5. Check pump and appurtenances
Water Disinfection Systems
Water Heating Systems
1. Disinfectant residual
1. Boiler temperature
2. Quantity of disinfectant used
2. Circulation pump pressure
3. Disinfectant dosage
3. Circulation loop temperature
4. Check pump and appurtenances
4. Water temperatures
REFERENCES
Anon. World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality,
Volume I, 2nd Edition,
WHO, Geneva, 1993

Primer for Municipal Waste water Treatment Systems (Report).


Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. EPA 832-R-04-
001

Understanding the Safe Drinking Water Act (Report). EPA. June 2004. EPA
816-F-04-030.

"Safe Water System" (PDF). Fact Sheet, World Water Forum 4 Update.
Atlanta: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 2006.
Q/A SESSION
1. Water that is safe to drink is called ________________ water.
A. Potable
B. Palatable
2. The type of organisms that can cause disease are said to be ________________microorganisms.
B. Pathogenic
C. Undesirable
3.The process of decreasing the stability of colloids in water is called:
A. Flocculation
B. Coagulation
C. Sedimentation
D. Clarification
1. Water that is safe to drink is called ________________ water.
A. Potable
B. Palatable
2. The type of organisms that can cause disease are said to be
________________microorganisms.
B. Pathogenic
C. Undesirable
3.The process of decreasing the stability of colloids in water is called:
A. Flocculation
B. Coagulation
C. Sedimentation
D. Clarification
THANK
YOU