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DIPCHAND BAHALL

PURE MATHEMATICS Unit 2 PURE MATHEMATICS Unit 2


FOR CAPE EXAMINATIONS ®
FOR CAPE EXAMINATIONS
®

FOR CAPE® EXAMINATIONS    


PURE MATHEMATICS Unit 2
The two books in this series provide complete coverage of Units 1
and 2 of the new CAPE® Pure Mathematics syllabus. They offer a
sound platform for students pursuing courses at tertiary institutions
throughout the Caribbean. Each topic is covered in depth with
additional material in areas that students find most challenging.

Key features:
• Objectives at the beginning of each chapter aid planning, focus learning and
confirm syllabus coverage
• Key terms are highlighted to develop students’ vocabulary throughout the course
• A wide variety of exercises develops students’ knowledge, application and ability
in all areas of the syllabus
• Worked solutions throughout the text provide students with easy-to-follow
examples of new concepts
• Graded excercises at the end of each section can be used to check students’
understanding and monitor progress
• Checklists and at-a-glance summaries at the end of each chapter encourage
Also available:
students to review their understanding and go back over areas of weakness Mathematics Solutions
• Examination-style questions at the end of each module give students plenty of for Advanced Proficiency
practice in the types of questions they’ll meet in the examinations 1998-2008

DIPCHAND BAHALL
About the author
Dipchand Bahall has over 20 years’ experience teaching Advanced Level CAPE Mathematics Solutions contains fully-worked solutions to all of the papers set for the CAPE
Mathematics examinations from its inception in 1998:
• Unit 1: Papers 1 and 2 1998-2008
• Unit 2: Papers 1 and 2 1999-2008

The book includes:


• a list of formulae/theorems/laws consistent with the updated CAPE Mathematics syllabus

Mathematics at Presentation College and St Joseph’s Convent in Trinidad and


• revision tips to assist students preparing for their examinations
• examination tips to help students develop a strategy for tackling the examinations

This book is designed to facilitate teachers, students and anyone interested in pursuing a course
in Pure Mathematics. Past paper questions can be attempted and answers checked against those
in this book. Each solution is fully worked so that students can see how each answer has been
obtained. It is an ideal resource for consolidation, practice, revision and developing problem-
solving skills.

Tobago, and at Cayman Prep and High School. He holds a Masters Degree
Melissa B. Gajadhar received the Diploma in Education and the B.A. degree in Mathematics at the
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. She is presently teaching at Pleasantville
Senior Comprehensive School, San Fernando. She has participated in the CAPE Marking Exercise
for the past six years, the last two years as an Examiner in Pure Mathematics and on the previous
occasions as an Assistant Examiner in Pure Mathematics.

Rashad R. Modikhan received the Diploma in Education and the B.Sc. degree in Mathematics at
the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. He has taught at Saint Mary’s College,
Trinidad, WI and is presently at Presentation College, Chaguanas, Trinidad. He has participated
in the CAPE Marking Exercise as an Assistant Examiner in Pure Mathematics for the past three

in Statistics, a Diploma in Education (Teaching of Mathematics) and a BSc in


years.

www.macmillan-caribbean.com

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Mathematics. Dipchand is presently a Senior Instructor at The University of CAPE_MATHS_SOLUTIONS_COVER_REPRO.indd 1


9 780230 718043

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Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus.

CAPE® is a registered trade mark of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). Pure Mathematics
Unit 2 for CAPE® Examinations is an independent publication and has not been authorized,
sponsored or otherwise approved by CXC.

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9780230418011_Cover.indd 1 11/12/2014 10:07


PURE MATHEMATICS Unit 2
FOR CAPE® EXAMINATIONS

DIPCHAND BAHALL

CAPE® is a registered trade mark of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). Pure
Mathematics for CAPE® Examinations Unit 2 is an independent publication and has
not been authorised, sponsored, or otherwise approved by CXC.
Macmillan Education
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www.macmillan-caribbean.com

ISBN: 978-0-230-46574-9 AER

Text © Dipchand Bahall 2013


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Contents

INTRODUCTION ix
MODULE 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND CALCULUS II
CHAPTER 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2
Complex numbers as an extension to the real numbers 3
Powers of i 4
Algebra of complex numbers 5
Addition of complex numbers 5
Subtraction of complex numbers 5
Multiplication of a complex number by a real number 5
Multiplication of complex numbers 5
Equality of complex numbers 6
Conjugate of a complex number 7
Division of complex numbers 8
Square root of a complex number 9
Roots of a polynomial 11
Quadratic equations 11
Other polynomials 13
The Argand diagram 15
Addition and subtraction on the Argand diagram 15
Multiplication by i 16
Modulus (length) of a complex number 16
Argument of a complex number 17
Trigonometric or polar form of a complex number 19
Exponential form of a complex number 21
De Moivre’s theorem 22
Locus of a complex number 27
Circles 27
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment 28
Half-line 29
Straight line 30
Inequalities 31
Intersecting loci 33
Cartesian form of loci 35
CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIATION 41
Standard differentials 42
Differentiation of ln x 42
x 43
Differentiation of e
iii
Chain rule (function of a function rule) 43
Differentiating exponential functions of the form y = ax 46
Differentiating logarithms of the form y = loga x 47
Differentiation of combinations of functions 50
Differentiation of combinations involving
trigonometric functions 51
Tangents and normals 54
Gradients of tangents and normals 54
Equations of tangents and normals 56
Implicit differentiation 58
Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions 62
Differentiation of y = sin−1x 62
Differentiation of y = tan−1x 63
Second derivatives 65
Parametric differentiation 67
First derivative of parametric equations 67
Second derivative of parametric equations 70
Partial derivatives 72
First order partial derivatives 72
Second order partial derivatives 73
Applications of partial derivatives 74
CHAPTER 3 PARTIAL FRACTIONS 84
Rational fractions 85
Proper fractions: Unrepeated linear factors 85
Proper fractions: Repeated linear factors 88
Proper fractions: Unrepeated quadratic factors 91
Proper fractions: Repeated quadratic factors 93
Improper fractions 94
CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION 99
Integration by recognition 100
When the numerator is the differential of the denominator 104


The form f ′(x)[ f(x)]n dx, n ≠ −1 105

The form ∫f ′(x)ef(x)dx 106


Integration by substitution 108
Integration by parts 112
Integration using partial fractions 116
Integration of trigonometric functions 121
Integrating sin2 x and cos2 x 123
Integrating sin3 x and cos3 x 123
Integrating powers of tan x 125
iv
Integrating products of sines and cosines 125
Finding integrals using the standard forms

∫________
1
_______
√a − x
2 2
x
dx = sin−1 ( __
a) + c

∫ 1
1 dx = __
and ______
a2 + x2
x
−1 __
a tan ( a ) + c 126

CHAPTER 5 REDUCTION FORMULAE 136



Reduction formula for sinn x dx 137

Reduction formula for ∫cosn x dx 138

Reduction formula for ∫tann x dx 139

Other reduction formulae 139


CHAPTER 6 TRAPEZOIDAL RULE (TRAPEZIUM RULE) 145
The area under a curve 146
MODULE 1 TESTS 153

MODULE 2 SEQUENCES, SERIES AND APPROXIMATIONS


CHAPTER 7 SEQUENCES 156
Types of sequence 157
Convergent sequences 157
Divergent sequences 157
Oscillating sequences 157
Periodic sequences 158
Alternating sequences 158
The terms of a sequence 158
Finding the general term of a sequence by identifying
a pattern 160
A sequence defined as a recurrence relation 161
Convergence of a sequence 162
CHAPTER 8 SERIES 167
Writing a series in sigma notation (Σ) 168
Sum of a series 169
Sum of a series in terms of n 172
Method of differences 176
Convergence of a series 180
Tests for convergence of a series 181
CHAPTER 9 PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION (PMI):
SEQUENCES AND SERIES 185
PMI and sequences 186
PMI and series 190
v
CHAPTER 10 BINOMIAL THEOREM 196
Pascal’s triangle 197
Factorial notation 197
Combinations 199
General formula for nCr 199
Binomial theorem for any positive integer n 200
The term independent of x in an expansion 203
Extension of the binomial expansion 205
Approximations and the binomial expansion 208
Partial fractions and the binomial expansion 209
CHAPTER 11 ARITHMETIC AND GEOMETRIC PROGRESSIONS 215
Arithmetic progressions 216
Sum of the first n terms of an AP 218
Proving that a sequence is an AP 220
Geometric progressions 224
Sum of the first n terms of a GP (Sn) 227
Sum to infinity 229
Proving that a sequence is a GP 230
Convergence of a geometric series 231
CHAPTER 12 NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES 240
The intermediate value theorem (IMVT) 241
Finding the roots of an equation 241
Graphical solution of equations 242
Interval bisection 242
Linear interpolation 243
Newton–Raphson method for finding the roots of an
equation 247
CHAPTER 13 POWER SERIES 255
Power series and functions 256
Taylor expansion 256
The Maclaurin expansion 259
Maclaurin expansions of some common functions 265
MODULE 2 TESTS 267

MODULE 3 COUNTING, MATRICES AND


DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
CHAPTER 14 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 270
The counting principles 271
Multiplication rule 271
Addition rule 271
vi
Permutations 272
Permutations of n distinct objects 272
Permutation of r out of n distinct objects 274
Permutations with repeated objects 275
Permutations with restrictions 277
Permutations with restrictions and repetition 281
Combinations 285
Combinations with repetition 287
CHAPTER 15 PROBABILITY 294
Sample space and sample points 295
Events: mutually exclusive; equally likely 296
Probability 296
Rules of probability 298
Conditional probability 299
Tree diagrams 302
Probability and permutations 307
Probability and combinations 311
CHAPTER 16 MATRICES 321
Matrices: elements and order 322
Square matrices 322
Equal matrices 323
Zero matrix 323
Addition and subtraction of matrices 323
Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar 324
Properties of matrix addition 324
Matrix multiplication 325
Properties of matrix multiplication 328
Identity matrix 328
Multiplication of square matrices 329
Transpose of a matrix 330
Properties of the transpose of a matrix 330
Determinant of a square matrix 331
Determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix 331
Determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix 331
Properties of determinants 332
Singular and non-singular matrices 334
Solving equations using determinants (Cramer’s rule) 335
Using Cramer’s rule to solve three equations in three
unknowns 337
Inverse of a matrix 339
Inverse of a 2 × 2 matrix 339
vii
Cofactors of a 3 × 3 matrix 339
Inverse of a 3 × 3 matrix 341
Properties of inverses 343
Systems of linear equations 343
Row reduction to echelon form 346
Finding the inverse of a matrix by row reduction 348
Solving simultaneous equations using row reduction 352
Systems of linear equations with two unknowns 355
Intersecting lines 355
Parallel lines 356
Lines that coincide 357
Systems of linear equations with three unknowns 358
Unique solution 358
No solutions 361
Infinite set of solutions 362
Solution of linear equations in three unknowns: geometrical
interpretation 365
Applications of matrices 367
CHAPTER 17 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING 380
First order linear differential equations 381
Practical applications 385
Second order differential equations 388
When the roots of the AQE are real and equal 388
When the roots of the AQE are real and distinct 389
When the roots of the AQE are complex 390
Non-homogeneous second order differential equations 392
When f(x) is a polynomial of degree n 393
When f(x) is a trigonometric function 398
When f(x) is an exponential function 403
Equations reducible to a recognisable form 405
Mathematical modelling 417
MODULE 3 TESTS 421
UNIT 2—MULTIPLE CHOICE TESTS 424
INDEX 441

Answers are available online at


www.macmillan-caribbean.com/resources

viii
Introduction

These two volumes provide students with an understanding of pure mathematics


at the CAPE level taken from both a theoretical and an application aspect and
encourage the learning of mathematics. They provide the medium through
which a student can find problems applied to different disciplines. The concepts
are developed step by step; they start from the basics (for those who did not do
additional mathematics) and move to the more advanced content areas, thereby
satisfying the needs of the syllabus. Examination questions all seem to have answers
that are considered ‘nice’ whole numbers or small fractions that are easy to work
with; not all real-world problems have such answers and these books have avoided
that to some extent. Expect any kind of numbers for your answers; there are no
strange or weird numbers.
The objectives are outlined at the beginning of each chapter, followed by the
keywords and terms that a student should be familiar with for a better understanding
of the subject. Every student should have a section of their work book for the
language of the subject. I have met many students who do not understand terms such
as ‘root’ and ‘factor’. A dictionary developed in class from topic to topic may assist the
students in understanding the terms involved. Each objective is fulfilled throughout
the chapters with examples clearly explained. Mathematical modelling is a concept
that is developed throughout, with each chapter containing the relevant modelling
questions.
The exercises at the end of each section are graded in difficulty and have adequate
problems so that a student can move on once they feel comfortable with the concepts.
Additionally, review exercises give the student a feel for solving problems that are
varied in content. There are three multiple choice papers at the end of each Unit,
and at the end of each module there are tests based on that module. For additional
practice the student can go to the relevant past papers and solve the problems given.
After going through the questions in each chapter, a student should be able to do past
paper questions from different examining boards for further practice.
A checklist at the end of each chapter enables the student to note easily what is
understood and to what extent. A student can identify areas that need work with
proper use of this checklist. Furthermore, each chapter is summarised as far as
possible as a diagram. Students can use this to revise the content that was covered in
the chapter.
The text provides all the material that is needed for the CAPE syllabus so that
teachers will not have to search for additional material. Both new and experienced
teachers will benefit from the text since it goes through the syllabus chapter by
chapter and objective to objective. All objectives in the syllabus are dealt with
in detail and both students and teachers can work through the text comfortably
knowing that the content of the syllabus will be covered.

ix
1
Complex Numbers and
Calculus II

1
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 1
Complex Numbers

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ express complex numbers in the form a + ib, a, b, ∊ ℝ
■ calculate the square root of a complex number
■ carry out the algebra of complex numbers (add, subtract, multiply, divide)
■ calculate the complex roots of a polynomial
■ find the modulus of a complex number
■ find the argument of a complex number
■ understand the properties of modulus and argument
■ interpret the modulus and argument of complex numbers
■ represent complex numbers on an Argand diagram (including sums,
differences, products and quotients)
■ identify and sketch loci on an Argand diagram for ∣ z − c ∣ = r, c ∊ ℂ and r ∊ ℝ
■ identify and sketch loci on an Argand diagram for ∣ z − a ∣ = ∣ z − b ∣, a, b ∊ ℂ
■ identify and sketch loci on an Argand diagram for arg (z − a) = θ, a ∊ ℂ and θ
in radians
■ identify and sketch loci on an Argand diagram for z = a + λb, a, b ∊ ℂ and λ ∊ℝ
■ convert a locus to Cartesian form.
■ use de Moivre’s theorem for n ∊ ℤ+
■ establish that eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ

KEYWORDS/TERMS
OBUVSBMOVNCFSTtJOUFHFSTtSBUJPOBMOVNCFSTt
SFBMOVNCFSTtJNBHJOBSZOVNCFSTtDPNQMFY
OVNCFStDPOKVHBUFtDPNQMFYSPPUTt"SHBOE
EJBHSBNt$BSUFTJBOGPSNtNPEVMVTtBSHVNFOUt
QPMBSGPSNtFYQPOFOUJBMGPSNtMPDVT

2
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Complex numbers as an extension to


the real numbers
The number system began with the set ℕ of natural numbers which are used for
counting. The set of natural numbers is ℕ = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .}. This system was later
extended to the set of integers ℤ = {0, ±1, ±2, ±3, . . .}.
With the set of natural numbers and integers only, division is not always possible. If
we try to solve the equation 2x − 1 = 0, we get x = __1 which is not possible if x ∊ ℤ.
2
The set of integers can be extended to the set of rational numbers ℚ where
m
ℚ = {__
n : m ∊ ℤ, n ∊ ℤ, n ≠ 0}. With this extension all equations of the form
ax + b = 0 (b ≠ 0) have solutions.
The set of rational numbers ℚ is not enough to solve equations such as x2 = 2 and
hence the number system is extended further to the set of real numbers ℝ. Each exten-
sion of the number system allows us to solve equations that are otherwise unsolvable.
One of the properties of a real number is that its square cannot be negative, e.g. there
is no real number which satisfies the equation x2 = −1. To allow us to solve equa-
tions of this form, the set of imaginary numbers was introduced. The properties of
the imaginary numbers are similar to those of the real numbers. The imaginary unit,
denoted by i, is such that i2 = −1.
With the introduction of i a new number system was developed called the complex
number system. The set of complex numbers is denoted by ℂ and, in general, a
complex number in Cartesian form can be written as z = x + iy where x, y ∊ ℝ. x is
called the real part of the complex number z, and is denoted by Re(z), and y is the
imaginary part, denoted by Im(z). Note that the imaginary part of z does not include i.
The set of real numbers is a subset of the set of complex numbers, i.e. every real
number is a complex number (with imaginary part zero), and ℝ ⊂ ℂ. By working
with the set of complex numbers we can now solve all quadratics with real coeffi-
cients. For example an equation in the form x2 + x + 1 = 0 can be solved as follows:
_____ ___ __ ___ __
−1 ± √−3 = ____________
−1 ± √1 − 4 = __________
x = ____________ −1 ± √3 √−1 = _________
−1 ± √3 i, since i 2 = −1
2 2 2 2
This gives the two solutions of the quadratic equation x + x + 1 = 0.
2

Complex numbers are widely used in fields such as applied mathematics, quantum
physics and engineering.

EXAMPLE 1 Identify the real and imaginary parts of the complex numbers.
(a) 2 + 3i (b) 4 − 2i (c) 4x + 5yi (d) 3x2 + (6x + y)i
(e) cos θ + i (2 sin θ) (f) (4 cos θ)i − (3 sin θ) i + 2 cos2 θ

SOLUTION (a) Let z = 2 + 3i


Re(z) = 2 Im(z) = 3 The imaginary part is the coefficient of i.

(b) z = 4 − 2i
Re(z) = 4 Im(z) = −2

3
M O DUL E 1
(c) z = 4x + 5yi
Remember
Re(z) = 4x Im(z) = 5y
Re (x + iy) = x,
Im (x + iy) = y (d) z = 3x2 + (6x + y)i
Re(z) = 3x2 Im(z) = 6x + y
(e) z = cos θ + i(2 sin θ)
Re(z) = cos θ Im(z) = 2 sin θ
(f) z = (4 cos θ)i − (3 sin θ)i + 2 cos2 θ
Rearranging
z = 2 cos2 θ + i(4 cos θ − 3 sin θ)

Re(z) = 2 cos2 θ Im(z) = 4 cos θ − 3 sin θ

Powers of i
___
Since i = √−1 we get i 2 = −1
So i 2 × i = −1 × i ⇒ i3 = −i
i × i3 = i × −i ⇒ i4 = −i2 but i2 = −1

Notice we are ⇒ i4 = −(−1) ⇒ i4 = 1


back to i. i × i4 = i × 1 ⇒ i5 = i
Thus all powers of i can be written as 1, i, −i or −1.
For example i10 = (i2)5 = (−1)5 = −1
i21 = i20 × i = (i2)10 × i = (−1)10 × i = i

EXAMPLE 2 Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following complex numbers.
(a) 2 + 3i2 − 4i (b) 5i + 3i3 − 4i2 + 2
(c) 7i4 + i2 − 8i3 + 8 (d) xi + yi2 + yxi2 + y3i

SOLUTION (a) Recall i2 = −1


So 2 + 3i2 − 4i = 2 + 3(−1) − 4i
= 2 − 3 − 4i
= −1 − 4i
Re(−1 − 4i) = −1, Im(−1 − 4i) = −4
(b) Rearrange as 2 + 5i − 4i2 + 3i3
= 2 + 5i − 4(−1) + 3(−i) Since i2 = −1, i3 = i2 × i = −1 × i = −i
= 2 + 4 + 5i − 3i
= 6 + 2i
Re(6 + 2i) = 6, Im(6 + 2i) = 2

4
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

(c) Rearrange as 8 + i2 − 8i3 + 7i4


= 8 − 1 − 8(−i) + 7(1) since i3 = −i, i4 = (−i)i = −i2 = 1
= 14 + 8i
Re(14 + 8i) = 14, Im(14 + 8i) = 8
(d) (x + y3)i + (y + yx)i2 = (x + y3)i + (y + yx)(−1)
= (x + y3)i − (y + yx)
Re((x + y3)i − (y + yx)) = −y − yx, Im((x + y3)i − (y + yx)) = x + y3

Try these 1.1 (a) Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following.
(i) 5 + 4i (ii) 4 + 7i (iii) 5x + i (3xy)
(iv) 7x2 + y + i (3x − 2y) (v) 7i2 − 4i
(b) Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following.
(i) 4xi + 3yi − 2x (ii) (cos θ)i + sin θ
(iii) 4 sin θ − (3 cos θ)i (iv) 8 cos2 θ + 7 cos θ + i sin3 θ − i sin4 θ
(v) 8 cos2 θ i2 + 7 sin3 θ i3 + 4i4 cos 2θ + 7 sin θ

Algebra of complex numbers


Let z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di

Addition of complex numbers


Add real to real
and imaginary to z1 + z2 = a + bi + c + di = (a + c) + (bi + di)
imaginary.
= (a + c) + (b + d)i

For example
2 + 3i + 4 + 5i = 2 + 4 + 3i + 5i
= 6 + 8i

Subtraction of complex numbers


Subtract real
from real and z1 − z2 = (a + bi) − (c + di) = (a − c) + bi − di
imaginary from = a − c + (b − d)i
imaginary.
Multiplication of a complex number by a real number
λz1 = λ(a + bi) = λa + λbi, λ ∊ ℝ
Multiplication of complex numbers
z1 z2 = (a + bi) (c + di)
= ac + adi + bci + bdi2 (expanding the brackets)
= ac + adi + bci − bd (i2 = −1)
= ac − bd + i (ad + bc)

5
M O DUL E 1
EXAMPLE 3 Given that z1 = 3 + 2i and z2 = 2 + 4i, find z1 z2.

SOLUTION z1 z2 = (3 + 2i) (2 + 4i)


= 6 + 12i + 4i + 8i2 (expanding the brackets)
= 6 − 8 + 16i (substituting i2 = −1)
= −2 + 16i
Hence z1 z2 = −2 + 16i

Equality of complex numbers


z1 = z2 ⇒ a + bi = c + di
⇒ a = c, b = d
Two complex numbers are equal if and only if the real parts and the imaginary parts
are equal.

EXAMPLE 4 Given that z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 2x − yi, find the value of x and the value of y for
which z1 = z2.

SOLUTION Since z1 = z2
2 + 3i = 2x − yi
Equating real and imaginary parts
2x = 2 ⇒ x = 1
−y = 3 ⇒ y = −3
Hence x = 1, y = −3

EXAMPLE 5 Given that z1 = 3 + 2i, z2 = 1 − i and z3 = 4 + 6i, find

(a) z1 + z2 (b) z1 − 2z2 (c) z1 z2 (d) z1 z3 (e) z2 z3

SOLUTION (a) z1 + z2 = 3 + 2i + 1 − i = (3 + 1) + (2i − i)


=4+i
(b) z1 − 2z2 = 3 + 2i − 2(1 − i) (multiply z2 × 2)
= 1 + 4i
(c) z1 z2 = (3 + 2i) (1 − i)
= 3 − 3i + 2i − 2i2 (expanding the brackets)
= 3 + 2 − 3i + 2i (i2 = −1)
=5−i
(d) z1 z3 = (3 + 2i) (4 + 6i)
= 12 + 18i + 8i + 12i2
= 12 − 12 + 18i + 8i
= 26i
6
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

(e) z2 z3 = (1 − i)(4 + 6i)


= 4 + 6i − 4i − 6i2 (i2 = −1 ⇒ −6i2 = −6(−1) = 6)
= 4 + 6 + 6i − 4i
= 10 + 2i

Conjugate of a complex number


_
If z = a + bi, then the conjugate of z, denoted by z* or z , is defined by z* = a − bi.
Here are some complex numbers and their conjugates:
Complex number Conjugate
Note _
z = −2 + 3i z = −2 − 3i
We change _
z = −4 − 5i z = −4 + 5i
the sign of the _
imaginary part. z = 2x + 3yi z = 2x − 3yi

Properties of the conjugate


Let z = a + bi, z* = a − bi
(i) z z* = a2 + b2
Proof: z z* = (a + bi) (a − bi)
= a2 − abi + abi − b2i2
= a2 − b2 (−1) (since i2 = −1)
= a2 + b2
A complex number multiplied by its conjugate is the real part squared plus the
imaginary part squared.
(ii) z + z* = 2Re(z)
Proof: z + z* = a + bi + a − bi
= 2a
= 2Re(z)
A complex number plus its conjugate is twice the real part of the number.
(iii) z − z* = 2Im(z)i
Proof: z − z* = a + bi − (a − bi)
= a − a + bi + bi
= 2bi
= 2Im(z)i

A complex number minus its conjugate is twice the imaginary part multiplied by i.

EXAMPLE 6 Given that z1 = 3 + 4i, z2 = 2 − 3i, find


(a) z1 + z1* (b) z1 − z1* (c) z1 z1* (d) z2 z2*
(e) z1* z2 (f) z1 z2
7
M O DUL E 1
SOLUTION (a) Since z1 = 3 + 4i, z1* = 3 − 4i
z1 + z1* = 3 + 4i + 3 − 4i = 6
(b) z1 − z1* = 3 + 4i − (3 − 4i)
= 4i + 4i = 8i
(c) z1 z1* = (3 + 4i) (3 − 4i)
= 9 − 12i + 12i − 16i2
= 9 + 16 (since i2 = −1)
= 25
(d) z2 z2* = (2 − 3i) (2 + 3i) = 22 − 9i2 = 13 (since i2 = −1)
(e) z1* z2 = (3 − 4i) (2 − 3i)
= 6 − 9i − 8i + 12i2
= 6 − 12 − 17i (since i2 = −1)
= −6 − 17i
(f) z1 z2 = (3 + 4i) (2 − 3i)
= 6 − 9i + 8i − 12i2
= 18 − i (i2 = −1, so −12i2 = −12(−1) = 12)

Division of complex numbers


When dividing, we make the denominator real by multiplying the numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.
For example let z1 = a + bi, z2 = c + di
z1 ______
__
z2 = a + bi
c + di
Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator
we have
z1 ______ c − di
a + bi _____
z2 = c + di × c − di (the conjugate of c + di is c − di)
__

ac − adi + bci − bdi2


= __________________
c2 + d2
Note ac + bd − i(ad − bc)
= __________________ (i2 = −1)
Do not learn this c2 + d2
i (ad − bc)
ac + bd − _________
as a formula. = _______ (the real and imaginary parts are separated)
c +d
2 2 c2 + d2

z1
EXAMPLE 7 Given that z1 = 2 + 4i and z2 = 1 − i, find __
z. 2

z1 ______
SOLUTION __ = 2 + 4i
z2 1−i
Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator,
(1 + i), we have
8
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

z1 ______ 1+i
2 + 4i × _____
z =
__
Remember 2 1−i 1+i
2 + 2i + 4i + 4i2 (i2 = −1)
= ______________
The conjugate of 1+1
x + iy is x − iy. 2 − 4 −2 + 6i
+ 6i = _______
= _________
2 2
= −1 + 3i

EXAMPLE 8 1 + 2i, find the real and imaginary part of


If z = ______
2−i
(a) z2 (b) z − __1z

SOLUTION 1 + 2i
(a) z = ______
2−i
To write z in the form x + iy multiply the numerator and denominator by the
conjugate of the denominator (2 + i):
1 + 2i × _____
z = ______ 2+i
2−i 2+i
= ______________ 2 − 2 + 5i = __
2 + i + 4i + 2i2 = _________ 5i = i
5 5 5
z = i = −1 = −1 + 0i
2 2

So Re (z2) = −1 Im (z2) = 0
(b) z − __1z = i − __1i
i2 − 1 = ___
= _____ −2
i i
−2i = ____
−2 × _i = ____
= ___ −2i
i i i2 −1
= 2i
(
So Re z − __ ) (
1 = 0 Im z − __
z )
1 =2
z

Square root of a complex number


_______
To express the number √(a + bi) in the form x + yi where x and y are real,
Remember _______
let √(a + bi) = x + iy
Two complex
numbers are Squaring both sides ⇒ a + bi = (x + iy)2
equal if and only
a + bi = x2 + i(2xy) + i2y2
if their real parts
are equal and a + bi = x2 − y2 + i(2xy) (i 2 = −1)
their imaginary
parts are equal. Equating real and imaginary parts
⇒ x2 − y2 = a [1]
2xy = b [2]
To find x and y solve the simultaneous equations.

9
M O DUL E 1
________
EXAMPLE 9 Express √(5 + 12i) in the form x + iy.

________
SOLUTION Let √(5 + 12i) = x + iy
5 + 12i = (x + iy)2
5 + 12i = x2 + i(2xy) + i2y2
5 + 12i = x2 − y2 + i(2xy)
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
x2 − y2 = 5 [1]
2xy = 12 [2]
From [2] y = ___ 6
12 = __
2x x
Substitute into [1]
( )
x2 − __6 2=5
x
36 = 5
x − ___
2
x2
× x ⇒ x2 × x2 − ___
2 36 × x2 = 5 × x2
x2
x4 − 5x2 − 36 = 0
Let a = x2
a2 − 5a − 36 = 0
So (a − 9) (a + 4) = 0
a = 9 or a = −4
So x2 = 9 or x2 = −4
Since x ∊ℝ, x2 = 9
__
x = ±√9
x = 3 or −3
Note 6=2
When x = 3, y = __
________ 3
Recall √(5 + 12i) When x = −3, y = −__6 = −2
≡ x + iy ________ 3
So √(5 + 12i) = 3 + 2i or −3 − 2i

_______
Try this 1.2 Express √(3 − 4i) in the form x + iy.

EXERCISE 1A
1 Let z1 = 2 + 4i and z2 = 3 + 5i. Express the following in the form x + iy.
z1
(a) z1 + z2 (b) z1 − z2 (c) z1 z2 (d) __
z2
In questions 2–5, evaluate the expressions in a + bi form, given that
z1 = 3 + i, z2 = 4 − 3i, z3 = −1 + 2i and z4 = −2 − 5i.
2 (a) z1 − z2 (b) z2 + z3 − z4 (c) z1* z2
z*
3 (a) z1 + z2 (b) z3 z4 (c) __3
z*4
10
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

z*1 + z*2
4 (a) z1 z2 z3 (b) z2 z3 + z1 z4 (c) ______
z*3 z*4
z1 z1 + z2 z1 z2 z1 + z2
5 (a) __ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
z2 z3 z4 z1 + z2 z3 + z4
6 Evaluate
(a) i12 (b) i15 (c) i21 4
(d) __ 5
(e) ___
i8 i20
7 1 + 3i evaluate in the form a + ib
If z = ______
1 − 2i
(a) z2 1
(b) z − __
z
8 Find a complex number z such that z2 = −5 + 12i.
9 The complex numbers u, v and w are related by the equation
1 __1 __1
u=v+w
__

Given that v = 1 − 2i and w = 3 + i, find the complex number u in the form


x + yi where x, y ∊ ℝ.
2 − i − ______
10 If z = _____ 6 + 8i , find the value of x for which Re(z) = Im(z).
1+i x+i
11 Find the square root of (a) 3 + 4i (b) 24 − 10i

Remember
Roots of a polynomial
A polynomial is an The remainder theorem and the factor theorem hold for complex numbers as well as
expression of the real numbers. If a polynomial equation has complex roots, then
form anxn + an − 1 _
xn – 1 + … + a0 (i) if all coefficients are real, the roots occur in conjugate pairs α, α
where a0, a1, …
an − 1, an are con- (ii) a quadratic factor of the polynomial is z2 − 2 Re(α)z + |α|2
stants and n ∊ 𝕎.
where α is one root of the equation.
The roots of an
equation y = f(x) _ _
If α and α are roots, then the factorised polynomial (z − α) (z − α)
are the values of x _ _
= z2 − αz − α z + α α
for which f(x) = 0. _
= z2 − z(α + α) + α α
_

= z2 − 2 Re (α) z +|α|2

Quadratic equations

E X A M P L E 10 Solve the equation z2 + z + 1 = 0.

SOLUTION z2 + z + 1 = 0
Using the quadratic formula, we have
____________ ___
−1 ± √(1)2 − 4(1)(1) __________
z = __________________ = −1 ± √−3
2(1)
__ ___ __
2
−1 ± √3 √−1 = _________
= _____________ −1 ± √3 i
2 __ 2 __
1 √ 3
Hence z = − + ___i or z = −__
__ √3 i
1 − ___
2 2 2 2
11
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 11 Solve the equation z2 − 2z + 2 = 0.

SOLUTION Using the quadratic formula, we have


______________ ___
−(−2) ± √(−2)2 − 4(1)(2) ________
z = _______________________ = 2 ± √−4
2(1) 2
__ ___
−2 ± √4 √−1 = _______
= _____________ −2 ± 2i = −1 ± i
2 2
Hence z = −1 + i or z = −1 − i

Note that in the above examples the coefficients of the quadratic equations are real
and the roots are conjugates of each other.

E X A M P L E 12 Solve the equation z2 + iz + 2 = 0.

SOLUTION Using the quadratic formula with a = 1, b = i, c = 2, we have Note


____________ ___ In this case the
−(i) ± √(i) − 4(1)(2) _________
2
z = ___________________ = −i ± √−9 coefficient of z
2(1) 2 is not real and
__ ___
−i ± √9 √−1 = _______
= ____________ −i ± 3i = __ −4i
2i , ____ hence the roots
2 2 2 2 will not occur in
conjugate pairs.
∴ z = i or z = −2i

E X A M P L E 13 Solve the equation z2 − (3 + 5i)z + 2 + 5i = 0.

SOLUTION Using the quadratic formula with a = 1, b = −(3 + 5i), c = 2 + 5i, we have
_______________________
(3 + 5i) ± √(−(3 + 5i))2 − 4(1)(2 + 5i)
(−(3 + 5i))2 z = _________________________________
2(1)
= 9 + 30i +25i2 _________
= 9 − 25 +30i 3 + 5i ± √−24 + 10i
= __________________
2_________
= −16 + 30i
We next write √−24 + 10i in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ ℝ.
−16 + 30i _________
− 8 − 20i √−24 + 10i = x + iy
= −24 + 10i Squaring both sides
−24 + 10i = (x + iy)2
−24 + 10i = x2 + i2y2 + 2ixy
−24 + 10i = x2 − y2 + 2xyi (i2 = −1)
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
x2 − y2 = −24 [1]
2xy = 10 [2]
5
y = __
x

12
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Substituting into [1]


x2 − ( __
x)
5 2 = −24
25 = −24
x2 − ___
x2
Multiplying by x2
x4 − 25 = −24x2
x4 + 24x2 − 25 = 0
(x2 + 25)(x2 − 1) = 0
∴ x2 = −25 or x2 = 1
Since x is real
x2 = 1
∴ x = ±1
5=5
When x = 1, y = __
1
5 = −5
When x = −1, y = ___
−1
_________ _________
√−24 + 10i = 1 + 5i or √−24 + 10i = −1 − 5i
Since _________
z= 3 + 5i ± √ −24 + 10i
__________________
2
3 + 5i ± (1 + 5i) 3 + 5i + 1 + 5i 3 + 5i − 1 − 5i
z = _______________ = _____________ or _____________
2 2 2
4 + 10i or z = __
z = _______ 2
2 2
Hence z = 2 + 5i or z = 1

Other polynomials

E X A M P L E 14 Show that 1 + 2i is a factor of f(z) = z3 − z2 + 3z + 5. Hence solve the equation


f(z) = 0.

SOLUTION Substituting z = 1 + 2i, we have


z3 − z2 + 3z + 5 = (1 + 2i)3 − (1 + 2i)2 + 3(1 + 2i) + 5
= 1 + 3(2i) + 3(2i)2 + (2i)3 − (1 + 4i + 4i2) + 3 + 6i + 5
= 1 + 6i + 12i2 + 8i3 − 1 − 4i − 4i2 + 3 + 6i + 5
= 1 + 6i − 12 − 8i − 1 − 4i + 4 + 3 + 6i + 5
= 13 − 13 + 12i − 12i = 0
By the factor theorem 1 + 2i is a factor of z3 − z2 + 3z + 5.
Since all the coefficients of the polynomial are real, complex roots occur in conjugate
pairs.
Since 1 + 2i is a root then 1 − 2i is also a root of the equation.

13
M O DUL E 1
A quadratic factor is
(z − (1 + 2i))(z − (1 − 2i)) = z2 − (1 + 2i)z − (1 − 2i)z + (1 + 2i)(1 − 2i)
= z2 − z − 2iz − z + 2iz + 1 − 2i + 2i − 4i2
= z2 − 2z + 5 since i2 = −1
Now z3 − z2 + 3z + 5 = (z2 − 2z + 5)(az + b)
Equating coefficients of z3 gives a = 1
Equating the constants: 5 = 5b, b = 1
∴ z3 − z2 + 3z + 5 = (z2 − 2z + 5)(z + 1) = 0
Therefore, when z + 1 = 0, z = −1
The roots of the equation are 1 + 2i, 1 − 2i, −1.

EXERCISE 1B
In questions 1–5, solve the quadratic equations.
1 z2 + 16 = 0 2 z2 − 8z + 17 = 0
3 z2 − 4z + 5 = 0 4 z2 − 6z + 13 = 0
5 z2 − 10z + 31 = 0
In questions 6–9, write each expression as a product of linear factors.
6 z2 + 1 7 z2 − 2z + 2
8 z2 − 6z + 25 9 z4 − z2 − 2z + 2
__
10 Express √2i in the form a + bi where a, b ∊ ℝ. Hence solve the equation
z2 − (3 + 5i)z − 4 + 7i = 0.
11 Given that u2 = −60 + 32i, express u in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ ℝ.
Hence solve z2 − (3 − 2i)z + 5 − 5i = 0.
12 Show that 4 + 2i is a root of the equation 3z3 − 23z2 + 52z + 20 = 0.
Hence solve the equation.
13 Show that 1 + i is a root of the equation 4z3 − 7z2 + 6z + 2 = 0, and find the
other values of z satisfying the equation.
14 Given that 3 − 2i is a root of the equation z3 − 8z2 + 25z − 26 = 0, write down
a quadratic factor of f (z) = z3 − 8z2 + 25z − 26. Hence solve the equation
f (z) = 0.
15 Solve the equation z3 − 5z2 + 8z − 6 = 0.

14
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

The Argand diagram


A complex number can be represented in a rectangular or Cartesian axis. An
Argand diagram is a plot of complex numbers as points in the complex plane.
The horizontal axis represents the real axis and the vertical axis represents the
___›axis. Let z = x + yi. A point P can be used to represent the number
imaginary
( )
z where OP = xy . Im (z)

Complex numbers can be treated as vectors in P


the xy plane. The complex number z can be
A complex represented on the xy plane as shown.
y
number written The diagram is called the Argand diagram, Re (z)
as z = x + yi is in
named after the Swiss accountant and amateur 0 x
Cartesian form.
mathematician Jean Argand (1768–1822).

E X A M P L E 15 Show the following numbers on an Argand diagram.

(a) 3 + i (b) 1 − i (c) −1 − i (d) −1 + i (e) 4 + 2i

SOLUTION When showing a complex number


on an Argand diagram the real Im (z)
4
part is plotted along the horizontal
axis and the imaginary part along 3

the vertical axis. For the complex (4, 2) (e)


2
number 3 + i, we move 3 units 4 + 2i
(d) (–1, 1) 1 (3, 1) (a)
to the right from the origin and 3+i Re (z)
Note 1 unit upward from the origin.
–2 –1 1 2 3 4
The components of the complex
All the complex (c) (–1, –1) –1 (1, –1) (b)
numbers start at
number are (3, 1) and the complex
the origin. number 3 + i is represented by the vector ( 31 ). –2

Addition and subtraction on the Argand diagram


We add and subtract complex numbers z1 and z1
z2 on the Argand diagram in the same way that Im (z)
z2

we add and subtract vectors. We complete a


+
z1

z2
parallelogram as shown. The leading diagonal
is z1 + z2 and the other diagonal is z2 − z1. z2 z2

z1

z1
Re (z)

15
M O DUL E 1
In this diagram the sum of 2 + 3i and 4 + i is Im (z)
the vector 6 + 4i. 4

3
2 + 3i 6 + 4i 2 + 3i
2

1
4+i Re (z)
1 2 3 4 5 6

Multiplication by i Im (z)
P
3
Let P = z. The complex number iz can be found
by rotating OP anticlockwise through 90 ° 2
about the origin. 2 + 3i
–3 + 2i 1
z = 2 + 3i Re (z)
–3 –2 –1 O 1 2 3
iz = 2i + 3i2
= −3 + 2i
Note
Modulus (length) of a complex number Im (z)
The modulus of a P
complex number Consider a complex number, z = x + yi, in the
is the distance Cartesian form. r
from the origin ______ y
to the end point,
Let r = √ +x2 y2 ;r is called the modulus of z and
Re (z)
that is, the length is denoted by | z |. O x
______
of the line OP. So r = | z | = | x + yi | = √x2 + y2

E X A M P L E 16 Find the modulus of the following.


(a) 2 + i (b) 2 − i (c) 3 + 4i (d) cos θ + i sin θ

_______ __
SOLUTION (a) | 2 + i | = √22 + 12 = √5
__________ __
(b) | 2 − i | = √22 + (−1)2 = √5
_______ ___
(c) | 3 + 4i | = √32 + 42 = √25 = 5
____________ __
(d) ∣ cos θ + i sin θ ∣ = √cos2 θ + sin2 θ = √1 = 1 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1)

Notes

(i) |z| = |z*|


(ii) z z* = |z|2
Proof: Let z = x + iy
z z* = (x + iy)(x − iy)
= x2 + y2
______
= (√x2 + y2 )2
= |z|2

16
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Argument of a complex number


y
Let z = x + iy. From the triangle: tan θ = __
x
so θ = tan−1 __
y
x ( ) Im (z)

The angle θ is called the argument of z and is denoted by


arg(z). r
y
Special care must be taken when finding the argument
θ Re (z)
of a complex number. The argument depends on which x
quadrant the complex number lies in.

Notes
(i) The argument is measured in radians.
(ii) The argument is measured from the positive real axis.
(iii) The principal argument of z is such that −π < θ ≤ π.
(iv) If the complex number is in the
y
( )
1st or 4th quadrant: θ = tan−1 __x
2nd quadrant: θ = π + tan−1 __x
y
( )
3rd quadrant: θ = −π + tan−1 __x
y
( )

E X A M P L E 17 Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers.
(a) 1 + i (b) 1 − i (c) −1 + i (d) −1 − i

_______ __
SOLUTION (a) | 1 + i | = √12 + 12 = √2 Im (z)

1
θ Re (z)
1

( )
arg (1 + i) = tan−1 __
1
___________
π (1 + i is in the first quadrant)
1 = __
4
(b) | 1 − i | = √(1)2 + (−1)2 Im (z)
__ 2
= √2
1

Re (z)
–2 –1 θ 1 2

–1 (1, –1)

–2
π (1 − i is in the fourth quadrant)
arg (1 − i) = tan−1 (−1) = − __
4
17
M O DUL E 1
__________ __
(c) | −1 + i | = √(−1)2 + 12 = √2 2
Im (z)

1
(–1, 1)

θ Re (z)
–2 –1 1 2

–1

–2

π = ___
arg (−1 + i) = π + tan−1(−1) = π + ( −__ 3π
4) 4
_____________ __
(d) | −1 − i | = √(−1)2 + (−1)2 = √2 Im (z)
2

Re (z)
–2 –1 θ 1 2

(–1, –1) –1

–2


arg (−1 − i) = −π + tan−1 ___
−1 ( ) ( π4 ) = −___
−1 = −π + __
4

E X A M P L E 18 Find the modulus and argument of −2 − i.

_____________
SOLUTION | −2 − i | = √(−2)2 + (−1)2
_____ __ Im (z)
2
= √4 + 1 = √5

The complex number −2 − i lies in the 3rd 1


quadrant, therefore its argument should be
negative. Re (z)
θ
( )
−1 = 0.464
Basic angle tan−1 ___
−2
–2 –1 1 2

–1
(–2, –1)

–2
arg (−2 − i) = −π + 0.464 = −2.678 radians

Try these 1.3 Find the modulus and argument of the following.
__ __ __
(a) (i) 5 + i (ii) √3 − i (iii) −√3 − i (iv) −√3 + i
(b) (i) 3 + 4i (ii) 2 − 4i (iii) −2 + 5i (iv) −4 − 7i

18
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Trigonometric or polar form of a complex number


y Im (z)
Note sin θ = __r ⇒ y = r sin θ
x ⇒ x = r cos θ
cos θ = __
To represent a r
r
complex number Substitute into z = x + iy y
in polar form,
you must find z = r cos θ + i r sin θ θ Re (z)
x
the modulus and = r (cos θ + i sin θ), −π < θ ≤ π
argument of the
number. z = r (cos θ + i sin θ) is the trigonometric or
polar form of the complex number.

E X A M P L E 19 Determine the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 3 + i and express
z in polar form.

Im (z) z=3+i
(
θ = tan _____
Re (z)) _______
r = | z | = √32 + 12 = √10
___
where Im (z) = 1
and Re (z) = 3
( )
θ = arg (3 + i) = tan−1 __1 = 0.322
3
Using z = r (cos θ + i sin θ) gives the polar form of z as
___
z = √10 (cos 0.322 + i sin 0.322)

E X A M P L E 20 Determine the modulus and argument of the complex number z = −2 + i, and


express z in polar form.

SOLUTION z = −2 + i
__________ __
r = | z | = √(−2)2 + 12 = √5

θ=π+
Im (z)
1
θ = arg (z) = π + tan−1 ___
–2 ( ) (−2 + i lies in the 2nd quadrant)
(
tan−1 _____
Re (z) ) = π − 0.464
Im (−2 + i) = 1
Re (−2 + i) = −2 = 2.678 radians
__
So z = √5 (cos 2.678 + i sin 2.678)

E X A M P L E 21 Write the following in the form r (cos θ + i sin θ), −π < θ ≤ π, giving θ either as a
multiple of π or in radians to 3 significant figures.
__
(a) 1 + i √3 (b) 1 − i
__
(c) −1 − i (d) −3√3 − 3i
__ _________
__ _____ __
SOLUTION (a) r = | 1 + i √3 | = √12 + (√3 )2 = √1 + 3 = √4 = 2
__
(1)
__ __
θ = arg (1 + i√3 ) = tan−1 ___ π
√3 = __ (1 + i√3 lies in the 1st quadrant)
3
__
π + i sin __
1 + i √3 = 2 ( cos __ π
3)
So
3
19
M O DUL E 1
__________ __
(b) r = | 1 − i | = √12 + (−1)2 = √2
π
θ = arg (1 − i) = tan−1 −__11 = − __
4 ( ) (1 − i lies in the 4th quadrant)

π + i sin −__
( π4 )
__
So 1 − i = √2 cos ( −__
4) [ ]
_____________ _____ __
(c) r = | −1 − i | = √(−1)2 + (−1)2 = √1 + 1 = √2
θ = arg (−1 − i) = −π + tan−1 ___
−1
π
−1 = −π + __
4 ( ) (3rd quadrant)

= − ___
4

[ (

) ( )]
__
So −1 − i = √2 cos −___ ___
4 + i sin − 4
__ _______________
__ ______ ___
(d) r = | −3√3 −3i | = √(−3 √3 )2 + (−3)2 = √27 + 9 = √36 = 6
__
−3__ − π = __
θ = arg (−3√3 − 3i) = tan−1 ______ π−π
−3√3 6 ( ) (3rd quadrant)

= −___
6

[ (

) ( )]
__
So −3√3 − 3i = 6 cos − ___ ___
6 + i sin − 6

E X A M P L E 22 Find the modulus and argument of the expression z = 1 + cos θ + i sin θ.

_________________
SOLUTION r = | z | = √(1 + cos θ)2 + sin2 θ
________________________
= √1 + 2 cos θ + cos2 θ + sin2 θ
__________
= √2 + 2 cos θ (cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1)
___________
= √2 (1 + cos θ)
____________

√ (
θ
= 2 × 2 cos2 __
2 ) ( 2 cos 2 θ = 1 + cos θ
__
2 )
= 2 cos θ
__
2

(
sin θ
arg (z) = tan−1 ________
1 + cos θ )

( 2 sin ( ) cos ( )
)
θ
__ θ
__
= tan−1 _____________
2 2
( sin θ = 2 sin __θ2 cos __θ2 )
2 cos2 (2) θ
__

(
θ = __
= tan−1 tan __
2
θ
2 )
So θ cos __
z = 2 cos __
2 2 [ ()
θ + i sin __
θ
2 ( )]

20
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Exponential form of a complex number


In Module 2 you will see that ex, sin θ and cos θ can be written as polynomials as shown:

sin θ = θ − __θ3 + __θ5 − __ θ7 + . . .


3! 5! 7!
θ2 + __
cos θ = 1 − __ θ4 − __ θ6 + . . .
2! 4! 6!
e = 1 + x + __
x x2 + __
x3 + . . .
2! 3!
Replacing x by iθ gives
(iθ)2 (iθ)3 (iθ)4 (iθ)5
eiθ = 1 + iθ + ____ + ____ + ____ + ____ + . . .
2! 3! 4! 5!
θ 2 iθ 3 θ 4 iθ
= 1 + iθ − __ − ___ + __ + ___ − . . .
5
2! 3! 4! 5!
( θ + __
) (
θ − . . . + i θ − __ θ3 + __
)
θ5 − . . .
2 4
= 1 − __
2! 4! 3! 5!
= cos θ + i sin θ
So eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ
Any complex number can thus be expressed in the form reiθ. This is called the
exponential form of a complex number.

E X A M P L E 23 Write the number 1 + i in exponential form.


_______ __
SOLUTION r = | 1 + i | = √12 + 12 = √2

πi
__ __ 1
π
4( )
θ = arg (1 + i) = tan−1 __1 = __
So 1 + i = √2 e 4 (using reiθ)

__
E X A M P L E 24 Find the modulus and argument of z = √3 + i.
Write z in polar form and in exponential form.
_________
__ __
SOLUTION r = √(√3 )2 + 12 = √4 = 2

__
√3 ( )π
1__ = __
θ = arg (z) = tan−1 ___
6 Polar form:
r(cos θ + i sin θ)
π
So √3 + i = 2 ( cos + i sin __π
6)
__
6 Exponential form: reiθ
_ πi
__
√3 + i = 2e 6

E X A M P L E 25 1 + i, write z in the form


Given that z = _____
1−i
(a) x + iy (b) r (cos θ + i sin θ) (c) reiθ

SOLUTION (a) z = _____ 1+i


1 + i × _____
1−i 1+i
1 + i + i + i = __
= ____________
2
2i = i
__1 + 1 2
(b) z = √12 = 1
arg (z) = tan−1 __
0 ( )
π
1 = __
2
π
So z = 1 ( cos + i sin __π
2)
__
πi
2
__
(c) z = e 2
21
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 26 Find the modulus and the argument, in radians to 3 d.p., of the following.
__
(a) (−2 + 3i)(1 + √3 i) 3+i
(b) _____ −2 + 3i
(c) _______ __
2−i 1 + i √3
Hence write each number in polar form and in exponential form.

__
SOLUTION (a) (−2 + 3i)(1 + √3 i)
__ __
= −2 − 2√3 i + 3i + 3√3 i2
__ __
= −2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 )
__ __ _______________________
__ __ ___
r = −2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 ) = √(−2 − 3√3 )2 + (3 − 2√3 )2 = √52
__

( )
__ __
3 − 2√3__ − π = −3.077
θ = arg (−2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 )) = tan−1 _________
−2 − 3√3
__ ___
(−2 + 3i) (1 + √3 i) = √52 [ cos (−3.077 + i sin (−3.077) ] (polar form)
___
= √52 e−3.077i (exponential form)

(b) _____ 3 + i × _____


3 + i = _____ 2 + i = ______________
6 + 3i + 2i + i2 = _________
6 − 1 + 5i = 1 + i
2−i 2−i 2+i 22 − i2 5
__
r = 1 + i = √2
π
arg (1 + i) = tan−1 (1) = __
4
__
+ π π
3
2−i
i
( 4 4)
_____ = √2 cos __ + i sin __ (polar form)
πi
__ __
= √2 e 4 (exponential form)
__ __ __
−2 + 3i
(c) _______ −2 + 3i
__ = _______
__ 1 − i √3__ = _____________________
________ −2 + i 2√3 + 3i − i23√3
1 + i √3 ×
1 + i √3 1 − i √3 1+3
__ __ __ __
−2 + 3√3 + i (2√3 + 3) −2 + 3√3 2√3 + 3
= _____________________ = _________ + i _______
4 4 4
_______________________
∣ _________ 2√3 + 3 ∣ = _________
__ __ __ __

√( −2 +4 3√3 ) + ( _______ )
−2 + 3√3 2√3 + 3 2 2
4 + i _______ = 1.803 (3 d.p.)
4 4

( )
__
__ __ 2√3 + 3
_______
(
−2 + 3√3 + i _______
arg _________
4
2√3 + 3 = tan−1 _________
4 −2 + 3√3
_________
)
4 __ = 1.112 radians (3 d.p.)

4
−2 + 3i
_______
__ = 1.803 (cos 1.112 + i sin 1.112) (polar form)
1 + i√3

= 1.803 e1.112i (exponential form)

De Moivre’s theorem
Let z = r (cos θ + i sin θ)
z2 = [r (cos θ + i sin θ)]2 = r2 (cos θ + i sin θ)2
= r2 (cos2 θ − sin2 θ + i 2 sin θ cos θ)
= r2 (cos 2θ + i sin 2θ) (since cos 2θ = cos2 θ − sin2 θ and sin 2 θ = 2 sin θ cos θ)
22
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

z3 = r2 (cos 2θ + i sin 2θ) × r (cos θ + i sin θ)


= r3 (cos 2θ cos θ + i sin θ cos 2θ + i sin 2θ cos θ + i2 sin 2θ sin θ)
= r3 [cos 2θ cos θ − sin 2θ sin θ + i (sin θ cos 2θ + sin 2θ cos θ)]
= r3 [cos (2θ + θ) + i sin (2θ + θ)]
= r3 (cos 3θ + i sin 3θ)
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B
So we have z = r (cos θ + i sin θ)
so cos 2θ cos θ − sin 2θ sin θ = cos (2θ + θ)
z2 = r2 (cos 2θ + i sin 2θ) = cos 3θ
z3 = r3 (cos 3θ + i sin 3θ)
sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
and, extending this result, we get so sin 2θ cos θ + cos 2θ sin θ = sin (2θ + θ)
zn = rn (cos nθ + i sin nθ) = sin 3θ
de Moivre’s theorem states that for any real number n
(cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ

E X A M P L E 27 Prove de Moivre’s theorem for any positive integer n.

SOLUTION We require to prove that (RTP)


(cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ, n ∊ ℤ+
Proof: Let Pn be the statement (cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ.
Since (cos θ + i sin θ)1 = cos θ + i sin θ, P1 is true.
Assume that Pn is true for n = k, i.e.
Recall the (cos θ + i sin θ)k = cos k θ + i sin k θ.
principle of RTP: true for n = k + 1, i.e. Pk+1 is true.
mathematical
induction Proof: (cos θ + i sin θ)k+1
(PMI): prove the = (cos θ + i sin θ)k (cos θ + i sin θ) (rules of indices)
statement true = (cos kθ + i sin kθ) (cos θ + i sin θ)
for n = 1; assume = cos kθ cos θ + i sin θ cos kθ + i sin kθ cos θ + i2 sin kθ sin θ
the statement
= (cos kθ cos θ − sin k θ sin θ) + i (sin θ cos kθ + cos θ sin kθ)
true for n = k
and prove the = cos (k + 1) θ + i sin (k + 1)θ
statement true
for n = k + 1. cos (A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B
Hence, by PMI, cos (kθ + θ) = cos kθ cos θ − sin kθ sin θ
it is true for all
n ∊ ℤ+. Hence, by PMI, (cos θ + i sin θ)n = cos nθ + i sin nθ, n ∊ ℤ+

E X A M P L E 28 Express cos 3θ and sin 3θ in terms of cos θ and sin θ only.

SOLUTION By de Moivre’s theorem


(cos θ + i sin θ)3 = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ
Binomial Using the binomial expansion (or Pascal’s triangle) to expand (cos θ + i sin θ)3
expansion is cos3 θ + 3 cos2 θ (i sin θ) + 3 cos θ (i sin θ)2 + (i sin θ)3 = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ
covered in
Module 2. Pascal’s Pascal ’s t r i a n g l e
triangle can be
used for the 1
expansions 1 1
involved at this 1 2 1
stage. 1 3 3 1
23
M O DUL E 1
cos3 θ + i 3 cos2 θ sin θ + i2 3 cos θ sin2 θ + i3 sin3 θ = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ
cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ + i 3 cos2 θ sin θ − i sin3 θ = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ
cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ + i (3 cos2 θ sin θ − sin3 θ) = cos 3θ + i sin 3θ

{
{
SFBMQBSU SFBMQBSU
Equating real and imaginary parts

cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ = cos3 θ − 3 cos θ (1 − cos2 θ)


= cos3 θ − 3 cos θ + 3 cos3 θ
= 4 cos3 θ − 3 cos θ
sin 3θ = 3 cos2 θ sin θ − sin3 θ = 3 (1 − sin2 θ) sin θ − sin3 θ
= 3 sin θ − 3 sin3 θ − sin3 θ
= 3 sin θ − 4 sin3 θ

E X A M P L E 29 Using de Moivre’s theorem, express cos 5θ in terms of cos θ only.

Pa s c a l ’s t r i a n g l e
SOLUTION By de Moivre’s theorem
1
cos 5θ + i sin 5θ = (cos θ + i sin θ)5 1 1
Using Pascal’s triangle, expand (cos θ + i sin θ)5: 1 2 1
1 1 3 3
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
___
cos 5θ + i sin 5θ
i = √−1
= cos5 θ + i 5 cos4 θ sin θ + i2 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + i3 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ
i2 = −1
i3 = −i + i4 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i5 sin5 θ
i4 = 1
i5 = i = cos5 θ + i 5 cos4 θ sin θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ − i 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i sin5 θ
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i (5 cos4 θ sin θ − 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ + sin5 θ)
Equating real parts
cos 5θ = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ
Substituting sin2 θ = 1 − cos2 θ, we have
cos 5θ = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ (1 − cos2 θ) + 5 cos θ (1 − cos2 θ)2
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5 cos θ (1 − 2 cos2 θ + cos4 θ)
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5 cos θ − 10 cos3 θ + 5 cos5 θ
= 16 cos5 θ − 20 cos3 θ + 5 cos θ

E X A M P L E 30 Express tan 4θ in terms of tan θ using de Moivre’s theorem.

SOLUTION By de Moivre’s theorem cos 4θ + i sin 4θ = (cos θ + i sin θ)4


Using Pascal’s triangle, expand (cos θ + i sin θ)4:
cos 4θ + i sin 4θ
= cos4 θ + i 4 cos3 θ sin θ − 6 cos2 θ sin2 θ − i 4 cos θ sin3 θ + sin4 θ
= cos4 θ − 6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ + i (4 cos3 θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin3 θ)
24
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Equating real and imaginary parts


cos 4θ = cos4 θ − 6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ
sin 4θ = 4 cos3 θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin3 θ
sin 4θ = __________________________
tan 4θ = ______ 4 cos3 θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin3 θ
cos 4θ cos4 θ − 6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ
Divide numerator and denominator by cos4 θ
4 cos θ sin θ − 4 cos θ sin θ
3
________________________
3

θ
tan 4θ = __________________________
cos4
cos4 θ −6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ
_________________________
cos4 θ
_____ 4 sin θ
4 sin θ − ______3
cos θ cos3 θ
_____________________ 4 tan θ − 4 tan3 θ
tan 4θ = = _________________
cos4 θ − ______
_____ 6 sin2 θ + _____
sin4 θ 1 − 6 tan2 θ + tan4 θ
cos θ
4 cos θ
2 cos4 θ

π + i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π 8.
4)
E X A M P L E 31
4

SOLUTION ( cos __π4 + i sin __π4 ) 8


8π + i sin ___
= cos ___ 8π (using de Moivre’s theorem)
4 4
= cos 2π + i sin 2π
=1 (cos 2π = 1, sin 2π = 0)

π − i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π 8.
6)
E X A M P L E 32
6

SOLUTION ( cos __π6 − i sin __π6 ) 8


π + i sin −__
= [ cos ( −__ 6) ( π6 ) ]
8
(write in the form cos θ + i sin θ)
sin (−θ) = −sin θ
cos (−θ) = cos θ (

= cos −___ )8π
___
6 + i sin − 6
__
( ) (using de Moivre’s theorem)

= −__ + √3 i
1 ___
2 2

E X A M P L E 33 Find the value of (1 + i)10.

SOLUTION We first write 1 + i in polar form and then use de Moivre’s theorem.
__
|1 + i| = √2
arg (1 + i) = tan−1 (1) = __π
4
__
π + i sin __
1 + i = √2 ( cos __ π
4 4)
__
π + i sin __
π 10
[
(1 + i)10 = √2 ( cos __
4 4) ]
( )
__
10π + i sin ____
= (√2 )10 cos ____ 10π (using de Moivre’s theorem)
4 4
= 25 ( 0 + i ) = 32i

25
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 1C
1 Find the modulus of each of the following.
(a) 2 + 5i (b) 3 + 7i (c) −1 − 4i (d) −1 + 2i
(e) cos θ + i(2 sin θ)
2 Find the argument of each of the following.
(a) 2 + 4i (b) 3 − i (c) −1 + 2i (d) −4 − 2i
3 Write each of the following in exponential and polar form.
__ __
(a) 2 − √3i (b) 2i − √3 (c) 1 − i
4 Using de Moivre’s theorem, find the value of each of the following.
π + i sin __
(a) ( cos __ π 9
3) [ (2π + i sin ___

)]
10
(b) 2 cos ___
3 5 5
(c) ( cos π
___ + i sin )π
___ 6 π
(d) ( cos + i sin )
__ π
__ 8
18 18 2 2
5 Write each of the following in the form x + iy.
__
(a) (1 + i)20 (b) (3 − √3 i)12
__
(c) (−√3 + i)9 (d) (1 − i)5
π + i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π .
6)
−3
6 6
7 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express sin 4θ and cos 4θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ.
Hence show that cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ − 8 cos2 θ + 1 and
sin 4θ = 4 sin θ(2 cos3 θ − cos θ).
8 Find cos 7θ in terms of cos θ.

9 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express sin 3θ and cos 3θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ.
Hence find tan 3θ in terms of tan θ.

10 Use de Moivre’s theorem to find tan 5θ in terms of tan θ.


11 Use de Moivre’s theorem to prove that if θ is not a multiple of π,
sin 5θ = 16 cos4 θ − 12 cos2 θ + 1.
_____
sin θ
12 Use de Moivre’s theorem to prove that
cos 3θ + i sin 3θ = cos 2θ − i sin 2θ.
______________
cos 5θ + i sin 5θ
4 tan θ − 4 tan θ .
13 Show that tan 4θ = _________________
3

1 − 6 tan θ + tan θ
2 4

Use your result to solve the equation


t4 + 4t3 − 6t2 − 4t + 1 = 0, t = tan θ
nπ .
giving your answer in the form tan ___
16

26
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

14 Use de Moivre’s theorem to simplify the following expressions.


(a) (cos 3θ + i sin 3θ) (cos θ + i sin θ)5
(b) (cos 2θ + i sin 2θ) (cos θ + i sin θ)7
cos θ − i sin θ
(c) ______________
cos 4θ − i sin 4θ

Locus of a complex number


Let z = x + iy and P(x, y) ≡ z. The locus of the point P is a set of points in the
complex plane which satisfies a given condition. There are four standard forms
for the locus of a complex number in the Argand diagram. When identifying a
locus, there is a variable complex number z, a fixed complex number and a condition
placed on the variable number. The condition is generally the modulus or argument.

Circles
Let c ∊ ℂ and r ∊ ℝ. The locus of z satisfying the condition Im (z)
When using the
r
equation, make |z − c| = r
c
sure that the
coefficient of z is a circle with centre c and radius r.
is 1 and the Re (z)
complex number 0
c is governed by
the negative sign.

__
E X A M P L E 34 Describe and sketch the locus of z where |z − 1 − i| = √2

__
SOLUTION |z − 1 − i| = √2 Im (z)
__
⇒ |z − (1 + i)| = √2
Write the equa-
tion in the form The locus of __
z is a circle centre (1, 1) (1, 1)
|z − c| = r where and radius √2 √2
the negative sign Re (z)
governs the fixed 0
number 1 + i.

E X A M P L E 35 Describe and sketch the locus of z where |z − 2 + i| = 1. Im (z)

SOLUTION |z − 2 + i| = 1
Re (z)
⇒ |z − (2 − i)| = 1 0
Is the locus in the
standard form? So z lies on a circle with centre (2, –1)
at (2, −1) and radius 1 unit.

27
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 36 Describe and sketch the locus of z where
|z + 2 + 4i| = 2. Im (z)

SOLUTION |z − (−2 − 4i)| = 2


Re (z)
z lies on a circle with centre (−2, −4) and
radius 2.

(–2, –4)

Perpendicular bisector of a line segment


Let a, b ∊ ℂ. The locus of z satisfying the condition Im (z)

|z − a| = |z − b| b

is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b. a locus of z


Re (z)

E X A M P L E 37 Describe and sketch the locus of z satisfying the condition |z − 1 + i| = |z − 1 − i|.

SOLUTION |z − 1 + i| = |z − 1 − i| Im (z)

⇒ |z − (1 − i)| = |z − (1 + i)|
The locus of z is the perpendicular locus of z
2
bisector of the line joining (1, −1)
(1, 1)
to (1, 1). This is the real axis. 1
Re (z)
1
–1
(1, –1)
–2

28
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

E X A M P L E 38 Describe and sketch the locus of z satisfying the condition |z − 2 − 2i| = |z + i|.

SOLUTION Write the equation in the form locus of z


Im (z)
4
|z − (2 + 2i)| = |z − (−i)|
3
The locus of z is the perpendicular bisector (2, 2)
2
of the line joining (2, 2) to (0, −1).
1
(1, 12) Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
–1 (0, –1)

–2

E X A M P L E 39 Describe and sketch the locus of z satisfying the condition |z + 1 + 2i| = |z − 1 + 3i|.

SOLUTION The locus of z is the perpendicular bisector Im (z)


2
of the line joining (−1, −2) to (1, −3).
1
Re (z)
We write the –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
equation in the –1
locus of z
form
| z − a | = | z − b |: (–1, –2) –2
| z − (−1−2i) | =
(0, – 52 )
–3 (1, –3)
| z − (1 − 3i) |
–4

Half-line
Let a ∊ ℂ, and the angle θ be measured in radians. Im (z)
Can you identify The locus of z satisfying the condition locus of z
why it is a half-
line and why arg (z − a) = θ
the end point is θ
excluded? is a half-line starting at a a
Re (z)
(but excluding a) and making 0
an angle of θ radians with the
positive real axis.

29
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 40 π.
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z − 1 − i) = __
4

SOLUTION arg (z − 1 − i) = __π


4 Im (z)

⇒ (z − (1 + i)) = __ π locus of z
4
π
The locus of z is a half-line starting at (1, 1) 4
Write the equa- [excluding (1, 1)] and making an angle (1, 1) Re (z)
tion in the form π radians with the real axis.
of __ 0
arg (z − a) = θ. 4

E X A M P L E 41 3π .
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z + 1 + i) = ___
4

SOLUTION 3π
arg (z + 1 + i) = ___
Im (z)
4
⇒ arg (z − (−1 − i)) = ___ 3π locus of z
4
The locus of z is a half-line starting at
Write the equa-
(−1, −1) [excluding (−1, −1)] and Re (z)
tion in the form
making an angle of ___3π radians with 3π 0
arg (z − a) = θ. 4 4
the positive real axis. (–1, –1)

E X A M P L E 42 π.
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z + 2 + 3i) = __
6

SOLUTION Writing the equation in the form Im (z)


arg (z − a) = θ we have
arg (z − (−2 − 3i) = __ π. Re (z)
6 –2 0
The locus of z is a half-line starting locus of z
at (−2, −3) [excluding (−2, −3)] and
making an angle of __π radians with the π
6 6
positive real axis.
–3
(–2, –3)

Straight line
Let z = a + λb, λ ∊ ℝ, a, b ∊ ℂ.
The locus of z is a line passing through a and parallel to b.

30
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

E X A M P L E 43 Describe and sketch the locus of z


where z = (1 + i) + λ(2 − i), λ ∊ ℝ. 4
Im (z)

3
SOLUTION The locus of z is a line passing through
locus of z
(1, 1) and parallel to (2 − i). 2

1 (1, 1)
Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
–1 (2, –1)

–2

E X A M P L E 44 Describe and sketch the locus of z where


z = −1 + 2i + λ(3 + 4i), λ ∊ ℝ. Im (z)
4 (3, 4)

SOLUTION The locus of z is a line passing through 3


(−1, 2) and parallel to 3 + 4i. (–1, 2) 2
locus of z
1
Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
–1

–2

E X A M P L E 45 Sketch the locus of z where


z = 3 + 2i + λ(−1 − 3i), λ ∊ ℝ. 4
Im (z)

3
SOLUTION The locus of z is a line passing through
2
(3, 2) and parallel to −1 − 3i. (3, 2)

1
Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
–1

–2 locus of z

–3
(–1, –3)
–4

Inequalities
When identifying the region represented by an inequality, we first draw the region
bounded by the boundary line. Then we can shade the appropriate region satisfied by
the inequality.

31
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 46 Indicate on an Argand diagram the set of points satisfying the conditions
π.
|z − 1 − i| ≤ 2 and arg (z − 1 − i) ≤ __
4

SOLUTION First we ignore the inequality and sketch the locus for |z − 1 − i| = 2. This can be
written as |z − (1 + i)| = 2, which is a circle centre (1, 1) and radius 2. Once the
boundary line (the circle) is drawn, the appropriate region must be shaded.
Since the inequality is ‘less than or equal to’, the circle must be solid and everything
inside the circle is shaded.
For arg (z − 1 − i) ≤ __ π, we first draw
4
arg (z − 1 − i) = __π ⇒ arg (z − (1 + i)) = __π Im (z)
4 4
The locus of z is a half-line, starting π
arg (z – 1 – i) =
at (1, 1) (but excluding (1, 1)) and making 4
π radians with the positive
an angle of __
2 Region
4
real axis. After drawing this line, look at
(1, 1)
the inequality and shade the appropriate Re (z)
0
region. Remember, if the equality is
included the boundary line must be solid
and if the boundary line is excluded |z – 1 – i| = 2
draw it as a broken line.

E X A M P L E 47 Shade the region in the Argand diagram representing the set of complex numbers z
satisfying the condition |z − 4 − 5i| ≤ 4. Find the greatest and least value of |z|.

SOLUTION First we draw |z − 4 − 5i| = 4 ⇒ Im (z)


|z − (4 + 5i)| = 4, which is a circle 9
B
centre (4, 5) and radius 4. The region 8
to be shaded is |z − (4 + 5i)| ≤ 4, i.e. 7 4
inside the circle and the boundary is left 6
solid as this is included in the inequality.
5 (4, 5) C
Since all the complex numbers z 4
satisfying the inequality are either
3
on or inside the circle, the complex
2
number with the largest modulus is A
the number starting at the origin, 1
Re (z)
passing through the centre and ending
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
on the circumference of the circle OB.
The complex number with the smallest
modulus is OA.
_______
Length of OC = √42 + 52 which is the length of 4 + 5i
___
= √41
___
Greatest value of |z| = √41 + 4 = 10.4 (1 d.p.)
___
Least value of |z| = √41 − 4 = 2.4 (1 d.p.)

32
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

E X A M P L E 48 Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points representing all complex numbers z
satisfying the inequality |z − 3 − 4i| ≤ 2. Find the least value of arg (z).

SOLUTION First we sketch |z − 3 − 4i| = 2, which is Im (z)


a circle centre (3, 4) and radius 2. We next
shade the inside of the circle, leaving the
boundary line as solid. 2
B (3, 4)
The complex number with the smallest C
argument is OA (the tangent to the circle). 2
We need to find β. 5
A
_______number 3 + 4i, the
Since OC is the complex
α 4
length of OC = √32 + 42 = 5. β Re (z)
O 3
Using the diagram,
2
sin α = __
5
( )
α = sin−1 __2 = 0.412 radians
5
sin (α + β) = 4
__
5
( )
α + β = sin−1 __4 = 0.927
5
( ) ( )
β = sin−1 __4 − sin−1 __2 = 0.927 − 0.412 = 0.515 radians (3 d.p.)
5 5
The least value of arg (z) = 0.515 radians.

Intersecting loci

E X A M P L E 49 On a single Argand diagram, sketch the following loci.


π
(a) arg (z − 1) = __ π
(b) arg (z) = __
2 3
Hence or otherwise find the exact value of z satisfying both equations.

SOLUTION π, the locus of z is


(a) For arg (z − 1) = __ Im (z)
2 π
4 arg (z – 1) =
a half-line starting at (1, 0) [excluding 2
(1, 0)] and making an angle of __ π radians 3 arg (z) =
π
2 3
with the positive real axis. 2
(a, b)
π, the locus of z is a half-
(b) For arg (z) = __
3 1 b
line starting at (0, 0) [excluding (0, 0)] π
Re (z)
and making an angle of __ π radians with 3
3 –2 –1 0 a 1 2 3 4
the positive real axis. –1

Let the point of intersection be a + bi. –2


From the diagram
π = __
a = 1, tan ( __ π = √__
3 ) 1 (
b ⇒ b = tan __
3)
3
__
∴ The point of intersection is z = 1 + i √3 .

33
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 50 On a single Argand diagram sketch the loci given by

(a) |z − 2 − 2i| = 1 π
(b) arg (z) = __
4
Hence, find the exact values of all complex numbers z satisfying both (a) and (b).

SOLUTION (a) |z − 2 − 2i| = 1 ⇒ |z − (2 + 2i)| = 1 Im (z)


4
The locus of z is a circle with centre (2, 2) and
radius 1. 3
1
B
(c, d)
(b) For arg (z) = __π, the locus of z is a half-line 2
C
4 (a, b)
(2, 2)
starting at (0, 0) [excluding (0, 0)] and mak-
ing an angle of __π radians with the positive 1
π
A
b
4 4 Re (z)
real axis. 0
_______ –2 –1 a1 2 3 4
__ __
Length of OC = √ 22 + 22 = √8 = 2√2 –1
From the
diagram there To find the first point of intersection, a + ib –2
are two points of __
intersection, A, B. Length of OA = 2√2 − 1
π = _______
cos ( __
4 ) 2√2 − 1
__a

__
π
a = (2√2 − 1) cos ( __
4)
__ __
( )
__
√2 √2
a = (2√2 − 1) ___ =2− ___
2 2
Since the triangle is isosceles a = b.
Therefore the first point of intersection is
__ __
√2
2 − ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 − ___
2 )
To find the second point of intersection, c + id:
__
Length of OB = 2√2 + 1
π = _______
cos ( __
4 ) 2√2 + 1
__c

__
π
c = (2 √2 + 1) cos ( __
4)
__ __
(2)
__
√2 √2
c = (2 √2 + 1) ___ = 2 + ___
2
Since the triangle is isosceles c = d.
Therefore the second point of intersection is
__ __
√2
2 + ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 + ___
2 )
The two points of intersection are
__ __ __ __
√2
2 − ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 − ___ ) √2
and 2 + ___
2
√2
+ i 2 + ___
2
. ( 2 )
34
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

Cartesian form of loci


__
E X A M P L E 51 Find in Cartesian form the equation of the locus of z where |z − 1 − i| = √2 .
Describe the locus of z.

SOLUTION Since z is a variable complex number,


__
let z = x + iy.
Substituting into |z − 1 − i| = √2 , we have
__ Recall
|x + iy − 1 − i| = √2 _______
__ | x + iy | = √ x2 + y2
⇒ |(x − 1) + i(y − 1)| = √2
________________ __ ⇒| (x − i) + i(y − 1) |
√(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 = √2 ________________
= √(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2
Squaring both sides: (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 = 2
The Cartesian equation is (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 = 2.
__
It represents a circle with centre (1, 1) and radius √2 .

E X A M P L E 52 Find in Cartesian form the locus of z where |z − 1 + i| = |z + 2 + 3i|.

SOLUTION Since z is a variable complex number we replace z by z = x + iy in


|z − 1 + i| = |z + 2 + 3i| to get

|x + iy − 1 + i| = |x + iy + 2 + 3i|
|(x − 1) + i(y + 1)| = |(x + 2) + i(3 + y)|
________________ ________________
√(x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = √(x + 2)2 + (3 + y)2
Squaring both sides: (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = (x + 2)2 + (3 + y)2
Expanding both sides
x2 − 2x + 1 + y2 + 2y + 1 = x2 + 4x + 4 + 9 + 6y + y2
0 = 6x + 4y + 11
The Cartesian equation is 6x + 4y + 11 = 0

E X A M P L E 53 The locus of a variable complex number z is |z − 2 + i| = 2|z − 1 − i|.


Find the locus of z in Cartesian form.

SOLUTION Let z = x + iy
Substituting into |z − 2 + i| = 2|z − 1 − i| gives
|x + iy − 2 + i| = 2|x + iy − 1 − i|
Rearranging
|x − 2 + i(y + 1)| = 2|(x − 1) + i(y − 1)|
________________ ________________
√(x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 2√(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2
Squaring both sides
(x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 4[(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2]
∴ x2 − 4x + 4 + y2 + 2y + 1 = 4x2 − 8x + 4 + 4y2 − 8y + 4
0 = 3x2 + 3y2 − 10y − 4x + 3
The Cartesian equation is 3x2 + 3y2 − 10y − 4x + 3 = 0

35
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 1D

1 Sketch the locus of z in each of the following.


(a) |z| = 3 (b) |z − i| = 4 (c) |z + 4| = 2
(d) |z − 1 + 2i| = 5 (e) |z + 1 + 3i| = 6 (f) |z + 2 − 4i| = 7
2 Sketch the locus of z in each of the following.
(a) |z − 1 − i| = |z − 1 + 2i| (b) |z − 3 + i| = |z + 1 + 2i|
(c) |z − 3i| = |z| (d) |z + 2| = |z − 2|
|z + 1 + 4i|
(e) __________ = 1 (f) |z −1 − 7i| = |z + 1 + i|
|z −1 − 2i|
3 Sketch the locus of z in each of the following.
π π
(a) arg (z) = __ (b) arg (z) = − __
6
2
π
(c) arg (z − 1) = __ π
(d) arg (z − i) = ___
4 12

(e) arg (z − 3 + 2i) = ___ 2π
(f) arg (z − 3 − 4i) = −___
4 3
4 Sketch the locus of z in each of the following.
(a) z = 1 + 2i + λ(1 − 3i) λ∊ℝ
(b) z = 1 − 2i + λ(3 + 2i) λ∊ℝ
(c) z = i + λ(4 + i) λ∊ℝ
(d) z = 3 − 2i + λ(5 + 2i) λ∊ℝ
(e) z = 1 − 4i + λ(−1 − 3i) λ∊ℝ
(f) z = 2 + λ(4 + 2i) λ∊ℝ
5 Sketch on a separate Argand diagram the region that represents each of the
following.
(a) |z − 2| ≤ 3 (b) |z − 3| < | z − i|
(c) |z − 3| ≤ 2 (d) |z − 2i| ⩽ | z + 3 − i|
π
(e) arg (z − i) ≥ __ 2π
(f) arg ( z − 1 + 3i) ≤ ___
4 3
6 Sketch and describe the locus of z in each of the following.
(a) |z − 1 + 2i| = 2 (b) |z + 3 + 2i| = |z − 1 − i|
π
(c) arg (z − 1 + i) = __ 3π
(d) arg (z − 2 − 3i) = ___
3 4
7 Describe and sketch on a separate diagram the following loci of z.
(a) |z + 2 + 3i| = 5 2π
(b) arg (z − 2 − 2i) = − ___
3
(c) |z − 3 − i| = |z + 4 + 2i| (d) z = (1 + i) + λ(−3 + 5i) λ∊ℝ
8 On a single diagram, sketch the loci given by
(a) |z − 2| = 3 (b) |z − 2 − 2i| = |z|
Find the point of intersection of the two loci.
9 Find the Cartesian equation of the locus of z where |z − 3 + i| = |z + 1 + 2i|.

36
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

10 Find in Cartesian form the equation of the locus of z where |z − 2 + 3i | = 4.


Describe the locus of z.
11 Find in Cartesian form the equation of the locus of z where
2π . Describe the locus of z.
arg (z − 3 − 4i) = − ___
3
12 Sketch on separate diagrams the locus of z such that
(a) |z + 2| = |z − 1| π
(b) arg (z − i)= __ (c) |z − 2 + 5i| = 3
4
13 By drawing the locus of |z − (3 + 3i)| = |z| and |z − 3| = 4 on an Argand
diagram, find the exact values of all the complex numbers satisfying both loci.
14 Sketch on an Argand diagram the locus of z where |z − 4 − 2i| = 1.
Hence find the complex number z with the smallest argument. Find also the
complex number z with the largest possible argument.
π on an Argand
15 Draw the line |z − 2i| = |z − 4| and the half-line arg (z − 1) = __
4
diagram. Hence find the complex number which satisfies both equations.
16 Indicate on an Argand diagram the set of points satisfying the condition
1. Find the greatest and least value of arg (z).
|z − 1 − i| = __
2

SUMMARY
Complex numbers

z = x + iy where i = √–1 z = x + iy Loci in the Argand diagram

Re (z) = x, Im(z) = y r =z= √x2 + y2 z – c= r, c ∈ℂ, r ∈ℝ


Circle centre c, radius r

Conjugate of z = z, or z* y
z = x – iy ()
arg (z) = θ = tan–1 x
z – a= z – b, a, b ∈ℝ
θ is measured from the Perpendicular bisector
positive real axis, of the line joining a to b
z z = x2 + y2
θ is in radians and –π < θ ≤ π

arg (z – a) = θ, a ∈ℝ
z = r(cos θ + i sin θ ) Half-line starting at a
if z1 = a + bi, z2 = c + di
then (excluding a) making an
z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i(b + d) angle of θ radians with the
z = reiθ positive real axis

z1 – z2 = (a – c) + i(b – d)
De Moivre’s theorem z = a + λ b, a, b ∈ℂ, λ ∈ℝ
For a real number n Straight line passing through
z1z2 = (a + bi) (c + di) (cos θ + i sin θ )n = cos nθ + i sin nθ a and parallel to b
= (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i

z1 a + bi a + bi c – di
= = ×
z2 c + di c + di c – di

z1 = z2 a = b, c = d

37
M O DUL E 1

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Express complex numbers in the form a + ib, a, b, ∊ ℝ.
■ Calculate the square root of a complex number.
■ Carry out the algebra of complex numbers (add, subtract, multiply, divide).
■ Calculate the complex roots of a polynomial.
■ Find the modulus of a complex number.
■ Find the argument of a complex number.
■ Understand the properties of modulus and argument.
■ Interpret the modulus and argument of complex numbers.
■ Represent complex numbers on an Argand diagram (including sums,
differences, products and quotients).
■ Identify and sketch the locus on an Argand diagram for |z − c| = r, c ∊ ℂ and r ∊ ℝ.
■ Identify and sketch the locus on an Argand diagram for |z − a| = |z − b|, a, b ∊ ℂ.
■ Identify and sketch the locus on an Argand diagram for arg (z − a) = θ, a ∊ ℂ
and θ in radians.
■ Identify and sketch the locus on an Argand diagram for z = a + λb, a, b ∊ ℂ
and λ ∊ ℝ.
■ Convert a locus to Cartesian form.
■ Use de Moivre’s theorem for n ∊ ℤ+.
■ Establish that eiθ = cos θ + i sin θ.

Review exercise 1
1 −1 + 2i.
(a) Simplify _______
3+i
(b) Find the modulus and argument of −5 + 12i.
2 5 − 12i, find the modulus and argument of z.
Given that z = _______
3 + 4i
3 Find the square root of 16 − 30i in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ R.
4 Show that 1 + 4i is a root of the equation 2z3 − z2 + 32z + 17 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
5 __ of the equation z − 2z + 6 = 0, giving your answers in the
(a) Find the roots 2

form a ± i √b , where a and b are integers.


(b) Show these roots on an Argand diagram.
(c) For each root, find (i) the modulus (ii) the argument.
38
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1

__
6 A complex number z satisfies the inequality |z − (−2 + 2 √3 i)| ≤ 2.
Sketch the locus of z on an Argand diagram. Find
(a) the least possible value of |z|, (b) the greatest possible value of arg (z).
7 Express each of the following complex numbers in exponential form.
__
(a) 1 − √3 i (b) sin α − i cos α (c) 1 + cos 2θ + i sin 2θ
8 Show that 3 + 2i is a root of the equation 3z3 − 16z2 + 27z + 26 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
9 Describe and sketch the following loci on the same Argand diagram.
(a) |z| = |z − 4| π
(b) arg (z − i) = __
4
Hence find the complex number which satisfies both equations.
__
10 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express (√3 − i)6 in the form a + bi.
3 + 4i .
11 The complex number w is given by w = ______
1 − 2i
(a) Express w in the form a + bi, where a and b are real.
(b) Sketch an Argand diagram showing the point representing w.
Show on the same diagram the locus of the point z such that |z − w| = 1.
(c) Find the greatest value of arg z for points on this locus.
__
12 Show that z = 1 + √2 i is a root of the equation 2z3 + z2 − 4z + 15 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
13 (a) Given that z1 = 1 − i, find z18.
(b) Given also that z1z2 = 5 + 12i, find z2 in the form c + di.

( )
θ
__ θ .
(c) Show that eiθ = 2e i 2 cos __
2
14 (a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points representing all complex
numbers z satisfying both the inequalities |z − i| ≤ 1 and |z − i| ≤ |z|.
(b) Find the square root of −5 + 12i. Hence solve z2 + 4z = 9 − 12i = 0.
eiα where 0 < α < 2π.
15 The complex number z is given by z = ______
1 − eiα
__
2
__
2 (
Show that z = − + cot ( ) i.
1 1 α
__
2 )
16 Find the modulus and argument of −7 + 8i.
Hence express (−7 + 8i)8 in the form x + yi.
1
17 (a) If w = 4 − 3i, express w + __
w in the form a + bi.
(b) Find the square roots of 4i.
(c) Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points satisfying |z| < |z − 1| and
π < arg z < __π.
− __
4 4
18 Describe the locus given by |z − 1| = |z + i| and |z − (3 − 3i)| = 2 and sketch
both loci on an Argand diagram.
Find, in an exact form, the points of intersections of the loci.

39
M O DUL E 1
19 (a) Evaluate (1 − i)15.

___
5i
e giving your answer correct to three significant figures.
(b) Evaluate ___

___
e4i
cot θ − i in exponential form.
20 Express ________
cot θ + i
21 Show that the Cartesian equation of the locus of z where
|z − 1 − i| = 2|z − 2 + 3i|

(
is x − __
3 ) ( 3 )
13 2 = ___
7 2 + y + ___ 68 .
9
Clearly describe the locus of z.

α e 2 i.
22 Prove that for all n ∊ ℤ and α ∊ ℝ, (1 + cos α + i sin α)n = 2n cosn ( __
___

2 )
23 Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that cos 5θ = 16 cos5 θ
− 20 cos3 θ
+ 5 cos θ.
__
1 + √5 .
π = ______
By considering the equation cos 5θ = 0, show that cos ( __
5) 4
2 π
Hence deduce the exact value of cos ( ).
___
10

40
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2
Differentiation

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ find the derivative of e f (x) where f (x) is a function of x
■ find the derivative of ln f (x) where f (x) is a function of x
■ use the chain rule to obtain gradients of tangent and normals
■ carry out implicit differentiation
■ differentiate combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, exponential and
logarithmic functions
■ differentiate inverse trigonometric functions
■ find the second derivative f ″(x) of a function
■ carry out parametric differentiation
■ find the first partial derivative of u = f(x, y) and w = f(x, y, z)
■ find the second partial derivative of u = f(x, y) and w = f(x, y, z).

KEYWORDS/TERMS
EFSJWBUJWFtUSJHPOPNFUSJDGVODUJPOtQPMZOPNJBMt
DIBJOSVMFtDPNQPTJUFGVODUJPOtFYQPOFOUJBM
GVODUJPOtMPHBSJUINJDGVODUJPOtQSPEVDUSVMFt
RVPUJFOUSVMFtUBOHFOUtOPSNBMtJNQMJDJU
EJČFSFOUJBUJPOtTFDPOEEFSJWBUJWFtQBSBNFUSJD
EJČFSFOUJBMtJOWFSTFUSJHPOPNFUSJDGVODUJPOt
QBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWFtĕSTUQBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWFtTFDPOE
PSEFSQBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWF

41
M O DUL E 1
Standard differentials
Differentiation was introduced in Unit 1. We found derivatives of functions using
the definition (from first principles) and we spent time differentiating products
and quotients of trigonometric functions and polynomials. The table of standard
differentials is given below with the extension for Unit 2 included. Familiarise
yourself with this table. In this table a and b are constants.

Function Derivative
xn nx n−1
(ax + b)n na(ax + b)n−1
ex ex

eax+b aeax+b
ln x 1
__
x
a
______
ln (ax + b) ax + b
sin x cos x
cos x − sin x
tan x sec2 x
sec x sec x tan x
cosec x − cosec x cot x
cot x − cosec2 x
1
_______
______
arcsin x
√1 − x2
−1
_______
______
arccos x
√1 − x2
1
______
arctan x
1 + x2
dy
___ dv + v ___
du
Product rule y = uv = u ___
dx dx dx
du − u ___
v ___ dv
u
Quotient rule y = __ dy ___________
v ___ = dx 2 dx
dx v

Differentiation of ln x
Let f (x) = ln x
f (x + h) − f (x)
By definition f ′(x) = limh→0 _____________
h
f (x) = ln(x + h)
ln(x + h) − ln x
f ′(x) = lim ______________
h→0 h

h→0 [ (
x+h
ln _____
= lim _________
h
x )
]
= lim __
h→0 h
(
1 ln 1 + __h
x )
42
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

h ⇒ h = xt. As h → 0, t → 0, therefore
Let t = __
x

[
f ′(x) = lim __
t→0
1 ln(1 + t)
xt ]
Remember 1 ln(1 + t)__1t
= lim __
x
1
__ t→0
lim (1 + t) t = e
t→0 = __ 1
1 ln e = __
x x
1.
Hence when f (x) = ln x, f ′(x) = __
x

Differentiation of ex

Let y = ex. Taking logs to base e, we get

ln y = x

Differentiating with respect to x gives

__ dy
1 ___ dy
___ x
y dx = 1 therefore dx = y = e
dy
Hence when y = ex, ___ = ex .
dx

EXAMPLE 1 Differentiate with respect to x: (a) y = e4x, (b) y = 3e−2x, (c) y = 6e3x+5

SOLUTION (a) y = e4x


dy
___ = 4e4x
dx
(b) y = 3e−2x
dy
___ = −6e−2x
dx
(c) y = 6e3x+5
dy
___ = 6 × 3e3x+5 = 18e3x+5
dx

Chain rule (function of a function rule)


Remember
The chain rule is used to differentiate a composite function or a function of a
d (e x) = e x
___ function. When using the chain rule we need to keep in mind that one function is
dx inside the other and we let u be the function inside.
d (eax+b) =
and ___
dx Let y = f g (x) and u = g (x)
aeax+b where
dy dy du
a and b are Then ___ = ___ × ___
constants. dx du dx
Let us start with differentiating exponential functions.

43
M O DUL E 1
2+3
EXAMPLE 2 Differentiate y = e4x with respect to x.

SOLUTION This is a function of a function with 4x 2 + 3 being the function inside the
exponential function.
Use the chain We let u = 4x2 + 3
rule.
dy du = 8x 2+3 ← inside
Then y = eu and ___ = eu, ___ y = e4x
du dx ↑
Using the chain rule: outside
From the table
on page 42 dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
d (e x ) = e x
___
dx du dx
dx = 8x eu
Substituting u = 4x2 + 3 gives
dy
___ = 8x e4x +3
2

dx

EXAMPLE 3 Find the gradient function of y = esin x + 2 cos x

SOLUTION This function is a composite function with inside


sin x + 2 cos x being the function inside the ↓
exponential function. y = esin x + 2 cos x

Let u = sin x + 2cos x outside
dy du = cos x − 2 sin x dy
∴ y = eu, ___ = eu and ___ Using ___ = f ′g(x) × g′(x)
du dx dx
dy ___dy ___ dy
___
___ = × du = (cos x − 2 sin x)eu = (cos x − 2 sin x)e sin x + 2 cos x
dx
dx du dx ↑ ↑
g′(x) f ′g(x)
Substituting u = sin x + 2 cos x gives
dy
___ = (cos x − 2 sin x)esin x + 2 cos x
dx

3 + 2x
EXAMPLE 4 Find the gradient of the curve y = 5e3x when x = 0.

dy
SOLUTION We need to find ___ when x = 0.
dx g(x)
Since y = e3x +2x, let u = 3x 3 + 2x, and y = 5eu
3

3 + 2x
y = 5e3x
du = 9x2 + 2
___ ↑
dx f
dy
___ dy
= 5eu ___ = f ′g(x) × g′(x)
du dx
= 5(9x2 + 2)e3x + 2x
3
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du = 5 (9x2 + 2)eu ↑ ↑
dx du dx g′(x) f ′g(x)
= 5 (9x2 + 2)e3x +2x
3

dy
When x = 0, ___ = 5(9(0)2 + 2) e3(0) +2(0) = 10e0 = 10
3

dx

44
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

Try these 2.1 (a) Find the gradient function of (i) y = 4e3x2+7x+2 (ii) y = etan x
π.
(b) Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = e3 cos x − sin x at x = __
2
(c) Given that y = 5esec x, find the rate of change of y with respect to x.

d [ln x] = __
Moving on to logarithmic functions, recall that ___ 1 and
dx x
d [ln (ax + b)] = ______
___ a , where a and b are constants.
dx ax + b

EXAMPLE 5 Find the derivative of y = ln (6x + 3).

SOLUTION y = ln (6x + 3) is a function of a function with 6x + 3 inside the logarithmic function.


g We let u = 6x + 3, y = ln u

y = ln (6x + 3) du = 6 and ___ dy __

___ =1
dx du u
f dy dy du
g′ Using ___ = ___ × ___
dx du dx

dy ______ 1 6
___ = 1 ×6 = __
u×6=u
__
dx 6x + 3

Substituting u = 6x +3,
f ′g
6 dy ______
= ______
6x + 3
___ = 6
dx 6x + 3

EXAMPLE 6 Find the derivative of y = ln (cos x − sin x) with respect to x.

SOLUTION y = ln (cos x − sin x) is a function of a function with cos x − sin x inside the
logarithmic function.
We let u = cos x − sin x and y = ln u
dy __ y = ln (cos x − sin x)
du = −sin x − cos x and ___
___ =u 1
dx du dy ___________
___ 1
= × (−sin x − cos x)
dy dy dx cos x − sin x
du
___ = ___ × ___
dx du dx −sin x − cos x
dy __ = ____________
cos x − sin x
___ 1
= u × (−sin x − cos x)
dx
−sin x − cos x
= ____________ (substituting u = cos x − sin x)
cos x − sin x

EXAMPLE 7 Differentiate y = ln (ex + 6) with respect to x.

SOLUTION Let u = ex + 6 ∴ y = ln u
Hence
du = ex and ___ dy __
___ =1
dx du u
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
dx du dx
1
= __ 1
______ ex
______
u × e = ex + 6 × e = ex + 6 (since u = ex + 6)
x x

45
M O DUL E 1
EXAMPLE 8 (
Differentiate y = ln _____
x+2 )
x + 1 with respect to x.

SOLUTION Using rules of logs will make it easier to differentiate the function.

(
y = ln _____
x+2 )
x + 1 = ln (x + 1) − ln (x + 2)
( ln ( __ab )= ln a − ln b )
dy 1
1 − _____
Hence ___ = _____
dx x + 1 x + 2

_______
EXAMPLE 9 Differentiate y = ln √2x2 + 3 .

_______ 1
y = ln √2x2 + 3 = ln (2x 2 + 3) 2
__
SOLUTION f g
↓ ↓
Using the rules of logs (ln x n = n ln x) 1 ln (2x2 + 3)
y = __
2
1 ln (2x2 + 3)
y = __ dy __
2
function inside ___ = 1 × _______
1 × 4x
dx 2 2x2 + 3
Differentiating using the chain rule ↑ ↑
f ′g g′

[ ]
dy __ 2x
___ 1
= 1 _______ (4x) = _______
dx 2 2x2 + 3 2x2 + 3

Try these 2.2 Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.


(a) y = ln (4x2 + 3x + 2)
(b) y = ln (tan 2x)
1
(c) y = ln (2x + 1)__2

Differentiating exponential functions of the form


y = ax
Let y = ax. Taking logs to base e,
ln y = ln ax
Use the chain
rule to differen- ∴ ln y = x ln a
tiate ln y since Differentiate both sides with respect to x: since we are differentiating with respect to
this is a compos- dy
1 ___
x, the derivative of ln y is __
ite function. y dx .
inside dy
1 ___
__
↓ y dx = ln a
d [ln(y)]
___
dx dy
↑ ∴ ___ = y ln a
dx
outside dy
dy
d (y) = ___ Since y = ax, replacing this in ___, we get
___ dx
dx dx dy
___
dy = a ln a
x
d 1 ___
___[ln y] = __ dx
dx y dx dy
Hence if y = ax then ___ = ax ln a.
dx

46
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

dy
E X A M P L E 10 Given that y = 2x, find ___ when x = 2.
dx

SOLUTION Let y = 2x
Taking logs to base e,
If the derivatives
are known they ln y = ln 2x
can be used as
standard results, ∴ ln y = x ln 2
e.g. Differentiating both sides with respect to x:
d ( 3x ) = 3x ln 3.
___ dy
1 ___
__
dx y dx = ln 2
dy
∴ ___ = y ln 2
dx
dy
Since y = 2x, replacing this in ___, we get
dx
dy
___ = 2x ln 2
dx
dy
Hence if y = 2x then ___ = 2x ln 2.
dx
Replacing x = 2,
dy
___ = 22 ln 2 = 4 ln 2
dx

Differentiating logarithms of the form y = loga x


Converting y = loga x to exponential form
x = ay
Taking logs to base e
ln x = ln a y
ln x = y ln a
Differentiating with respect to x
dy
1 = ___
__
x dx ln a
dy _____
___ = 1
dx x ln a
dy 1 .
Hence if y = loga x then ___ = _____
dx x ln a

dy
E X A M P L E 11 Given that y = log10 x, find ___.
dx

SOLUTION Converting y = log10 x to exponential form Remember


x = 10 y d log x = _____
___ 1
dx ( a ) x ln a
Taking logs to base e d log x = ______
___ 1
dx ( 10 ) x ln 10
ln x = ln 10 y
ln x = y ln 10 (by rules of logs)
47
M O DUL E 1
Differentiating with respect to x
dy
1 = ___
__
x dx ln 10
dy ______
___ = 1
dx x ln 10

dy
E X A M P L E 12 Given that y = log3 x, find ___.
dx

dy 1 . Using this known standard


SOLUTION If y = loga x then ___ = _____
dx x ln a
result, many questions can be answered quickly in the
following manner. This is useful when
answering multiple
dy 1 .
If y = log3 x then ___ = _____ choice questions.
dx x ln 3

( )
dy _____________
2x + 1 , show that ___ −5
E X A M P L E 13 Given that y = ln ______ = .
x−2 dx (2x + 1)(x − 2)

SOLUTION Using rules of logs


Remember
( )
2x + 1 = ln (2x + 1) − ln (x − 2)
y = ln ______
x−2
Differentiating with respect to x, we have ( )
a = ln a − ln b
ln __
b
Using rules of logs
dy ______
___ = 2 − _____ 1 and differentiating is
dx 2x + 1 x − 2 much faster than
differentiating
___ 2(x − 2) − (2x + 1) _____________
dy _________________ −5
= = directly.
dx (2x + 1)(x − 2) (2x + 1)(x − 2)

E X A M P L E 14 Find the gradient of the curve y = xx at x = 1.

SOLUTION y = xx

Taking logs to base e and using rules of logs


Did you try this?
d ( x x ) = (x − 1) x x–1
___ ln y = ln xx = x ln x
dx
Why is it incorrect?
Differentiating with respect to x, we have

y dx = x ( x ) + ln x = 1 + ln x
__ dy
1 ___ 1
__

dy
∴ ___ = xx ( 1 + ln x )
dx
dy
Substituting x = 1, ___ = 11 ( 1 + ln 1 ) = 1
dx

48
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

_____
dy ______
1 − x , show that ___
E X A M P L E 15 Given that y = ln _____
1+x √ = 1 .
dx x2 − 1
_____
1−x
SOLUTION

y = ln _____
1+x
Remember (
y = ln _____
1+x )
1 − x __12

When finding Using rules of logs


the derivatives 1 {ln (1 − x) − ln (1 + x)}
of log functions y = __
2
applying the Differentiating with respect to x, we have
rules of logs first
may make the
differential easier
dy __
___
{ −1 − _____
= 1 _____
dx 2 1 − x 1 + x
1
}
to cope with.
{−1(1 + x) − (1 − x)
1 __________________
= __
2 (1 − x)(1 + x) }
{ −2
1 ______
= __
2 1 − x2 }
−1 = ______
= ______ 1
1 − x2 x2 − 1

Try these 2.3 Differentiate the following with respect to x.


(a) y = 5x (b) y = 12x (c) y = log6 5x (d) y = log10 (2x)

EXERCISE 2A
1 Find the derivative of the following functions.
(a) y = ln (4x − 5) (b) y = ln (x2 + 2x + 4)

(c) y = ln (3x2 + 2) (
2x + 1
(d) y = ln ______
x−2 )
y = ln ( ______
7x − 2 )
(e) y = ln(4x + 7)6 (f) 4x + 1

( )
______
5x − 3
(g) y = ln _______ (h) y = ln √3 − 4x
(3x+5)4

(i) y = ln cos3 x

2 Find the rate of change of y with respect to x for the following functions.
(b) y = 7e5x + 2
2
(a) y = 4e x
______
3+3x − 2
(c) y = e x (d) y = e√4x − 1
(e) y = ecos x − sin 2x (f) y = etan 4x
(g) y = e6 cos 6x (h) y = 5ecos 4x + 3
______
(i) y = 4e−√ x2 + cos x

49
M O DUL E 1
3 Find the gradient function for each of the following.
(a) y = 7x (b) y = 6x
(c) y = (4x + 1)x (d) y = (1 − 2x)x+1
(e) y = log2 (2x + 1) (f) y = log3 x 2
_____
(g) y = log10 √x + 2 (h) y = 5 log4 (2 − 3x)

4 Given that y = 4x, find the rate of change of y with respect to x.

5 Two variables θ and t are related by θ = __ dθ when t = 2.


6 . Find the value of ___
3t dt
2
6 Find the gradient of the curve y = e2x−x when x = 1.

dμ dμ
7 Show that ___ = 4 tan t when μ = ln (3 cos4 t) and find the value of ___ when
dt dt
π
t= .
__
4
8 Find the gradient of the curve f (x) = x2x + 1 at x = 1.

( )
dy
4x + 2 find ___
9 Given that y = ln ______ .
3x − 1 dx

( )
__
dy π when y = ln ________
10 Show that ___ = 2 √2 at x = __ sin2 x .
dx 4 1 + cos x

Differentiation of combinations of functions


In this section we are going to find the derivatives of functions by combining the
product rule, quotient rule and chain rule with the table of standard derivatives.
The product rule and quotient rule are given below.
dy dv + v ___
du .
Product rule: If y = uv where u and v are functions of x then ___ = u ___
dx dx dx
du − u ___
___ dv
u
__ dy v___________
dx dx .
Quotient rule: If y = v where u and v are functions of x then ___ =
dx v2

dy
E X A M P L E 16 Find ___ when y = ex ln x.
dx

SOLUTION Since y = ex ln x is a product, we use the product rule to differentiate the function.

Use the product Let u = ex, v = ln x


rule. du = ex, dv = __
1
___ ___
dx dx x
dy dv + v ___
du , we get
Substituting into ___ = u ___
dx dx dx
dy 1 + (ln x)ex
___ = ex __
dx x

= ex ( __
1 + ln x
x )
50
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

dy x+1 .
E X A M P L E 17 Find ___ when y = _______
dx 2x2 + 1

SOLUTION x+1
y = _______
2x2 + 1
Use the quotient du = 1
Let u = x + 1, ___
rule. dx
dv = 4x
v = 2x2 + 1, ___
dx
dv
du − u ___
v ___
dy __________
___ dx dx
Substituting into = , we get
dx v2
(2x2 + 1)(1) − (x + 1)(4x)
dy ______________________
___ =
dx (2x2 + 1)2
2x + 1 − 4x − 4x
2
= ________________
2
(expanding and simplifying the numerator)
(2x2 + 1)2
−2x − 4x + 1 = ___________
2
= _____________ 1 − 4x − 2x 2

(2x2 + 1)2 (2x2 + 1)2

Differentiation of combinations involving trigonometric functions

E X A M P L E 18 Differentiate y = sin (4x + 6) with respect to x.

SOLUTION y = sin (4x + 6) is a function of a function.


Let u = 4x + 6, then y = sin u
Use the chain
du = 4 and ___
___ dy
rule. = cos u
dx du
dy dy du
Substituting into ___ = ___ × ___ , we get
dx du dx
dy
___ = 4 cos u = 4 cos (4x + 6)
dx

E X A M P L E 19 Differentiate y = sin4 x with respect to x.

SOLUTION Let u = sin x, then y = u4


du = cos x and ___
___ dy
= 4u3
Use the chain dx du
rule. dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
dx du dx
= 4u3 cos x
= 4 sin3 x cos x

E X A M P L E 20 Find the gradient function of y = tan6 (4x + 5).

SOLUTION Rewrite the function as Use the chain


rule.
y = [tan (4x + 5)]6
51
M O DUL E 1
Let u = tan (4x + 5), y = u6
du = 4 sec2(4x + 5) and ___
___ dy
= 6u5
dx du
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
dx du dx
= 6u5 × 4 sec2 (4x + 5)
= 24 u5 sec2 (4x + 5)
= 24 (tan5 (4x + 5)) sec2 (4x + 5)

E X A M P L E 21 Differentiate y = cos 3ϕ tan 3ϕ with respect to ϕ.

SOLUTION y = cos 3ϕ tan 3ϕ is a product of two functions of ϕ, so we can use the product rule.
Let u = cos 3ϕ, v = tan 3ϕ
du = −3 sin 3ϕ, ___
___ dv = 3 sec2 3ϕ
dϕ dϕ OR
dy dv + v ___
du y = cos 3ϕ tan 3ϕ
Substituting into the product rule ___ = u ___
dϕ dϕ dϕ sin 3ϕ
= cos 3ϕ ______
dy cos 3ϕ
___ = 3 sec2 3ϕ cos 3ϕ − 3 sin 3ϕ tan 3ϕ
dϕ y = sin 3ϕ

( sin 3ϕ
= 3 (tan2 3ϕ + 1) cos 3ϕ − sin 3ϕ ______
cos 3ϕ ) dy
___

= 3cos 3ϕ

(
sin2 3ϕ
= 3 ______
2
cos 3ϕ
sin2 3ϕ
cos 3ϕ + cos 3ϕ − ______
cos 3ϕ )
= 3 cos 3ϕ

E X A M P L E 22 ex
Find the gradient function of the curve y = __________ .
cos (2x) + 6

e x
SOLUTION y = __________ is a quotient of two functions of x.
cos (2x) + 6
du − u ___
v ___ dv
dx
Using the quotient rule y = ___________dx
v2
where u = ex v = cos (2x) + 6
du = ex
___ dv = −2 sin (2x)
___
dx dx
(cos (2x) + 6) ex − ex (−2 sin (2x))
dy _____________________________
___ =
dx (cos (2x) + 6)2

ex(cos (2x) + 2 sin (2x) + 6)


= _______________________
(cos (2x) + 6)2

52
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

2+5
E X A M P L E 23 Find the gradient of the curve θ = 6 cos ( 3t ) e4t at t = 0.

2+5
SOLUTION θ = 6 cos (3t) e4t represents a product of two functions of t.
Using the product rule

du = −18 sin (3t)


let u = 6 cos ( 3t ), then ___
dt
and v = e4t +5
2

Using the chain rule


w = 4t2 + 5, v = ew
dw = 8t,
___ dv = ew
___
dt dw
dv = ___
___ dv × ___
dw
dt dw dt

= 8tew = 8te4t +5
2

dθ = 6 cos (3t) (8te4t


∴ ___
2+5
) + e4t
2+5
(−18 sin (3t))
dt
2+5
= 6e4t [8t cos (3t) − 3 sin (3t)]

When t = 0,
dθ = 6e4(02)+5 [8(0) cos (3(0)) − 3 sin (3 (0))] = 0
___
dt

Try these 2.4 (a) Find the derivative of


(i) y = e2x cos x
(ii) y = 4 ln x sin (3x + 2)

(b) Find the gradient of the following functions at the given point.
π
(i) θ = tan (t + 3) sec t, when t = __
4
(ii) θ = e4t−1 (t + 2), when t = 0
3

EXERCISE 2B
1 Find the derivatives of the following functions.
(a) (2x + 3) ln x (b) (4x − 1) sin x2

(c) 3 ln x cos x (d) e4x+1 cos 4x

(e) e cos x ln 4x (f) ln3 x tan x2


_________
(g) √ln (3x + 5) sin x (h) x ln sin (4 − 2x)

(i) 2x sec 2x (j) 3−x ln x2


53
M O DUL E 1
2 Differentiate the following functions.
cos x ln (3x − 5)
(a) y = ________ (b) y = _________
sin x + 1 x+2
2x + 4
(c) y = _________ e x
(d) y = ________
ln (2x + 4) 2 + sin x
2sin 5x
(e) y = ______ x + sec 2x
(f) y = _________
ex + 2 e3x − 4
cos3 (2x)
(g) y = sin3 x + tan2 x (h) y = _______
sin2 x

dθ when t = π.
π sin 2 (t − π), find the value of ___
Given that θ = cos ( t + __
2)
3
dt

4 Find the coordinates of the point on the curve y = 4 xex at which the gradient is 0.

dy
5 Given that y = 4x, show that ___ = 32 ln 2 when x = 2.
dx
dy
6 Find the values of x for which ___ = 0, where y = x 2x.
dx
__
dθ = 2 √2 e2t sin 2t + __
7 Given that θ = e2t sin 2t, show that ___
dt ( π4 ).
dθ when t = __
Hence find the value of ___ π.
dt 8
dy
8 Show that y = 4e−2 when ___ = 0 where y = x2 ex.
dx
dy
5 when ___
9 Given that y = ln (sin x − cos x), show that tan x = __ = 4.
3 dx
dx = ___
10 A function x is given by x = ln (sec t + tan t). Show that x = __21 ln 3 when ___ 2__ .
dt √3

Tangents and normals


Gradients of tangents and normals
Consider the function y = f (x) with a point (x, y) lying on the graph of the
function. The tangent line to the function at (x, y) is a line that touches the curve
at one point. Both the graph of y = f (x) and the tangent line pass through this point
and the gradient of the tangent line and the gradient of the function have the same
value at this point. The gradient of the tangent at x = a is the
dy y
value of ___ when x = a. The normal is perpendicular to the
dx normal
dy
tangent. If the gradient of the tangent is ___ then the gradient P(x, y)
dx
___
1
of the normal is − ___
dy since the product of the gradients of
tangent x
dx
perpendicular lines is −1.

54
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

E X A M P L E 24 Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = (2x + 1)x−2 at the point x = 0.

dy
SOLUTION The gradient of the tangent is ___ at this point.
dx
y = (2x + 1)x−2
Taking logs to base e, we get
ln y = ln {(2x + 1) x−2}
ln y = (x − 2) ln (2x + 1)
Differentiating with respect to x
1 ___
__ 2(x − 2)
dy _______ Note
y dx = 2x + 1 + ln (2x + 1) Use the product rule, where
u = x − 2, v = ln (2x + 1).
When x = 0, y = (2(0) + 1)0−2 = 1
du = 1, ___
___ dv = ______
2
Substituting into the derivative dx dx 2x + 1

2(0 − 2)
dy ________
___ = + ln (2(0) + 1)
dx 2(0) + 1
−4 + ln 1 = −4
= ___
1

E X A M P L E 25 Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = (x + 2) ln x at the point x = 1.

dy
SOLUTION The gradient of the tangent is ___ at x = 1.
dx
Using the product rule with u = x + 2 and v = ln x
du = 1
___ and ___dv = __
1
dx dx x
dy 1 + (1) ln x
We have ___ = (x + 2) __
x
dx
Substituting x = 1
dy
___ 1 + (1) ln 1 = 3
= (1 + 2) __
dx 1
∴ The gradient of the tangent is 3.

E X A M P L E 26 (
Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = ln _____
x−1 )
x + 2 at the point x = 2.

dy
SOLUTION We find the gradient of the tangent first, i.e. ___ when x = 2.
dx
y = ln (
x +
_____
x −1
2
)
Using rules of logs

y = ln (x + 2) − ln (x − 1)

Differentiating with respect to x


dy _____
___ = 1 − _____ 1
dx x + 2 x − 1
55
M O DUL E 1
dy 1 − _____ 3
1 − 1 = − __
1 = __
When x = 2, ___ = _____
dx 2 + 2 2 − 1 4 4
1 4
Gradient of the normal = − ________________ = __
gradient of tangent 3

Equations of tangents and normals


Let m be the gradient of the tangent at the point (x1, y1). Using the equation of a
straight line, the equation of the tangent is y − y1 = m (x − x1).

Since the tangent and normal are perpendicular to each other the gradient of the
1 1
normal is − __ __
m and the equation of the normal is y − y1 = − m (x − x1).

E X A M P L E 27 π.
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x cos x at the point x = __
2

SOLUTION y = xcos x
Find the gradient of the tangent
ln y = ln xcos x = (cos x) ln x
Differentiating with respect to x

y dx = cos x ( x ) − (sin x) ln x
__ dy
1 ___ 1
__

π cos __π2 = 1, since cos __


π, y = __
When x = __
2 ( 2) ( π2 ) = 0 and ( __π2 )0 = 1.
( )
π ____ π ln __
π
dy
= cos ( __
2 ) π/2 2 ( 2)
1 ___
__ 1 − sin __
1 dx

dy π
∴ ___ = − ln __
dx 2
Hence the equation of the tangent is
π x − __
π
2( 2)
y − 1 = − ln __
π x − __
π
2( 2)
y = 1 − ln __
π + 1 + __
y = −x ln __ π ln __
π
2 2 2

E X A M P L E 28 Find the equation of the tangent and the equation of the normal to the curve
π.
y = x2 cos x when x = __
2

SOLUTION π by differentiating
We find the gradient of the curve at x = __
2
y = x2cos x
Using the product rule
u = x2, v = cos x
du = 2x, ___
___ dv = −sin x
dx dx
dy
___ = −x2sin x + 2x cos x
dx
56
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

π,
When x = __
2
dy
___
dx
= − ___( )
π2 sin __
2
π + 2 __
2 ( π2 ) cos __π2
= − ___ π2
4
π, y = __
( π2 ) cos __π2 = 0
2
When x = __
2
π, 0 , m = − ___
∴ At ( __ π2
2 ) 4
The equation of the tangent is
π2 x − __π
4 (
y − 0 = −___ 2)
π2 x + ___
π3
y = − ___
4 8
π , the gradient of the normal is ___
Since the gradient of the tangent is − ___
2 4 .
4 π2
The equation of the normal is
π
π2 ( 2)
4 x − __
y − 0 = ___

4 x − __
y = ___ 2
π2 π

E X A M P L E 29 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ex cos x at the point x = 0.

SOLUTION y = ex cos x
We use the product rule to find the gradient function.
u = ex, du = ex
___
dx
v = cos x, dv = −sin x
___
dx
dy dy
___
___ dv + v ___
= u ___ du = −ex sin x + ex cos x
dx dx dx dx
dy
When x = 0, ___ = −e 0 sin 0 + e0 cos 0
dx
=1
We need the value of y: when x = 0, y = e0 cos 0 = 1
dy
∴ At (0, 1), ___ = 1
dx
The equation of the tangent is
y − 1 = 1(x − 0) = x
y=x+1

x − 1 at the point x = 2.
(a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ______
Try these 2.5 x+1
(b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = ex sin x at the point x = 0.
(c) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve and the equation of the normal to
the curve y = x2 ln (x + 1) when x = 1. Give your answer in exact form.

57
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 2C
In questions 1–4, find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point.
1 y = x cos x, ( __ π, 0
2 )
2 y = ______
x ln x (
x2 + 2 , 2, _____
6
2 ln 2 )
( )
3 y = (4x + 2) e4x−1, __41 , 3 4 y = ln sin 2x, ( __ π, 0
4 )
In questions 5 and 6, find the gradient of the normal to the curve at the given
value of x.
e x+3
5 y = x3 e x 3 + 3x, x = 1 6 y = _________
ln (2x + 1)
, x=1

7 Given that the gradient of the normal to a curve is − __41 at the point (2, 3),
find the equation of the tangent to the curve at (2, 3).
8 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2x+1 at x = __21 .
9 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2ex at the point (1, e).
Leave your answer in terms of e.
10 Given that y = (x2 + 1) cos 2x, show that the equation of the tangent to the
curve at (0, 1) is y = 1.
11 Show that the equation of the normal to the curve y = sin x e cos x at (0, 0) is
ey + x = 0.
dy
12 Given that y = 8 cos 2x sin 2x, show that ___ = 16 cos 4x. Hence find the
dx
π.
equation of the tangent to the curve at x = __
4
−1
13 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = etan x at the point x = 1.
dy
14 The equation of a curve is given by y = ln (cos 2x). Find ___ and the equation of
π. dx
the normal to the curve at x = __
6
x + 2 at the points
15 Find the equations of the normals to the curve y = _________
x2 + x − 2
where the curve cuts the x-axis.
16 The equation of a curve is y = x 3 + 6x 2 + 11x + 6. Find
(a) the gradient at the point (1, 1),
(b) the x-coordinate of the point at which the tangent to the curve is parallel to
the tangent at (1, 1).

Implicit differentiation
The functions we have worked with so far have all been given by equations of the
form y = f(x). A function of this form is an explicit function. For example, the
______
2x + 3 , y = e x+2 are all explicit functions.
2

functions y = 4x + 3x − 2, y = ______
x+4
There are functions in which y cannot be written explicitly in terms of x. In these
functions y is said to be in implicit form. For example, in equations such as
x2 + 3xy − 4y3 = 4x and x4 + ex+y − x2y = 6y, y is defined implicitly as a function
dy
of x. The technique for finding ___ for implicit functions is called implicit differentation.
dx
58
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

E X A M P L E 30 Differentiate y2 with respect to x.

d [y2] = ___
___ dy
d [y2] × ___
SOLUTION
dx dy dx
dy
= 2y ___
dx
dy
We make use of the chain rule, keeping in mind that the differential of y is ___ .
dx

E X A M P L E 31 Differentiate x2y2 with respect to x.

SOLUTION [x2y2] is a product of two functions of x, so we need to use the product rule.
Let u = x2, v = y2
du = 2x, ___
___ dv = 2y ___dy
dx dx dx y = uv

∴ ___
dx [ dy
d [x2 y2] = x2 2y ___
dx ]
+ y2[2x]
dy dv + v ___
⇒ ___ = u ___
dx dx
du
dx
dy
= 2x 2 y ___ + 2xy 2
dx

dy
E X A M P L E 32 Find ___ in terms of x and y for the equation x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4.
dx

SOLUTION x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4
Differentiating term by term, we have
d [x2] = 2x
___
dx
dy
d [3y] = 3 ___
___
dx dx
___
dx ( dy
d [2xy2] = 2x 2y ___
dx )
+ y2 (2), using the product rule with u = 2x and v = y2

dy
= 4xy ___ + 2y2
dx
d [4] = 0
___
dx
∴ Differential of x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4 is
dy dy
2x + 3 ___ + 4xy ___ + 2y2 = 0
dx dx
dy
Making ___ the subject of the formula
dx
dy dy
3 ___ + 4xy ___ = −2y2 − 2x
dx dx
dy
___ [3 + 4xy] = −2y2 − 2x
dx
−2y2 − 2x
dy _________
___ =
dx 3 + 4xy

59
M O DUL E 1

( )
dy 1, 1 .
E X A M P L E 33 Given that 3xy + 4x2 y3 = 5x, find the value of ___ at __
dx 2

SOLUTION 3xy + 4x2y3 = 5x


Differentiating each term,
dy
d [3xy] = 3x ___
___ + 3y (product rule)
dx dx
___
dx ( dy
d [4x2y3] = 4x2 3y2 ___
dx )
+ y3(8x) (product rule)
dy
= 12x2y2 ___ + 8xy3
dx
d
___ [5x] = 5
dx

∴ The differential of 3xy + 4x2y3 = 5x is


dy dy
3x ___ + 3y + 12x2y2 ___ + 8xy3 = 5
dx dx
dy
Making ___ the subject of the formula
dx
dy dy
3x ___ + 12x2y2 ___ = 5 − 8xy3 − 3y
dx dx
dy
(3x + 12x2y2) ___ = 5 − 8xy3 − 3y
dx
5 − 8xy3 − 3y
dy ____________
___ =
dx 3x + 12x2y2
1 , y = 1, we get
Substituting x = __
2

( )
1 (1)3 − 3(1)
5 − 8 __
dy _________________
___ = 2
dx
( )
3 __
2 2 ( )
1 2 (1)2
1 + 12 __

5−4−3
= _________
3+3
__
2
4
= − __
9

E X A M P L E 34 Find the gradient of ex+y + 3x2 − 2y = 1 at (0, 0).

SOLUTION ex+y + 3x2 − 2y = 1


Differentiate each term.
d [ex+y] (This term is a function of a function.)
___
dx
Let u = x + y
dy
du = 1 + ___
___
dx dx
d [eu] = eu
___
du
60
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

∴ ___
dx
dy
dx( )
d [ex+y] = eu × 1 + ___

= ex+y ( 1 + ___dxdy ) (substituting u = x + y)

d [3x2] = 6x
Now ___
dx
dy
d [−2y] = −2 ___
___
dx dx
d [1] = 0
___
dx
The differential of ex+y + 3x2 − 2y = 1 is

( dy
dx ) dy
ex+y 1 + ___ + 6x − 2 ___ = 0
dx
dy dy
ex+y + ex+y ___ + 6x − 2 ___ = 0
dx dx
dy dy
ex+y ___ − 2 ___ = −6x − ex+y
dx dx
dy x+y
___ [e − 2] = −6x − e x+y
dx
dy __________
___ = −6x − ex+y
dx e −2
x+y

−6(0) − e0 ___
dy __________
When x = 0, y = 0, ___ = = −1 = 1
dx e −2
0 −1

dy
Try these 2.6 (a) Find ___ for
dx
(i) 3x2y2 + 4x = 6x
(ii) 6x2y + 2x2y2 = 4xy
(iii) 7x3 + 4y = 3y2
(b) Find the gradient of the following at the given point.
(i) 4e3x+y − 2x2 = 4 at (0, 0)
π
(ii) cos (xy) − 3x 4 + 3 = 0 at ( 1, __
2)

E X A M P L E 35 Find the equation of the tangent and the equation of the normal to the curve
xy2 − 3x2y − 4x = 0 at the point (1, 4).

SOLUTION Differentiating xy2 − 3x2y − 4x = 0, we get

( dy
d [xy2] = y2 + x 2y ___
___
dx dx )
___
dx ( dy
d [3x2y] = 3 x2 ___
dx
+ 2xy )
d [4x] = 4
___
dx

( dy
dx ) ( dy
∴ y2 + x 2y ___ − 3 x2 ___ + 2xy − 4 = 0
dx )
61
M O DUL E 1
Substituting x = 1, y = 4

( dy
dx ) ( dy
)
42 + 2(4) ___ − 3 ___ + 2(4) − 4 = 0
dx
dy dy
16 + 8 ___ − 3 ___ − 24 − 4 = 0
dx dx
dy
5 ___ = 12
dx
dy ___
___ = 12
dx 5
The equation of the tangent at x = 1, y = 4 with gradient ___12 is
5
12 (x − 1)
y − 4 = ___
5
12
y = x − ___
___ 12 + 4
5 5
y= 12
___ x+ 8
__
5 5
5
12 , the gradient of the normal is − ___
Since the gradient of the tangent is ___ 12 .
5
The equation of the normal is
5
y − 4 = − ___
12 (x − 1)
5
y = − ___ 5
___
12 x + 12 + 4
5
y = − ___ 53
___
12 x + 12

Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions


Differentiation of y = sin−1x
Let y = sin−1 x, where −1 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.
Applying the sine function to both sides
f f −1(x) = x
sin sin−1(x) = x sin y = sin sin−1 x
sin y = x (1)
dy
d [y] = ___
Differentiating two sides with respect to x and recalling ___
dx dx
dy
cos y ___ = 1
dx
dy 1
∴ ___ = ____
dx cos y
To obtain cos y in terms of x, use the identity cos2 y + sin2 y = 1
cos 2 y = 1 − sin2 y
________
cos y = √ 1 − sin2 y
From (1) above, sin y = x
______
∴ cos y = √ 1 − x2
dy 1
∴ ___ = _______
______
dx √1 − x2
d [sin−1 x] = ________
Hence ___ 1
______
dx √1 − x2
62
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

Differentiation of y = tan−1x
Let y = tan−1 x
Applying the tan function to both sides
tan y = x
Differentiating with respect to (w.r.t.) x
dy
d [tan x] = sec2x
___ sec2 y ___ = 1
dx dx
dy _____
___ = 1
dx sec2 y
Recall that sec2 y = 1 + tan2 y
∴ sec2 y = 1 + x2, since x = tan y.
dy ______
___ = 1
dx 1 + x2
d [tan−1 (x)] = ______
___ 1
dx 1 + x2

dy
Try these 2.7 Find ___ when
dx
(a) y = cos−1 x (b) y = cosec−1 x
(c) y = cot−1 x (d) y = sec−1 x

dy
E X A M P L E 36 Find ___ when y = sin−1 (2x).
dx

SOLUTION y = sin−1 (2x) is a function of a function.


OR
Let u = 2x, y = sin−1 u Take sine of both sides.
dy ________
du = 2, ___ 1 sin y = 2x
___ = ______
dx du √ 1 − u2 Differentiate w.r.t. x:
dy
dy ___dy ___ cos y ___ = 2
___ = × du = ________
2
______ dx
dx du dx √ − u2
1 dy __________
___ 2 2
= ________ = ________
_______
2 2 dx √1 − sin2y √1 − 4x2
= __________
________ = _________
_______
√ 1 − (2x)2
√ 1 − 4x2

dy
E X A M P L E 37 Given that y = tan−1 (x2 + 1) find ___.
dx

SOLUTION y = tan−1 (x2 + 1) is a function of a function.


Let u = x2 + 1, y = tan−1 (u)
dy ______
du = 2x, ___
___ = 1
dx du 1 + u2
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du = ______ 2x
2x = ___________
dx du dx 1+ u2 1 + (x2 + 1)2

63
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 38 Find the derivative of θ = t2 sin−1 (t).

SOLUTION Applying the product rule


u = t2, v = sin−1 (t)
du = 2t, ___
___ dv = _______
1
______
dt dt √1 − t2
dθ = _______
___ t 2
______ + 2t sin−1 (t) (using the product rule)
dt √1 − t2

EXERCISE 2D
dy
In questions 1–8 , differentiate each function with respect to x and hence find ___ in
dx
terms of x and y.
1 x4 + xy3 − y2 = 2 2 y = xe2y
3 cos (xy) + 4x2 = 7x 4 x2 + xy + y3 = 0
5 x(x2 + y2) = y3 6 xe y = x2 + 2
7 1 + __
__ 1 = __
1 8 sin x tan y = 4
x2 y 2 9
In questions 9 –1 4 , find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point.
9 x4 − 2x2y + 3y = 2 at (1, 1) 10 xy − 2x + y2 = 4 at (0, 2)
11 x2y3 + 4xy = 7x at ( __83 , 2 ) 12 ex+y − 3xy − 2 = y at (ln 2, 0)
13 3x2y2 − 2y3 = −4 at (1, 2) 14 (xy − y3)3 = 5y2 + 22 at (4, 1)
15 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x2 + 4y2 − 2xy = 7 at the point
(1, −1).
dy
16 Given that ex + y + cos x = 4y + 2, show that ___ = __31 when x = 0 and y = 0.
dx
17 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve xy2 + y3 = 6x + 3y at (1, 2).
18 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve xy + x2 = y2 that is parallel to
(a) the x-axis (b) the y-axis.
19 A computer is programmed to draw the graph of the function
(x2 + y2)3 = 64x2y2. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at (2, 0.56).
20 Find by implicit differentiation the four points on the curve
(x2 + y2)2 = x2 − y2 where the tangent line is parallel to the x-axis and the
Remember two points where the tangent line is parallel to the y-axis.

arcsin ≡ sin−1 21 Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.


arccos ≡ cos−1 (a) y = arcsin (x2 + 2x +1) (b) y = arccos (x2 + 1)
arctan ≡ tan−1 (c) y = arctan (3x2 + 5x +2) (d) y = x arcsin (4x)

64
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

Second derivatives
d 2y
Recall that ___2 or f ″(x) is the second derivative of y w.r.t. x or the second
dx
derivative of the function x. To find the second derivative, we differentiate the
first derivative.

E X A M P L E 39 If f(x) = 4xex, find f ″(x).

SOLUTION f(x) = 4xex


Using the product rule
u = 4x, v = ex
du = 4, ___
___ dv = ex f′(x) = 4xex + 4ex
dx dx
Differentiating again w.r.t. x
f ″(x) = 4xex+4ex + 4ex
= 4xex + 8ex
= 4ex (x + 2)

d2y dy
E X A M P L E 40 Given that y = 4e−2x + e−3x show that ___2 + 5 ___ + 6y = 0.
dx dx

SOLUTION y = 4e−2x + e−3x


dy
___ = −8e−2x − 3e−3x
dx
d 2y
___ = 16e−2x + 9e−3x
dx2
d 2y
___ dy
2 + 5___ + 6y
dx dx
= 16e−2x + 9e−3x + 5[−8e−2x − 3e−3x] + 6[4e−2x + e−3x]
= 16e−2x + 9e−3x − 40e−2x − 15e−3x + 24e−2x + 6e−3x
= 16e−2x − 40e−2x + 24e−2x + 9e−3x − 15e−3x + 6e−3x
= 40e−2x − 40e−2x + 15e−3x − 15e−3x
=0
d 2y dy
Hence ___2 + 5 ___ + 6y = 0
dx dx

d2y
E X A M P L E 41 If y = ex cos 2x, find ___2 .
dx

SOLUTION y = ex cos 2x
u = ex, v = cos 2x
du = ex, ___
___ dv = −2 sin 2x
dx dx
65
M O DUL E 1
dy
___ = −2ex sin 2x + ex cos 2x
dx
= ex(−2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
Differentiating again w.r.t. x
d2y
___ = ex(−4 cos 2x − 2 sin 2x) + ex(−2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
dx2
= ex(−4 cos 2x − 2 sin 2x − 2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
= ex(−3 cos 2x − 4 sin 2x)

d2y dy
E X A M P L E 42 Given that y = ex(cos 2x + sin 2x) show that ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0.
dx dx

SOLUTION y = ex(cos 2x + sin 2x)


Using the product rule
dy
___ = ex(−2 sin 2x + 2 cos 2x) + ex(cos 2x + sin 2x)
dx
= ex(−2 sin 2x + sin 2x + 2 cos 2x + cos 2x)
= ex(−sin 2x + 3 cos 2x)
Differentiating again
d 2y
___ = ex(−2 cos 2x − 6 sin 2x) + ex(−sin 2x + 3 cos 2x)
dx2
= ex(−2 cos 2x + 3 cos 2x − 6 sin 2x − sin 2x)
= ex(cos 2x − 7 sin 2x)
d2y dy
∴ ___2 − 2___ + 5y
dx dx
= e (cos 2x − 7 sin 2x) − 2ex(−sin 2x + 3 cos 2x) + 5ex(cos 2x + sin 2x)
x

= ex cos 2x − 7ex sin 2x + 2ex sin 2x − 6ex cos 2x + 5ex cos 2x + 5ex sin 2x
= 6ex cos 2x − 6ex cos 2x + 7ex sin 2x − 7ex sin 2x
=0
d2y dy
Hence ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0
dx dx

EXERCISE 2E
d2y
x2 . Find ___
1 An equation is given by y = _____ .
x+1 dx2
d2y dy
2 Show that y = (2x + 5)e3x satisfies the equation ___2 − 6 ___ + 9y = 0.
dx dx
d2y dy
3 Given that y = Ae−2x + Bex, show that ___2 + ___ − 2y = 0.
dx dx
2(y − 1)
d2y _______
x , show that ___
4 Given that y = _____ = .
x+1 dx 2 (x + 1)2
5 The relationship between the two variables x and y is given by
d2y dy
y = ex[Acos 2x + B sin 2x]. Show that ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0.
dx dx
66
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

2x , show that ___ dy


6 Given that y = ______ = 2(1 − y)2. Hence show that
2 2x + 1 dx
dy
___ = −8(1 − y)3.
dx2
dy d2y x+1
7 Find the values of ___ and ___2 at x = 0, where y = __________ .
dx dx x2 + 2x + 5

Parametric differentiation
First derivative of parametric equations
Parametric equations were introduced in Unit 1, Module 2. If the coordinates of
a point P(x, y) are given as x = f(t), y = g(t) where t is a third variable called the
parameter of the equation, the equations x = f(t), y = g(t) are called the parametric
equations and the parametric differential is
dy ___dy ___
___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dt

E X A M P L E 43 Given that the parametric equations of a curve are


x = 4t 2 + 5, y = 6t2 + t3
dy
find ___ in terms of t.
dx

dy
dx and ___
SOLUTION First find ___ .
dt dt
x = 4t2 + 5
dx = 8t
___
dt
y = 6t2 + t3
dy
___ = 12t + 3t2
dt
dy ___dy ___ dy ___ dy ___
___ = × dt ___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dx dx dt dt
12t + 3t2 = ___
= ________ 3t2
12t + ___
8t 8t 8t
3t
3 + __
= __
2 8
dy 3 __
Hence ___ = __ + 3t
dx 2 8

dy
E X A M P L E 44 Find the value of ___ when t = 1 for the equation defined as
dx
x = 4t − 3, y = 7t2 + 5t +1.
3

SOLUTION Since the curve is defined parametrically


dy ___dy ___
___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dt
67
M O DUL E 1
Since x = 4t3− 3
dx = 12t2
___
dt
Since y = 7t2 + 5t + 1
dy
___ = 14t + 5
dt
dy _______
= 14t +2 5
dy ___
___ dy dx ___
= ÷ ___
dx dt dt dx 12t
dy 14(1) + 5 ___
When t = 1 ___ = ________ = 19
dx 12(1)2 12

dy
E X A M P L E 45 Given that x = tan−1(t) and y = t3, find ___ in terms of t.
dx

dx = ______
___ dy
1 , ___
SOLUTION = 3t2
dt 1 + t 2 dt
dy dy dx
Remember Since ___ = ___ ÷ ___ , we have
dx dt dt
d tan−1x ______
___ 1
dx 1 + x2 dy ______2
___ = 3t
dx _____
1
1 + t2
= 3t2(1 + t2)

E X A M P L E 46 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x = t + 2, y = t2 at the point t = 1.

SOLUTION To find the equation of the tangent at t = 1, we need to find the values of x and y
when t = 1, and the gradient of the tangent when t = 1.
When t = 1, substituting into x = t + 2, y = t2 gives
x = 1 + 2, y = 12
∴ x = 3, y = 1

Since x = t + 2, y = t2
To find the
dy
gradient, find ___. dy
dx = 1, ___
___
dx = 2t
dy ___dy dx
dt dt
___ = ÷ ___
dx dt dt dy dy dx
Since ___ = ___ ÷ ___ , we have
dx dt dt
dy __
___ = 2t = 2t
dx 1
When t = 1
dy
___ = 2(1) = 2
dx
The equation of the tangent at x = 3, y = 1 and gradient 2 is
y − 1 = 2(x − 3)
y = 2x − 6 + 1
y = 2x − 5

68
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

E X A M P L E 47 Find the equation of the normal to the curve x = 2 sin t, y = cos 2t at the point with
π.
parameter __
2

SOLUTION The point with parameter __ π means the point when t = __


π.
2 2
π, x = 2 sin __
π, y = cos 2 __
When t = __
2 2 ( π2 ) = cos π
( )
i.e. x = 2, y = −1.
We need to find the gradient of the tangent at t = __π,
2
dy
dx = 2 cos t, ___ = −2 sin 2t
___
dt dt
dy ___dy ___
___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dt
dy 2 sin 2t
∴ ___ = −______
2 cos t
dx
dy 4 sin t cos t
___ = −_________
2 cos t (sin 2t = 2 sin t cos t)
dx
dy
___ = −2 sin t
dx
π, ___
When t = __
dy π = −2
= −2 sin __
2 dx 2
1 is
The equation of the normal at x = 2, y = −1 and gradient __
Since the 2
gradient of the 1
__
y + 1 = (x − 2)
tangent is −2, 2
the gradient of 1x − 1 − 1
y = __
1.
the normal is __ 2
2
1x − 2
y = __
2

E X A M P L E 48 Find the coordinates of the stationary point on the curve


x = 25 − 15t + 9t2, y = 6t − t2.

dy
SOLUTION Stationary points exist where ___ = 0.
dx
dy dy dx
Since the equation is in parametric form ___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dy
dx = −15 + 18t and ___ = 6 − 2t
___
dt dt
dy 6 − 2t
Hence ___ = _________
dx −15 + 18t
dy
___ 6 − 2t = 0
= 0 ⇒ _________
dx −15 + 18t

∴ 6 − 2t = 0

t=3
69
M O DUL E 1
When t = 3, x = 25 − 15(3) + 9(3)2, y = 6(3) − (3)2
x = 25 − 45 + 81 = 61, y = 18 − 9 = 9
The coordinates of the stationary point are (61, 9).

Second derivative of parametric equations


For parametric equations the second derivative can be found using

d 2y [ ]
d ___
__
dt dx
___ = ______
dy
(by the chain rule)
dx2 dx
___
dt

d2y
E X A M P L E 49 Given that x = t2 + 5t − 4, y = t3 + 3t + 1, find ___2 .
dx

SOLUTION
d 2y [ ]
d ___
__
Since ___2 = _______
dy
dy
dt dx we first find ___ where
dx dx
___ dx
dt
dy dy dx
___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dx 2t + 5 and ___ dy
Now ___ = = 3t2 + 3
dt dt
dy ______
___ 3t2 + 3
= 2t + 5
dx

Now __
dy
d ___
dt dx[ ]
= __ [
3t2 + 3
d _______
dt 2t + 5
= ]
(2t + 5)(6t) − (3t2 + 3)(2)
______________________
(2t + 5)2
(using the quotient rule)

12t2 + 30t − 6t2 − 6 ____________


6t2 − 6 + 30t
= _________________ =
(2t + 5)2 (2t + 5)2
6t2 − 6 + 30t
____________
d 2y (2t + 5)2 6t2 − 6 + 30t
Hence ___2 = ____________ = ____________
dx 2t + 5 (2t + 5)3
d2y
E X A M P L E 50 Given that x = arcsin t, y = t2 + 2t + 1, show that ___2 = −2(2t2 + t − 1).
dx

SOLUTION
d 2y [ ]
Since ___2 = ______
dy
d ___
__
dy
dt dx we first find ___ where
dx dx
___ dx
dt
dy dy dx
___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dx _______
___ 1 dy
= ______ , ___ = 2t + 2
dt √1 − t2 dt
dy _______ ______
___ 2t + 2 (2t + 2) √ 1 − t2
= 1 =
dx _______
______
√1 − t2

[ ]
dy ______
= __ [ (2t + 2) √1 − t2 ]
d ___
__ d
dt dx dt
70
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

______ ______
t(2t + 2)
2 ( )
1 (−2t)(1 − t2)− __12 = 2 √1 − t2 − ________
= 2 √1 − t2 + (2t + 2) __ ______
√1 − t2
2(1 − t2) − 2t2 −2t ____________
−4t2 ______
− 2t + 2
= ________________
______ =
√1 − t 2
√1 − t2

d 2y dt dx
___ _______
2 =
[ ]
dy
d ___
___ −4t2 ______
− 2t + 2
____________
√1 − t2
= ____________ = −4t2 − 2t + 2 = −2(2t2 + t − 1)
dx dx
___ 1
_______
______
dt √1 − t2

EXERCISE 2F
dy d 2y
In questions 1–8, find ___ and ____2 in terms of t.
dx dx
1
__
1 x = t + 1, y = 2t − 1 2 x = 6t2 + 1, y = 2t2 + 3
3 x = t3, y = t2 4 x = t + 2, y = 2t2 − t − 1
5 x = et, y = 7e2t 6 x = 5 cos t, y = 4 sin t
7 x = cos3 t, y = 4 sin3 t 8 x = t sin t, y = t cos t

In questions 9–14, find the value of the gradient of the curve at the given point.
9 x = et, y = e−t, t = 0 10 x = 2t2 + 1, y = 3t2 + 2, t = 1
11 x = 3t, y = 1 − t, t = 4 5t , y = 0, t = 2
12 x = ______
2t + 1
6
13 x = t(2t + 1)2, y = ________
______ , t = 1 14 x = 3t, y = log2 (2t + 1), t = 1
√ 4t + 3
15 A curve is given by the parametric equation x = t2 + 2t, y = t3 − 3t + 1.
dy
Find ___ in terms of t. Hence find
dx
(a) the equation of the tangent and normal for t = 0
(b) the value of t for the turning points.
1 , y = 1 − 2t, find the points on the curve where the
16 Given that x = _____
1+t
gradient is 1. Hence write down the equations of the tangent at these points.
17 The parametric equations of a curve are x = t(t2 + 1)3, y = t2 + 1.
Find and simplify the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point with
parameter t = 3.
18 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x = sec θ, y = tan θ at the point
with parameter α.
19 Given that the parametric equations of a curve are x = 3(θ − sin θ),
dy dy
1 θ. Hence find the value of ___
y = 3(1 − cos θ), show that ___ = cot __ π.
when x = __
dx 2 dx 3
__ __ dy
___
20 If x = √2 (1 − cos θ) and y = √2 sin θ, show that = cot θ and find the
dx
π.
equation of the tangent at θ = __
4

71
M O DUL E 1
Partial derivatives
In Unit 1 when finding the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of one
variable with respect to another, only one independent variable and one dependent
variable were present. By definition
f (x + h) − f (x)
f´(x) = limh→0 _____________
h
We can extend this result to a function of two or more variables. We find the
derivative of the function with respect to one variable while holding the other
variable constant. This is called a partial derivative.
First order partial derivatives
D EFIN IT IO N
The first partial derivatives of the function z = f(x, y) are the two functions defined by
f(x + h, y) − f(x, y)
fx(x, y) = lim _________________
h→0 h
f(x, y + h) − f(x, y)
fy(x, y) = lim _________________
h→0 h
wherever these limits exist.
fx(x, y) is the first partial derivative with respect to x and fy(x, y) is the first partial
derivative with respect to y.

Notation for partial derivatives


If z = f(x, y) then the first partial derivative with respect to x is represented by
∂f
∂z = ___ ∂ [f(x, y)]
___ = fx(x, y) = ___
∂x ∂x ∂x
and the first partial derivative with respect to y is represented by
∂f
∂z = ___ ∂ [f(x, y)]
___ = fy(x, y) = ___
∂y ∂y ∂y
∂f
To find ___ differentiate the function with respect to x while keeping y constant, and to
∂x
∂f
find ___ differentiate the function with respect to y while keeping x constant.
∂y

∂f ∂f
E X A M P L E 51 Find the partial derivatives ___ and ___ of the function f(x, y) = x3 + 4x2y3 − y4.
∂x ∂y
∂f
SOLUTION We can differentiate term by term and then add to find each derivative. To find ___ we
∂x
differentiate with respect to x while keeping y constant.
∂ (x3) = 3x2
___
∂x
∂ (4x2y3) = 8xy3
___ ∂ (x2) = 2x and our
(4y3 is treated as a constant so we find ___
∂x ∂x
derivative becomes 4y3 × 2x = 8xy3)
∂ (y4) = 0
___ (since y4 is treated as a constant when differentiating with respect to x)
∂x
∂f
Hence ___ = 3x2 + 8xy3
∂x
∂f
To find ___, we differentiate with respect to y while keeping x constant
∂y
72
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

∂ (x3) = 0
___ (since x is treated as a constant when we are differentiating
∂y
with respect to y).
∂ (4x2y3) = 12x2y2
___ ∂ (y3) = 3y2 and
(4x2 is treated as a constant so we find ___
∂x ∂y
our derivative becomes 4x2 × 3y2 = 12x2y2).
∂ (y4) = 4y3
___
∂y
∂f
Hence ___ = 12x2y2 − 4y3
∂y

E X A M P L E 52 ∂z and (b) ___


Find (a) ___ ∂z if z = (x2 + y) cos (2x2y).
∂x ∂y

SOLUTION (a) Since we have the product of two functions of x, we use the product rule:
Let u = x2 + y, v = cos (2x2y)
∂u
___ ∂v
___ 
∂x = 2x, ∂x = −TJO x y) × xy)
∂z = −xy x + y) TJO xy) +x DPT xy)
∴ ___
∂x
(b) Using the product rule with u = x2 + y, v = cos (2x2y)
∂u
___ ∂v
___
∂y = 1, ∂y = −2x sin (2x y)
2 2

∂z = −2(x2 + y)x2 sin (2x2y) + cos (2x2y).


Hence ___
∂y

Second order partial derivatives


∂f ∂f
Since ___ and ___ are functions of x and y, we can derive partial derivatives of each of
∂x ∂y
these. We can thus find partial derivatives of higher orders. The four possible second
order partial derivatives of f(x, y) are
∂2f
∂x ∂ x ( )
∂f
∂ ___
fxx = (fx)x = ___2 = ___
∂ x

fxy = (fx)y = ___


∂y ∂x( )
∂f
∂ ___ ∂2f
= _____
∂y∂x

fyx = (fy)x = ___


∂x ∂y( )
∂f
∂ ___ ∂2f
= _____
∂x∂y

( ∂f
) ∂f
2
fyy ∂ ___
= (f ) = ___ = ___
y y ∂y ∂y ∂y 2

The function fxy is the second order partial derivative of f with respect to x first and
then with respect to y, and fyx is the second order partial derivative of f with respect
to y first and then with respect to x. Partial derivatives fxy and fyx are equal if and only
if both the function and the partial derivatives are continuous.

E X A M P L E 53 ∂ z = _____
Give that z = ln (2xy + y2) show that _____
2 ∂z. 2
∂x∂y ∂y∂x

SOLUTION z = ln (2xy + y2)


∂z = ________
___ 2y
∂x 2xy + y2
73
M O DUL E 1
∂2z = ___
_____
(
∂ ________
2y
∂x∂y ∂y 2xy + y2 )
(2xy + y2) (2) − (2y) (2x + 2y)
= __________________________ (using the quotient rule)
(2xy + y2)2
4xy + 2y2 − 4xy − 4y2 2y2
= ___________________ = − __________
(2xy + y2)2 (2xy + y2)2
2x + 2y
∂z = ________
___
∂y 2xy + y2

∂2z = ___ 2x + 2y
∂ ________
____
∂x∂y (
∂x 2xy + y2 )
(2xy + y2)(2) − (2x + 2y)(2y)
= _________________________
(2xy + y2)2
4xy + 2y2 − 4xy − 4y2 2y2
__________
= ___________________ = −
(2xy + y2)2 (2xy + y2)2
∂ z = ____
Hence ____
2 ∂z. 2
∂x∂y ∂y∂x

∂2f ∂2f
E X A M P L E 54 The function f (x, y) = e−3x cos y. Find ___2 and ___2.
∂x ∂y

SOLUTION Differentiating with respect to x, keeping y constant


∂f
___ = −3e−3x cos y
∂x
Differentiating again with respect to x, while y is kept constant
∂2f
___ = 9e−3x cos y
∂x2
Differentiating with respect to y, keeping x constant
∂f
___ = −e−3x sin y
∂y
Differentiating again with respect to y, while x is kept constant
∂2f
___ = −e−3x cos y
∂y2

Applications of partial derivatives

E X A M P L E 55 Two resistors R1 and R2 are placed in parallel. They have a combined resistance R,
1 + __
given by R = __ ∂R and ____
1 . Find ____ ∂R .
R1 R2 ∂R1 ∂R2

SOLUTION Keeping R2 constant and differentiating with respect to R1, we get


∂R = − ___
___ 1
∂R1 R21
Keeping R1 constant and differentiating with respect to R2, we get
∂R = − __
___ 1
∂R2 R22

74
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

E X A M P L E 56 An electric circuit has parallel resistances R1 and R2. The current i through R1 can be
found from
IR2
i = _______
R1 + R2
∂i .
where I is the total current. Find ___
∂R2

SOLUTION Using the quotient rule with R1 constant, let


u = IR2, v = R1 + R2
∂u = I, ___
___ ∂v = 1
∂R2 ∂R2
(R1 + R2)I − (IR2)(1) _____________
∂i = __________________ IR + IR2 − IR2 _________
IR1
___ = 1 =
∂R2 (R1 + R2)2 (R1 + R2)2 (R1 + R2)2

E X A M P L E 57 The temperature θ of a thin piece of metal at any point (x, y) is given by


60
θ = __________
x2 + y2 + 1
where θ is measured in degrees Celsius and x, y are measured in metres. Find the rate
of change of the temperature with respect to the distance in the x-direction. Find also
this rate of change at the point (2, 3).

SOLUTION ∂θ , so we keep y constant and differentiate.


We need to find ___
∂x
60
Since θ = __________ = 60(x2 + y2 + 1)−1,
x2 + y2 + 1
using the chain rule, we get
∂θ = −60(2x)(x2 + y2 + 1)−2 = − ____________
___ 120x
∂x (x2 + y2 + 1)2
When x = 2, y = 3,
∂θ = − _______________
___ 120(2) 60
= −___
∂x ((2)2 + (3)2 + 1)2 49

E X A M P L E 58 The volume of a right circular cone of height h cm and base radius r cm is given by
1 πr2h.
V = __
3
∂2V when h = 6 cm
Find (a) ____ ∂2V when r = 2 cm.
(b) ____
∂r 2 ∂h2

SOLUTION (a) V = __31 πr2h


Keeping h constant and differentiating twice with respect to r, we get
∂V __
___ 2
∂r = 3 πrh
∂2V = __
____ 2 πh
∂r2 3
When h = 6 cm,
∂2V = __
____ 2 π(6) = 4π
∂r2 3

75
M O DUL E 1
(b) Keeping r constant and differentiating twice with respect to h, we get
∂V __
___ = 1 πr2
∂h 3
∂2V = 0
____
∂h2
∂2V = 0.
Hence, when r = 2 cm, ____
∂h2

Laplace’s equation
∂2u + ___
The partial differential equation ___ ∂2u = 0 where u = f(x, y) is called Laplace’s
∂x 2 ∂y2
equation. The solutions derived from this equation are called harmonic functions
and they play an important role in electrical and heat conduction.

E X A M P L E 59 ∂ z + ___
2
Show that the equation z = x2 − y2 satisfies the equation ___ ∂ z = 0.
2

∂x2 ∂y2

SOLUTION z = x2 − y2
∂z = 2x
___ (since we treat y as a constant)
∂x
∂2z = 2
___
∂x2
Also
∂z = −2y
___ (treating x as a constant)
∂y
∂2z = −2
___
∂y2
Now
∂2z + ___
___ ∂2z = 2 − 2 = 0
∂x 2 ∂y2
∂2z + ___
Hence z = x2 − y2 satisfies the equation ___ ∂2z = 0
∂x 2 ∂y2

Cobb–Douglas function
Cobb and Douglas modelled the total production P of an economic system as a
function of labour L and investment K. The function used to model production is
P(L, K) = bLα K1– α
where P is the total production, L is the amount of labour and K is the amount of
∂P is the rate at which production changes
capital invested. The partial derivative ___
∂L
with respect to labour and is called the marginal productivity of labour. The partial
∂P is the rate of production with respect to capital and is called the
derivative ___
∂K
marginal productivity of capital.

E X A M P L E 60 Suppose that, at a certain factory, output is given by the Cobb–Douglas production


function.
1
__ 2
__
Q = 70K 3 L 3 units, where K is the capital investment measured in units of TT $1000
and L is the size of the labour fource measured in worker-hours.

76
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

(a) What is the output if the capital investment is TT $1 728 000 and
729 worker-hours of labour are used?
(b) Does the output double if both the capital investment and the size of the labour
force in (a) doubles?
∂Q
(c) Find the marginal productivity of capital ___
∂K
when the capital expenditure is
TT $1 728 000 and the level of labour is 729 worker-hours.

SOLUTION (a) When K = 1728, L = 729


1
__ 2
__
Q = 70(1728)3(729)3 = 70(12)(81) = 68 040 units
(b) When K = 2(1728), L = 2(729)
1 2
__ __
( 1)
__ 1
__
( 2) (
Q = 70(2(1728))3 (2(729))3 = 70 23 (1728)3 23 7293 = 2(70)(12)(81)
__ 2
__
)
= 2(68 040) units
Hence the output will double when the capital investment and the worker-hours
are doubled.
1
__ 2
__
(c) Differentiating Q = 70K3 L3 with respect to K and keeping L constant, we get
∂Q –2
___
1 K 3 L3 2
__
___
∂K (3)
= 70 __

When K = 1728, L = 729


∂Q 1 (1728)___ __ –2
105 2
___
∂K (3)
= 70 __ 3 (729) 3 = ___
8

Function of three variables


We can extend our results to three or more variables and find the corresponding
partial derivatives.

E X A M P L E 61 Given that t = 4x2 + 3y2 + 2z2 + 6x2yz, find


∂2t
(a) ___ ∂2t
(b) ___ ∂2t
(c) ___
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z2

SOLUTION (a) t = 4x2 + 3y2 + 2z2 + 6x2yz


%JČFSFOUJBUJOHXJUISFTQFDUUPx LFFQJOHyBOEzDPOTUBOU XFHFU
∂t = 8x +xyz
___
∂x
∂ t = 8 + 12yz
2
___
∂x2
(b) t = 4x2 + 3y2 + 2z2 + 6x2yz
%JČFSFOUJBUJOHXJUISFTQFDUUPy LFFQJOHxBOEzDPOTUBOU XFHFU
∂t = 6y + 6xz
___
∂y
∂t = 6
___
∂y

77
M O DUL E 1
(c) t =x + 3y +z + 6xyz
%JČFSFOUJBUJOHXJUISFTQFDUUPz LFFQJOHxBOEyDPOTUBOU XFHFU
∂t =z + 6xy
__
∂z
∂t =
___
∂z

E X A M P L E 62 Find the value of:


∂t ∂2t ∂2t
(a) ___
∂x
(b) ___ (c) ____
∂z∂y
∂z
2

at the point (1, −1, 2) where t = 6xy + y3 + z3 − x3y.

SOLUTION ∂t = 6y − 3x2y
(a) ___
∂x
8IFOx = 1, y = −1
∂t = −1) −  
 −1)
___
∂x
∂t = −6 + 3 = −3
___
∂x
∂t = 3z
(b) __
∂z
∂t = 6z
___
∂z
8IFOz = 1,

∂ t = 
= 6
___
∂z
∂t = __
(c) ____
∂z∂y ∂z ∂y
∂t
[ ]
∂t ___

∂ 6x + 3y2 − x3
= __
∂z ( )
= 6 − 3x2
When x = 1,
∂2t = 6 − 3(1)2
____
∂z∂y
=6−3=3

E X A M P L E 63 ∂w, ___
Let w = 2x2 + yz. Find ___ ∂w and ___
∂w .
∂z ∂y ∂x

SOLUTION w = 2x2 + yz
∂w = y, keeping x and y constant.
___
∂z
∂w = z, keeping x and z constant.
___
∂y
∂w = 4x, ___
___ ∂ (yz) = 0, keeping y and z constant.
∂x ∂x

78
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

E X A M P L E 64 Let w = 6x2y2z2 + 3xz3 + 4x2y2. Find


∂w
(a) ___ ∂w
(b) ___ ∂w
(c) ___
∂x ∂y ∂z

SOLUTION (a) Keeping y and z constant, and differentiating with respect to x, we get
∂w = 12xy2z2 + 3z3 + 8xy2
___
∂x
(b) Keeping x and z constant, we get
∂w = 12x2yz2 + 8x2y
___
∂y
(c) Keeping x and y constant, we get
∂w = 12x2y2z + 9xz2
___
∂z

EXERCISE 2G
1 Given that w = x2y − 2x + y3, find the first partial derivative ___∂w and ___
∂w.
∂x ∂y
∂ z ∂
___z
2 Find ∂x and ∂y if z = (x y + 3y )(x + y ) .
___ 2 3 2 2 4

3 Find the first partial derivative of z = cos(xy2) + exy+y2.


4 Given that z = ex cos y, show that ___ ∂2z + ___
∂2z = 0.
∂x 2 ∂y2
5 If z = x2 − y2, show that ___ ∂ z + ___
2 ∂ z = 0.
2

∂x2 ∂y2
∂2z , ____
In questions 6–10, find ___ ∂2z , ____
∂2z and ___∂2z for each of the functions z.
∂x 2 ∂y ∂ x ∂ x ∂ y ∂y2
6 z = 3x − 4x y + y .
2 2 2 3

7 z = sin 4x cos 6y.


8 z = sin−1(xy).
y2
x − __
9 z = __ .
y3 x4
10 z = tan−1(xy).
11 If z = ex +xy+t, find ∂___z2, ∂___z2, ∂___z2 and ______
∂z .
2 2 2 2 2

∂x ∂y ∂t ∂x∂y∂t
12 If w = e–z ∂ w + ____
2
(sin x + cos y), show that ____ ∂ w = ___
2 ∂w.
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z

79
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY
Differentiation

d [xn] = nxn−1 Chain rule


dx Implicit differentiation Parametric differentiation
y = fg(x)
d [(ax + b)n] = na(ax + b)n−1 dy
dx = f’(g(x)) × g’(x)
dx

d [ex ] = ex d [y] = dy x = f(t), y = g(t)


dx dx dx

d [eax + b ] = aeax + b Product rule


dx
y = uv
dy dy dx
dy d [y2] = 2y dy = ÷
dx dt dt
d [In x] = 1
x = u dv = v du dx dx
dx dx dx dx

d [In(ax + b)] = a
dx ax + b

d [sin x] = cos x
dx
Quotient rule
d [xy3] = x 3y2 dy + y3(1)
dx ( dx ) d2y
=
d dy
dx2 dt dx [ ]
÷ dx
dt
dy
y=u = 3xy2 + y3
v dx
d [sin(ax + b)] = a cos (ax + b)
dx
v u − u dv Partial derivatives
dy dx dx
d [cos x] = −sin x =
dx dx v2

d [cos(ax + b)] = −a sin (ax + b)


dx
u = f(x, y)
d [tan x] = sec2x
dx

d [sec x] = sec x tan x


dx First partial derivative
∂u ∂u
and
d [cosec x] = −cosec x cot x ∂x ∂y
dx

d [cot x] = −cosec2x
dx
Second partial derivatives
d [sin−1(x)] = 1 ∂ 2u , ∂ 2u , ∂ 2 u , ∂ 2u
dx √1 − x2 ∂ x2 ∂ 2y ∂ x ∂ y ∂ y ∂ x

d [cos−1x] = −1
dx √1 − x2

d [tan−1(x)] = 1
dx √1 + x2

d [ax ] = ax In x
dx

d [log x] = 1
dx a x ln a

80
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Differentiate e f (x).
■ Differentiate ln f(x).
■ Use the chain rule for gradient.
■ Differentiate trigonometric functions.
■ Differentiate polynomials.
■ Differentiate combinations of polynomial, trigonometric, exponential and
logarithmic functions.
■ Differentiate implicit functions.
■ Differentiate functions represented parametrically.
■ Differentiate inverse trigonometric functions.
■ Find the equation of the tangent to a curve defined parametrically.
■ Find the equation of the tangent or normal to a curve defined implicitly.
■ Find the second derivative of a function.
■ Find the first partial derivative of a function.
■ Find the second partial derivative of a function.

Review exercise 2
______ d 2y
1 Given that x = sin−1 t, y = √1 − t2 find and simplify ___2 .
dx
dy
___
2 Find the value of at t = 0 when x = (4t − 1) , y = 2t.
3
dx
3 Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.

(
4x + 3
(a) ln ______
2x − 5 ) (b) y = 3x ln x
4 Show that the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = ln sin3x at x = π
__ is 3.
4
5 A curve is represented parametrically by x = 4t − 2, y = 4t + 3.
2

(a) Calculate the length of the chord that joins the points with parameters
t = 0 and t = 1.
(b) Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve at t = 1.
6 Find the gradient of the normal to the curve at the given point.
1
(a) y = sin−1(4x), x = __
4
(b) y = tan−1 __
2( )
1x , x = 4

−1
(c) y = x tan (2x + 1), x = 0
81
M O DUL E 1
d2y dy
7 Given that y = x tan−1 x, show that (1 + x2)___2 + 2(x − 1) ___ = 2.
dx dx
8 Given that y = ex(A cos 3x + B sin 3x), where A and B are constants, show that
d 2y
___ dy
− 2 ___ + 10y = 0.
dx2 dx
9 A curve is given parametrically by x = t 3 + 2t, y = t 4 + 2t.
dy d2y
(a) Find ___ and ___2 in terms of t.
dx dx
(b) Show that there is no tangent to the curve that is vertical.
dy
10 The equation of a curve is given by xy3 + 3xy − x2 = 4x. Find ___ as a function
dx
of x and y.
11 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x2 + y2 − 4xy = 6 at the point (1, −1).
12 Find all the points on the graph of x2 + y2 = 4x + 4y at which the tangent is
parallel to the x-axis.
13 The parametric equations of a curve are x = a cos3 θ, y = a sin3 θ.
dy
Show that ___ = −tan θ.
dx
π is √__
Show also that the equation of the normal at θ = __ 3 x − y = a.
6
______
3x + 8 at the
point x = 0.

14 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = ln 3 ______
x+2

15 The parametric equations of a curve are x = 4(2 cos θ − cos 2θ),


y = 4(2 sin θ − sin 2θ).
dy 3θ .
(a) Prove that ___ = tan ___
dx 2
2
dy
(b) Find and simplify ___2 .
dx
π.
(c) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at θ = __
3
16 The equation of a curve is given by x2y2 + 4y = x.
dy 1 − 2xy2
(a) Show that ___ = ________.
dx 4 + 2x2y
(b) Hence find the gradient of the curve at (0, 0).
(c) Find the equation of the normal to the curve at (0, 0).
dy
17 Given that x = θ − sin θ, y = 1 − cos θ, find ___ , simplifying your answer as far
dx
d2y 1
as possible. Hence show that ___2 = −__
dx
θ
4 __
4 cosec 2 .( )
18 Given that the variables x and y are related by y = x + exy find the value of
2
dy
___ when y = 0.
dx2
d2y 2θsin θ .
19 Given that x = θ + sin θ, y = θ2 + 2cos θ, show that ___2 = __________
dx (1 + cos θ)
3

82
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2

dy
20 Given that 2x+y = x3 + 3y, find ___.
dx
21 Find the second partial derivaties of f(x, y) = 6x3 + 12x2y2 − 3y3.
22 Show that the function f (x, y) = ex sin y satisfies the equation
fxx + fyy = 0
23 Find the first partial derivatives of the functions:
(a) w = xy2z3 + 3yz
(b) w = ln(x + 3y + 4z)
24 The total resistance R produced by three conductors with resistance R1, R2, R3
connected in a parallel electrical circuit is given by the formula
__ 1 + __
1 = __ 1 + __1
R R1 R2 R3
∂2R .
∂R and ____
Find ___
∂R1 ∂R21
25 Let f(x, y) = x2 sin (yz). Find fxx, fyy, fzz and fxyz.

83
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 3
Partial Fractions

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ separate a fraction with unrepeated linear factors in the denominator
into its parts
■ separate a fraction with repeated linear factors in the denominator into
its parts
■ separate a fraction with unrepeated quadratic factors in the denominator into
its parts
■ separate a fraction with repeated quadratic factors in the denominator into
its parts
■ separate an improper fraction into its parts.

KEYWORDS/TERMS

SBUJPOBMGSBDUJPOtQSPQFSGSBDUJPOtJNQSPQFS
GSBDUJPOtQBSUJBMGSBDUJPOtMJOFBSGBDUPSt
RVBESBUJDGBDUPStSFQFBUFEGBDUPS

84
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

DE FIN ITI ON Rational fractions


A rational fraction
is one in which the
numerator and The sum or difference of a number of rational fractions can be combined to
denominator are form one fraction in the following way:
polynomials.
2 + _____
_____ 2(x + 2) + 3(x + 1)
3 ≡ _________________ (finding the LCM, (x + 1)(x + 2))
x+1 x+2 (x + 1)(x + 2)
A proper fraction
is one in which 2x + 4 + 3x + 3
= ______________
the degree of the (x + 1)(x + 2)
numerator is less
5x + 7
than the degree = ____________
of the denomina- (x + 1)(x + 2)
tor. An improper
fraction is one in Rational fractions can be either proper fractions or improper fractions.
which the degree Rational fractions with factors in the denominator can be separated into parts.
of the numerator
The process of separating rational fractions into their parts is called partial
is greater than
or equal to the fractions. All improper fractions must be converted to mixed fractions before
degree of the separating into parts. For proper fractions, the denominator must be factorised
denominator. into a product of linear factors and quadratic factors and the partial fractions
will depend on the form of these factors. The denominator can contain
3
2 and _____
_____ (a) unrepeated linear factors, (b) repeated linear factors, (c) unrepeated
x+1 x+2 quadratic factors, or (d) repeated quadratic factors.
are the parts of
5x + 7  
____________
(x + 1)(x + 2)

Proper fractions: Unrepeated linear factors


The denominator of the proper fraction consists of unrepeated linear factors of the
Note form ax + b. For every factor of the form ax + b there is a corresponding fraction of
Since there are A , where A is a constant to be found.
the form ______
three factors ax + b
in the denomina- P(x) A + ______ B + ______C
For example, _____________________ ≡ ______
tor there must be (ax + b)(cx + d)(ex + f ) ax + b cx + d ex + f
three correspond-
ing fractions. There are several ways of finding the constants A, B and C. The following examples
demonstrate the different methods that can be used.

EXAMPLE 1 5x + 7
Separate ____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x + 2)

SOLUTION Since the denominator consists of two distinct linear factors, we have
5x + 7
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
Remember (x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2
Every distinct Multiply both sides of the identity by the denominator of the left-hand side to
linear factor in
obtain
the denominator
must have a 5x + 7
____________ A × (x + 1)(x + 2) + _____
× (x + 1)(x + 2) ≡ _____ B × (x + 1)(x + 2)
fraction associ- (x + 1)(x + 2) x+1 x+2
ated with it.
∴ 5x + 7 ≡ A(x + 2) + B(x + 1) [1]
85
M O DUL E 1
Substitute x = −2 into [1] to eliminate A
Note
5(−2) + 7 = A(−2 + 2) + B(−2 + 1)
The first method
of finding A and −3 = −B
B is to substitute
B=3
values for x on
both sides of the Substitute x = −1 into [1] to eliminate B
identity. The val-
ues of x are found 5(−1) + 7 = A(−1 + 2) + B(−1 + 1)
from the zeros of
A=2
the denominator
i.e. x + 2 = 0 and 5x + 7
So ____________ 3
2 + ______
≡ ______
x + 1 = 0 give (x + 1)(x + 2) x+1 x+2
x = −2 and
x = −1.

EXAMPLE 2 2x + 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x − 3)(3x − 1)

SOLUTION Since the denominator of this proper fraction consists of two distinct linear factors,
we have
2x + 1
_____________ A + ______
≡ _____ B
(x − 3)(3x − 1) x − 3 3x − 1

Note Multiplying both sides of the identity by (x − 3)(3x − 1) gives


2x + 1 ≡ A(3x − 1) + B(x − 3)
This method for
finding A and = 3Ax − A + Bx − 3B
B is comparing
coefficients. The ∴ 2x + 1 = 3Ax + Bx − A − 3B
coefficients of
Equating coefficients of x, we have
x and the con-
stants on both 3A + B = 2
sides of the
identity must be Equating constants, we have
equal.
−A − 3B = 1
Multiplying the second equation by 3 and adding to the first gives
Two equations −8B = 5
are formed. To
−5
B = ___
find A and B we
8
solve the equa-
tions simultane- Substituting into the second equation gives
ously. 15 = 1
−A + ___
8
7
A = __
8
_7 −5
__
So 2x + 1
_____________ ≡ _____
8 ______
+ 8
(x − 3)(3x − 1) x−3 3x − 1
7
≡ _______ 5
− ________
8(x − 3) 8(3x − 1)

86
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

EXAMPLE 3 6x − 7x − 1 into partial fractions.


2
Separate _____________
(x2 − 1)(x − 2)

SOLUTION The first term in the denominator can be factorised into x2 − 1 = (x − 1)(x + 1).
6x − 7x − 1 ≡ __________________
2
∴ _____________ 6x − 7x − 1
2

(x2 − 1)(x − 2) (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2)


Substituting The denominator of this fraction consists of three distinct linear factors.
values of x
for which the 6x2 − 7x − 1
∴ __________________ A + _____
≡ _____ C
B + _____
denominator is (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) x − 1 x + 1 x − 2
zero will normally
be the fastest way Multiplying throughout by (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) gives
of finding the 6x2 − 7x − 1 ≡ A (x + 1)(x − 2) + B (x − 1)(x − 2) + C (x + 1)(x − 1)
constants.
To find A, B and C, we can substitute x = −1, x = 1 and x = 2 into the equation.
When x = −1,
6(−1)2 − 7(−1) − 1 = B (−1 − 1)(−1 − 2)
6 + 7 − 1 = 6B
12 = 6B
B=2
When x = 1,
6(1)2 − 7(1) − 1 = A(1 + 1)(1 − 2)
6 − 7 − 1 = −2A
−2 = −2A
A=1
When x = 2,
6(2)2 − 7(2) − 1 = C (2 + 1)(2 − 1)
24 − 14 − 1 = 3C
9 = 3C
C=3
6x2 − 7x − 1
∴ __________________ ≡ _____
1 + _____ 3
2 + _____
(x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 2) x − 1 x + 1 x − 2

EXAMPLE 4 6x + 10x + 2 into partial fractions.


2
Separate ______________
(2x2 + 5x + 2)x

SOLUTION The denominator can be factorised into 2x2 + 5x + 2 ≡ (2x + 1)(x + 2).
6x + 10x + 2 ≡ ______________
2
∴ ______________ 6x + 10x + 2
2

(2x2 + 5x + 2)x x(2x + 1)(x + 2)


Since we have three distinct factors in the denominator:
6x2 + 10x + 2 ≡ __
______________ C
B + _____
A + ______
x(2x + 1)(x + 2) x 2x + 1 x + 2

87
M O DUL E 1
Multiplying throughout by x(2x + 1)(x + 2), we get
6x2 + 10x + 2 ≡ A(2x + 1)(x + 2) + Bx (x + 2) + Cx (2x + 1)
1
To find A, B and C we can substitute x = 0, x = − __
2 , x = −2 into the equation.
When x = 0,
6(0)2 + 10(0) + 2 = A(2(0) + 1)((0) + 2)
2 = 2A
∴A=1
1
__
When x = − 2 ,

( )
12
6 −__ 1
__
( ) 1
__ 1
__
( )(
2 + 10 −2 + 2 = B −2 − 2 + 2 )
3B
6 − 5 + 2 = − ___
__
4 4
6 3B
− __
4=− 4
___

B=2
When x = −2,
6 (−2)2 + 10 (−2) + 2 = C (−2)(2(−2) + 1)
6 = 6C
C=1
+ 10x + 2 ≡ __
6x2
∴ ______________ 1 + ______
2 + _____
1
(2x2 + 5x + 2)x x 2x + 1 x + 2

Try these 3.1 Separate the following into partial fractions.


x+2
(a) ____________
(x − 3)(x + 1)
4 Ask yourself
(b) _____________
(2x + 1)(x + 2) Is the fraction proper or improper, can the denominator
x
(c) __________ be factorised, are the factors in the denominator distinct,
x2 + 5x + 6 what are the parts, what values of x can be used to find
x+2
(d) ______________ the constants?
x(3x2 + 4x + 1)

Proper fractions: Repeated linear factors


The denominator of the proper fraction contains repeated linear factors of the form
(cx + d)n. For each factor repeated n times there is a corresponding sum of n
fractions of the form
λ1
______ λ2 λ3 λn
+ ________ + ________ + . . . + ________
cx + d (cx + d) 2 (cx + d)3 (cx + d)n
where λ1, λ2, λ3, . . . , λn are constants to be found.
P(x) A + ______ C
B + ________
For example, _______________2 ≡ ______
(ax + b)(cx + d) ax + b cx + d (cx + d)2

Note the sum of two fractions associated with the repeated linear factor.

88
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

EXAMPLE 5 2x + 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 2)(x + 1)2

SOLUTION Since the denominator consists of a distinct linear factor and a repeated linear factor,
we have
2x + 1
_____________ A + _____
≡ _____ C
B + _______
(x + 2)(x + 1)2 x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2
(one fraction for the distinct linear factor and the sum of two fractions for the
repeated linear factor).
Multiply both sides of the identity by the denominator of the left-hand side.
Note 2x + 1 = A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) [1]
The values of x Substitute x = −1 into [1]
that are chosen
to find A, B and C
2(−1) + 1 = A(−1 + 1)2 + B(−1 + 2)(−1 + 1) + C(−1 + 2)
are −1, −2 and −2 + 1 = A(0)2 + B(1)(0) + C(1)
0. The first two
values are found −1 = C
from the zeros of Substitute x = −2 into [1]
the denominator
(x + 1 = 0 and 2(−2) + 1 = A(−2 + 1)2 + B(−2 + 2)(−2 + 1) + C(−2 + 2)
x + 2 = 0) and −4 + 1 = A(−1)2 + B(0)(−1) + C(0)
the third value
can be any arbi- −3 = A
trary value of x.
To find B we can substitute any other value for x.
Substitute x = 0, A = −3, C = −1 into [1]
2(0) + 1 = −3(0 + 1)2 + B(0 + 2)(0 + 1) + (−1)(0 + 2)
1 = −3 + 2B − 2
6 = 2B
3=B
Hence
2x + 1
_____________ −3 + _____
≡ _____ −1 = _____
3 + _______ 3 − _____
3 − _______
1
(x + 2)(x + 1)2 x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2 x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)2

EXAMPLE 6 3x − 1 into partial fractions.


2
Separate ________
x2(x + 1)

SOLUTION Since the denominator of this fraction consists of one repeated factor and one
distinct linear factor, we have
3x2 − 1 ≡ __
________ C
B + _____
A + __
x2(x + 1) x x2 x +1
Multiplying throughout by x2(x + 1), we have
3x2 − 1 ≡ Ax(x + 1) + B(x + 1) + Cx2
When x = 0,
−1 = B(0 + 1)
B = −1
89
M O DUL E 1
When x = −1,
3(−1)2 − 1 = C(−1)2
C=2
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
3=A+C
Substituting C = 2, we have
3=A+2
A=1

3x2 − 1 ≡ __
∴ ________ 1 + _____
1 − __ 2
x2(x + 1) x x2 x +1

EXAMPLE 7 x2 + x − 1 into partial fractions.


Separate _________
(x + 1)3 x

SOLUTION Since the denominator of this fraction consists of one repeated linear factor and one
distinct linear factor, we have
A × (x + 1)3 x
_____ x2 + x − 1 ≡ _____
_________ B
A + _______ C D.
x+1 + _______ + __
(x + 1)3x x + 1 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 x
= A(x + 1)2 x
B × (x + 1)3 x
_______ Multiplying throughout by (x + 1)3x, we have
(x + 1)2
x2 + x − 1 ≡ Ax(x + 1)2 + Bx(x + 1) + Cx + D(x + 1)3
= B(x + 1) x
= Ax(x2 + 2x + 1) + Bx2 + Bx + Cx + D(x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 1)
C × (x + 1)3 x
_______
(x + 1)3 = Ax3 + 2Ax2 + Ax + Bx2 + Bx + Cx + Dx3 + 2Dx2 + Dx + Dx2
= Cx + 2Dx + D
D × (x + 1)3 x
__ = x3(A + D) + x2(2A + B + 3D) + x(A + B + C + 3D) + D
x
= D(x + 1)3 When x = 0,
−1 = D
When x = −1,
(−1)2 + (−1) − 1 = C (−1)
C=1
Equating coefficients of x3, we have
0=A+D
Substituting D = −1, we have
0=A−1
A=1
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
1 = 2A + B + 3D

90
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

Substituting D = −1, A = 1, we have


1=2+B−3
B=2
x2 + x − 1 ≡ _____
∴ _________ 1 + _______
2 1
+ _______ 1
− __
(x + 1)3 x x + 1 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 x

Try these 3.2 Separate the following into partial fractions.

6x2 − x − 2
(a) __________ Ask yourself
x (x − 1)
2

Is the fraction proper, is the denominator factorised,


6x2 + 5x + 3
(b) ___________ are the factors linear, are the factors repeated, what
x(2x + 1)
2
are the fractions associated with the factors of the
3x2 − 3x − 2
(c) __________________
denominator, what is the fastest method of finding
(x + 1)(x − 2x + 1)
2 the constants?

Proper fractions: Unrepeated quadratic factors


The denominator of the proper fraction contains unrepeated quadratic factors of
the form ax2 + bx + c. For each factor of this form in the denominator there is a
Ax + B .
corresponding fraction of the form ___________
ax2 + bx + c
P(x)
For example ___________________ Bx + C
A + ___________
≡ ______
(ax + b)(cx2 + dx + e) ax + b cx2 + dx + e
where A, B and C are constants to be found.

EXAMPLE 8 4
Separate ______________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1)

SOLUTION First check that the quadratic factor does not factorise. This fraction consists of one
distinct linear factor and one quadratic factor in the denominator, so we have
4
______________ Bx + C
A + _______
≡ _____
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1) x + 1 2x2 + 1
Multiply both sides of the identity by (x + 1)(2x2 + 1)
4 ≡ A(2x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) [1]
Substitute x = −1 into [1]
4 = A(2(−1)2 + 1) + (B(−1) + C)((−1) + 1)
4 = 3A
4
A = __
3
Substitute x = 0 into [1]
4 = A(2(0)2 +1) + (B(0) + C)(0 + 1)
4=A+C
4+C
4 = __
3
8
4 = __
C = 4 − __
3 3
91
M O DUL E 1
Substitute x = 1 and also the values for A and C into [1]
Note
Since we have
4 = __
3 ( 3 )
8 (1 + 1)
4 (2(1)2 + 1) + B(1) + __

found A and C, 4
__
4 = (3) + 2B + 16
___
to find B we can 3 3
16
___
equate coeffi- 2B = − 3
8
B = − __
cients or substi-
tute any other 3
value for x. Hence
Equating coef- 4
__ −8 x + __
___ 8
ficients of x2, we 4
______________ _____
3 ________
3 3 4 8(1 − x)
≡ + ≡ _______ + _________
get 0 = 2A + B. (x + 1)(2x2 + 1) x + 1 2x + 1
2 3(x + 1) 3(2x 2 + 1)

EXAMPLE 9 2x2 + 1 into partial fractions.


Separate ________
x(x2 + 1)

SOLUTION The denominator consists of one linear factor and one quadratic factor, so we have
2x2 + 1 ≡ __
________ Bx + C
A + _______
x(x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
Multiplying throughout by x(x2 + 1), we have
2x2 + 1 ≡ A(x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)x
= Ax2 + A + Bx2 + Cx
= (A + B)x2 + Cx + A
Substituting x = 0, we have
1=A
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
2=A+B
∴2=1+B (Substituting A = 1)
B=1
Equating coefficients of x, we have
C=0
2x2 + 1 ≡ __
∴ ________ x
1 + ______
x(x2 + 1) x x2 + 1

Try these 3.3 Separate the following into partial fractions.


3
(a) ________ x2 + 4x − 1
(b) __________________ −2x − 1
(c) _________________
x(x + 1)
2 (x − 2)(x + 2x + 3)
2 (x + 1)(x + x + 1)
2

Ask yourself
Is the fraction proper, is the denominator factorised, are the factors linear or quadratic or
both, are the factors repeated, what are the fractions associated with the factors of the
denominator, what is the fastest method of finding the constants?

92
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

Proper fractions: Repeated quadratic factors


The denominator of the proper fraction consists of repeated quadratic factors of
the form (ax2 + bx + c)2. For each factor of this form in the denominator there
Cx + D
Ax + B + _____________
corresponds the sum of two fractions of the form ___________
ax2 + bx + c (ax2 + bx + c)2
where A, B, C and D are constants to be found.

E X A M P L E 10 2x + x + 8 into partial fractions.


2
Separate ______________
(x2 + 4)2(x + 1)

SOLUTION We have a repeated quadratic factor and a linear factor in the denominator, therefore
the partial fractions are:
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _______
______________ Cx + D + _____
Ax + B + ________ E
(x + 4)2(x + 1)
2 x2 + 4 (x2 + 4)2 x + 1

Multiplying throughout by (x2 + 4)2(x + 1) gives


2x2 + x + 8 ≡ (Ax + B)(x2 + 4)(x + 1) + (Cx + D)(x + 1) + E(x2 + 4)2
Substituting x = −1 gives
9 = 25E ⇒ E = ___ 9
25
Equating coefficients of x4 gives
0=A+E 9
∴ A = −E = −___
25
Equating coefficients of x3 gives 0 = A + B ⇒ B = −A = ___ 9
25
When x = 0, 8 = 4B + D + 16E ⇒ 8 = 4 ___ ( )
25 ( )
9 + D + 16 ___9 ⇒ D = __
25
4
5
Equating coefficients of x gives 2 = 4A + B + C + 8E
2

⇒ 2 = − ___ 9 + C + ___
36 + ___ 72 ⇒ C = __
1
25 25 25 5
Hence
−__
9
25 x + 25
__
9 _1 x + _4 __
9
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _________
______________ + ________
5 5
+ _____
25
(x2 + 4)2(x + 1) x2 + 4 (x2 + 4)2 x + 1
This simplifies to

______________ 9(1 − x)
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _________ x + 4 + ________
9
+ _________
(x + 4)2(x + 1) 25(x2 + 4) 5(x2 + 4)2 25(x + 1)
2

Try these 3.4 Separate the following into partial fractions.


x4 + 1
(a) _________
x(x + 1)
2 2

1 − x + 2x2 − x3
(b) ______________
x(x + 1)
2 2

3x4 + 5x3 + 7x2 + 2x + 1


(c) _____________________
x(x + x + 1)
2 2

93
M O DUL E 1
Improper fractions
If the degree of the numerator is equal to or higher than that of the denominator, the
expression is an improper fraction. Change the fraction to a mixed fraction and then
separate into partial fractions.

E X A M P L E 11 x3 − 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x2 + 1)

SOLUTION Since the fraction is an improper fraction, by long division we get


1
x3 + x2 + x + 1 )‾‾‾‾‾‾‾
x3 + 0x2 + 0x − 1
x3 + x2 + x + 1
− x2 − x − 2

x −1
3
∴ _____________ x +x+2
2
≡ 1 − _____________
(x + 1)(x2 +1) (x + 1)(x2 + 1)

x + x + 2 into partial fractions gives:


2
Separating _____________
(x + 1)(x2 + 1)

x2 + x + 2 ≡ _____
_____________ Bx + C
A + _______
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) x + 1 x2 + 1

x2 + x + 2 ≡ A(x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) [1]


Substitute x = −1 into [1]
1 − 1 + 2 = A(2) + (−B + C)(0)
2A = 2
A=1
Substitute x = 0 into [1]
2=A+C
Since A = 1
2=1+C
C=1
Substitute x = 1, A = 1 and C = 1 into [1]
1 + 1 + 2 = (1)(1 + 1) + (B(1) + 1)(1 + 1)
4 = 2 + 2B + 2
B=0
x2 + x + 2 ≡ _____
Hence _____________ 1
1 + ______
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) x + 1 x2 + 1
x −1
3
Since _____________ x +x+2
2
≡ 1 − _____________
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) (x + 1)(x2 + 1)
x3 − 1
_____________ 1 − ______
≡ 1 − _____ 1
(x + 1)(x2 +1) x + 1 x2 + 1

94
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

E X A M P L E 12 x3 − x2 − 1 into partial fractions.


Separate ____________
(x + 1)(x − 2)

SOLUTION x − x − 1 is an improper fraction we need to divide first.


3
Since ____________
2
(x + 1)(x − 2)
x
x2 − x − 2 )‾
‾‾‾‾‾‾ ‾‾‾
x3 − x2 + 0x −1
x − x − 2x
3 2

2x − 1
x − x − 1 ≡ x + ____________
3
∴ ____________
2 2x − 1
(x + 1)(x − 2) (x + 1)(x − 2)
2x − 1
Separating ____________ into partial fractions, we have
(x + 1)(x − 2)
2x − 1
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x + 1)(x − 2) x + 1 x − 2
⇒ 2x − 1 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x + 1)
When x = 2,
2(2) − 1 = B(2 + 1)
3 = 3B
B=1
When x = −1,
2(−1) − 1 = A(−1 − 2)
−3 = −3A
A=1
2x − 1
∴ ____________ 1 + _____
≡ _____ 1
(x + 1)(x − 2) x + 1 x − 2
Hence
x3 − x2 − 1 ≡ x + _____
____________ 1 + _____
1
(x + 1)(x − 2) x+1 x−2

Try these 3.5 Separate the following into partial fractions.


x2
(a) ____________
(x + 1)(x + 2) Ask yourself
x3
(b) _______ Is the fraction proper, is the denominator factor-
(x + 1)
2
ised, are the factors linear or quadratic or both, are
the factors repeated, what are the fractions associ-
x3 + 6x2 + 8x + 2
(c) _______________
x(x + 1)(x + 2) ated with the factors of the denominator, what is
the fastest method of finding the constants?

Extension
Investigation: Can you work out what happens if there
is a repeated quadratic fraction?

95
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 3A
In questions 1–25, separate the expression into partial fractions.

1 2
____________ 2 3x
____________
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x − 1)(x + 2)

3 4x
______________ 4 2x + 3
____________
(3x + 2)(2x + 1) (x − 1)(x − 2)

5 x
___________ 6 4
___________
2x2 − 5x + 2 x2 + 7x + 12

7 x+1
________ 8 x
_____________
x2(x + 2) (x + 1)2(x + 3)

9 3x + 5
_____________ 5
10 ______________
x(x2 − 4x + 4) (x + 1) (x − 1)
2 2

7
11 ______________ 5x + 2
12 _________
(x − 4) (2x + 1)
2 2x (3x − 1)

2x + 1
13 ________ 3x − 2
14 _________
(x + 1)x
2 (x + 4)x
2 2

x
15 ______________ 4x
16 _________________
(x + 2)(4x + 3)
2 (x + x + 1)(x + 1)
2

2
17 ______________ 7x − 5
18 ___________________
(4x + 2)(x + 2)
2 (3x + 1)(2x + 5x + 4)
2

12x2 − 3x − 10
19 ______________ x2 + 8x
20 ____________
(2x + 1)(3x − 4) (x + 2)(x − 1)

12x2 + 10x + 15
21 ______________ −11x − 15
22 ___________________
(x + 2) (1 − x)
2 (2x + 1)(2x − 5x − 3)
2

5x2 + 8x + 5
23 __________________ 1
24 ______
(2x + 1)(x + x + 1)
2 3x −8

2x2 − 3x + 5
25 _____________
(x + 1)(x + 4)
2

4x + 4x + 1 in the form A + __
2
26 Write the fraction ___________ C .
B + _____
x(x + 1) x x+1

x + 6x + 7x + 2 into partial fractions.


3 2
27 Separate _______________
(x + 2)(x + 4)

96
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3

x + x + 2x + 1 can be written in the form A + __


3
28 Show that ______________
2 Cx + D where
B + _______
2 x(x + 1) 2 x x +1
A, B, C and D are constants.

29 (a) Separate the following into partial fractions.


x2 + 3x + 3
(i) __________ x+1
(ii) _______
(x + 1)2 x4 − 16
x − 3x − 4x − 9x − 6 in partial fractions.
4 3
(b) Write _____________________
2

(x − 4)(x2 + x + 1)

30 Given that A(x2 + x + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 2) = 2x2 + 4x + 3, find A, B and C.


2x + 4x + 3 2
Hence separate _________________ into partial fractions.
(x + 2)(x2 + x + 1)

SUMMARY

Partial fractions

Proper Improper
fractions fractions

Divide and separate


Unrepeated Repeated Unrepeated Repeated into the quotient
linear factors linear factors quadratic quadratic plus the remainder
in the in the factors in the factors in the
denominator denominator denominator denominator

A λ1 λ2 λ3 λn Ax + B Ax + B + Cx + D Go to proper
+ + + ... +
ax + b cx + d (cx + d)2 (cx + d)3 (cx + d)n ax2 + bx + c ax2 + bx + c (ax2 + bx + c)2 fractions

97
M O DUL E 1

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Express an improper fraction as a mixed fraction.
■ Separate a proper fraction with distinct linear factors in the denominator into
partial fractions.
■ Separate a proper fraction with repeated linear factors in the denominator into
partial fractions.
■ Separate a proper fraction with (unrepeated or repeated) quadratic factors in
the denominator into partial fractions.
■ Separate an improper fraction into partial fractions.

98
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

CHAPTER 4
Integration

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ carry out integration by recognition
■ carry out integration by substitution
■ carry out integration by parts
■ carry out integration by using partial fractions
■ integrate trigonometric functions.

KEYWORDS/TERMS

JOUFHSBUJPOtEJČFSFOUJBUJPOtDPOTUBOUPGJOUFHSBUJPOt
SFDPHOJUJPOtQBSUJBMGSBDUJPOTtTVCTUJUVUJPOt
JOUFHSBUJPOCZQBSUTtMJNJUTPGJOUFHSBUJPO

99
M O DUL E 1
Integration is the reverse of differentiation. Recall that whenever we integrate a
function without limits we need to add a constant of integration.
There are four methods of integration that we use for the CAPE syllabus: integration
by recognition, integration using partial fractions, integration by substitution and
integration by parts.
Recognition makes use of a set of standard integrals that you must be familiar with. As
soon as you look at the function that has to be integrated you should recognise its form
and be able to write down the result. For integration using partial fractions the function
being integrated is a rational function that can be split into parts. Once the split is done,
the resulting fractions will be simpler to integrate than the original function. Substitu-
tion is generally used when integrating composite functions. When a substitution is
used, the original function is replaced and the resulting function will be of a form that
can be integrated quite easily. Integration by parts makes use of the product rule for
differentiation and is used to integrate some products of functions. All methods of
integration break down the function being integrated to a simpler form.

Integration by recognition
Integrating by recognition makes use of the standard list of integrals in this table.

Function Integral

xn x n+1
_____ + c, n ≠ −1
n+1

(ax + b)n a [(ax + b)n+1


1 __________
__
n+1
+ c,] n ≠ −1

1
__
x ln | x | + c

1
______ 1 |
__
a ln ax + b + c
|
ax + b

ex ex + c

e ax+b 1 ax+b + c
__
ae

sin x − cos x + c

1
sin (ax + b) −__
a cos (ax + b) + c

cos x sin x + c

cos (ax + b) 1
__
a sin (ax + b) + c

tan x −ln | cos x| + c or ln | sec x| + c

tan (ax + b) 1
__
a ln sec (ax + b) + c

sec x ln | sec x + tan x| + c

sec2 x tan x + c

100
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Function Integral
x +c
ln tan __
cosec x | ( )|
2

cot x ln | sin x | + c

f ′ (x)
____ ln | f (x) | + c
f (x)
[ f (x) ]
________
n+1
f ′ (x)[ f (x) ]n + c, n ≠ −1
n+1
f ′ (x) e f (x) e f (x) + c

1
________ x
sin−1 ( __
a) + c
______
√a2 − x2
1
_______ 1
__ x
−1 __
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c

EXAMPLE 1 ∫
1
Find _______
(3x + 1)
d x.

SOLUTION 1 is of the form ______


The function ______ 1 . Therefore the integral is a standard
3x + 1 ax + b
integral.


1
1 d x = __
Using ______
ax + b a ln | ax + b | + c where a = 3, b = 1,


1 ln | 3x + 1 | + c
1 d x = __
we get ______
3x +1 3

EXAMPLE 2

1
Find ________
(3x + 1)3
d x.

SOLUTION ∫
This integral is of the form (ax + b)n where a = 3, b = 1, n = −3.

∫ 1
________
(3x + 1)3 ∫
d x = (3x + 1)−3 d x

(3x + 1)−2
1 _________
= __ +c
3 −2
= −__ 1
1 (3x + 1)−2 + c = −_________ +c
6 6(3x + 1)2

EXAMPLE 3 ∫
Find e4x+5 d x.

SOLUTION ∫ 1 ax+b + c.
From the table e ax+b d x = __
ae
Substituting a = 4, b = 5, we get

∫ 1 e 4x+5 + c
e 4x+5 d x = __
4

EXAMPLE 4 ∫
Find e3−2x d x.

SOLUTION ∫ 1 ax+b + c
This is of the form e ax+b d x = __
ae
where a = −2, b = 3.

∫ 1 e3−2x + c
e3−2x d x = −__
2

101
M O DUL E 1
dy
EXAMPLE 5
dx ∫
Given that y = 3x, find ___ and hence find 3x d x.

SOLUTION y = 3x
Taking ln on both sides, we have
Using the chain
rule: ln y = ln 3x
d ln y
___ = x ln 3
dx
[ ]
dy
d ln y × ___ Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we have
= ___ [ ] dx
dy dy
1 ___
__
= __
dy
1 ___ y d x = ln 3
y dx
dy
Therefore ___ = y ln 3
dx
Substituting y = 3x, we have
dy
___ = 3x ln 3
dx
To find the integral we can use integration as the reverse of differentiation.
Since
d [3x] = 3x ln 3
___
dx
integrating both sides with respect to x, we get


3x = 3x ln 3 d x


= (ln 3) 3x d x
Hence

∫3x dx = ___
3 +c x
ln 3

EXAMPLE 6 ∫
Find ax d x, where a is a constant.

SOLUTION Let y = ax
Taking ln on both sides, we have
ln y = ln ax = x ln a
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we have
d ln y = __ dy
dy
___
dx
[ ] 1___ y dx
1 ___
__
y d x = ln a d [ x ln a ] = ln a
___
dy dx
Therefore ___ = y ln a
dx
Substituting y = ax, we have
dy
___ = ax ln a
dx
To find the integral we can use integration as the reverse of differentiation.
Since
d [ax] = ax ln a
___
dx
102
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

integrating both sides with respect to x, we get


ax = ax ln a d x


= (ln a) ax d x
Hence

∫ax dx = ____
a +c x
ln a

Now let us use this result to integrate for particular values of a.

∫0 4x dx = ___
1 3 .
EXAMPLE 7 Show that
ln 4


x
a + c = ax d x
SOLUTION Using ____ This result is worth remembering.
ln a
where a = 4, we have

∫ [ ]
1 4x 1
4x d x = ___
0 ln 4 0
4 1 40
= ___ − ___
ln 4 ln 4
4 − ___
= ___ 1
ln 4 ln 4
3
= ___
ln 4

π d x.
EXAMPLE 8 ∫
Find tan ( 3x + __
2)

SOLUTION ∫ 1
Using the standard form for tan (ax + b) d x = __
a ln sec (ax + b) + c
∫tan ( 3x + __π2 ) dx = __31 ln sec ( 3x + __π2 ) + c
EXAMPLE 9 ∫ 1
Find ____________π d x.
cosec ( x + __
2)
1
Recall that ______
SOLUTION cosec x = sin x
π
π = sin ( x + 2 )
1
∴ ____________ __
cosec ( x + __
2)

∫ 1
Using sin (ax + b) d x = −__
a cos (ax + b) + c

∫ ____________
1
cosec ( x + __
2)
π
__ π
π d x = ∫sin ( x + 2 ) d x = −cos ( x + 2 ) + c
__

Try these 4.1 Find the following integrals.


(a) ∫e5x−2 d x (b) ∫e2−7x d x
(c) ∫ cos ( 3x − __π2 ) dx (d) ∫ tan ( 5x + __π2 ) dx
∫0 5x dx
1
(e) ∫27x dx (f)
103
M O DUL E 1
When the numerator is the differential of the denominator
f ′ (x)

Now let us look at the form _____ d x = ln | f (x) | + c.
f (x)
Note that this is a general form where the numerator is the differential of the
denominator; f (x) can be any function of x.


E X A M P L E 10 2x d x.
Integrate ______
1 + x2
SOLUTION d [1 + x2] = 2x
___
dx
Let f (x) = 1 + x2
f ′(x) = 2x
f ′ (x)

This integral is of the form ____ d x = ln | f (x) | + c.
f (x)


2x
∴ ______2 d x = ln | 1 + x2 | + c
1+x

x+2
E X A M P L E 11 ∫
Integrate __________
x2 + 4x + 1
d x.

SOLUTION d [x2 + 4x + 1] = 2x + 4.
___
dx
f ′ (x)

This is of the form _____ d x.
f (x)
We can rewrite the integral as
f′

Note 2(x + 2)
x+2
∫ __________ d x = __ ∫ __________
1 dx
1 × 2 = 1. Our
__ x2 + 4x + 1 2 x2 + 4x + 1
2 ↑
function has not f
x+2

changed. ∴ __________ 1 ln [x2 + 4x + 1] + c
= __
x + 4x + 1 2
2

E X A M P L E 12 ∫
Show that tan x d x = ln |sec x| + c

SOLUTION sin x
Writing tan x = ____
cos x

∫ tan x dx = ∫ ____
sin x
cos x d x
−sin x d x,
= −∫ ______ d [cos x] = −sin x
___
cos x dx
= −ln |cos x| + c
= ln |(cos x)−1| + c, using rules of logarithms
= ln |sec x| + c

E X A M P L E 13 ∫ex d x.
Find ______
1 + ex
f ′(x)
SOLUTION
dx ∫
d [1 + ex] = ex the integral is of the form ____
Since ___
f (x)
d x = ln | f (x) | + c.
ex d x = ln |1 + ex| + c

∴ ______
1 + ex
104
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

1
__
E X A M P L E 14 Find ∫ ln x
___
x d x.

SOLUTION ___ 1
d [ln x] = __
dx x
f ′(x)
∫ ____
f (x)
d x = ln | f (x) | + c

1
__
∴ ∫ ln x
___
x d x = ln | ln x | + c

Try these 4.2 Find the following integrals.

∫ ______ ∫ ______
x dx 3 x dx
(a) (b)
x +5
4 x −1
2

3x + 1
(c) ∫ ____
cos x d x
sin x
(d) ∫ ___________
3x2 + 2x + 1
dx

The form ∫ f ′(x)[ f (x)]n dx, n ≠ −1


The form f ′(x) [ f (x) ]n is also a useful general form of an integral. The differential
of the function inside the brackets must be multiplied by the function raised to the
power of n.
[ f (x)]n+1
∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n d x = ________ + c,
n+1
n ≠ −1.

Let us see how this works.


1
__
E X A M P L E 15 Integrate 2x (1 + x2) 2 d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = 1 + x2


f ′(x) = 2x, 1
n = __ (to fit the form f ′(x) [ f (x)]n)
2
[ f (x)]n+1

Using f ′(x) [ f (x)]n d x = ________ + c, n ≠ −1
n+1
3
__
(1 + x2) 2
∫ 2x (1 +
1
__
x2) 2 d x = ________ + c
3
__
2
2 (1 + x2) __32 + c
= __
3

E X A M P L E 16 ∫
Integrate cos x sin4 x d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = sin x


f ′(x) = cos x, n = 4

∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) [f (x)]n d x = cos x (sin x)4 d x
5
sin x + c
= _____
5
105
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 17 ∫
Find tan4 x sec2 x d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = tan x


f ′(x) = sec2 x, n=4

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = ∫tan4 x sec2 x dx



= sec2 x (tan x)4 d x

tan5 x + c
= _____
5

E X A M P L E 18 Find __
x ∫
1 (ln x) d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = ln x


1, n = 1
f ′(x) = __
x

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = ∫ __1x (ln x)1 dx


(ln x)2
= ______ + c
2

Try these 4.3 Find the following integrals.


(a) _______x
______ dx
√1 + x2

(b) ∫sin x cos7 x d x


2x + 1
(c) ∫ _____________
(2x + 2x + 3)3
2 dx

The form ∫ f ′(x) e f (x)dx


In the general form f ′(x) e f (x), again the differential of the index is multiplied
by e f (x).

∫ f ′(x) e f (x) dx = e f (x) + c


E X A M P L E 19 ∫
Find x e x d x.
2

SOLUTION Let f (x) = x2


f ′(x) = 2x

∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = 2xe x d x = e x + c
2 2

∫ 2
Since we are interested in xe x d x we can write the function as

∫xe x dx = __21 ∫2xe x dx = __21 e x + c


2 2 2

106
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

E X A M P L E 20 ∫
Find sec2x e tan x d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = tan x


f ′(x) = sec2 x

∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = sec2 x e tan x d x

= e tan x + c

E X A M P L E 21 ∫
Find cos x e sin x d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = sin x


f ′(x) = cos x

∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = cos x esin x d x

= e sin x + c

Try these 4.4 Find the following integrals.

∫ _______ (b) ∫ ______


These functions (a) 1
______ e sin
−1x
dx 1 e tan−1 x d x
can be integrated √1 − x2 1+x
2

with careful
recognition. (c) ∫x2e x +1 dx
3
(d) ∫sin x ecos x d x

EXERCISE 4A
Write down the integrals of the following functions.
Remember
These can all
1 ∫e7x dx 2 ∫e4x+2 dx
be integrated
by recognition.
You should be
3 ∫e5−2x dx 4 ∫ ______
4x + 5
1
dx
able to map
each function to
one in the table 5 ∫ ______
7x − 2
3dx 6 ∫ ______
2 dx
4 − 3x
given at the
beginning of the
chapter. 7 ∫ tan ( 2x + __π4 ) 8 ∫ sec2 ( __π2 − 3x ) dx
9 ∫ ___________
1
π dx
sec ( 2x − __ )
10 ∫ ___________
1
cosec (x + 2)
dx
4

11 ∫ ___________
1
cos2 (3x + 1)
dx 12 ∫6x2e x dx 3

__
13 ∫ sin x ecos x d x 14 ∫ ___
1 e x dx
√x
__ √

107
M O DUL E 1

∫xe −x dx ∫(e3x − ex)2 dx


2
15 16

17 ∫______
x dx
x2 + 9
18 ∫ _________
cos x d x
2 sin x + 1

∫ ______
2
∫__________
19 4 sec x d x 2
20 2x d x
2 tan x − 5 5 − x3

∫ ______ ∫ _______
e 3x arcsin x dx
21 dx 22 ______
e3x + 1 √1 − x2
__________
23 ∫ √tan2 3x + 1 dx 24 ∫ __
1 sin ( __
x ) dx
1
x2

25 ∫sin x cos4 x dx 26 ∫esin 4x cos 4x dx


∫e t t2 dt ∫0 ______
3 1 x dx
27 28
x2 + 9

Integration by substitution
The method of substitution is used to simplify the functions into a standard form
and then integrate these functions. When using a substitution, each function in the
integral must be replaced by a new variable; if there are limits within the integral it is
advisable to change the limits as well.

_____
E X A M P L E 22 ∫
Using the substitution u = 1 + x find x √1 + x d x.

SOLUTION Step 1 We first find a replacement for d x by differentiating u.


Since u = 1 + x
du = 1
___ Ask yourself
dx
Why is u = 1 + x being used as
du = dx
the substitution?
_____
Step 2 Change √1 + x
Since u = 1 + x
_____ __
√1 + x = √u

Step 3 Change x
Again u = 1 + x ⇒ x = u − 1.
_____ __
Substituting du = d x, √1 + x = √u, x = u − 1, we have
_____ __
∫ x √1 + x dx = ∫ (u − 1) √u du

1
__
= (u − 1)u 2 du
108
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Multiplying the brackets, we have

∫(u − 1)u 2 du = ∫ u 2 − u 2 du
1
__ 3
__ 1
__

5
__ 3
__
= ___
u − ___ u +c
2 2
5
__ 3
__
2 2
2 u __25 − __
= __ 2 u __23 + c
5 3
Substituting u = 1 + x, we have
_____
∫ x √x + 1 dx = __52 (1 + x) 2 − __32 (1 + x) 2 + c
5
__ 3
__

x + 1 d x.
E X A M P L E 23 Using the substitution u = 2x + 1, find ________
______
√2x + 1 ∫
SOLUTION Since we are using a substitution we need to convert all our x’s to u’s.
x + 1 dx
∫ ________
______
√2x + 1 Ask yourself
Let u = 2x + 1 Why is 2x + 1 being used as the
substitution?
Starting with d x
Notice that
______
du = 2
___
√ 2x + 1 is a
dx
composite
function. We du = 2 dx
use the function 1 du = dx
__
inside as the 2
substitution.
1 d u.
We will replace d x by __
2
______ __
Next: √2x + 1 = √u since u = 2x + 1
______ __
We will replace √2x + 1 by √u

Since u = 2x + 1, making x the subject of the formula


u − 1 = 2x
1 u − __
x = __ 1
2 2
∴ x + 1 = __ 1 + 1 = __
1 u − __ 1 u + __
1
2 2 2 2
1 u + __
We will replace x + 1 by __ 1
2 2
Now that we have changed all our functions, let us substitute:
We have:
1
__ 1
__

1 u + __
x + 1 = __ 1 u+
2
1 du
dx = __
2
∫ x + 1 dx =
_______
______
√2x + 1
_______
√u
( 1 ) du
2 __ 2 __
2
2
______ __
√ 2x + 1 = √u At this stage we must recognise that this is a standard function that can be integrated
by multiplying out the bracket.
u + 1 du
4 ∫
1 _____
= __ 1
__
u2
= __
4 ∫
1 (u + 1) u −__21 d u

109
M O DUL E 1
1
= __
4
∫( u__21 + u − 12 ) du
__

[ ]
3
__ 1
__
= __ u 2 + ___
1 ___
4 __
3
u 2 + c = __
1
__
1 __
4 3 [
2 u __23 + 2u __21 + c
]
2 2

Substituting u = 2x + 1
We now replace

2 [3 ]
x + 1 d x = __
∫ _______
3
__ 1
__
u to get back ______ 2 (2x + 1) 2 + 2(2x + 1) 2 + c
1 __
our integral as a √2x + 1
function of x. 3
__ 1
__
1 (2x + 1) 2 + (2x + 1) 2 + c
= __
3

Let us evaluate a definite integral using substitution.

1
__
E X A M P L E 24 Evaluate ∫02 _______
x d x using the substitution u = 1 − x2.
______
√1 − x2
_1
SOLUTION ∫02 _______
x
______
√1 − x2
dx

Step 1
Replace d x by a function of u
Since u = 1 − x2
du = −2x
___
dx
1
−__
2 du = x d x
1
Remember The integral contains x d x, which we can replace by −__
2 du.
With substitutions Step 2
you should: _____
t Change dx Convert √1 − x2 to a function of u.
to du. ______ __

t Change all Now √1 − x2 = √u since u = 1 − x2


functions of x
to functions Step 3
of u.
t Change the Convert the limits to limits of u
limits when To change the limits we use u = 1 − x2
the integral
is a definite When x = 0, u = 1 − 02 = 1
integral.
t If there are no
limits, remem-
When x = __
2
1 2 = 1 − __
1 , u = 1 − __
2 4 4
3
1 = __
( )
1 du = x d x
∴ −__
ber to convert 2
back to the ______ __
original √1 − x2 = √u
function. x=0⇒u=1
3
1 ⇒ u = __
x = __
2 4

110
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Substituting, we get
1 x −1 d u3
∫02 √1 − x2 dx = ∫14 ____
__ _______ __
______ __
2 √u

∫__43 ____
1 1 du
= __ (switching the limits and changing the sign)
2 √u

∫__43 ( __12 u−2 )du


1 1
__
=

[ ( )]
1
__ 1
u2
= ____
1
2 __ 3
__
2 4

[ ()]
1
__
3
= 1 − __ 2
4
__
√3
= 1 −___ 2

(a) Find ∫0 xe x2 d x using the substitution u = x2.


1
Try these 4.5

(b) Evaluate ∫0 _______


1
4x + 1 d x using the substitution u = x + 2.
2 (x + 2)

EXERCISE 4B
1 x
Find the integral ________
(4x + 2)3 ∫
d x using the substitution u = 4x + 2.

2 x
Use the substitution u = 6x2 + 8 to find ________
_______
√6x2 + 8
d x. ∫

∫1 ________
3 x 8.
3 Using the substitution u = 2x − 1, prove that d x = ___
(2x − 1)3 25

2
∫0 ______ ∫
2 8
1
3x d x = ______
4 Given that y = x3 show that d y. Hence evaluate the
1+x 6
0 1 + y2
integral.

x + 1 d x using u = 3x − 2.
∫1 ________
2
5 Evaluate ______
√ 3x − 2
______
∫0
4 98 .
6 Using the substitution u = x2 + 9, prove that x √x2 + 9 d x = ___
3
3 + 12x + 2
7 ∫
8x___________
Find _____________
√x4 + 3x2 + x
d x using the substitution u = x4 + 3x2 + x.

8 Find the integral ______


1 + x4 ∫
x d x using u = x2.

In questions 9–21, find the integrals using a suitable substitution.


________
9 ∫sin x √cos x + 1 dx 10 ∫(2x + 1)(4x − 1)5 d x

111
M O DUL E 1

∫ ________
−1
When solving 11 ln tan x d x
x 12 ∫x3e x 4+5 d x
questions 9–21,
∫ ______ 14 ∫9xe 4−3x2 d x
x dx3
look back at 13
questions 1– 8 1 + x4
and identity why 2
__

∫ ∫
15 x (x2 + 4)8 d x 16 x 3 dx
______
that particular 1
__
substitution was 1 + x3

∫ ____________
used. This will 2

17 sec 4x dx 18 3
_______
______
−1
e sin (x) d x
help you choose (1 − 3 tan 4x)5 √1 − x 2
substitutions for
questions 9–21. 19 ∫ x cos ( x2 + __π2 ) dx 20 x + 1 dx
∫ _________
x2 + x − 1

21 ∫ _________
cos 3x d x
4 + sin 3x

Integration by parts
Our third method of integration is derived directly from the product rule for differ-
entiation. Integration by parts is used to integrate some products of functions of x.
d [uv] = u ___
Recall that ___ du
dv + v ___
dx dx dx
Integrating both sides with respect to x, we have

∫dv d x + v ___
uv = u ___
dx ∫
du d x
dx

∫ dv d x = uv − v ___
∴ u ___
dx
du d x
dx ∫
This is the formula for integrating by parts. Let us see how to use it.

E X A M P L E 25 ∫
Find xex d x.
Be careful with
your choice of
SOLUTION
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
Using integration by parts u ___
dx∫
du d x. functions for
u and v. If we
Compare the left-hand side of the formula with your integral. switch the
functions,
Remember ∫u ___
dx ∫
dv d x ≡ xex d x
dv = x,
u = ex, ___
dx
∫x ex2 dx is done dv .
We must assign one of the functions to u and the other to ___
dx
du = ex,
___
dx
1 x2, our
by recognition dv = ex
∴ Let u = x, ___ v = __
2
dx

integral
but xex dx is Look at the formula on the right-hand side becomes
integrated by
parts. ∫ du d x
uv − v ___
dx
__
2 ∫
1 x2ex − __
1x2 exdx
2
du.
We need u, v, ___ which is more
dx complex than the
du we differentiate u = x.
To find ___
dx one we started
dv = ex.
To find v we integrate ___ with.
dx
We have u = x ___ dv = ex
dx
du = 1 v = ex
___
dx
112
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Substituting into

∫u ___
dx ∫ du
dv d x = uv − v ___
dx
dx

∫xex dx = xex − ∫ex dx



∴ xex d x = xex − ex + c

Let us try this again with fewer explanations.

E X A M P L E 26 ∫
Find x sin x dx.

SOLUTION ∫u ___
dx ∫ du
dv d x = uv − v ___
dx
d x.


Comparing u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ x sin x d x
dx
Let u = x, ___dv = sin x
dx
du = 1,
∴ ___ v = −cos x
dx


Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x,
dx

∫x sin x dx = −x cos x − ∫−cos x dx


= −x cos x + sin x + c

Functions such as ln x, arccos x and arctan x can be integrated by parts.

E X A M P L E 27 ∫
Use integration by parts to find ln x d x.

SOLUTION Since we need two functions for integrating by parts we write ln x = 1 × ln x.

∫ln x dx = ∫1 ln x dx.
Comparing with ∫u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ 1 ln x d x, in this case we must let u = ln x
dx
(since we know the differential of ln x and we are going to integrate ln x).
dv = 1
Let u = ln x, ___
dx
du = __
___ 1, v=x
dx x


dv d x = uv − v ___
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
du dx
dx

∫ln x dx = x ln x − ∫ __1x × x dx

= x ln x − 1 d x

= x ln x − x + c

113
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 28 ∫
Find tan−1 x d x.

SOLUTION We use tan−1 x = 1 × tan−1 x.

∫u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ 1 tan−1 (x) d x
dx
dv = 1
u = tan−1 x, ___
dx
Remember du = ______
1 ,
___ v=x
dx 1 + x2
∫ ______
x dx
1 + x2

dv d x = uv − v ___
Substituting into u ___ du d x

2 ∫ 1 + x2
1 ______
= __ 2x dx dx dx
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
= __
2 ∫tan−1 x dx = x tan−1 x − ∫ ______
x dx
1 + x2
since ∫ __
f' dx = ln f
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
f = x tan−1 x − __
2

∫0 x2ex dx.
1
E X A M P L E 29 Evaluate

d x = ∫ x2ex d x
1
∫u ___
SOLUTION dv
dx 0

Let u = x2, dv = ex
___
dx
du = 2x, v = ex
___
dx
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x
dx ∫
∫0 x2ex dx = [x2ex]01 − ∫0 2x ex dx
1 1

= [ 12e1 − 02e0 ] − 2 ∫ x ex d x
1

= e − 2 ∫ x ex d x
1

∫0 x ex dx by parts again.
1
We need to integrate
Remember
dv = ex
Let u = x, ___
You must decide dx
on the functions du = 1, v = ex
___
dv.
for u and ___ dx
dx
∫0 x ex dx = [x ex]10 − ∫0 ex dx
1 1
Since we are
dv we
integrating ___
dx = [x ex − ex]10 = (1e1 − e1) − (0e0 − e0)
must know the
integral of this =1
function.
∫0 x2ex dx = e − 2 (1) = e − 2
1

When we have a definite integral, we need to evaluate the integral at each stage or we
can integrate until the end and then substitute the limits.

114
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

E X A M P L E 30 ∫
Find ex cos x d x.

SOLUTION Using integration by parts


dv = cos x
u = ex, ___
dx
du = ex, v = sin x
___
dx

∫ ∫
∴ ex cos x dx = ex sin x − ex sin x dx


Now we find ex sin x dx using integration by parts.
dv = sin x
Let u = ex, ___
dx
du = ex, v = −cos x
___
dx

∫ ∫
∴ ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex cos x dx

∫ ∫
Substituting ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex cos x dx into

∫ex cos x dx = ex sin x − ∫ex sin x dx


gives

∫ex cos x dx = ex sin x − [ −ex cos x + ∫ex cos x dx ]


∫ex cos x dx = ex sin x + ex cos x − ∫ex cos x dx
∫ex cos x dx + ∫ex cos x dx = ex sin x + ex cos x

2 ex cos x dx = ex sin x + ex cos x

∫ 1 [ ex sin x + ex cos x ] + c
Hence ex cos x dx = __
2
dv be the
Notice we need to integrate by parts twice at each stage. We let u = ex and ___
dx
trigonometric function.

Try these 4.6 Find


π
__
(a) ∫x cos x d x (b) ∫02 x2 sin x dx (c) ∫sin−1 (x) d x

EXERCISE 4C
In questions 1–8, use integration by parts to find the integrals.

∫1 x ln x dx ∫x2 cos x dx
2
1 2
π
__
∫ x 2 ln x dx ∫02 x sin 2x dx
1
__
3 4

5 ∫x e2 x dx 6 ∫x2 ln x dx
115
M O DUL E 1
7 ∫x3 ln x dx 8 ∫x3 arctan x dx
_____
∫0 x √1 + x dx.
1
9 Use integration by parts to find

10 Show that ∫x2e−3x d x = −__31 e−3x [ x2 + __23 x + __92 ] + c.

11 Show that ∫ x2 ln x d x = __98 ln 2 − __97.


2

0
_______
12 Show that ∫arccos (2x) d x = x arccos (2x) − __21 √1 − 4x2 + c.
13 Use integration by parts to find ∫x2 ln (5x) d x.
14 Show that ∫ (ln x)2 d x = e + 2.
e

1
π
15 Find ∫
__
2 ex sin x d x.
1
π − __
16 Show that ∫ arctan x d x = __ 1 ln 2.
0 0 4 2
17 Use integration by parts to show that
______
∫x5 √1 + x3 dx = __92 x3 (x3 + 1) 2 − ___
3
__ 5
__
4 (x3 + 1) 2 + c.
45
π
__
Show that ∫ 2 3x cos 2x d x = −__
3
18 2.
0
__
19 Show that ∫ √θ ln θ d θ = ___
4
16 ln 4 − ___
28 .
1 3 9

20 Use integration by parts to show that ∫ ln x2 d x = ln 16 − 2.


2

Integration using partial fractions


P (x)
To integrate rational functions _____ you need to separate into partial fractions
Q (x)
and then integrate. At this stage it is advisable to review your knowledge of partial
fractions. (Improper fractions must be divided out first and written as a mixed
fraction and then separated into partial fractions.)

E X A M P L E 31 ∫ x
Determine ____________
(x + 1)(x + 2)
d x.

SOLUTION x
Separating ____________ into partial fractions
(x + 1)(x + 2)
x
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2
Multiplying by (x + 1)(x + 2) gives
x ≡ A(x + 2) + B (x + 1)
When x = −1, −1 = A (−1 + 2)
−1 = A
When x = −2, −2 = B (−2 + 1)
B=2
116
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

x
∴ ____________ −1 + _____
2
≡ _____
x+1 x+2
(x + 1)(x + 2) We can also write
−1 and _____
_____
x+1
2 are two standard integrals.
x+2 ∫____________
x
(x + 1) (x + 2)
dx

−1 + _____ = −ln (x + 1) + 2 ln(x + 2) + ln c


∫ ____________
x
(x + 1)(x + 2)
d x = ∫ _____
x+1 x+2
2 dx
= ln (x + 1)−1 + ln(x + 2)2 + ln c
= −ln |x + 1| + 2 ln |x + 2| + c = ln c(x + 2)2 (x + 1)−1
c(x + 2)2
= ln ________
x+1

x+1
E X A M P L E 32 ∫
Determine _____________
(x + 2)(x2 − 4)
d x.

SOLUTION x+1
We separate _____________ into partial fractions as follows.
(x + 2)(x2 − 4)
This is a proper fraction, so we need to factorise the denominator
x2 − 4 = (x − 2)(x + 2)
x+1
∴ _____________ x+1
≡ _____________
(x + 2)(x2 − 4) (x + 2)2 (x − 2)
We now have a repeated linear factor in the denominator and a distinct linear factor.
x+1
______________ A + _______
≡ _____ B C
+ ______
(x + 2)2 (x − 2) x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
Multiply by (x + 2)2 (x − 2) ⇒ x + 1 ≡ A (x + 2)(x − 2) + B (x − 2) + C (x + 2)2
When x = 2, 2 + 1 = C (2 + 2)2
3 = 16C 3
so C = ___
16
When x = −2, −2 + 1 = B (−2 − 2)
−1 = −4B 1
so B = __
4
Comparing coefficients of x2:
0=A+C

0 = A + ___3
There are no 16
terms in x 2 on 3
the LHS. On the A = −___
16 3 1
__ 3
___
RHS
+ −___
A × x × x = Ax 2 ∴ x 1
_____________ ≡ 16
_____ + _______
4 + 16
_____
(x + 2)2 (x − 2) x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
and C(x + 2)2
3 1
__ 3
___
gives Cx 2
x+1 −___
∴0=A+C ∫ _____________
(x + 2)2 (x − 2)
dx = ∫ 16
_____ + _______
4 +
x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
16
_____ dx

3
= −___ 1
__
∫ −2 3
___
16 ln |x + 2| + 4 (x + 2) d x + 16 ln |x − 2| + c
3 1
__ 3
___
= −___ −1
16 ln |x + 2| − 4 (x + 2) + 16 ln |x − 2| + c
3 1
________ 3
___
= −___
16 ln |x + 2| − 4 (x + 2) + 16 ln |x − 2| + c

117
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 33 x
Separate _____________ into partial fractions and hence show that
(x + 1)(x2 + 1)
π

1 _____________
x 1
d x = −__ __
0 (x + 1)(x + 1)
2 4 ln 2 + 8 .

SOLUTION x
_____________ ≡ _____ Bx + C
A + _______
(x + 1)(x + 1)
2 x + 1 x2 + 1
⇒ x ≡ A (x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
When x = − 1, − 1= A (2)
A = −__ 1
2
When x = 0, 0 = A + C
0 = −__1+C
2
C = __1
2
Equating the coefficients of x2
0=A+B
0 = −__1+B
2
1
B = __
2
−_12 _1 x + _1
∴ x
_____________ ≡ _____ _______
+ 22 2
(x + 1)(x + 1)
2 x + 1 x +1
Note
−_12 _1 x + _1
∫0 ∫0
1 x 1
_____________ dx = _____ + _______
2 2
dx
∫ ______
1 dx =
1 + x2
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) x+1 x2 + 1
tan−1 (x) + c _1 x + _1 _1 x _1
______
2
Separating 2 2 ______
into 2 2 ______
+ 22
(Standard form) x +1 x +1 x +1
∫ x
______
1 + x2
dx
∫0 _____ 2 ∫0 x2 + 1 2 ∫0 x2 + 1
1 1 1
1 ______
1 d x + __ x d x + __
1 ______ 1
1 dx
= −__
2 x+1
= __ ∫
1 ______
2x dx
2 1 + x2
[ ]
1 1 1 1
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
= __ = −__ __ __ −1
2 ln (x + 1) + 4 ln (x + 1) + 2 tan (x)
2
2 0


f' (x)
____ dx
f (x)
= ln f (x) + c
[ 1
= −__ 1
__ 1
__ −1 1
__
] [ 1
__ −1
2 ln 2 + 4 ln 2 + 2 tan (1) − − 2 ln 1 + 4 ln 1 + tan (0) ]
π
1 ln 2 + __
= −__
4 8

∫3 __________
4 2
x
E X A M P L E 34 Evaluate dx
x2 − 3x + 2

1
x2
__________
SOLUTION is an improper fraction x2 − 3x+2 ) x2
x − 3x + 2
2
−x2 − 3x + 2
By long division 3x − 2
x2
__________ 3x − 2
≡ 1 + __________ ∴ 2 x 2
__________
x − 3x + 2
2 x − 3x + 2
2 x − 3x + 2
3x − 2
= 1 + __________
3x − 2 ≡ ____________
__________ 3x − 2 x2 − 3x + 2
x2 − 3x + 2 (x − 2)(x − 1)
118
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Separating into partial fractions

3x − 2
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x − 2)(x − 1) x − 2 x − 1

3x − 2 ≡ A(x − 1) + B (x − 2)
When x = 1, then 1 = −B ⇒ B = −1
When x = 2, then 6 − 2 = A ⇒ A = 4
3x − 2 ≡ _____
__________ 4 − _____
1
x2 − 3x + 2 x − 2 x − 1
x2
Hence __________ 4 − _____
≡ 1 + _____ 1
x − 3x + 2
2 x−2 x−1

d x = ∫ ( 1 + _____
∫3 __________ x −2 x − 1)
4 x2 4
∴ 4 − _____
1 dx
x2 − 3x + 2 3

= [x + 4 ln (x − 2) − ln (x − 1)]43
= (4 + 4 ln 2 − ln 3) − (3 + 4 ln 1 − ln 2)
= 4 − 3 + 4 ln 2 + ln 2 − ln 3
= 1 + 5 ln 2 − ln 3

( )
32
= 1 + ln ___
3

E X A M P L E 35 3x + 1 ≡ __
2
Find the values of A, B and C for which ________ Bx + C .
A + _______
x (x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
3x2 + 1 dx = ln (cx (x2 + 1)).

Hence show that ________
x (x2 + 1)

SOLUTION Separating into partial fractions

3x2 + 1 ≡ __
_________ Bx + C
A + _______
x (x2 + 1) x x2 + 1

⇒ 3x2 + 1 ≡ A (x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x)


Substituting x = 0 ⇒ 1 = A
Equating coefficients of x2 ⇒ 3 = A + B
3=1+B
B=2
Equating coefficients of x ⇒ 0 = C
3x2 + 1 ≡ __
∴ _________ 2x
1 + ______
x (x2 + 1) x x2 + 1

∫ ( 1x + ______
3x + 1 d x = __
∫ _________ x2 + 1 )
2 2x d x
x (x2 + 1)
= ln x + ln (x2 + 1) + ln c
= ln (cx (x2 + 1))

119
M O DUL E 1
Try these 4.7 Find
Remember
(a) ∫ ___________
x
x2 + 7x + 12
dx
∫______
2x dx
1− x 2
3x2 + x + 1 d x
(b) ∫ ______________
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1)
can be done by
recognition or
partial fractions.

∫ __________
x 3 Recognition is
(c) dx
x2 + 3x + 2 much faster.

EXERCISE 4D
Find the integrals in questions 1–23.

1 ∫ _____
x + 2 dx
x 2 2x + 3 d x
∫ ______
x−2
5x + 7 d x
∫ ______ ∫ _____
2
x dx
3 2x − 1
4 x−2
x3 + x + 2 d x
5 ∫ _________
x+1
6 ∫ ____________
1
(x + 2)(x − 3)
dx

7 ∫ ____________
4
(x − 3)(x − 7)
dx 8 ∫ _____________
3x
(2x + 3)(x + 1)
dx

x+2
9 ∫ __________
x
x2 + 5x + 6
dx 10 ∫ ___________
3x2 − 8x + 4
dx

5x − 2 d x
11 ∫ __________
6x2 + x − 2
12 ∫ _____________
4x
(x2 − 4)(x − 3)
dx

4x + 2 8x + 2x − 24 d x
∫ __________________ ∫ ______________
2
13 dx 14
(x − 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) (x2 + 4x)(x − 2)

3x + 8x − 8 43 − 22x − 3x
∫ ___________________ ∫ ___________________
2 2
15 dx 16 dx
(x + 2)(2x2 − 3x − 2) (2x2 − 7x + 3)(x + 2)

17 ∫ ________
1
x (x2 + 1)
dx 18 ∫ ______
1 dx
x3 − 8
5x − 4x + 4 4x + 4x + 1 d x
∫ __________________ ∫ ___________
2 2
19 dx 20
(x + 2)(x2 − 2x + 2) x (x + 1)
x + 3x − 2 d x x + x + 2x + 1 d x
∫ __________ ∫ ______________
4 3 2
21 22
x2 − 1 x (x2 + 1)
x + 3x + 3 d x
∫ __________
2
23
x2 + 2x + 1

Ask yourself
Is the differential of the denominator contained in the numerator?

∫ 2x
______
1 − x2
dx = −ln | 1 − x2 | + c
d [ 1 − x2 ] = −2x
i.e. ___
dx
Instead of partial fractions you can use recognition to integrate this function.

120
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

3x + 3x + 2 ≡ ______
2
24 Given that ______________ Bx + C , find A, B and C.
A + _______
2 2x + 1
(2x + 1)(x + 1) 2 x +1

∫0 ______________
1
Hence show that 3x2 + 3x + 2 d x = __ π
1 ln 6 + __
(2x + 1)(x2 + 1) 2 4

4x + 5x + 6 into partial fractions. Hence find ______________


∫ 4x + 5x2+ 6 dx.
2 2
25 Separate _____________
(x + 2)(x + 9)
2
(x + 2)(x + 9)

x + x + x + 2 d x = arctan x + __
26 Show that ∫______________
3 2 1 ln (x2 + 2) + c.
4 2x + 3x + 2 2

27 Evaluate ∫0 _________________
2
3x2 − 5 d x.
2 (x + x + 1)(x − 2)

Integration of trigonometric functions


Integration of trigonometric functions makes use of the trigonometric identities to
convert more complicated functions to standard integrals. Trigonometric substitutions
______

allow us to find integrals such as √ 9 − x2 dx. Before you make a trigonometric sub-
stitution you will need to be familiar with all the identities and integration of a wider
variety of products and powers of trigonometric functions. At this stage you should
review the trigonometric identities. Here is a list of integrals of trigonometric functions.

Function Integral/procedure

sin x − cos x + c

cos x sin x + c

tan x ln |sec x| or − ln |cos x| + c

sec x ln |sec x + tan x| + c

x +c
ln tan __
cosec x | ( )|
2

cot x ln |sin x| + c

1
sin x cosn x, n ≠ −1 −_____
n + 1 cos x + c
n+1

cos x sinn x, n ≠ −1 1 sinn+1x + c


_____
n+1
sec2 x tann x, n ≠ −1 1 tann+1x + c
_____
n+1

2sin Px cos Qx convert to sin(Px + Qx) + sin(Px − Qx) and integrate

2cos Px sin Qx convert to sin(Px + Qx) − sin(Px − Qx) and integrate

2cos Px cos Qx convert to cos(Px + Qx) + cos(Px − Qx) and integrate

−2sin Px sin Qx convert to cos(Px + Qx) − cos(Px − Qx) and integrate

121
M O DUL E 1
π d x.
E X A M P L E 36 ∫
Determine sin ( 4x − __
2)

SOLUTION ∫sin ( 4x − __π2 ) dx = −__41 cos ( 4x − __π2 ) + c


π d x.
E X A M P L E 37 ∫
Determine sec2 ( x − __
4)

SOLUTION ∫sec2 ( x − __π4 ) dx = tan ( x − __π4 ) + c


π d x.
E X A M P L E 38 ∫ (
Find cos 3x + __
6 )
SOLUTION ∫cos ( 3x + __π6 ) dx = __31 sin ( 3x + __π6 ) + c
E X A M P L E 39 ∫
Find sin x cos2 x d x.

SOLUTION sin x cos2 x is of the form f ′(x)[f (x)]n


Let f (x) = cos x
f ′(x) = −sin x

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = −∫−sin x cos2 x dx


−cos3 x + c
= _______
3

E X A M P L E 40 ∫
Find sin x cos6 x d x.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = cos x


f ′(x) = −sin x, n = 6

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = −∫−sin x cos6 x dx


cos7 x
= −_____
7 +c

E X A M P L E 41 ∫
Find sin x cosn x d x, n ≠ −1.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = cos x


f ′(x) = −sin x

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = −∫−sin x cosn x dx


∫sin x cosn x dx = −_______
cos x n+1
n + 1 + c, n ≠ −1

122
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

E X A M P L E 42 ∫
Find cos x sinn x d x, n ≠ −1.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = sin x


f ′(x) = cos x

∫ f ′(x) [ f (x)]n dx = ∫cos x sinn x dx = _______


sin n+1
x + c, n ≠ −1
n+1

E X A M P L E 43 ∫
Determine tann x sec2 x d x, n ≠ −1.

SOLUTION d tan x = sec2 x


Since ___
dx

∫ tann+1 x + c,
tann x sec2 x d x = _______
n+1
n ≠ −1

Integrating sin2 x and cos2 x

E X A M P L E 44 ∫
Find sin2 x d x.

SOLUTION 1 − cos 2x
Since sin2 x = _________ cos 2x = 1 − 2 sin2x
2

∫ sin2 x dx = ∫ ( __21 − __12 cos 2x ) dx


1 x − __
= __ 1 sin 2x + c
2 4

E X A M P L E 45 ∫
Find cos2 x d x.

SOLUTION 1 + __
Since cos2 x = __ 1 cos 2x
2 2

∫ cos2 x dx = ∫( __21 + __21 cos 2x ) dx


1 x + __
= __ 1 sin 2x + c
2 4

Integrating sin3x and cos3x

E X A M P L E 46 ∫
Find sin3 x d x.

SOLUTION Writing sin3 x = sin x sin2 x

∫ ∫
we have sin3 x d x = sin x sin2 x d x
Substituting sin2 x = 1 − cos2 x

123
M O DUL E 1

∫ sin3 x dx = ∫ sin x (1 − cos2 x) dx ∫ sin x cos2 x dx


f' n
= ∫ (sin x − sin x cos2 x) d x ↓ ↓

cos x + c
= −cos x + _____
3 ∫ ↑
cos3 x
= − − sin x (cos x)2 dx = −_____
3
3 f

E X A M P L E 47 ∫
Find cos3 x d x.

SOLUTION The procedure is the same as that for integrating sin3 x.


Write cos3 x = cos x cos2 x
Substitute cos2 x = 1 − sin2 x ∴ cos3 x = cos x (1 − sin2 x)

∫ cos3 x dx = ∫ cos x (1 − sin2 x) dx


= ∫ (cos x − cos x sin2 x) d x = sin x − _____
sin3 x + c
3

We can integrate sin5 x, cos5 x, sin7 x, cos7 x, etc. using the same procedure as for
sin3 x and cos3 x.

E X A M P L E 48 ∫
Find sin4 x d x.

SOLUTION We use sin2 x = __1 − __


1 cos 2x and write
2 2
(1 cos 2x 2
1 − __
sin4 x = (sin2 x)2 = __
2 2 )

∴ sin4 x d x = ∫ ( __41 − __21 cos 2x + __41 cos 2 2x ) dx
1 + __
Using the double angle formula cos2 2x = __ 1 cos 2(2x)
2 2
1 + __
= __ 1 cos 4x
2 2


∴ sin4 x d x = ∫[ __41 − __12 cos 2x + __14 ( __21 + __21 cos 4x ) ] dx
= ∫( __
1 − __ 1 cos 2x + __ 1 + __
)
1 cos 4x d x
4 2 8 8

= ∫ ( __3 − __ 1 cos 2x + __ 1 cos 4x d x


)
8 2 8
3 x − __
= __ 1 sin 2x + ___
1 sin 4x + c
8 4 32

We can integrate cos4 x, sin6 x, cos6 x etc. in a similar manner.

Try these 4.8 Find

(a) ∫ sin5 x dx (b) ∫ cos5 x dx (c) ∫ cos4 x dx


124
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

Integrating powers of tan x

E X A M P L E 49 ∫
Find tan2 x d x.

SOLUTION Write tan2 x = sec2 x − 1

∫ tan2 x dx = ∫ (sec2 x − 1) dx
= tan x − x + c

E X A M P L E 50 ∫
Determine tan3 x d x.

SOLUTION We write tan3 x = tan x tan2 x


= tan x (sec2 x − 1)
Recall
= tan x sec2 x − tan x
tann+1 x
∫ tan x sec x dx = _______
n 2
n+1
+ c, n ≠ −1
∫ ∫
∴ tan3 x d x = tan x sec2 x − tan x d x
tan2 x + c
tan2 x − ln (sec x) + c
= _____

∴ tan x sec2 x dx = _____
2
2

Try these 4.9 Find


(a) ∫ tan4 x dx (b) ∫ tan5 x d x

Integrating products of sines and cosines


Recall

2 sin P cos Q = sin (P + Q) + sin (P − Q)


2 cos P sin Q = sin (P + Q) − sin (P − Q)
2 cos P cos Q = cos (P + Q) + cos (P − Q)
−2 sin P sin Q = cos (P + Q) − cos (P − Q)

Let us use these to integrate the following.

E X A M P L E 51 ∫
Find cos 4x sin 2x d x.

SOLUTION Using 2 cos P sin Q = sin (P + Q) − sin (P − Q)


2 cos 4x sin 2x = sin (4x + 2x) − sin (4x − 2x)
2 cos 4x sin 2x = sin 6x − sin 2x
∴ cos 4x sin 2x = __1 sin 6x − __
1 sin 2x
2 2

∫ cos 4x sin 2x d x = __ ∫(
1 sin 6x − __
2
1 sin 2x d x
2 )
1 cos 6x + __
= − ___ 1 cos 2x + c
12 4
125
M O DUL E 1

E X A M P L E 52 ∫
Find cos 5x cos 3x d x

SOLUTION Using 2 cos P cos Q = cos (P + Q) + cos (P − Q)


2 cos 5x cos 3x = cos (5x + 3x) + cos (5x − 3x)
2 cos 5x cos 3x = cos 8x + cos 2x
1 cos 8x + __
cos 5x cos 3x = __ 1 cos 2x
2 2

∫ cos 5x cos 3x d x = __
1
∫( 1
__
2 cos 8x + 2 cos 2x d x )
1 sin 8x + __
= ___ 1 sin 2x + c
16 4
π
__
E X A M P L E 53 Find ∫0
2 4 sin 6x sin 2x d x.

SOLUTION Using 2 sin P sin Q = cos (P − Q) − cos (P + Q)


2 sin 6x sin 2x = cos (6x − 2x) − cos (6x + 2x)
2 sin 6x sin 2x = cos 4x − cos 8x
4 sin 6x sin 2x = 2 cos 4x − 2 cos 8x
π
__ π
__

0
2 4 sin 6x sin 2x d x = ∫02 (2 cos 4x − 2 cos 8x) dx
π
[ ]
__
1 sin 4x − __
= __ 1 sin 8x 2
2 4 0

1 sin 4 __
= __
2 [
( π2 ) − __41 sin 8 ( __π2 ) − __21 sin 4 (0) − __41 sin 8 (0) ]
=0

Try these 4.10 Find


(a) ∫ cos 6x sin 3x dx (b) ∫ cos 8x cos 2x dx (c) ∫ sin 10x sin x dx

Finding integrals using the standard forms

∫ ________ a ) + c and ∫ a2 + x2 dx = a tan ( a ) + c


dx = sin−1 ( __
1
_______ x 1
_______ 1
__ x
−1 __
√a − x
2 2

E X A M P L E 54 1
Using the substitution x = a sinθ, show that ________
_______
√a2 − x2

d x = sin−1 ( __
a ) + c.
x

SOLUTION Let x = a sinθ


d x = a cosθ dθ
_______ ___________
√a2 − x2 = √a2 − a2 sin2 θ
____________
= √ a2 (1 − sin2 θ )

126
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

_______
= √ a2 cos2 θ
= a cos θ

∫ ________ d x = ∫ ______ a cos θ dθ


1
_______ 1
√ a 2 − x2 a cos θ


= 1 dθ = θ + c

Converting to a function of x, since x = a sin θ, we get


x
sin θ = __
a
θ = sin−1 ( __
a)
x


1
∴ ________
_______ d x = sin−1 ( __
a )
x +c
√a − x
2 2

E X A M P L E 55 ∫
1 d x = __
Show that _______
a +x
2 2 a ( a )
x + c, using the substitution x = a tan θ.
1 tan−1 __

SOLUTION Let x = a tan θ


d x = a sec2 θ dθ
a2 + x2 = a2 + (a tan θ )2

= a2 + a2 tan2 θ

= a2 (1 + tan2 θ )

= a2 sec2θ (substituting 1 + tan2 θ = sec2θ)

θ dθ
∫ _______ ∫ aa2sec
2
1 d x = _______
a2 + x2 sec2 θ

= ∫ __
1 1
__
a dθ = a θ + c
Since x = a tan θ
x
tan θ = __
a

θ = tan−1 ( __
a)
x


∴ _______
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c
1 d x = __
1 x
−1 __


E X A M P L E 56 1
Find _________
________ d x.
√4 − 25x2

SOLUTION 1
Writing _________
________ 1
in the form ________
_______ we get
√4 − 25x2
√a − x2
2

1
_________
________ 1
= ____________
___________
√4 − 25x2
√ ( )
25 4
___ − x2
25
127
M O DUL E 1
1
= _____________
________

√( )
___
2
√ 25 __ 2 − x2
5
1
__
5
_________
= ________

√( )
2 2 − x2
__
5

∫__________
1
________ d x = __ ∫
1 _________1 ________

√( 5 ) − x2
√ 4 − 25 x2 5 2
__ 2

()
x +c
1 sin−1 __
= __
5 _2
5

= __
5
5x + c
1 sin−1 ___
2 ( )
E X A M P L E 57 1

Determine __________
x2 +2x + 2
d x.

SOLUTION Complete the square of x2 + 2x + 2:


x2 + 2x + 2 = (x + 1)2 + 1

∫ 1
∴ __________
x2 + 2x + 2
1
d x = ___________
1 + (x + 1)2∫ x+1 +c
dx = tan−1 _____
1 ( )
= tan−1 (x + 1) + c

E X A M P L E 58 ∫
1 d x.
Find ______
4 + x2

SOLUTION ∫ ______ ∫ 22 +1 x2 dx
1 d x = ______
4 + x2

Since _______∫
1 d x = __
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c, substituting a = 2 gives
1 x
−1 __

∫ 1 d x = __
______
22 + x2 ( 2x ) + c
1 tan−1 __
2

E X A M P L E 59 1

Find _______
4 + 9x2
d x.

SOLUTION 1
Writing the function _______ 1 , we get
in the form _______
4 + 9x2 a2 + x2

∫ _________
1 1 ________
d x = __ ∫ 1 dx
(9 )9
(3)
4
__ 2
__ 2
9 +x 2 + x2

Since ______
a2 +x2 ∫ a tan ( a ) + c, substituting a = 3 gives
1 d x = __
1 x
−1 __ 2
__

__

1 ________
1
9 ( _2 )2 + x2
3
1 __
d x = __
9 _2
3
[ x +c
1 tan−1 __
_2
3
( )]
3 tan−1
1 × __
= __
9 2 ( ___
2)
3x + c

= __
6
3x
1 tan−1 ___
2 ( )+c
128
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

E X A M P L E 60 ∫1
Find ________
_______
√4 − 9x2
d x.

_______ _________

√( )
SOLUTION 4 − x2
√4 − 9x2 = 9 __
9
_______

√( __9 − x )
__
= √9 4 2

________

√( __3 ) − x
2 2
=3 2

∫1
∴ ________
_______ 1
d x = ___________
________ dx∫
√4 − 9x
√( )
2 2
__ 2
3 − x2
3

()
1 sin−1 __
= __ x +c
3 2
__
3

= __
3
3x + c
1 sin−1 ___
2 ( )

∫−1 _____________
E X A M P L E 61 Evaluate
1 1 d x.
____________
√−x2 + 2x + 8

SOLUTION Complete the square:


−x2 + 2x + 8 = −(x2 − 2x) + 8
= −((x − 1)2 − 1) + 8
= 9 − (x − 1)2
1 1
∫−1 _____________
____________
∫−1 √9 − (x − 1)2 dx
1 1
∴ dx =
____________ ___________
√−x2 + 2x + 8

[ x−1
( )]
1
= sin−1 _____
3 −1

2
= sin−1 (0) − sin−1 −__
3 ( )
= 0.729 73 = 0.730 (3 d.p.)

E X A M P L E 62 1

Determine __________
x2 + 4x + 6
d x.

SOLUTION Complete the square:


x2 + 4x + 6 = (x2 + 4x + (2)2) + 6 − 22
= (x + 2)2 + 6 − 4
= 2 + (x + 2)2

∫ 1
∴ __________
x2 + 4x +6
1
d x = ___________
2 + (x + 2)2
dx ∫

129
M O DUL E 1

∫ __ 1
= ______________
( √ 2 )2 + (x + 2)2
dx

1__ tan−1 _____


= ___
√2 √2 (
x +__ 2 + c
)
E X A M P L E 63 ∫ 1
Find ________ 3
__
( x2 + 4 )2
dx using the substitution x = 2 tan θ.

SOLUTION x = 2 tan θ
dx = 2 sec2 θ dθ
3
__ 3
__
( x2 + 4 )2 = ( 4 tan2θ + 4 )2
3
__
= [ 4( 1 + tan2θ ) ]2
3
__
= ( 4 sec2 θ )2
= 8 sec3θ
Now
2 sec θ dθ
∫________ dx = ∫ _______
2
1
( 2
3
)2
__ 8 sec3 θ
x +4
= __∫
1 ____
1 dθ
4 sec θ
1 cos θ dθ
= __
4 ∫
1 sin θ + c
= __
4
x
Since tan θ = __
2
x
sin θ = _______
______
√4 + x2 √4 + x2 x

∴ ∫________
( 2
1
3
)2
= __
4
x
1 _______
√4 + x2
__
+c ______
θ
x +4 2

________
√9 − 4x2 dx using the substitution x = __3 sin θ.
E X A M P L E 64 ∫
Find _________
x2 2

SOLUTION 3 sin θ
x = __
2
dx = __3 cos θ dθ
2 _____________
_______

√9 − 4x2 = 9 − 4 __23 sin θ 2
_____________
( )

= 9 − 4 __ 9 sin2 θ
4 ( )
__________
= √9 − 9 sin2 θ
___________
= √9(1 − sin2 θ)
_______
= √9 cos2 θ
= 3 cos θ
130
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

_______
√9 − 4x2 d x = ________
3 cos θ × __

∴ ________ ∫
3 cos θ dθ
x2 3 sin θ 2 2
__
2 ( )
cos2 θ
2
= __ _____
3 × 3 sin2 θ dθ ∫
∫ ∫
= 2 cot2 θ dθ = 2 (cosec2 θ − 1)dθ

= −2 cot θ − 2θ + c
Since x = __ 3 sin θ 3
2 2x

sin θ = __2x
3 θ
θ = sin−1 __2 x
_______
3 ( )
_______
√9 − 4x2
√ 9 − 4x2
∫√ −
(
2
3 )
9
∴ ________ 4x = − ________ 2x + c
− 2 sin−1 __
2
dx x cot θ =
√9 − 4x2
x 2x

Try these 4.11 Find

(a) ∫ ______
1 dx
9 + x2
(b) ∫ ________
1
4 + 25x2
dx

(c) ∫ ____________
4
9x2 + 6x + 16
dx (d) ∫ __________
1
________
√−x − 2x
2
dx

Look at these fractions:

∫_____
1 dx,
2
x –1 ∫_____
x –1 ∫x 1+ 1 dx
x dx, _____
2 2

Can you identify which method of integration is best for each one?

EXERCISE 4E
1 ∫
Find tan3x sec2x dx.

2 ∫
Show that sin 7x sin 3x dx = __
8
1 sin 10x + c.
1 sin 4x − ___
20

3 1

Find (a) ________
25x2 + 4
dx ∫ 1
(b) ________
16x2 + 9
dx ∫ 1
(c) _______
2x2 + 6
dx

4 ∫
Show that cos2 x sin4 x dx = ___
16
1 sin 4x − ___
1 x − ___
64
1 sin3 2x + c.
84
π
∫04 tan2 x sec4 x dx = ___
__
5 Show that 8.
15

6 1
By completing the square of x2 + 6x + 13, find ___________
x2 + 6x + 13
dx. ∫
______
7 Using the substitution x = 2 sin θ, find √4 − x2 dx. ∫
8 ∫
Find (a) cos 8x cos 6x dx ∫
(b) sin 7x cos 3x dx ∫
(c) cos 6x sin 2x dx

131
M O DUL E 1
9 Evaluate ∫ 1
1 ____________
2 + 4x + 10 dx.
0 4x

10 Find (a) ∫____________


1
___________ dx (b) ∫____________
1
___________ dx (c) ∫____________
1
__________ dx
√3 + 2x − x
2
√5 − 4x − x
2
√7 − 6x − x
2

11 By using the substitution x = 2 tan θ, show that ∫_________


1
______ cos θ dθ.
dx = ∫______
x √4 + x
2 2 4 sin θ
2

∫ 1
Hence find _________
______
x2 √ 4 + x2
dx.

________
12 Find ∫√1 − cos x dx.
1
13 Evaluate ∫
2
x dx.
______
+ x2
01

∫sin x
14 Find _________
________
√ 1 + cos x
dx.

15 By using the substitution x = 3 sin θ, show that ∫_________


1
______ dx = ∫__
1 cosec2 θ dθ.
9
x √9 − x
2 2

∫ 1
Hence find _________
______
x √ 9 − x2
2
dx.

132
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

SUMMARY
Integration

Recognition Substitution Partial fractions By parts

∫x dx = xn+1 + c, n ≠ –1
n+1
n

∫(a + b) dx = a1 (a n+ +b) 1
n
n+1
+ c, n ≠ –1 ∫fg(x)dx Use the rules of partial
fractions to split up the ∫u dx dx = uv –∫v dx dx
dv du

function and then integrate.


∫ x dx = ln |x| + c
1

Using u = g(x) convert


∫ ax + b dx = a ln |ax + b| + c
1 1
all functions of x to functions Be careful in your choice
of u. If there are any limits, of function for u and dv .
dx
∫e dx = e + c
x x change the limits. Using the
substitution, integrate your
function of u.
∫e dx = a1 e
ax + b ax + b + c
ln x, arcsin x, arccos x
arctan x are integrated
∫sin x dx = –cos x + c by parts.

∫sin(ax + b) dx = – a1 cos(ax + b) + c
∫cos x = sin x + c
∫cos(ax + b) dx = a1 sin(ax + b) + c
∫tan x dx = ln|sec x | + c
∫cot x dx = ln|sin x | + c
∫sec x dx = ln|sec x + tan x | + c
∫cosec x dx = ln|tan (2)| + c
x

∫sec x dx = tan x + c
2

∫cosec x dx = –cot x + c
2

x
∫ √a 1– x
2 2
dx = sin–1 a + c ()
1 tan–1 x + c
∫a
1
2 + x2
dx = a a ()
∫ f (x) dx = ln|f(x)| + c
f’(x)

n+1
∫f’(x)[f (x)] dx = [f (x)]
n
n +1
+ c, n ≠ –1

∫f’(x)e f (x)dx = ef (x) + c

133
M O DUL E 1

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Integrate standard functions using the table of integrals.
■ Integrate exponential functions.
■ Integrate logarithmic functions.
f ′(x)
■ Find integrals of the form ____
f (x)
, f ′(x)[ f (x)]n, f ′(x) e f (x).

■ Integrate by substitution.
■ Integrate by parts.
■ Integrate using partial fractions.
■ Integrate trigonometric functions.
■ Integrate inverse trigonometric functions.
1 1
■ Integrate functions of the form _______
a2 + x2
and ________
_______ .
2 2
√a − x

Review e x e r c i s e 4
_____
1 ∫
(a) Find x √ 1 + x d x.
(b) Evaluate
π
__ 2
∫ ∫1 ______
2 (ln x)
(i) 4 2 cos2 4x d x (ii) x dx
0

2 ∫
Find x cosec2 (x) d x.

3 Evaluate
2x + 1 d x
∫0 ____________
1
∫1
2 1
(a) ______ (b) dx
x−2 (1 + x)(2 − x)
4 Find

(a) ∫ ________
1
3 d x using the substitution x = 3sec θ
__
(x − 9) 2
2

∫ x (1 + 3x2) 2 dx
1
__
(b) ______
4 − x d x.
∫0 √______
1 2
5 Use the substitution x = 2 sin2 θ to evaluate
2x

∫4 x2 − 5x + 6 dx = ln ( 9 ).
6 Show that
5 2
__________ 16
___

7 Find the following integrals


(a) ∫ cos2 4x dx (b) ∫ ln (x + 4) dx (c) ∫ x e3x dx

134
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4

∫1 x3 ln x dx.
e
8 Evaluate

∫0 4x dx.
4
9 Find the exact value of

5
10 Find the values of A, B and C for which _____________ Ax + B + _____
= _______ C .
2 2 x+1
(x + 1)(x + 4) x +4

∫0 _____________
2
Hence find the exact value of 5 d x.
(x + 1)(x2 + 4)
1
11 Express ______________ A + _______
in the form _____ B C
_____
(x + 1) (x − 2)
2 x+1 2 + x − 2 where A, B and
(x + 1)
1
C are constants. Hence find ______________
(x + 1) (x − 2)
2 ∫d x.
__

12 Show, by means of the substitution x = 3 tan θ, that ∫ ________


1 √3
2 2 dx (x + 9)
0
π
__
__

∫ ∫0
1 √3 1
= __ 6 cos2 θ d θ. Hence find the exact value of ________ d x.
3 0 (x2 + 9)2

13 Find ∫_______________
1
_____________ d x.
2
√−x − 6x + 16
14 By using the substitution x = 4cos2 θ + 7sin2 θ, evaluate
7 1
∫4 √(x − 4)(7 − x) dx.
______________
____________

__
(4 − π) √2
15 Show that ∫
1 π
___
12 x sin 3x d x = __________.
0 72

15 − 13x + 4x = _____
16 Given that ______________ A + _______
B 2 C
_____
1−x
(1 − x) (4 − x)
2 2 + 4 − x , find the constants
(1 − x)
A, B and C.
15 − 13x + 4x2 d x, giving the exact value in terms of

3
Hence evaluate _____________
2 (1 − x) (4 − x)
2
logarithms.

17 Find the exact value of ∫6 π sec2 2x d x.


1
__

∫06 π tan2 2x dx.


1
__
Hence find the exact value of
1 1 − x2
18 Use the substitution x = tan θ to evaluate ∫ ________ d x.
2 2
0 (1 + x )
+x−7 x2
19 Separate __________________ into partial fractions.
2 (x + 2x + 2)(x − 1)
x2 + x − 7

Hence find __________________
(x + 2x + 2)(x − 1)
2 d x.

π
__
20 Evaluate ∫ 2 ex cos x d x.
0

135
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 5
Reduction Formulae

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ derive reduction formulae for sinn x, cosn x and tann x
■ derive reduction formulae for other functions using integration by parts
■ use reduction formulae to find specific integrals.

KEYWORDS/TERMS

SFEVDUJPOGPSNVMBtJOUFHSBUJPOCZQBSUT

136
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5

A reduction formula is used to facilitate integrals that cannot easily be found.


Integration by parts can be used to find one integral in terms of a simpler integral
of the same form. Using the method of integration by parts, it is sometimes possible
to express such an integral in terms of a similar integral where n is replaced by
(n − 1), or sometimes (n − 2). The relationship between the two integrals is called a
‘reduction formula’. A reduction formula is normally derived by changing the form
of the integral to a product which can be used to integrate by parts.
The reduction formula will take the repeats out of the integrals. If we have to find
∫x8ex dx we will have to integrate by parts eight times to get the result. Instead of
integrating so many times we can find a formula for ∫xnex d x and use it to find
the integral. A reduction formula is used in the same way that we use an iterative
formula (i.e., to determine a specific, current numerical value by using previous
values obtained from the formula).

Reduction formula for sinnx dx ∫


EXAMPLE 1 ∫
Let In = sinn x d x. Find a reduction formula for In.

SOLUTION Write sinn x = sinn−1 x sin x


We have In = sinn−1 x sin x d x
dv = sin x
Using integration by parts, let u = sinn−1 x, ___
dx
To find the differential of sinn−1 x we use the chain rule (bring down the power,
reduce the power by 1 and multiply by the differential of sin x)
du = (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos x, v = −cos x.
___
dx
Substituting into

∫u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x
dx
we get


In = −cos x sinn−1 x − (−cos x)(n − 1) sinn−2 x cos x d x


= −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos 2 x d x
Substituting cos 2 x = 1 − sin2 x


In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) sinn−2 x (1 − sin2 x) d x

= −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) ∫(sinn−2 x − sinn x) d x (expanding brackets)

= −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) ∫sinn−2 d x − (n − 1) ∫sinn x d x

Since In = ∫sinn x d x, replacing n by n − 2 gives

In−2 = ∫sinn−2 x d x
∴ In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2 − (n − 1)In

137
M O DUL E 1
Making In the subject of the formula
In + (n − 1)In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2
∴ n In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2, n≥2 (1 + (n − 1) = n)
A reduction formula for In = ∫ sinn x d x is therefore
1 n−1
In = −__ n−1 I ,
_____
n sin x cos x + n (
n−2 ) n≥2

Reduction formula for cosnx dx ∫


EXAMPLE 2 ∫
Obtain a reduction formula for In = cosn x d x and hence determine I4.

SOLUTION ∫
Let In = cosn x d x
We write cosn x = cosn−1 x cos x Use the integration by
dv = cos x parts formula:
Using integration by parts, let u = cosn−1 x, ___
To differentiate u we use the chain rule.
dx
∫u ___
dv dx = uv − ∫v ___
dx
du dx
dx
du = (n − 1) cosn−2 x (−sin x), v = sin x
___
dx

In = sin x cosn−1 x − sin x [(n − 1) cosn−2 x (−sin x)] d x


= sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) cosn−2 x sin2 x d x
Substituting sin2 x =1− cos 2 x, we have


In = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) cosn−2 x (1 − cos2 x) d x

= sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) ∫(cosn−2 x − cosn x) d x

= sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) ∫cosn−2 x d x − (n − 1) ∫cosn x d x


Since In = ∫cos n x d x, replacing n by n − 2 we get

In−2 = ∫cos n−2 x d x

∴ In = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2 − (n − 1)In


⇒ In + (n − 1) In = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2
Since In + (n − 1) In = nIn
nIn = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2, n≥2


The reduction formula for In = cosn x d x is
nIn = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2, n≥2
To find I4, substitute n = 4 in the reduction formula:
4I4 = sin x cos3 x + 3 I2
3I
1 sin x cos 3 x + __
I4 = __
4 4 2
Substituting n = 2 in the reduction formula:
2I2 = sin x cos x + I0
1 sin x cos x + __
I2 = __ 1I
2 2 0
138
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5

We cannot use the formula to find I0.

∫ ∫
Since In = cosn x d x, when n = 0, I0 = cos0 x d x


I0 = 1 d x = x + c
1 sin x cos x + __
∴ I2 = __ 1 (x + c)
2 2
I4 = __
4
3 __
1 sin x cos3 x + __
4 2 [
1 sin x cos x + __
1 x + __
2
1c
2 ]
3 sin x cos x + __
1 sin x cos3 x + __
I4 = __ 3x + A
4 8 8

Reduction formula for tannx dx ∫


EXAMPLE 3 ∫
Obtain a reduction formula for In = tann x d x.

SOLUTION Write tann x = tann−2 x tan2 x


In= tann−2 x tan2 x d x
Substitute tan2 x = sec2 x − 1


In = tann−2 x (sec2 x − 1) d x

= ∫(tann−2 x sec2 x − tann−2 x) d x

= ∫tann−2 x sec2 x d x − ∫tann−2 x d x

Recall from Chapter 2 that the differential of tan x is sec2 x.


f(x) = tan x
f ′(x) = sec2 x
From Chapter 4,

∫ f ′(x)[ f(x)]n dx = _____


1
n + 1 [f(x)]
n+1 + c, n≠1

So ∫tann−2 x sec2 x dx = _______


tann−1 x + c
n−1
Since In = ∫tan x d x
n

In−2 = ∫tann−2 x d x
n−1
tan x − I ,
∴ In = _______ n≥2
n−1 n−2

Other reduction formulae


∫0 x ne x dx, show that In = e − nIn−1, for n ≥ 1. Hence, find I3.
1
EXAMPLE 4 Given that In =

∫0 xnex dx
1
SOLUTION In =
Integrating by parts, let
dv = ex
u = xn, ___
dx 139
M O DUL E 1
du = nx n−1,
___ v = ex
dx
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x, we have
dx ∫
∫0 nxn−1 ex dx
1
In = [xnex]0 −
1

= (1ne1 − 0ne0) − ∫ nxn−1 ex d x


1

∴ In = e − n ∫ x
1
n−1 e x dx
0

Since In = ∫ xne x d x, replacing n by n − 1, we have


1

In−1 = ∫ xn−1 ex d x
1

0
∴ In = e − nIn−1, n≥1
Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, we get
n = 3 ⇒ I3 = e − 3I2
n = 2 ⇒ I2 = e − 2I1
n = 1 ⇒ I1 = e − I0
To find I0 we use

∫0 x ne x dx
1
In =
1
∫0 x 0e x dx = ∫0 e xdx
1
When n = 0, I0 =
= [e x]0
1

= e1 − e0 = e − 1
Substituting I0 = e − 1
I1 = e − [e − 1] = 1
I2 = e − 2(1) = e − 2
I3 = e − 3[e − 2] = e − 3e + 6
= 6 − 2e
π
__

EXAMPLE 5 Given that In = ∫0 sinn x dx find a reduction formula for In and use this formula to
2

determine I4.
π
__

SOLUTION In = ∫0 sinn x dx
2

Writing sinn x = sinn−1 x sin x


π
__

In = ∫0 sinn−1 x sin x dx
2

Integrating by parts, let


dv = sin x
u = sinn−1 x, ___
dx
du = (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos x, v = −cos x
___
dx π π
__

∫0
__
In = [ −sinn−1 x cos x ] 02 + (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos2 x d x
2

π
π cos __
π − (−sinn−1 0 cos 0) + (n − 1)
__

cos2x = 1 − sin2x = −sinn−1 __


( 2 2 ) ∫0 sinn−2 x (1 − sin2 x) dx
2

π
__ π
__

= (n − 1) ∫0
2
sinn−2 x d x − (n − 1) ∫0 sinn x dx
2

140
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5

In = (n − 1)In−2 − (n − 1) In
In + (n − 1)In = (n − 1)In−2
∴ nIn = (n − 1)In−2
n−1 I ,
In = _____
(
n n−2 ) n≥2
4 − 1 I = __
To find I4 we substitute n = 4 ⇒ I4 = _____ 3I
4 4−2 4 2 ( )
Substitute n = 2 ⇒ I2 = I01
__
2
3
__ 1
__ 3I
I = __
So I4 =
4 2 0 ( )
8 0
π
__

To find I0 we go back to In = ∫0 sinn x dx and replace n by 0:


2

π π

∫0 1 dx = [x]0 = __π2
__ __

∫0
π
__
I0 = sin0 x d x =
2 2
2

π = ___
3 __
∴ I4 = __ 3π
8 2 16 ( )

∫0(1 + x3)n dx, where n is an integer. Hence


1
EXAMPLE 6 Determine a reduction formula for In =

∫0 (1 + x3)4 dx.
1
evaluate

∫0 (1 + x3)n dx
1
SOLU TION In =

Let u = (1 + x3)n dv = 1
___
dx
du = n(3x2)(1 + x3)n−1, v = x
___
dx
∫0 n(3x2)(1 + x3)n−1x dx
1 1
In = [ x(1 + x3)n ] 0 − (integration by parts)

= 1(1 + 13)n − 0 − n ∫ 3x3(1 + x3)n−1 d x


1

3x3(1 + x3)n
We have 3x3 (1 + x3)n−1 = ___________
1 + x3


1 3
Remember 3x (1 + x3)n d x
In = 2n − n ______
01+x
3
x3
Separate ______3
1+x Now ______ x3 + 1 − 1 = ______
x3 = _________ x3 + 1 − ______
1 = 1 − ______
1
1 1+x 3 x +1
3 x3 + 1 x3 + 1 x3 + 1
into 1 − ______
1 + x3
∫0 ( 1 − ______
1
1
1 + x3 )
∴ In = 2n − 3n (1 + x3)n d x

∫0 [ (1 + x3)n − (1 + x3)n−1 ] dx
1
= 2n − 3n
or

∫0 (1 + x3)n dx + 3n ∫0 (1 + x3)n−1 dx
1 1
1 = 2n − 3n
x3 + 1)x3
x3 + 1 = 2n − 3n In + 3nIn−1
−1
x3 3nIn + In = 2n + 3nIn−1
∴ ______
1 + x3 (3n + 1)In = 2n + 3nIn−1, n ≥ 1, which is a reduction formula for the integral
1
= 1 − ______
∫0(1 + x3)4 dx = I4 we can use the reduction formula to find this integral.
1
1 + x3 Since
141
M O DUL E 1
Using (3n + 1) In = 2n + 3nIn−1
n = 4 ⇒ (12 + 1)I4 = 24 + 3(4) I3
13I4 = 16 + 12I3
n = 3 ⇒ 10I3 = 23 + 3(3)I2
10I3 = 8 + 9I2
n = 2 ⇒ 7I2 = 22 + 3(2)I1
7I2 = 4 + 6I1
n = 1 ⇒ 4I1 = 2 + 3I0

∫0(1 + x3)n dx
1
Since In =

I0 = ∫ (1 + x3)0 d x = ∫ 1 d x = [x]0 = 1
1 1 1
0 0
∴ 4I1 = 2 + 3 (1)
4I1 = 5
5
I1 = __
4
5 = ___
7I2 = 4 + 6 __ 23
4 2 ( )
23
I2 = ___
14
23
10I3 = 8 + 9 ___
( )
14

10 [ ( 1423 ) ]
1 8 + 9 ___
I = ___
3

= ___ [
1 ____ 207
112 + ____
10 14 14 ]
319
= ____
140
319
13I4 = 16 + 12 ____
140 ( )
[
957
1 16 + ____
I4 = ___
13 35 ]
1517
= _____
455

EXERCISE 5A
In questions 1–5, find a reduction formula for each of the integrals.

1 ∫
In = xne2x d x 2 ∫
In = xn sin x d x

∫0(4 − x)n dx ∫0 xne2x dx


2 1
3 In = 4 In =
π
__
5 In = ∫04 cosn x dx
π
__
6 Obtain a reduction formula for In = ∫ 4
0
secn x d x and hence determine I4.

142
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5

__
______
∫0
√3 7.
7 (a) Use the substitution u = 1 + x2 to show that x √1 + x2 d x = __
3
__
______
∫0
√3
(b) Given that In = xn √1 + x2 d x, prove that

n−1
____
(n + 2) In = 8(3) 2 − (n − 1) In−2, n ≥ 2.
(c) Find I5.

n + 1 I − __
∫0 xne−x dx, show that In + 2 = ( _____
1
1 e−1.
2 ) n 2
Given that In =
2
8
Hence find I5 in terms of e.

∫0ex (1 − x)n dx.


1
9 Show that In = nIn−1 −1, n ≥ 1 where In =
Use the reduction formula to show that I4 = 24e − 65.

10 Given that In = ∫ (1 + x2)n dx, n ≥ 1, show that In = ______


1 n
2 1
0 1 + 2n
+ 1 − ______ I
1 + 2n n−1 ( )
Find I4.

11 Show that 2nIn+1 = (2n − 1)In + 2−n, where In = ∫ (1 + x2)−n d x.


1

0
Use the reduction formula to find I4.
__ π
12 Given that In = ∫ 4 sinn x d x, show that nIn = ___
1__ n + (n − 1)I . Hence, find
n−2 ( √2 )
0
the volume formed when the region bounded by the curve y = sin2 x, the lines
π and the x-axis is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis.
x = 0, x = __
4

13 Let In = ∫x (ln x)n d x. Show that In = __


x (ln x)n − __
nI . 2
2 2 n−1
3x2 __
Hence, show that I3 = ___
4 3 [
2 (ln x)3 − (ln x)2 + ln x − __
1 + c.
2 ]
−1x
14 Given that In = ∫ x 2 e
1 n
__ ___ 1
__
2 d x, show that In = −2e − 2 − nIn−2. Evaluate I4.
0
e
15 Derive a reduction formula for ∫ (ln x)n d x and use this formula to find I4 in
1
terms of e.
__
π
4n − π __π n−1 − n(n − 1)I where I = __4 xn sin x d x.
√ 2 _______
16 Show that In = ___
2 4 ((4) n−2 ) n ∫0
Find the exact value of I2.

17 Derive a reduction formula for In = ∫ xne2x d x. Use your reduction formula to


1

0
find the volume formed when the region bounded by the curve y = x2ex, the
x-axis, the lines x = 0 and x = 1 is rotated through 2π radians about the x-axis.
Leave your answer in terms of e.

143
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY Reduction formulae


In = sinn x dx ∫
In = tann x dx

= ∫sin n – 1x sin x dx

= tann – 2 x tan2 x dx

= –cos x sinn – 1 x + ∫
(n – 1)sinn – 2 x cos2 x dx

= tann – 2 x (sec2 x – 1)dx
= –cos x ∫
sinn – 1 x + (n – 1) sinn – 2 x(1 – sin2 x) dx

= –cos x sinn – 1 x + (n – 1)∫sin n – 2 x dx – (n – 1)



sinn x dx
∫ ∫
= tann – 2 x sec2 x dx – tann – 2 x dx

tann – 1 x
= –cos x sinn – 1 x + (n – 1)In – 2 – (n – 1) In = – In – 2
n –1

In + (n – 1)In = –cos x sinn – 1 x + (n – 1)In – 2

nIn = –cos x sinn – 1 x + (n – 1)In – 2

1 cos x sinn – 1 x + n – 1 I
In =
n ( )
n n–2


Reduction formula for cosn x dx is
derived in a similar manner.

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Derive a reduction formula for sinn x.
■ Derive a reduction formula for cosn x.
■ Derive a reduction formula for tann x.
■ Derive a reduction formula by integrating by parts.
■ Derive a reduction formula for a definite integral.
■ Use a reduction formula to find integrals (e.g. I4, I3).

144
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6

CHAPTER 6
Trapezoidal Rule (Trapezium Rule)

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ use the trapezium rule to estimate integrals
■ identify the width of an interval given the number of intervals
■ identify the values of x to be used in the trapezium rule
■ identify when the trapezium rule underestimates the area under a curve
■ identify when the trapezium rule overestimates the area under a curve.

KEYWORDS/TERMS

BSFBVOEFSBDVSWFtFRVBMTVCJOUFSWBMTt
USBQF[JVNSVMFtPWFSFTUJNBUFtVOEFSFTUJNBUF

145
M O DUL E 1
The area under a curve
We can approximate the area under a curve by dividing the region into n equal
subintervals and forming trapezia of equal width within each subinterval. The area
under the curve can then be estimated by adding the areas of the n trapezia.
y

d d d d d x
x0 = a x1 x2 x3 x4 xn – 1 xn = b

∫a f (x) d x.
b
Area under the curve y = f (x) from a to b =
Dividing the interval [a, b] into n equal
subintervals, we have Remember
b−a
d = _____
1 (sum of parallel sides)
Area of trapezium = __
n 2
× perpendicular height
where d is the width of one interval.
Finding the area of each trapezium, we have
parallel sides are
1st: Area = __ d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
1 [ f (x ) + f (x )]d = __ f (x0) and f (x1)
2 0 1 2 0 1
Notes d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
1 [ f (x ) + f (x )]d = __
2nd: Area = __ parallel sides are
2 1 2 2 1 2
(i) x0 = a, xn = b. f (x1) and f (x2)
(ii) The region 3rd: Area = __ d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
must be split 2 2 3

∫a
b
into n equal f (x) d x ≈ sum of the areas of the trapezia
subintervals.
∫a f (x) dx ≈ __21 d [ f (x0) + f (x1)] + __21 d [ f (x1) + f (x2)] + __21 d [ f (x2) + f (x3)] + . . .
b
(iii) If there are n
intervals we
will have 1 d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
+ __
(n + 1) 2 n−1 n

x-coordinates. 1 d [ f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + . . . + f (x )
= __
(iv) The trap- 2 0 1 1 2 2 n−1
ezium rule + f (xn−1) + f (xn)]
may either
overestimate d [ f (x ) + 2f (x ) + 2f (x ) + . . . + 2f (x ) + f (x )]
= __
or under- 2 0 1 2 n−1 n

estimate the d [ f (x ) + f (x ) + 2 [ f (x ) + f (x ) + . . . + f (x )]]


= __
area under 2 0 n 1 2 n−1
the curve.
This gives the trapezium rule (sometimes called the trapezoidal rule):
(v) We get a

∫a f (x) dx ≈ __d2 [ f (x0) + f (xn) + 2 [ f (x1) + f (x2) + . . . + f (xn−1)]]


better b
approximation

( __21 interval width ) [1st y-value + last y-value + twice (sum of all y-values in between)]
if we take
more trapezia.
Let us use the rule to estimate some integrals.

146
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6

EXAMPLE 1 1 and the


Estimate the area of the region bounded by the curve y = ______
1 + x2
lines x = 0, x = 1 using the trapezium rule with five trapezia.

SOLUTION 1
Let f (x) = ______
1 + x2
Dividing the interval into five subintervals we get
1 − 0 = __
d = _____ 1
5 5
1 until we reach 1.
∴ Starting at x = 0 we can get the other values of x by adding __
5

0 1 2 3 4 1
5 5 5 5

1 , we have
Drawing up a table of x and f (x) = ______
1 + x2

x f (x)

0 1 =1
______
1 + 02
1
________ = 0.96154
1
__
5 ( )
1 2
1 + __
5
1
________ = 0.86207
2
__
5 ( )
2 2
1 + __
5
3 1
________ = 0.73529
__
5 ( )
3 2
1 + __
5
4 1
________ = 0.609 76
__
5 ( )
4 2
1 + __
5
1 = 0. 5
______
1
1 + 12

Using the trapezium rule:


b
1 d [ f (x ) + f (x ) + 2[f (x ) + f (x ) + . . . + f (x )]]
f (x) d x ≈ __
a 2 0 n 1 2 n−1

∫0 ______ 2 (5)
1
1 d x = __
1 __
1 [(1 + 0.5) + 2(0.961 54 + 0.862 07 + 0.735 29 + 0.609 76)]
1 + x2
= 0.784 (3 d.p.)

∫0 _____
1 1 d x, using the trapezium rule with six equal
EXAMPLE 2 Find an estimate of the integral
x+1
subintervals.

SOLUTION Let f (x) = _____1 . Since we have six intervals the width of one interval is
x+1
d = _____ 1 − 0 = __
b − a = _____ 1
n 6 6
The x-values can be found by adding __ 1 , starting from 0 until we reach 1.
6
1 , __
∴ x = 0, __ 3 , __
2 , __ 5 , 1.
4 , __
6 6 6 6 6
147
M O DUL E 1
Drawing up a table for x and f (x), we have
x 1
f (x) = _____
x+1
0 1 =1
_____
0+1
1 = 0.857 14
_____
1
__ 1
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.75
_____
2
__ 2
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.666 67
_____
3
__ 3
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.6
_____
4
__ 4
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.545 45
_____
5
__ 5
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.5
_____
1 6
1 + __
6

Using the trapezium rule:

∫a f (x) dx ≈ __21 d [ f (x0) + f (xn) + 2 [f (x1) + f (x2) + . . . + f (xn−1)]]


b

we get

∫0 _____ 2 (6)
1
1 d x ≈ __
1 __
1 [1 + 0.5 + 2(0.857 14 + 0.75 + 0.666 67 + 0.6 + 0.545 45)]
x+1
8.338 52
= _______
12
= 0.695 (3 d.p.)

5
EXAMPLE 3 Given that I = ∫0 2−x dx, find an estimate for I using the trapezium rule with
four intervals. By sketching the graph of y = 2−x show that the trapezium rule
overestimates the value of I.
SOLUTION Since we have four intervals, the width of each interval is
5 − 0 = 1.25
d = _____
4
The values of x are found by adding 1.25 starting from 0, therefore
x = 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, 5.

x f (x) = 2−x
0 2−0 = 1
1.25 2−1.25 = 0.420 45
2.5 2−2.5 = 0.176 78
3.75 2−3.75 = 0.074 33
5 2−5 = 0.031 25

148
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6

5
∫0 2−x dx ≈ __12 (1.25)[1 + 0.031 25 + 2(0.420 45 + 0.176 78 + 0.074 33)]
= 1.483 98
= 1.484 (3 d.p.)

1
y = 2–x

x
0 1.25 2.5 3.75 5

The shaded region above the curve is included in the trapezium rule, so we have an
overestimate.

∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx.
2 ______
EXAMPLE 4 Using the substitution u = x2 + 1 find the value of
Find an estimate of the integral using the trapezium rule with eight equal
subintervals. Compare the two values.

∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx
2 ______
SOLUTION

Since u = x2 + 1
du = 2x d x
1 du = x d x
∴ __
2
______
__
√x2 + 1 = √u
Changing limits:
when x = 0, u = 02 + 1 = 1
when x = 2, u = 22 + 1 = 5

[ ] [ ]
______ 5 5 1 u __21 du = __ 2 u __23 5 = __
1 5 __23 − 1 = 3.393 45
∫0 ∫ ∫
2 1 √__ 1 × __
∴ x √ x2 + 1 d x = __ u du = __
1 2 1 2 2 3 1 3

Using the trapezium rule with eight intervals:


2 − 0 = __
d = _____ 1
8 4
The x-values are x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.
______
Let f (x) = x √ x2 + 1

149
M O DUL E 1
Table of values:
______
x f (x) = x √ x2 + 1
______
0 0 √ 02 + 1 = 0
________
0.25 0.25 √ 0.252 + 1 = 0.257 69
_______
0.5 0.5 √0.52 + 1 = 0.559 02
________
0.75 0.75 √ 0.752 + 1 = 0.937 50
______
1 1 √ 12 + 1 = 1.414 21
________
1.25 1.25 √ 1.252 + 1 = 2.000 98
_______
1.5 1.5 √1.52 + 1 = 2.704 16
________
1.75 1.75 √ 1.752 + 1 = 3.527 24
______
2 2 √ 22 + 1 = 4.472 14

______
∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx ≈ __12 ( __41 ) [0 + 4.472 14 + 2 (0.257 69 + 0.559 02 + 0.937 50 + 1.414 21
2

+ 2.000 98 + 2.704 16 + 3.527 24)]


= 3.409 22
When rounded to one decimal place we get the same estimate of 3.4 as we found
using the integral.
The percentage error in using the trapezium rule to estimate the integral is
3.409 22 − 3.393 45 × 100 = 0.465% (3 d.p.)
________________
3.393 45

_______
∫0 √16 − x2 dx using the trapezium rule with x = 1, x = 2, x = 3 and x = 4.
4
EXAMPLE 5 Estimate

SOLUTION _______
x f (x) = √ 16 − x2
_______
0 √16 − 02 = 4
_______ ___
1 √16 − 12 = √15
_______ ___
2 √16 − 22 = √12
_______ __
3 √16 − 32 = √7
_______
4 √16 − 42 = 0

_______
∫0 √16 − x2 dx ≈ __21 (1)[4 + 0 + 2 (√15 + √12 + √7 )] = 11.982 84 = 11.983 (3 d.p.)
4 ___ ___ __

EXERCISE 6A
In questions 1–8, use the trapezium rule with the given number of subintervals to
approximate the given integral.

∫ ∫
1 4
1 e x d x, n = 4
2
2 1 d x, n = 8
______
01+x
3
0

150
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6

∫1 _____ ∫0 __________
2 6
3 ln x d x, n = 6 4 1 d x, n = 6
1+x x + x2 + 1
4

π
∫0 ∫0 x2 sin x dx, n = 4
1 __
5 e −√x d x, n = 8 6

∫1 ln (x3 + 2) dx, n = 3
2 5
7 8 ∫2 xex dx, n = 3
______
∫0 √x2 + 1 dx using six subintervals.
1
9 Find an approximate value for

10 Show that ∫
1 π. Use the trapezium rule with six intervals to find an
1 d x = __
_____
0 1+x2 4

∫0 ______
1 1 d x. Hence estimate π to 3 d.p.
approximation of
1 + x2

11 Find an approximate value of ∫ __1x d x using the trapezium rule with


2

1
(a) four intervals (b) eight intervals.

∫1 __1x dx.
2
Find the percentage error in the approximations by evaluating
π
12 Use the trapezium rule with two intervals to estimate ∫ 3 sin2 x d x.
__

0
π
∫03 sin2 x dx.
__
Find an exact value of

13 The region bounded by the curve y = e cos x, the x-axis and the lines x = 0 and
π, __
x = π, is denoted by R. Use the trapezium rule with ordinates at x = 0, __ 3π ,
π, ___
4 2 4
π to estimate the area of R, giving three decimal places in your answer.
π
14 Use the trapezium rule with five intervals to estimate ∫ 2 _________
__
1
________ d x.
0 √ 1 + cos x
15 Use the trapezium rule, with ordinates at x = −1, x = −__12 , x = 0, x = __12 and
_________
∫−1 √ln (3 + x) dx giving three significant figures
1
x = 1, to estimate the value of
in your answer.
16 Determine the approximate area between the curve y = x3 + x2 − 4x − 4, the
ordinates x = −2 and x = −1 and the x-axis by applying the trapezium rule
with four intervals. Compare the result obtained by this method with the true
area obtained by integration.

151
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY
Trapezium rule

b
Used to estimate definite integrals. ∫ a f(x) dx ≈ d2 [f(x0) + f(xn) + 2[f(x1) + f(x2) + ... + f(xn–1)]]
Formula must use the upper and –a
d=bn
lower limit of the integral.

n = number of intervals
The interval [a, b] must be divided
into n equal subintervals.

The trapezium rule can either


overestimate or underestimate
the integral.

Overestimate Underestimate

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Use the trapezium rule to estimate integrals.
■ Identify the width of an interval given the number of intervals.
■ Identify the values of x to be used in the trapezium rule.
■ Identify when the trapezium rule underestimates the area under a curve.
■ Identify when the trapezium rule overestimates the area under a curve.

152
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6

Module 1 Tests

Module 1 Test 1
1 (a) Differentiate with respect to x
πx
(i) 6e x+1 sin ( __
4 )
[3]
______
(ii) sin−1 √1 − 2x [4]
dθ when t = 2
(b) Given that θ = 4−t, find ___ [4]
dt
(c) (i) Express 2 8x + 10
___________ in partial fractions. [4]
2x + 5x − 3


8x + 10
( )
2 15
(ii) Hence, show that ___________ ___
2 + 5x − 3 d x = 2 ln 4 [4]
1 2x
−π ≤ tan−1 x ≤ __
(d) Given that y = tan−1 x, where ____ π , prove
2 2
dy ______
___ 1
that = [6]
d x 1 + x2
2 ∫
x
(a) (i) Using the substitution u = 1 − x2, find _______
______
√1 − x2
d x. [4]

∫0
1
(ii) Hence, find sin−1 x d x. [4]
π
__
(b) If In = ∫
2 n
0
t π − n(n − 1)I for n ≥ 2.
cos t dt, prove that In = ( __
n
2) n−2

Hence find I4. [9]

(c) The trapezium rule, with two intervals of equal width, is to be used to find
an approximate value for ∫20 e−2x d x. Explain, with the aid of a sketch,
why the approximation will be greater than the exact value of the integral.
Calculate the approximate value and the exact value, giving each answer
correct to 3 d.p. [8]
3 (a) The parametric equations of a curve are defined in terms of θ by
x = 4 + 2 cos θ, y = 2 cos 2θ
dy
(i) Show that ___ = 4 cos θ. [4]
dx
π
(ii) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at θ = __ [4]
2
(b) Given that variables x and y are related by the equation y2 + sin (xy) = 2,
dy
show that ___ = 0 when x = __π , y = 1. [7]
dx 2

(c) On a single Argand diagram sketch the loci given by


(i) |z − 2 − 3i| = 2 [3]
π
(ii) arg (z − 2 − 3i) = __ [3]
4
Hence, find the exact value of the complex number z that satisfies both
(i) and (ii). [4]

153
M O DUL E 1
Module 1 Test 2
dy
1 (a) Find ___ if
dx
(i) y = tan3 3x + 4 cos2 x [3]
______
1 + x2
2+x√
(ii) y = ln ______ [4]
__________
(iii) y = √ sin (x2 + 4) [4]
d2y
(b) Given that y = sin−1 (2 − x), find ___2 . [4]
dx
3x 2+ x + 4
(c) (i) Express 2_____________ in partial fractions. [5]
(x + 1)(x + 1)
3x + x + 4 d x.
2
∫0 _____________
1
(ii) Hence, find [5]
(x2 + 1)(x + 1)

∫0 xne3x dx, show that In = __31 e3 − __n3 In−1 for n ≥ 1.


1
2 (a) If In =

∫0 x4e3x dx.
1
Hence find [10]
(b) The parametric equations of a curve are defined by x = ln (2t + 1),
y = t2 − 1. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
when t = 1. [8]
dy 2
(c) Given that xy + 2x2y2 = 3x, show that ___ = −__ 5 when x = 1 and y = 1.
dx
Hence, find the equation of the tangent at (1, 1) giving your answer in
the form ax + by = c where a, b and c are integers. [7]
e
3 (a) Find the exact value of ∫1 x3 ln x dx [5]
(b) Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that
4 tan θ − 4 tan θ
tan 4θ = _________________
3

1 − 6 tan2 θ + tan4 θ
Hence or otherwise solve the equation
x4 − 6x2 + 1 = 0
nπ .
giving your answer in the form tan ___
8 ( ) [10]
(c) (i) Find complex numbers v = x + iy such that x, y ∈ ℝ and
v 2 = 3 + 4i. [5]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, solve for z the equation
z2 − (4 + 3i)z + 1 + 5i = 0 [5]

154
2
Sequences, Series and
Approximations

155
M O DUL E 2
CHAPTER 7
Sequences

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ define a sequence
■ identify the different types of sequences
■ decide whether a sequence converges or diverges
■ find the value to which a sequence converges
■ find the terms of a sequence
■ identify the general term of a sequence
■ define a sequence as a recursive relation
■ find the terms of a sequence given a recurrence relation.

KEYWORDS/TERMS
TFRVFODFtDPOWFSHFOUtEJWFSHFOUtPTDJMMBUJOHt
QFSJPEJDtBMUFSOBUJOHtHFOFSBMUFSNtSFDVSSFODF
SFMBUJPOtMJNJUtMJNJUMBXTGPSTFRVFODFT

156
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7

A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of all positive integers, while a
series is a list of numbers added together. A sequence can be written as
(i) a list of terms (ii) a formula (or function) or (iii) a recurrence relation
Notation: If un is a sequence, it is denoted by {un} or (un). In the sequence {un}, the
terms are u1, u2, u3, u4, . . .
We can graph a sequence since a sequence represents a function. A finite sequence
contains only a finite number of terms. An infinite sequence is unending.

Types of sequence
The different types of sequences can be described as: convergent, divergent,
oscillating, periodic or alternating.

Convergent sequences
A sequence {un} is convergent if the values approach a fixed point as n increases, that
is, lim un = l
n→∞

un

Divergent sequences
Any sequence which does not converge is called a divergent sequence. A sequence
which diverges can (i) diverge to positive infinity, (ii) diverge to negative infinity.

un

Oscillating sequences
Oscillating sequences are neither convergent nor divergent. For example, the
sequence −1, 2, −3, 4, −5, . . . is an oscillating sequence, as is the sequence 1, 0,
3, 0, 5, 0, 7, . . . Oscillating sequences can be divided into two types:
(i) an oscillating finite sequence which is bounded but not convergent
157
M O DUL E 2
(ii) an oscillating infinite sequence which is neither bounded nor diverges to +∞ or −∞.
Bounded and oscillating
un un
Oscillating sequence
which is neither
bounded nor
diverges to +∞ or –∞.

n n

Periodic sequences
A periodic sequence is a sequence which repeats its terms regularly. The smallest
interval with which the sequence repeats itself is the period of the sequence.
The sequence 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, . . . is a periodic sequence with period 3.

Alternating sequences
An alternating sequence is a sequence with terms that alternate between positive and
negative values. Alternating sequences can be convergent, divergent or oscillating.
For example, the sequence −1, 0, 3, −0.3, 0, 0.3, −0.03, . . . is alternating and
convergent; the sequence −1, 1, −1, 1, −1, . . . is oscillating.

The terms of a sequence


1 , __
The sequence 1, __ 1 , __
1 , __
1 , … can be written as u = __
1
2 3 4 5 n n . This represents a rule for the
nth term of a sequence (or the general term of the sequence); the list of terms can be
replaced by the formula for the nth term.

EXAMPLE 1 Given the general term of the sequence un = 4n + 2, write down the first four terms
of the sequence.

SOLUTION un = 4n + 2
Substituting n = 1, u1 = 4(1) + 2
=4+2
=6
n = 2, u2 = 4(2) + 2
=8+2
= 10
n = 3, u3 = 4(3) + 2
= 12 + 2
= 14
158
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7

n = 4, u4 = 4(4) + 2
= 16 + 2
= 18
The first four terms of the sequence are 6, 10, 14 and 18.

EXAMPLE 2 4 .
Identify the first five terms of the sequence un = ______
3n + 2

SOLUTION 4
un = ______
3n + 2

4
n = 1, u1 = ________ 4 = __
= _____ 4
3(1) + 2 3 + 2 5

n = 2, 4
u2 = ________ 4 = __
= _____ 1
4 = __
3(2) + 2 6 + 2 8 2
4
n = 3, u3 = ________ 4 = ___
= _____ 4
3(3) + 2 9 + 2 11

n = 4, 4
u4 = ________ 4 = ___
= ______ 4 = __
2
3(4) + 2 12 + 2 14 7

n = 5, 4
u5 = ________ 4 = ___
= ______ 4
3(5) + 2 15 + 2 17

∴ The first five terms of the sequence are __ 1 , ___


4 , __ 4 , __ 4.
2 , ___
5 2 11 7 17

1
Write down the first six terms of the sequence un = (−1)n+1 __
EXAMPLE 3 n . ( )
1 = (−1)2 (1) = 1
n = 1, u1= (−1)1+1 __
SOLUTION
1 ( )
n = 2, u2= (−1)2+1 ( __21 ) = (−1) ( __21 ) = −__21
3

n = 3, u3= (−1)3+1 ( __31 ) = (−1) ( __31 ) = __31


4

n = 4, u4= (−1)4+1 ( __41 ) = (−1) ( __41 ) = −__41


5

n = 5, u5= (−1)5+1 ( __51 ) = (−1) ( __51 ) = __15


6

n = 6, u6 = (−1)6+1 ( __61 ) = (−1) ( __61 ) = −__61


7

1 __
∴ The first six terms of the sequence are 1, −__ 1 __1 __
1 __1
2, 3, −4, 5, −6.

Try these 7.1 Write down the first six terms of the following sequences.
n (−1)n
(a) un= 4n + 3 (b) un= _____
n+2
(c) un = ________
3(n + 1)

159
M O DUL E 2
Finding the general term of a sequence
by identifying a pattern
We should be able to write down the general term of a sequence when given a list of
its terms. To do this, we look for a connection between the subscript that identifies
the term and the term itself.

EXAMPLE 4 1 , __
Find the general term of the sequence 1, __ 1 , ___
1 , __
1,…
3 9 27 81

SOLUTION The first term is u1 = 1.


We can write 1 as 30.
∴ u1 = __1 = __1=1
Note 30 1
The second term is u2 = __ 1 = __
1
31 3
You can always 1 = __
1
check your result The third term is u3 = __
32 9
by listing the Notice that all the terms can be written as 1 divided by 3 to the power of some integer.
terms derived
from your Notice also that the power of 3 is always one less than the subscript n.
formula. Hence, the general term, un = ____1
3n−1

EXAMPLE 5 Find the nth term of the sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, …

SOLUTION All the terms of this sequence can be written as powers of 2.


∴ u1 = 21
The subscript n and the index are the same. Let us see if this continues.
u2 = 4 = 22
u3 = 8 = 23
∴ un = 2n

EXAMPLE 6 Find the nth term of the sequence 4, 12, 20, 28, 36, …

SOLUTION This sequence increases by a constant value of 8.


Recall that the general term of a sequence that increases by a constant value is of the form
un = an + b where a = 8 in this case.
un = 8n + b
We can find b by using u1
u1 = 8 (1) + b = 8 + b
but u1 = 4
∴8+b=4
b = 4 − 8 = −4
∴ un = 8n − 4

160
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7

EXAMPLE 7 1 , _____
Find the nth term of the sequence _____ 1 , _____
1 , _____
1 ,…
1×2 2×3 3×4 4×5

SOLUTION The denominator consists of a product with


1st term: 1, 2, 3, 4, … general term is n
2nd term: 2, 3, 4, 5, … general term is n + 1
1
∴ un = ________
n(n + 1)

Try these 7.2 Find the nth term of these sequences.


(a) 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, …
1 , _____
(b) ____ 1 , _____
1 , _____
1 ,…
3(7) 5(11) 7(15) 9(19)
(c) 3, 9, 27, 81, 243, …

A sequence defined as a recurrence relation


A third way of defining a sequence is to specify a value for one of the terms and
identify the nth term by an equation (a recurrence relation) involving one (or more)
of the preceding terms. A sequence that is defined using previous terms is called a
recursive sequence.

EXAMPLE 8 Given that u1, u2, u3, . . . are the terms of a sequence with u1 = 2 and un+1 = 4un − 1,
find the first four terms of the sequence.

SOLU TION Since un+1 = 4un − 1


Substituting n = 1 ⇒ u1+1 = 4u1 − 1
u2 = 4u1 − 1
But u1 = 2 ⇒ u2 = 4(2) − 1 = 8 − 1 = 7
Substituting n = 2, we get
u2+1 = 4u2 − 1
u3 = 4u2 − 1
u3 = 4(7) − 1 = 28 − 1 = 27
Substituting n = 3, we get
u3+1 = 4u3 − 1
u4 = 4u3 − 1
u4 = 4(27) − 1 = 108 − 1 = 107
∴ The first four terms of this sequence are 2, 7, 27, 107.

161
M O DUL E 2
EXAMPLE 9 Write down the first five terms of the sequence un = nun−1 where u1 = 1.

SOLUTION When n = 2, u2 = 2(u2−1)


u2 = 2u1 = 2 (1) = 2
n = 3: u3 = 3u2 = 3 (2) = 6
n = 4: u4 = 4u3 = 4 (6) = 24
n = 5: u5 = 5u4 = 5 (24) = 120
Hence, the first five terms are 1, 2, 6, 24, 120.

E X A M P L E 10 4 . Given that u = 3,
A sequence is generated by the recurrence relation un+1 = ______
un + 2 1
find u2, u3, u4 and u5.

SOLUTION
4
un+1 = ______
un + 2
4 = __
n = 1: u2 = ______ 4
u1 + 2 5
4 = _____
n = 2: u3 = ______ 4 = ___ 20 = ___
10
u2 + 2 __ 4 + 2 14 7
5
4 = ______
n = 3: u4 = ______ 4 = ___ 28 = __
7
u3 + 2 ___ 10 + 2 24 6
7
n = 4: u5 = 4
______ _____
= 4 = ___ 24
u4 + 2 __ 7 + 2 19
6
4 10
Hence, u2 = , u3 = , u4 = __
__ ___ 7 , u = ___
24 .
5 7 6 5 19

Try these 7.3 Find the first five terms of these sequences.
(a) un+1 = __ 2n
un , u1 = 1
(b) un = 3un−1 − 2, u1 = 4
n+2 , u =1
(c) un+1 = _______
3u + 1
n
1

Convergence of a sequence
The sequence u1, u2, u3, … converges to a real number l, or has limit l provided
Note that un can be made as close to l as possible. This can be done by choosing n to be
If lim un does sufficiently large. We write
n→∞
not exist or is lim un = l
infinite we say n→∞
the sequence If the sequence does not converge, then the sequence diverges.
diverges.

162
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7

The limit laws for sequences are similar to the limit laws for functions studied in Unit 1:
If the limits lim un = l1 and lim vn = l2 exist, then
n→∞ n→∞

lim (un + vn) = lim un + lim vn = l1 + l2


(a) n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

lim un vn = l1 l2
(b) n→∞
u __1 l
vn = l
n
(c) n→∞
lim ___
2
lim kun = k lim un, where k is a constant.
(d) n→∞ n→∞

8n 2
E X A M P L E 11 Let un = ____________ . Find lim un.
6n2 + 3n + 2 n→∞

8n 2
SOLU TION un = ____________
6n2 + 3n + 2
8n2
lim un = lim ____________
n→∞ n→∞ 6n + 3n + 2
2

Dividing the numerator and denominator by n2, we get


lim u = lim __________
8
n→∞ n n→∞ 3
6 + n + __
__ 2
n2
lim 8
= _______________________
n→∞
1 + 2 lim __
lim 6 + 3 lim __ 1
n→∞ n→∞ n n→∞ n2

8
= _____________
6 + 3(0) + 2(0)
8 = __
= __ 4
6 3
4.
Hence, un converges to __
3
______
4n − 1 . Is u convergent?
E X A M P L E 12

Let un = ______
n+1 n

1
4n − 1
lim u = lim ______
__
SOLU TION
n→∞ n n→∞ n + 1 ( ) 2

4n − 1
= ( lim ______
1
__
n+1 )
2
n→∞

1 1
__
4 − __
( n
= lim _____
n→∞ 1
1 + __
n )
2

1
4−0
= _____
__
(
1+0 ) 2

__
= √4 = 2

Hence, un is convergent and converges to 2.

163
M O DUL E 2
We can apply l’Hôpital’s rule to find the limit of a sequence in the same way we apply
l’Hôpital’s rule to find the limit of a function.

Rule
L’Hôpital’s rule was covered in Unit 1:
f (x) 0
Suppose that we have lim ____ = __ or any indeterminate form, then
x→a g (x) 0
f (x) f ′(x)
lim ____ = lim ____.
x→a g (x) x→a g′(x)

If we have an indeterminate form, we can find the limit by differentiating the


numerator and the denominator and then take the limit. If the new function is still
indeterminate, we can differentiate again and evaluate the limit.

E X A M P L E 13 6n converges and find its limit if it does


Determine whether the sequence un = ______
2n − 1
converge.

SOLUTION To decide if the sequence converges, we find lim un.


n→∞
6n
lim u = lim ______
n→∞ n n→∞ 2n − 1
__ , we can apply l’Hôpital’s rule.
Since the function is of the form ∞

6n = lim __
lim ______ 6=3
n→∞ 2n − 1 n→∞ 2
∴ lim un = 3
n→∞
Hence, un converges and its limit is 3.

Try these 7.4 Determine whether the following sequences converge and find the limit of those that
do converge.
(a) un = 1 + __98
n
n2 − 3n + 6
(b) un = ___________ n3
(c) un = _______
() 2n + 5
2 6n + 1
2

EXERCISE 7A
In questions 1–9, write down the first five terms of each sequence.
1 un = 2n + 1 2 un = n2 + 3
n−1
un = _____ 5 n
un = __
3 n 4 4 ( )
5 un = (−1)n (2n − 1) 6 2n
un = __
n
n 2 3n
7 un = __ 8 un = ______
en 2n + 1
9 un = (−1)n+1 n3

In questions 10–19, write down the nth term of the given sequence.

10 __12 , __14 , __16 , __18 , ___


1,…
10
11 __21 , __14 , __18 , ___
16 32
1,…
1 , ___

12 __12 , __13 , __14 , __15 , __16 , … 13 1, −1, 1, −1, 1, −1, …


164
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7

14 1, −3, 5, −7, 9, −11, 13, …


1 , _____
15 _____ 1 , _______
1 , _______
1 , _______
1 ,…
4 × 5 7 × 9 10 × 13 13 × 17 16 × 21

16 __25 , ___ 8 , ____


4 , ____ 16 , …
25 125 625
17 5 × 8, 7 × 11, 9 × 14, 11 × 17, 13 × 20, …
18 1, 2, 6, 24, 120, 720, …
19 8, −16, 32, −64, 128, −256, …

In questions 20–29, the sequences are defined recursively. Find the first four terms of
each sequence.
20 un = 2 + 4un−1, u1 = 3
21 un = 4n + 2un−1, u1 = 1
22 un = (un−1)(un−2), u1 = 1, u2 = 2
23 un+1 = un + d, u1 = a
24 un = −3un−1, u1 = __13
25 un = (n − 1) − un−1, u1 = 5
__ ________
26 un = √3 + √2 + un−1, u1 = 1
2u
27 un = _____
n−1
n+2
, u1 = 2
3u
28 un = ______
n−1
2n + 1
, u1 = 1

5u
29 un = _____
2 , u1 = 4
n−1
n
In questions 30–39, decide whether the sequence converges or diverges.
If the sequence converges, find the limit of the sequence.
4n + 3
30 un = ______ 3n − 5
31 un = ______
2n − 1 6n + 7
n + 4n + 1
2
32 un = __________ 6n + 5
33 un = _______
2
2 2n + 3 n+2
− 3n + 4
n3
34 un = ___________ 35 un = __32
n

n −n+6
2 ()
n (ln n)2
36 un = 1 + __97 () 37 un = ______
n
______
6n − 1 1−n 3

38 un = ______
5n + 2
39 un = _______
2 + 3n
2

40 A sequence {un} of real numbers satisfies un+1 un = 4(−1)n, u1 = 2.


Show that un+2 = −un. Find the first five terms of the sequence.
41 A sequence is generated by the recurrence relation un+1 = ______3 , n ≥ 1.
un − 5
5 ± √__
Given that u2 = 4u1, show that the possible values of u1 are __ 7.
2
165
M O DUL E 2
SUMMARY
Sequences

A finite sequence contains only a A sequence can be written as a list


finite number of terms

as a function of n, i.e.
An infinite sequence is unending un = f(n)

In a convergent sequence the or as a recursive relation


values get closer and closer un + 1 = f(un)
to a fixed value
lim un = l
n→∞

Any sequence which does


not converge to a fixed value
is called divergent

A periodic sequence repeats at


regular intervals

An oscillating sequence is
(i) bounded and not convergent,
or (ii) unbounded and does not
diverge to +∞ or –∞

An alternating sequence is of
the form un = (–1)n an where
an is a non-negative real number

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Define a sequence.
■ Identify the different types of sequences.
■ Decide whether a sequence converges or diverges.
■ Find the value to which a sequence converges.
■ Find the terms of a sequence.
■ Identify the general term of a sequence.
■ Define a sequence as a recursive relation.
■ Find the terms of a sequence given a recurrence relation.
166
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

CHAPTER 8
Series

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ identify the nth partial sum of a series
■ write a series in sigma notation
■ identify a convergent series
n n n
■ find the sum of a series using the standard results for ∑1 r, ∑1 r 2, ∑1 r 3
■ use the summation laws
■ use the method of differences to find the sum of a series
■ test for convergence of a series.

KEYWORDS/TERMS

TVNtTFSJFTtTJHNBOPUBUJPOt
TVNNBUJPOMBXTtDPOWFSHFODFt
EJWFSHFODFUFTUtJOUFHSBMUFTU

167
M O DUL E 2
The sum of the terms of a sequence is called a series. An infinite series is the sum of
the terms of an infinite sequence. Therefore, for the sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . , the
corresponding infinite series is u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . .
For the infinite series u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . , Sn represent the sum of the first n terms.
∴ S1 = u1 (the first term)
S2 = u1 + u2 (the sum of the first two terms)
S3 = u1 + u2 + u3 (the sum of the first three terms)
Sn = u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . + un (the sum of the first n terms)
S1, S2, S3, . . . , Sn form a sequence and each term of this sequence is called a partial sum.
S1 is called the first partial sum, S2 is the second partial sum, . . . , Sn is the
nth partial sum.

Writing a series in sigma notation (∑)


The sigma notation was introduced in Unit 1 and it may be a good idea to revise
this. Let us look at ‘∑’ again.
Recall that ∑ represents ‘the sum of ’ and is used to write a series. The series

u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . can be written as ∑r = 1 ur. The general term of the series is found
and put inside the summation sign. The series starts when r = 1 and is infinite.
The first value of r is the lower limit in the summation sign and the largest value of r
is the upper limit.

EXAMPLE 1 Write the series 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + . . . using sigma notation.

SOLUTION Let ur be the rth term of the series.


u1 = 2 = 21
u2 = 4 = 22
u3 = 8 = 23
ur = 2r
Since the series starts at u1 = 21, the lower limit in the sigma notation is r = 1.
Since the series is infinite, the upper limit is ∞.

∴ 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + . . . = ∑2
r=1
r

EXAMPLE 2 Write the series 3 × 7 + 5 × 12 + 7 × 17 + 9 × 22 + . . . in sigma notation.

SOLUTION Let us look for a pattern using the first term in the various products: 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .
Each term goes up by 2. Therefore, the general form is 2r + b. Since the first term is 3,
i.e. 3 = 2 × 1 + b, b = 1.
∴ 2r + b = 2r + 1.
168
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

Now 7, 12, 17, 22, . . . goes up by 5. Therefore, 5r + c represents the terms in this
sequence. Since the first term is 7, i.e. 7 = 5 × 1 + c, c = 2.

Hence, the general term is 5r + 2.

∴ (2r + 1)(5r + 2) represents the general term of this sequence.



Hence, 3 × 7 + 5 × 12 + 7 × 17 + 9 × 22 + . . . = ∑(2r + 1)(5r + 2)
r =1

EXAMPLE 3 5 + 1 + ___
Write in sigma notation: 1 + __ 11 + ___ 17 + . . .
14 + ___
4 16 32 64

SOLUTION 5 + __
2 + __
First we rewrite as __ 8 + ___ 7 + ___
11 + ___ 17 + . . .
2 4 8 16 16 64

The numerator is of the form 3r + a where a = −1 since

3 + a = 2 ⇒ a = −1 and the denominator is 2r.

(
3r − 1
∴ ur = ______
2r )

5 + 1 + ___
Hence, 1 + __
4
7 + ___
11 + ___
16 16
17 + . . . =
64 ∑( ______
r =1 2 )
3r − 1
r

Try these 8.1 Write the following in sigma notation.

(a) 1 + __31 + __91 + ___


1 + ___
1 + ____
27 81 243
1 +...

1 + _____
(b) _____ 1 + _____
1 + _____
1 +...
2×3 3×4 4×5 5×6
(c) 9 + 13 + 17 + 21 + 25 + . . .

Sum of a series
The following standard results can be used to find the sum of many series.
n

∑ r = ________
r =1
n(n + 1)
2
n

∑r
r =1
2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _______________
6
n


r =1
n2(n + 1)2
r 3 = _________
4

Recall the summation laws:


n
(i) ∑c = n × c where c is a constant.
r=1
15
Example: ∑2 = 2 × 15 = 30
r =1

169
M O DUL E 2
(ii) ∑ cur = c ∑ ur where c is a constant. Note: There is no rule for the
product or quotient.
Example: ∑ 4r = 4 ∑ r
∑(ur vr) ≠ ∑ur ∑vr
(iii) ∑(ur + vr) = ∑ur + ∑vr ∑ur
∑( __vrr ) ≠ _____
u
n n n
Example: ∑ (r2 − r) = ∑ r2 − ∑r ∑vr
r=1 r=1 r=1

25
EXAMPLE 4 Find ∑r
r=1

n
SOLUTION Using ∑ r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2
and substituting n = 25, we get
25

∑ r = __________
r=1
25 (25 + 1) ______
2
=
25(26)
2
= 25 × 13 = 325

30
EXAMPLE 5 Find ∑(r − 2)
r=1

SOLUTION Separating into two series, we have


30 30 30

∑r=1
(r − 2) = ∑ ∑2
r=1
r−
r=1

n
Recall that ∑r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2
30
∴ ∑ r = __________
r=1
30 (30 + 1) ______
2
=
30(31)
2
= 31 × 15 = 465
n
Also recall that ∑c = n × c
r=1
30
∴ ∑ 2 = 30 × 2 = 60
r=1

30 30
∴ ∑ ∑2 = 465 − 60 = 405
r=1
r−
r=1

30
Hence, ∑(r − 2) = 405
r=1

40
EXAMPLE 6 Find ∑r (r + 2)
r=1

SOLUTION First we need to expand r(r + 2) = r 2 + 2r


40 40
∴ ∑r(r + 2) = ∑(r + 2r)
r=1 r=1
2

170
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

Separating, we have
40 40 40


r=1
r(r + 2) = ∑r=1
r2 + 2 ∑r
r=1
n
Using ∑rr=1
2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _______________
6
40
n = 40 ⇒ ∑r
r=1
2 40(41)(81)
= _________ = 22 140
6
n
Also using ∑r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2

40
n = 40 ⇒ ∑r = ______
r=1
40 (41)
2
= 820
40
∴ ∑ r(r + 2) = 22 140 + 2(820) = 22 140 + 1640 = 23 780
r=1

All our summations started at r = 1 and all the standard results start at r = 1.
What if the lower limit changes? Let us see what happens.

25
EXAMPLE 7 Find ∑r
r = 11

SOLUTION Our lower limit is at r = 11.


We can rearrange the summation to start at r = 1 as follows:
25 25 10

∑r = ∑r − ∑r
r = 11 r=1 r=1

i.e. if we sum from r = 1 to r = 25 and subtract the sum from r = 1 to r = 10, then
we are left with the sum from r = 11 to r = 25. We can now apply our standard
results to the RHS.
25 25 10

∑r = ∑r − ∑r
r = 11 r=1 r=1

25 (25 + 1) 10 (10 + 1)
= __________ − __________
2 2
25 (26) 10 (11)
= ______ − ______
2 2
= 25 × 13 − 55 = 325 − 55 = 270

20
EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate ∑r (r − 1)
r=8

SOLUTION We expand r(r − 1) = r 2 − r


20 20
∴ ∑r=8
r (r − 1) = ∑ (r − r)
r=8
2

171
M O DUL E 2
Since our lower limit is 8, we need to rearrange as follows:
20 20 7


r=8
(r 2 − r) = ∑
r=1
(r2 − r) − ∑(r
r=1
2 − r)
20 20 7 7
= ∑
r=1
r2 − ∑ ∑ ∑r
r=1
r−
r=1
r2 +
r=1

20(21)(41) 20(21) 7(8)(15) 7(8)


= _________ − ______ − _______ + ____
6 2 6 2
= 2870 − 210 − 140 + 28 = 2548

Try these 8.2 Find the sum of


15 12 22 25
(a) ∑r=1
r2 (b) ∑r=1
3r (r + 1) (c) ∑
r = 11
r(r + 3) (d) ∑r
r=8
3

Sum of a series in terms of n


n
EXAMPLE 9 Find the sum of ∑(r + 4)
r=1

SOLUTION Separating, we have


n n n


r=1
(r + 4) = ∑ ∑4 = ________
r=1
n(n + 1)
r+
2
+ 4n
r=1

= __ n (n + 9)
n [(n + 1) + 8] = __ (factorising)
2 2

n
E X A M P L E 10 Find the sum of ∑ r (r − 1)
r=1

SOLUTION Expanding the bracket, we have


n n n n

∑r(r − 1) = ∑
r=1 r=1
(r2 − r) = ∑ − ∑r
r=1
r2
r=1
(separating)

Substituting the standard results,


n
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n(n + 1)
= _______________ − ________
6 2
∑r = ______________
r=1
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
2
6
n
Factorising, we have
n ∑r = _______
n(n + 1)
2
∑r(r − 1) = ___________________
n(n + 1) (2n + 1 − 3) r=1

r=1 6
n(n + 1)(2n − 2)
= _______________
6
2n(n + 1)(n − 1)
= _______________
6
n(n + 1)(n − 1)
= ______________
3

172
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

n
E X A M P L E 11 Find and simplify ∑r (r − 1)
r=1
2

n n n n
SOLUTION ∑
r=1
r 2(r − 1) = ∑
r=1
(r 3 − r 2) = ∑ ∑r
r=1
r3 −
r=1
2

n2 (n + 1)2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _________ − _______________
4 6
3n2 (n + 1)2 − 2n(n + 1) (2n + 1)
= ____________________________
12
n (n + 1) [3n(n + 1) − 2(2n + 1)]
= ____________________________
12
n (n + 1) (3n2 + 3n − 4n − 2)
=__________________________
12
n (n + 1) [3n2 − n − 2]
= ___________________
12
n (n + 1)(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= _____________________
12

2n
E X A M P L E 12 Find and simplify ∑(3r + 2)
r=1

2n 2n 2n
SOLUTION ∑(3r + 2) = 3∑r + ∑2
r=1 r=1 r=1
Since the upper
limit is 2n,
3(2n)(2n + 1) remember to
= ____________ + 2 (2n) replace n by 2n
2
in the standard
= 3n(2n + 1) + 4n result.
= n[3(2n + 1) + 4)]
= n[6n + 3 + 4]
= n[6n + 7]

2n
E X A M P L E 13 Show that ∑ r(r −1) = __n3 (7n − 1)
r=n+1
2

2n 2n
SOLUTION ∑
r=n+1
r(r − 1) = ∑ (r − r)
r=n+1
2

The lower limit is (n + 1); we need to rearrange the summation to start at 1.


2n 2n n
∴ ∑
r=n+1
(r 2 − r) = ∑
r=1
(r2 − r) − ∑(r − r)
r=1
2

2n 2n n n
= ∑
r=1
r2 − ∑ ∑
r=1
r−
r=1
r2 + ∑r
r=1
(expanding)

173
M O DUL E 2
Substituting the standard results,
2n

∑ r(r + 1) = __________________
r=n+1
2n(2n +1)(2(2n) + 1) __________
6

2n(2n + 1) _______________
2

6
+
n(n + 1)
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) ________
2
n(2n + 1)(4n + 1) n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n(n + 1)
= ________________ − n(2n + 1) − _______________ + ________
3 6 2

Factorising, we have
2n

∑ r(r + 1) = __n6 [2(2n + 1)(4n + 1) − 6(2n + 1) − (n + 1)(2n + 1) + 3(n + 1)]


r=n+1
n [2(8n2 + 6n + 1) − 12n − 6 − (2n2 + 3n + 1) + 3n + 3]
= __
6
n [(16n2 − 2n2) + (12n − 12n − 3n + 3n) + 2 − 6 − 1 + 3]
= __
6
n
__
= (14n2 − 2)
6
2n
= ___ (7n2 − 1)
6
n (7n2 −1)
= __
3

2n
E X A M P L E 14 Show that ∑ (3r + 4) = __n2 (9n + 11)
r=n+1

SOLUTION We need to rearrange the summation so that the lower limit will start at 1.
2n 2n n

∑ (3r + 4) = ∑(3r + 4) − ∑(3r + 4)


r=n+1 r=1 r=1

2n 2n n n
=3 ∑ ∑
r=1
r+
r=1
4−3 ∑ ∑4
r=1
r−
r=1

3(2n)(2n + 1) 3n(n + 1)
= ____________ + 4(2n) − _________ − 4(n)
2 2
3n(n + 1)
= 3n(2n + 1) + 8n − _________ − 4n
2
n
= __ [6(2n + 1) + 16 − 3(n + 1) − 8]
2
n (12n + 6 + 16 − 3n − 3 − 8)
= __
2
n (9n + 11)
= __
2

Try these 8.3 Find the sum of


n n
(a) ∑(4r − 2)
r=1
(b) ∑r (2r − 1)
r=1

2n 2n
(c) ∑ r (4r − 1)
r=n+1
(d) ∑ r (r
r=n+1
2 + 4)

174
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

EXERCISE 8A
In questions 1–10, write the series in sigma notation.
1 1 + __21 + __41 + __18 + ___
1 +...
16
2 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + 16 + 19 + 22 + . . .

3 3 − 5 + 7 − 9 + 11 − 13 + 15 − 17 + . . .

4 12 + 20 + 28 + 36 + 44 + 52 + 60 + 68 + . . .

5 1 + __
__ 1 + __
1 + ___
1 + ___
1 +...
2 5 8 11 14
6 1 + __
__ 1 + ___
1 + ___
1 +...
2 5 10 17

7 1 + __
__ 1 + __
2 + ___
4 +...
2 3 9 27

8 3 + ___
3 + __ 3 + ___
3 +...
4 16 64

9 96 + ____
24 + ___
6 + ___ 384 + . . .
7 49 343

10 2 − __56 + ___
18 − ____
25 125
54 + . . .

In questions 11–20, identify the indicated term of the series.


n n
11 ∑
r=1
2r, the 10th term 12 ∑r (r + 1), the 8th term
r=1
17 n
13 ∑r , the 12th term
r=1
3 14 ∑r (3r − 1), the 20th term
r=1
50 n
15 ∑6r (r − 1), the 25th term
r=1
16 ∑3 , the (k + 1)th term
r=1
r−1

n n
17 ∑_____
r , the (k − 2)th term
r+2
r=1
18 ∑______
3r + 1 , the (k + 1)th term
r+4
r=1
n n

∑ _______ ∑________
2 (r − 1)
r r
19 3 , the (k + 1)th term 20 , the (k + 1)th term
4r + 5
r=1
2
r=1
r+5

In questions 21–29, find the summation of the series.


36 60
21 ∑r
r=1
22 ∑r
r=1
2

20 22
23 ∑3r
r=1
3 24 ∑(6r + 4)
r=1
10 25
25 ∑7r(r + 1)
r=1
26 ∑6r(r − 2)
r=1
15 10
27 ∑(r + 2r − 3)
r=1
2 28 ∑(2r − 1)
r=1
2

13
29 ∑r (2r
r=1
2 − 1)

175
M O DUL E 2
In questions 30–34, find the sum of the series.
28 40
30 ∑r
r = 10
31 ∑(r − 1)
r=8
15 30
32 ∑r
r=7
2 33 ∑(2r + 5)
r = 12
17
34 ∑r(r + 1)
r=5

In questions 35–45, find and simplify the sum of the series.


n n
35 ∑(r + 6)
r=1
36 ∑(r + 5r)
r=1
2

n n
37 ∑r(2r − 1)
r=1
38 ∑4r(r + 2)
r=1
n n
39 ∑(r + 1)(r − 3)
r=1
40 ∑r(r − 1)(r − 2)
r=1
r=n 2n
41 ∑(r + 2)(r − 4)
r=1
42 ∑ (r − 2)
r=n+1
2n 2n
43 ∑ 3r (r + 1)
r=n+1
44 ∑ (r
r=n+1
3 − r)
2n
45 ∑ 2r(r − 1)
r=n+1
2n
46 Prove that ∑ (4r − 3) = n(15n + 14n + 3n − 3)
r=n+1
3 3 2

n
47 Show that ∑(4r + 1) = __31 n(4n + 6n + 5)
r=1
2 2

n 20
48 Show that
r=1
∑ n (3n − 1). Hence find
(3r − 2) = __
2 r = 10
(3r − 2). ∑
n 40
49 Show that ∑r=1
n(n + 1)(4n − 1)
r(2r − 1) = _______________. Hence find
6 r = 15

r(2r − 1).

Method of differences
The method of differences is used to find the sum of a series whose general term can
be written as the difference of terms. If we can write ur = f (r + 1) − f (r), then the
sum of the series can be found as follows.
n n

∑u = ∑ {f (r + 1) − f (r)}
r=1
r
r=1

= f (2) − f (1) + f (3) − f (2) + f (4) − f (3) + . . . + f ((n − 2) + 1)


− f (n − 2) + f ((n − 1) + 1) − f (n − 1) + f (n + 1) − f (n)

= f (n + 1) − f (1)
176
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

Notice that pairs of terms sum to zero except f(n + 1) and f (1).
n
∴ ∑u = f (n + 1) − f (1)
r=1
r

n
E X A M P L E 15 1
Show that _______ 1 − _____
= __
r(r + 1) r r + 1
1 . Hence find
∑ _______
1 .
r(r + 1)
r=1

SOLUTION Separate into partial fractions


1
_______ A + _____
≡ __ B
r(r + 1) r r+1
⇒ 1 ≡ A(r + 1) + B(r)
[r = 0] ⇒ 1 = A
[r = −1] ⇒ 1 = −B
B = −1
1
∴ _______ 1 − _____
= __ 1
r(r + 1) r r + 1
n n
Hence, ∑
r=1
1
_______
r(r + 1)
= ∑( __1r − _____
r=1 r + 1)
1

Expanding the series and summing, we have:

( 1 + __
= 1 − __
2
1 − __
2 3 ) ( )
1 + __
1 − __
3 4 ) (
1 + … + _____
1 − _____
1
n − 2 n −1 ( )
+ ( _____
n − 1 n) (n n + 1)
1 − __ 1 − _____
1 + __ 1

= 1 − _____1
n+1
n
∴ ∑ 1
_______
r = 1 r(r + 1)
1
= 1 − _____
n+1

E X A M P L E 16 Show that (r + 1)2 − r2 = 2r + 1. Hence find


n 20
(a) ∑(2r + 1)
r=1
(b) ∑(2r + 1)
r=1

SOLUTION (a) (r + 1)2 − r2 = r2 + 2r + 1 − r2 = 2r + 1


n n
So ∑[(r +
r=1
1)2 − r2] = ∑(2r + 1)
r=1
Substitute values for r Using the method of differences
into (r + 1)2 − r2 n
When r = n, we have
(n + 1)2 − n2
∑[(r + 1) − r ] = (2 − 1 ) + (3 − 2 ) + (4
r=1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 − 32 ) + . . . +
[(n − 1)2 − (n − 2)2 ] + [n2 − (n − 1)2 ] + [(n + 1)2 − n2 ]
When r = n − 1, we
have (n − 1 + 1)2 − = (n + 1)2 − 12
(n − 1)2 = n2 − (n − 1)2
= (n + 1)2 − 1
177
M O DUL E 2
n
∴ ∑(2r + 1) = (n + 1) − 1
r=1
2

= n2 + 2n + 1 − 1
= n2 + 2n
n
(b) When n = 20, ∑(2r + 1) = 20 + 2(20)
r=1
2

= 400 + 40 = 440

E X A M P L E 17 1
Separate ____________ into partial fractions. Hence show that
(r − 1)(r + 1)
n

∑____________
2
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n (n + 1)

SOLUTION 1
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(r − 1)(r + 1) r − 1 r + 1
⇒ 1 = A(r + 1) + B(r − 1)
[r = 1] ⇒ 1 = 2A
1=A
__
2
[r = −1] ⇒ 1 = −2B
−__1
2=B
1
∴ ____________ 1
= _______ 1
−_______
(r − 1)(r + 1) 2(r − 1) 2(r + 1)
n n


r=2
1
____________
(r − 1)(r + 1)
= ∑[ _______
r=22(r − 1) 2(r + 1) ]
1 1
− _______ Substitute values for r
1 − _____1 and add:
into ____
n r−1 r+1
1
= __
2 ∑( _____
r=2r − 1 r + 1)
1 − _____
1
r=2: 1
1 − __
3
1 1
[ ] + − __
r=3: __
1 1 + __
= __ 1 − __
1 − _____
1 2 4
2 2 n n+1
r=4: 1 − __
+ __ 1

2 [2 n n + 1]
1 __ 3 − __
1 − _____
1 3 5
= __ //
/
1 − _____
1
[ ]
3n(n + 1) − 2(n + 1) − 2n r = n − 2 : + _____
1 _______________________
= __ n−3 n−1
2 2n(n + 1) 1 − __ 1
r = n − 1 : + _____
n−2 n
2[ ]
= __ 3n + 3n − 2n − 2 − 2n
2
1 _____________________ 1 − _____1
2n(n + 1) r=n: + _____
n−1 n+1

2 [ 2n(n + 1) ]
3n − n − 2
2
1 ___________
= __

[2 (3n2n(n + 1) ]
+ 2)(n − 1)
1 ______________
= __
n
⇒2 ∑ ____________
1
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n(n + 1)
n
Hence, ∑ ____________
2
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n(n + 1)

178
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

E X A M P L E 18 Given that 3r(r + 1) = r(r + 1)(r + 2) − (r − 1)(r)(r + 1), show that


n

∑r (r + 1) = __13 n(n + 1)(n + 2)


r=1

SOLUTION Since 3r(r + 1) = r(r + 1)(r + 2) − (r − 1)(r)(r + 1)


n n


r=1
3r(r + 1) = ∑[r (r + 1)(r + 2) − (r − 1)(r)(r + 1)]
r=1

Expanding the right-hand side, we have


= [(1)(2)(3) − (0)(1)(2)] + [(2)(3)(4) − (1)(2)(3) ] + [(3)(4)(5) − (2)(3)(4) ] + . . .
+[(n − 1)n(n + 1) − (n − 2)(n − 1)n] + [n(n + 1)(n + 2) − (n − 1)n(n + 1)]
= n(n + 1)(n + 2)
n
∴3 ∑r (r + 1) = n(n + 1)(n + 2)
r=1
n

∑r (r + 1) = __31 n(n + 1)(n + 2)


r=1

1
__ 1
__
E X A M P L E 19 Show that 1
______________ = ________
2 − _____________
2 .
n(n + 1)(n + 2) n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)
N ∞
Find
n=1

n(n +
1
______________
1)(n + 2)
and deduce
n=1 n(n∑+
1
______________
1)(n + 2)
.

1
__ 1
__ 1
__
(n + 2) − (n) 1
__
SOLUTION ________
2 − _____________
2 = ______________
2 2
n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2) n(n + 1)(n + 2)
1 n + 1 − __
__ 1n
= ______________
2 2
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
1
= ______________
n(n + 1)(n + 2)

∑[ ]
N N 1
__ 1
__
∴ ∑ 1
______________
n = 1 n(n + 1)(n + 2)
= ________
2
n = 1 n(n + 1)
− _____________
2
(n + 1)(n + 2)
N
1
= __ ∑[ 1
________ 1
− _____________
2 n = 1 n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2) ]
= __ [
1 ____
1 − ____
1 + ____
1 − ____
1 +...
2 1(2) 2(3) 2(3) 3(4)
1
+ ________ 1
− ________ 1
+ ________ 1
− _____________
(N − 1)N N(N + 1) N(N + 1) (N + 1)(N +2) ]
1 __
= __ [
1 − _____________
1
2 2 (N + 1)(N + 2) ]
1 − ______________
= __ 1
4 2(N + 1)(N + 2)
179
M O DUL E 2
As N → ∞, (N + 1)(N + 2) → ∞
1
Therefore ______________ 1 − ______________
→ 0 and __ 1 1
→ __
2(N + 1)(N + 2) 4 2(N + 1)(N + 2) 4

Hence, ∑ ______________
1 1.
= __
n(n + 1)(n + 2) 4
n=1

n ∞
E X A M P L E 20 Find ∑[
r=1
1 − _______
__ 1
r 2 (r + 1)2
. Hence find
] ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ]
1
2 2
.

n
SOLUTION ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ] ( 1
2
1 = __
2 ) (2
1 − __
1 + __
2 3 )
1 − __
( (n −1 1) − __n1 )
1 + . . . + _______
2 2 2 2 2 2

+ __
(
1 − _______
1
n2 (n + 1)2 )
1
= 1 − _______
(n + 1)2
1
As n → ∞, (n + 1)2 → ∞ so _______ →0
(n + 1)2

∴ ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ]
2
1 =1 2

n
Try these 8.4 (a) 1
Express __________ in partial fractions. Hence, find
r 2 + 5r + 6 ∑ __________
1
r + 5r + 6
r=1
2 .

Deduce ∑ __________
1
r + 5r + 6
r=1
.2
n
(b) Given that 2r ≡ r(r + 1) − (r − 1)r, find ∑r.
r=1 ∞
1
(c) Express ______________
(2r + 1)(2r + 3)
in partial fractions. Find ∑______________
1
(2r + 1)(2r + 3)
r=1

Convergence of a series
-FUSn = u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . + un*GMJN Sn = S UIFTFSJFTJTDPOWFSHFOUBOEUIF
n→∞
TFSJFTDPOWFSHFTUPS*GMJN Sn = ∞PSMJN Sn = −∞PSMJN SnEPFTOPUFYJTU
n→∞ n→∞ n→∞
UIFOUIFTFSJFTJTEJWFSHFOU

n
E X A M P L E 21 Given that ∑r = ________
r=1
n(n + 1)
2
, is the series convergent?

n(n + 1)
SOLUTION Let Sn = ________
2
n(n + 1)
MJN Sn =MJN ________
n→∞ n→∞ 2 =∞
4JODFMJN Sn = ∞ UIFTFSJFTEJWFSHFT
n→∞

180
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

n
E X A M P L E 22 Given that ∑( ______
r=2r − 1) 4 2 (n n + 1)
1 3 − __
= __
2
1 __
1 + _____
1 , is this series convergent?

SOLUTION 3 − __
Let Sn = __ 1 __
4 2 n n+1
1
1 + _____
( )
MJN S = MJN __
n →∞ n n→∞ 4
3 − __
1 __
[
1 + _____
2 n n+1
1
( )]
= MJN _ 3−_ 1 MJN __1−_ 1 MJN _____
1
n→∞ 4 2 n→∞ n 2 n→∞ n + 1
=_ 3
4 n→∞ n(
since MJN __ ( )
1 = 0 and MJN _____1
n→∞ n + 1
=0 ( ) )
Since MJN Sn = __ 3.
3, the series converges to the value __
n→∞ 4 4

Tests for convergence of a series


There are many tests we can use to decide whether a series converges or diverges. In this
section we will discuss the divergence test, the integral test and D’Alembert’s ratio test.

Theorem
n
If ∑u converges then lim
n=1
n n→∞
un = 0.

Note: The converse is not true, i.e. if lim un = 0 the series does not necessarily
n→∞
converge.

Integral test
Suppose that f(x) is a positive decreasing function for x ⩾ k and that f(n) = un.
∞ n ∞
If ∫k f(x)dx is convergent then ∑un is also convergent and if ∫k f(x)dx is divergent
∞ n=k

then ∑u is also divergent.


n=1
n

Note that this test does not give the value that the series converges to if it converges;
it simply tells us whether the series converges or diverges.


E X A M P L E 23 Show that ∑( __n1 ) diverges.
n=1

∞ ∞
SOLUTION 1,
Let f(x) = __
x ∫1 f(x)dx = ∫1 __x1 dx = ∞
1 + (1) __
1 + (1) __
1 + . . . + (1) __
1
Area of the rectangles = (1)(1) + (1) __
2 2 3 () () ()
n +
... ( )
= 1 + __ 1 + __
1 + __ 1 + __
1+...
2 3 4 5

= 1
__
n ∑( )
n=1

181
M O DUL E 2
Since the rectangles overestimate the area under the curve,
y
∞ ∞
∑( ) ∫ x
n=1
1
n >
__
1
1 dx = ∞
__
y = 1x

∞ ∞
⇒ ∑
n=1
( __n1 ) > ∞ ⇒ ∑
n=1
( __n1 ) = ∞

Hence the series ∑ ( __n1 ) diverges.
n=1
This series is known as the x
harmonic series. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11


E X A M P L E 24 Determine if ∑ ne
n=0
−n2 converges.

Let f(x) = xe−x


2
SOLUTION
∞ ∞
∫0 f(x)dx = ∫0 xe−x dx 2

= [ − __ ]0
1 e−x ∞ 2

2
1
= __
2
∞ ∞
Since ∫0 f(x)dx converges, ∑ ne
n=0
−n2 will also converge.

Divergence test Note


If lim un ≠ 0 then
n→∞ ∑u will diverge.
n
The converse is
not true.

n
E X A M P L E 25 Is ∑( _____
n=1
n
n + 1)
convergent?

n 1
SOLUTION lim _____
n→∞ (
n+1
= lim 1 − _____
n→∞ )n+1 ( )
=1
n
_____ ≠ 0, the series diverges.
Since lim
n→∞ n + 1 ( )
D'Alembert’s ratio test

D’Alembert’s ratio test states that for a series of positive terms of the form ∑u n=0
n
u
(i) if nlim
→∞ | |
n+1
un < 1, then the series converges;
_____

u
(ii) if lim | _____
n→∞ u | > 1, then the series diverges;
n+1
n
u
(iii) if lim | _____
n→∞ u | = 1, then we need to test further.
n+1
n

182
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8

∑ ____
2 n−1
E X A M P L E 26 Determine whether the series converges.
n
n=13

SOLUTION 2n−1 ,
Let un = ____ 2n
un+1 = ____
3 n
3n+1
Now
2n
____
u 3n+1 = ____ 3n
2n × ____ 2n−(n−1) = __
2
un = ____ = _______
____
n+1 _____
n−1 n+1 n−1 3
2 3 2 3n+1−n
3n
un+1
|
∴ lim ____
n → ∞ un |
> 1 ⇒ the series converges.

EXERCISE 8B
n
1 Find ∑________
1
(4r − 1)
r=1
. 2

2 Let f(r) = __ 1 − 2r .
1 . Show that f (r) − f (r − 1) = ________
r2n r2(r − 1)2
Hence find ∑
1 − 2r .
_________
r = 1 r (r − 1)
2 2

3 Given that f (r + 1) = (r + 2)2, show that f(r + 1) − f(r) = 2r + 3.


n n
Using this result find ∑
r=1
∑ r.
2r + 3. Deduce
r=1
n
3r + 3r + 1 find
∑ 3r + 3r + 1 .
1 − _______
1 2 2
4 Given that __ ≡ ___________ ___________
r (r + 1)
3 r (r + 1)3 r (r + 1)
3 3
r=1
3 3

Show that the series converges and find the sum to infinity.
5 Show that (r + 4)(r + 5)(r + 6) − (r + 3)(r + 4)(r + 5) = 3(r + 4)(r + 5).
n
Hence find ∑(r + 4)(r + 5). Decide whether this series converges or diverges.
r=1
n
6 1
Express ___________ in partial fractions. Hence find ∑ ___________
1 .
4r + 8r + 3
2 4r + 8r + 3 r=1
2

Show that Sn converges and find the sum to infinity.


n
7 1
Express ____________
(r − 1)(r − 2)
in partial fractions. Hence find ∑____________
1
(r − 1)(r − 2)
r=3
.
n
8 Find ∑ ______________
3
(3r − 1)(3r + 2)
r=1
.

9 −4
Given that ______________ A + ______
≡ ______ B find A and B.
(4r + 1)(4r − 3) 4r + 1 4r − 3
n
Hence find ∑______________
−4
(4r + 1)(4r − 3)
r=1
. Deduce the sum to infinity of the series.
n
10 Prove that ∑____________
2 n .
= _____
(r + 1)(r + 2) n + 2
r=1
N
11 Find ∑ [e
n=1
nx − e(n−1)x].

183
M O DUL E 2
SUMMARY
Series

Sum of series Method of differences Convergent series


n
∑c = nc
r =1
n n
Let ∑vr = ∑{f(r + 1) – f (r)} lim S =l
n→∞ n
r =1 r =1
∑cur = c ∑ur
Divergent series: lim Sn = ∞, lim Sn = –∞ or
Expand the series n→∞ n→∞
∑(ur + vr ) = ∑ur + ∑vr lim S
n→∞ n
cannot be determined

Cancel terms
n n(n + 1)
∑r = 2 D’Alembert’s ratio test
r =1
Find the required sum

n
∑r2 =
n(n + 1) (2n + 1) ∑un converges
r =1 6 n=0

when lim
n→∞ |uu |<1
n +1
n
n n2(n + 1)2
∑r3 = 4
r =1
If lim
n→∞ | u u | > 1, the series diverges
n +1
n

2n 2n n
∑ur = ∑ur – ∑ur
r = n+1 r=1 r=1
If lim
n→∞ | u u | = 1, test further.
n +1
n

Integral test
Let f(x) be a positive decreasing function, x ≥ k,

and f(n) = un. If ∫k f(x) dx is convergent
∞ ∞
then ∑ n u is also convergent and if ∫k f(x) dx is
n=k ∞
divergent then ∑ un is also divergent.
n=k

Divergence test
If lim un ≠ 0 then ∑un
n→∞
will diverge. The converse is not true.

Checklist

Can you do these?


■ Identify the nth partial sum of a series.
■ Write a series in sigma notation.
■ Identify a convergent series.
n n n
■ Find the sum of a series using the standard results for ∑1 r, ∑1 r 2, ∑1 r 3.
■ Use the summation laws.
■ Use the method of differences to find the sum of a series.
■ Identify whether a series converges or diverges.
184
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 9

CHAPTER 9
Principle of Mathematical Induction
(PMI): Sequences and Series

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:


■ prove statements true for sequences using mathematical induction.
■ prove statements true for a series using mathematical induction

KEYWORDS/TERMS
TFRVFODFTtTFSJFTtNBUIFNBUJDBM
JOEVDUJPO

185
M O DUL E 2
The principle of mathematical induction (PMI) was introduced in Unit 1.
The four steps for PMI are

Step 1
Prove the statement is true for n = 1.

Step 2
Assume the statement is true for n = k.

Step 3
Prove the statement is true for n = k + 1.

Step 4
Deduce that, using PMI, the statement is true for all integers.

PMI and sequences

EXAMPLE 1 A sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . of integers is defined by u1 = 1 and un+1 = 2un + 3.
Prove by induction that, for all n ≥ 1, un= 2n+1 − 3.

SOLUTION RTP: un = 2n+1 − 3


The problem gives u1= 1 and un+1 = 2un + 3. We will use this information in our
Note proof.
RTP stands for When n = 1, u1 = 21+1 − 3
‘it is Required To
Prove that’. = 22 − 3

=4−3

=1

∴ When n = 1, un = 2n+1 − 3 is true.

Assume true for n = k, i.e. uk = 2k+1 − 3

RTP: true for n = k + 1, i.e. uk+1 = 2(k+1)+1 − 3


Proof: Since un+1 = 2un + 3,
when n = k, uk+1 = 2uk + 3
By our assumption uk = 2k+1 − 3

Substituting into uk+1, we have

uk+1 = 2[2k+1 − 3] + 3
= 2 × 2k+1 − 3 × 2 + 3
186
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 9

= 2(k+1)+1 − 6 + 3
= 2(k+1)+1 − 3

Hence, when true for n = k, the statement is also true for n = k + 1.


Hence, by PMI, un = 2n+1 − 3 is true for all integers.

un
EXAMPLE 2 A sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . is defined by u1 = 1 and un+1= ______.
un+ 2
1 .
Show by induction that, for all n ≥ 1, un = ______
2n − 1

SOLUTION 1 for all n ≥ 1.


RTP: un = ______
2n − 1
un
We have u1 = 1 and un+1 = ______
un + 2
1 =1
When n = 1, u1 = ______