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confirm syllabus coverage
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• A wide variety of exercises develops students’ knowledge, application and ability
in all areas of the syllabus
• Worked solutions throughout the text provide students with easytofollow
examples of new concepts
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students to review their understanding and go back over areas of weakness Mathematics Solutions
• Examinationstyle questions at the end of each module give students plenty of for Advanced Proficiency
practice in the types of questions they’ll meet in the examinations 19982008
DIPCHAND BAHALL
About the author
Dipchand Bahall has over 20 years’ experience teaching Advanced Level CAPE Mathematics Solutions contains fullyworked solutions to all of the papers set for the CAPE
Mathematics examinations from its inception in 1998:
• Unit 1: Papers 1 and 2 19982008
• Unit 2: Papers 1 and 2 19992008
This book is designed to facilitate teachers, students and anyone interested in pursuing a course
in Pure Mathematics. Past paper questions can be attempted and answers checked against those
in this book. Each solution is fully worked so that students can see how each answer has been
obtained. It is an ideal resource for consolidation, practice, revision and developing problem
solving skills.
Tobago, and at Cayman Prep and High School. He holds a Masters Degree
Melissa B. Gajadhar received the Diploma in Education and the B.A. degree in Mathematics at the
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. She is presently teaching at Pleasantville
Senior Comprehensive School, San Fernando. She has participated in the CAPE Marking Exercise
for the past six years, the last two years as an Examiner in Pure Mathematics and on the previous
occasions as an Assistant Examiner in Pure Mathematics.
Rashad R. Modikhan received the Diploma in Education and the B.Sc. degree in Mathematics at
the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. He has taught at Saint Mary’s College,
Trinidad, WI and is presently at Presentation College, Chaguanas, Trinidad. He has participated
in the CAPE Marking Exercise as an Assistant Examiner in Pure Mathematics for the past three
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INTRODUCTION ix
MODULE 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND CALCULUS II
CHAPTER 1 COMPLEX NUMBERS 2
Complex numbers as an extension to the real numbers 3
Powers of i 4
Algebra of complex numbers 5
Addition of complex numbers 5
Subtraction of complex numbers 5
Multiplication of a complex number by a real number 5
Multiplication of complex numbers 5
Equality of complex numbers 6
Conjugate of a complex number 7
Division of complex numbers 8
Square root of a complex number 9
Roots of a polynomial 11
Quadratic equations 11
Other polynomials 13
The Argand diagram 15
Addition and subtraction on the Argand diagram 15
Multiplication by i 16
Modulus (length) of a complex number 16
Argument of a complex number 17
Trigonometric or polar form of a complex number 19
Exponential form of a complex number 21
De Moivre’s theorem 22
Locus of a complex number 27
Circles 27
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment 28
Halfline 29
Straight line 30
Inequalities 31
Intersecting loci 33
Cartesian form of loci 35
CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIATION 41
Standard differentials 42
Differentiation of ln x 42
x 43
Differentiation of e
iii
Chain rule (function of a function rule) 43
Differentiating exponential functions of the form y = ax 46
Differentiating logarithms of the form y = loga x 47
Differentiation of combinations of functions 50
Differentiation of combinations involving
trigonometric functions 51
Tangents and normals 54
Gradients of tangents and normals 54
Equations of tangents and normals 56
Implicit differentiation 58
Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions 62
Differentiation of y = sin−1x 62
Differentiation of y = tan−1x 63
Second derivatives 65
Parametric differentiation 67
First derivative of parametric equations 67
Second derivative of parametric equations 70
Partial derivatives 72
First order partial derivatives 72
Second order partial derivatives 73
Applications of partial derivatives 74
CHAPTER 3 PARTIAL FRACTIONS 84
Rational fractions 85
Proper fractions: Unrepeated linear factors 85
Proper fractions: Repeated linear factors 88
Proper fractions: Unrepeated quadratic factors 91
Proper fractions: Repeated quadratic factors 93
Improper fractions 94
CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION 99
Integration by recognition 100
When the numerator is the differential of the denominator 104
∫
The form f ′(x)[ f(x)]n dx, n ≠ −1 105
∫________
1
_______
√a − x
2 2
x
dx = sin−1 ( __
a) + c
∫ 1
1 dx = __
and ______
a2 + x2
x
−1 __
a tan ( a ) + c 126
viii
Introduction
ix
1
Complex Numbers and
Calculus II
1
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 1
Complex Numbers
KEYWORDS/TERMS
OBUVSBMOVNCFSTtJOUFHFSTtSBUJPOBMOVNCFSTt
SFBMOVNCFSTtJNBHJOBSZOVNCFSTtDPNQMFY
OVNCFStDPOKVHBUFtDPNQMFYSPPUTt"SHBOE
EJBHSBNt$BSUFTJBOGPSNtNPEVMVTtBSHVNFOUt
QPMBSGPSNtFYQPOFOUJBMGPSNtMPDVT
2
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
Complex numbers are widely used in fields such as applied mathematics, quantum
physics and engineering.
EXAMPLE 1 Identify the real and imaginary parts of the complex numbers.
(a) 2 + 3i (b) 4 − 2i (c) 4x + 5yi (d) 3x2 + (6x + y)i
(e) cos θ + i (2 sin θ) (f) (4 cos θ)i − (3 sin θ) i + 2 cos2 θ
(b) z = 4 − 2i
Re(z) = 4 Im(z) = −2
3
M O DUL E 1
(c) z = 4x + 5yi
Remember
Re(z) = 4x Im(z) = 5y
Re (x + iy) = x,
Im (x + iy) = y (d) z = 3x2 + (6x + y)i
Re(z) = 3x2 Im(z) = 6x + y
(e) z = cos θ + i(2 sin θ)
Re(z) = cos θ Im(z) = 2 sin θ
(f) z = (4 cos θ)i − (3 sin θ)i + 2 cos2 θ
Rearranging
z = 2 cos2 θ + i(4 cos θ − 3 sin θ)
Powers of i
___
Since i = √−1 we get i 2 = −1
So i 2 × i = −1 × i ⇒ i3 = −i
i × i3 = i × −i ⇒ i4 = −i2 but i2 = −1
EXAMPLE 2 Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following complex numbers.
(a) 2 + 3i2 − 4i (b) 5i + 3i3 − 4i2 + 2
(c) 7i4 + i2 − 8i3 + 8 (d) xi + yi2 + yxi2 + y3i
4
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
Try these 1.1 (a) Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following.
(i) 5 + 4i (ii) 4 + 7i (iii) 5x + i (3xy)
(iv) 7x2 + y + i (3x − 2y) (v) 7i2 − 4i
(b) Identify the real and imaginary parts of the following.
(i) 4xi + 3yi − 2x (ii) (cos θ)i + sin θ
(iii) 4 sin θ − (3 cos θ)i (iv) 8 cos2 θ + 7 cos θ + i sin3 θ − i sin4 θ
(v) 8 cos2 θ i2 + 7 sin3 θ i3 + 4i4 cos 2θ + 7 sin θ
For example
2 + 3i + 4 + 5i = 2 + 4 + 3i + 5i
= 6 + 8i
5
M O DUL E 1
EXAMPLE 3 Given that z1 = 3 + 2i and z2 = 2 + 4i, find z1 z2.
EXAMPLE 4 Given that z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 2x − yi, find the value of x and the value of y for
which z1 = z2.
SOLUTION Since z1 = z2
2 + 3i = 2x − yi
Equating real and imaginary parts
2x = 2 ⇒ x = 1
−y = 3 ⇒ y = −3
Hence x = 1, y = −3
A complex number minus its conjugate is twice the imaginary part multiplied by i.
z1
EXAMPLE 7 Given that z1 = 2 + 4i and z2 = 1 − i, find __
z. 2
z1 ______
SOLUTION __ = 2 + 4i
z2 1−i
Multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator,
(1 + i), we have
8
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
z1 ______ 1+i
2 + 4i × _____
z =
__
Remember 2 1−i 1+i
2 + 2i + 4i + 4i2 (i2 = −1)
= ______________
The conjugate of 1+1
x + iy is x − iy. 2 − 4 −2 + 6i
+ 6i = _______
= _________
2 2
= −1 + 3i
SOLUTION 1 + 2i
(a) z = ______
2−i
To write z in the form x + iy multiply the numerator and denominator by the
conjugate of the denominator (2 + i):
1 + 2i × _____
z = ______ 2+i
2−i 2+i
= ______________ 2 − 2 + 5i = __
2 + i + 4i + 2i2 = _________ 5i = i
5 5 5
z = i = −1 = −1 + 0i
2 2
So Re (z2) = −1 Im (z2) = 0
(b) z − __1z = i − __1i
i2 − 1 = ___
= _____ −2
i i
−2i = ____
−2 × _i = ____
= ___ −2i
i i i2 −1
= 2i
(
So Re z − __ ) (
1 = 0 Im z − __
z )
1 =2
z
9
M O DUL E 1
________
EXAMPLE 9 Express √(5 + 12i) in the form x + iy.
________
SOLUTION Let √(5 + 12i) = x + iy
5 + 12i = (x + iy)2
5 + 12i = x2 + i(2xy) + i2y2
5 + 12i = x2 − y2 + i(2xy)
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
x2 − y2 = 5 [1]
2xy = 12 [2]
From [2] y = ___ 6
12 = __
2x x
Substitute into [1]
( )
x2 − __6 2=5
x
36 = 5
x − ___
2
x2
× x ⇒ x2 × x2 − ___
2 36 × x2 = 5 × x2
x2
x4 − 5x2 − 36 = 0
Let a = x2
a2 − 5a − 36 = 0
So (a − 9) (a + 4) = 0
a = 9 or a = −4
So x2 = 9 or x2 = −4
Since x ∊ℝ, x2 = 9
__
x = ±√9
x = 3 or −3
Note 6=2
When x = 3, y = __
________ 3
Recall √(5 + 12i) When x = −3, y = −__6 = −2
≡ x + iy ________ 3
So √(5 + 12i) = 3 + 2i or −3 − 2i
_______
Try this 1.2 Express √(3 − 4i) in the form x + iy.
EXERCISE 1A
1 Let z1 = 2 + 4i and z2 = 3 + 5i. Express the following in the form x + iy.
z1
(a) z1 + z2 (b) z1 − z2 (c) z1 z2 (d) __
z2
In questions 2–5, evaluate the expressions in a + bi form, given that
z1 = 3 + i, z2 = 4 − 3i, z3 = −1 + 2i and z4 = −2 − 5i.
2 (a) z1 − z2 (b) z2 + z3 − z4 (c) z1* z2
z*
3 (a) z1 + z2 (b) z3 z4 (c) __3
z*4
10
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
z*1 + z*2
4 (a) z1 z2 z3 (b) z2 z3 + z1 z4 (c) ______
z*3 z*4
z1 z1 + z2 z1 z2 z1 + z2
5 (a) __ (b) ______ (c) ______ (d) ______
z2 z3 z4 z1 + z2 z3 + z4
6 Evaluate
(a) i12 (b) i15 (c) i21 4
(d) __ 5
(e) ___
i8 i20
7 1 + 3i evaluate in the form a + ib
If z = ______
1 − 2i
(a) z2 1
(b) z − __
z
8 Find a complex number z such that z2 = −5 + 12i.
9 The complex numbers u, v and w are related by the equation
1 __1 __1
u=v+w
__
Remember
Roots of a polynomial
A polynomial is an The remainder theorem and the factor theorem hold for complex numbers as well as
expression of the real numbers. If a polynomial equation has complex roots, then
form anxn + an − 1 _
xn – 1 + … + a0 (i) if all coefficients are real, the roots occur in conjugate pairs α, α
where a0, a1, …
an − 1, an are con (ii) a quadratic factor of the polynomial is z2 − 2 Re(α)z + α2
stants and n ∊ 𝕎.
where α is one root of the equation.
The roots of an
equation y = f(x) _ _
If α and α are roots, then the factorised polynomial (z − α) (z − α)
are the values of x _ _
= z2 − αz − α z + α α
for which f(x) = 0. _
= z2 − z(α + α) + α α
_
= z2 − 2 Re (α) z +α2
Quadratic equations
SOLUTION z2 + z + 1 = 0
Using the quadratic formula, we have
____________ ___
−1 ± √(1)2 − 4(1)(1) __________
z = __________________ = −1 ± √−3
2(1)
__ ___ __
2
−1 ± √3 √−1 = _________
= _____________ −1 ± √3 i
2 __ 2 __
1 √ 3
Hence z = − + ___i or z = −__
__ √3 i
1 − ___
2 2 2 2
11
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 11 Solve the equation z2 − 2z + 2 = 0.
Note that in the above examples the coefficients of the quadratic equations are real
and the roots are conjugates of each other.
SOLUTION Using the quadratic formula with a = 1, b = −(3 + 5i), c = 2 + 5i, we have
_______________________
(3 + 5i) ± √(−(3 + 5i))2 − 4(1)(2 + 5i)
(−(3 + 5i))2 z = _________________________________
2(1)
= 9 + 30i +25i2 _________
= 9 − 25 +30i 3 + 5i ± √−24 + 10i
= __________________
2_________
= −16 + 30i
We next write √−24 + 10i in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ ℝ.
−16 + 30i _________
− 8 − 20i √−24 + 10i = x + iy
= −24 + 10i Squaring both sides
−24 + 10i = (x + iy)2
−24 + 10i = x2 + i2y2 + 2ixy
−24 + 10i = x2 − y2 + 2xyi (i2 = −1)
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
x2 − y2 = −24 [1]
2xy = 10 [2]
5
y = __
x
12
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
Other polynomials
13
M O DUL E 1
A quadratic factor is
(z − (1 + 2i))(z − (1 − 2i)) = z2 − (1 + 2i)z − (1 − 2i)z + (1 + 2i)(1 − 2i)
= z2 − z − 2iz − z + 2iz + 1 − 2i + 2i − 4i2
= z2 − 2z + 5 since i2 = −1
Now z3 − z2 + 3z + 5 = (z2 − 2z + 5)(az + b)
Equating coefficients of z3 gives a = 1
Equating the constants: 5 = 5b, b = 1
∴ z3 − z2 + 3z + 5 = (z2 − 2z + 5)(z + 1) = 0
Therefore, when z + 1 = 0, z = −1
The roots of the equation are 1 + 2i, 1 − 2i, −1.
EXERCISE 1B
In questions 1–5, solve the quadratic equations.
1 z2 + 16 = 0 2 z2 − 8z + 17 = 0
3 z2 − 4z + 5 = 0 4 z2 − 6z + 13 = 0
5 z2 − 10z + 31 = 0
In questions 6–9, write each expression as a product of linear factors.
6 z2 + 1 7 z2 − 2z + 2
8 z2 − 6z + 25 9 z4 − z2 − 2z + 2
__
10 Express √2i in the form a + bi where a, b ∊ ℝ. Hence solve the equation
z2 − (3 + 5i)z − 4 + 7i = 0.
11 Given that u2 = −60 + 32i, express u in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ ℝ.
Hence solve z2 − (3 − 2i)z + 5 − 5i = 0.
12 Show that 4 + 2i is a root of the equation 3z3 − 23z2 + 52z + 20 = 0.
Hence solve the equation.
13 Show that 1 + i is a root of the equation 4z3 − 7z2 + 6z + 2 = 0, and find the
other values of z satisfying the equation.
14 Given that 3 − 2i is a root of the equation z3 − 8z2 + 25z − 26 = 0, write down
a quadratic factor of f (z) = z3 − 8z2 + 25z − 26. Hence solve the equation
f (z) = 0.
15 Solve the equation z3 − 5z2 + 8z − 6 = 0.
14
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
z2
parallelogram as shown. The leading diagonal
is z1 + z2 and the other diagonal is z2 − z1. z2 z2
–
z1
z1
Re (z)
15
M O DUL E 1
In this diagram the sum of 2 + 3i and 4 + i is Im (z)
the vector 6 + 4i. 4
3
2 + 3i 6 + 4i 2 + 3i
2
1
4+i Re (z)
1 2 3 4 5 6
Multiplication by i Im (z)
P
3
Let P = z. The complex number iz can be found
by rotating OP anticlockwise through 90 ° 2
about the origin. 2 + 3i
–3 + 2i 1
z = 2 + 3i Re (z)
–3 –2 –1 O 1 2 3
iz = 2i + 3i2
= −3 + 2i
Note
Modulus (length) of a complex number Im (z)
The modulus of a P
complex number Consider a complex number, z = x + yi, in the
is the distance Cartesian form. r
from the origin ______ y
to the end point,
Let r = √ +x2 y2 ;r is called the modulus of z and
Re (z)
that is, the length is denoted by  z . O x
______
of the line OP. So r =  z  =  x + yi  = √x2 + y2
_______ __
SOLUTION (a)  2 + i  = √22 + 12 = √5
__________ __
(b)  2 − i  = √22 + (−1)2 = √5
_______ ___
(c)  3 + 4i  = √32 + 42 = √25 = 5
____________ __
(d) ∣ cos θ + i sin θ ∣ = √cos2 θ + sin2 θ = √1 = 1 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1)
Notes
16
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
Notes
(i) The argument is measured in radians.
(ii) The argument is measured from the positive real axis.
(iii) The principal argument of z is such that −π < θ ≤ π.
(iv) If the complex number is in the
y
( )
1st or 4th quadrant: θ = tan−1 __x
2nd quadrant: θ = π + tan−1 __x
y
( )
3rd quadrant: θ = −π + tan−1 __x
y
( )
E X A M P L E 17 Find the modulus and argument of each of the following complex numbers.
(a) 1 + i (b) 1 − i (c) −1 + i (d) −1 − i
_______ __
SOLUTION (a)  1 + i  = √12 + 12 = √2 Im (z)
1
θ Re (z)
1
( )
arg (1 + i) = tan−1 __
1
___________
π (1 + i is in the first quadrant)
1 = __
4
(b)  1 − i  = √(1)2 + (−1)2 Im (z)
__ 2
= √2
1
Re (z)
–2 –1 θ 1 2
–1 (1, –1)
–2
π (1 − i is in the fourth quadrant)
arg (1 − i) = tan−1 (−1) = − __
4
17
M O DUL E 1
__________ __
(c)  −1 + i  = √(−1)2 + 12 = √2 2
Im (z)
1
(–1, 1)
θ Re (z)
–2 –1 1 2
–1
–2
π = ___
arg (−1 + i) = π + tan−1(−1) = π + ( −__ 3π
4) 4
_____________ __
(d)  −1 − i  = √(−1)2 + (−1)2 = √2 Im (z)
2
Re (z)
–2 –1 θ 1 2
(–1, –1) –1
–2
3π
arg (−1 − i) = −π + tan−1 ___
−1 ( ) ( π4 ) = −___
−1 = −π + __
4
_____________
SOLUTION  −2 − i  = √(−2)2 + (−1)2
_____ __ Im (z)
2
= √4 + 1 = √5
–1
(–2, –1)
–2
arg (−2 − i) = −π + 0.464 = −2.678 radians
Try these 1.3 Find the modulus and argument of the following.
__ __ __
(a) (i) 5 + i (ii) √3 − i (iii) −√3 − i (iv) −√3 + i
(b) (i) 3 + 4i (ii) 2 − 4i (iii) −2 + 5i (iv) −4 − 7i
18
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
E X A M P L E 19 Determine the modulus and argument of the complex number z = 3 + i and express
z in polar form.
Im (z) z=3+i
(
θ = tan _____
Re (z)) _______
r =  z  = √32 + 12 = √10
___
where Im (z) = 1
and Re (z) = 3
( )
θ = arg (3 + i) = tan−1 __1 = 0.322
3
Using z = r (cos θ + i sin θ) gives the polar form of z as
___
z = √10 (cos 0.322 + i sin 0.322)
SOLUTION z = −2 + i
__________ __
r =  z  = √(−2)2 + 12 = √5
θ=π+
Im (z)
1
θ = arg (z) = π + tan−1 ___
–2 ( ) (−2 + i lies in the 2nd quadrant)
(
tan−1 _____
Re (z) ) = π − 0.464
Im (−2 + i) = 1
Re (−2 + i) = −2 = 2.678 radians
__
So z = √5 (cos 2.678 + i sin 2.678)
E X A M P L E 21 Write the following in the form r (cos θ + i sin θ), −π < θ ≤ π, giving θ either as a
multiple of π or in radians to 3 significant figures.
__
(a) 1 + i √3 (b) 1 − i
__
(c) −1 − i (d) −3√3 − 3i
__ _________
__ _____ __
SOLUTION (a) r =  1 + i √3  = √12 + (√3 )2 = √1 + 3 = √4 = 2
__
(1)
__ __
θ = arg (1 + i√3 ) = tan−1 ___ π
√3 = __ (1 + i√3 lies in the 1st quadrant)
3
__
π + i sin __
1 + i √3 = 2 ( cos __ π
3)
So
3
19
M O DUL E 1
__________ __
(b) r =  1 − i  = √12 + (−1)2 = √2
π
θ = arg (1 − i) = tan−1 −__11 = − __
4 ( ) (1 − i lies in the 4th quadrant)
π + i sin −__
( π4 )
__
So 1 − i = √2 cos ( −__
4) [ ]
_____________ _____ __
(c) r =  −1 − i  = √(−1)2 + (−1)2 = √1 + 1 = √2
θ = arg (−1 − i) = −π + tan−1 ___
−1
π
−1 = −π + __
4 ( ) (3rd quadrant)
3π
= − ___
4
3π
[ (
3π
) ( )]
__
So −1 − i = √2 cos −___ ___
4 + i sin − 4
__ _______________
__ ______ ___
(d) r =  −3√3 −3i  = √(−3 √3 )2 + (−3)2 = √27 + 9 = √36 = 6
__
−3__ − π = __
θ = arg (−3√3 − 3i) = tan−1 ______ π−π
−3√3 6 ( ) (3rd quadrant)
5π
= −___
6
5π
[ (
5π
) ( )]
__
So −3√3 − 3i = 6 cos − ___ ___
6 + i sin − 6
_________________
SOLUTION r =  z  = √(1 + cos θ)2 + sin2 θ
________________________
= √1 + 2 cos θ + cos2 θ + sin2 θ
__________
= √2 + 2 cos θ (cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1)
___________
= √2 (1 + cos θ)
____________
√ (
θ
= 2 × 2 cos2 __
2 ) ( 2 cos 2 θ = 1 + cos θ
__
2 )
= 2 cos θ
__
2
(
sin θ
arg (z) = tan−1 ________
1 + cos θ )
( 2 sin ( ) cos ( )
)
θ
__ θ
__
= tan−1 _____________
2 2
( sin θ = 2 sin __θ2 cos __θ2 )
2 cos2 (2) θ
__
(
θ = __
= tan−1 tan __
2
θ
2 )
So θ cos __
z = 2 cos __
2 2 [ ()
θ + i sin __
θ
2 ( )]
20
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
πi
__ __ 1
π
4( )
θ = arg (1 + i) = tan−1 __1 = __
So 1 + i = √2 e 4 (using reiθ)
__
E X A M P L E 24 Find the modulus and argument of z = √3 + i.
Write z in polar form and in exponential form.
_________
__ __
SOLUTION r = √(√3 )2 + 12 = √4 = 2
__
√3 ( )π
1__ = __
θ = arg (z) = tan−1 ___
6 Polar form:
r(cos θ + i sin θ)
π
So √3 + i = 2 ( cos + i sin __π
6)
__
6 Exponential form: reiθ
_ πi
__
√3 + i = 2e 6
__
SOLUTION (a) (−2 + 3i)(1 + √3 i)
__ __
= −2 − 2√3 i + 3i + 3√3 i2
__ __
= −2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 )
__ __ _______________________
__ __ ___
r = −2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 ) = √(−2 − 3√3 )2 + (3 − 2√3 )2 = √52
__
( )
__ __
3 − 2√3__ − π = −3.077
θ = arg (−2 − 3√3 + i (3 − 2√3 )) = tan−1 _________
−2 − 3√3
__ ___
(−2 + 3i) (1 + √3 i) = √52 [ cos (−3.077 + i sin (−3.077) ] (polar form)
___
= √52 e−3.077i (exponential form)
√( −2 +4 3√3 ) + ( _______ )
−2 + 3√3 2√3 + 3 2 2
4 + i _______ = 1.803 (3 d.p.)
4 4
( )
__
__ __ 2√3 + 3
_______
(
−2 + 3√3 + i _______
arg _________
4
2√3 + 3 = tan−1 _________
4 −2 + 3√3
_________
)
4 __ = 1.112 radians (3 d.p.)
4
−2 + 3i
_______
__ = 1.803 (cos 1.112 + i sin 1.112) (polar form)
1 + i√3
De Moivre’s theorem
Let z = r (cos θ + i sin θ)
z2 = [r (cos θ + i sin θ)]2 = r2 (cos θ + i sin θ)2
= r2 (cos2 θ − sin2 θ + i 2 sin θ cos θ)
= r2 (cos 2θ + i sin 2θ) (since cos 2θ = cos2 θ − sin2 θ and sin 2 θ = 2 sin θ cos θ)
22
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
{
{
SFBMQBSU SFBMQBSU
Equating real and imaginary parts
Pa s c a l ’s t r i a n g l e
SOLUTION By de Moivre’s theorem
1
cos 5θ + i sin 5θ = (cos θ + i sin θ)5 1 1
Using Pascal’s triangle, expand (cos θ + i sin θ)5: 1 2 1
1 1 3 3
1 4 6 4 1
1 5 10 10 5 1
___
cos 5θ + i sin 5θ
i = √−1
= cos5 θ + i 5 cos4 θ sin θ + i2 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + i3 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ
i2 = −1
i3 = −i + i4 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i5 sin5 θ
i4 = 1
i5 = i = cos5 θ + i 5 cos4 θ sin θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ − i 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i sin5 θ
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ + i (5 cos4 θ sin θ − 10 cos2 θ sin3 θ + sin5 θ)
Equating real parts
cos 5θ = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ sin2 θ + 5 cos θ sin4 θ
Substituting sin2 θ = 1 − cos2 θ, we have
cos 5θ = cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ (1 − cos2 θ) + 5 cos θ (1 − cos2 θ)2
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5 cos θ (1 − 2 cos2 θ + cos4 θ)
= cos5 θ − 10 cos3 θ + 10 cos5 θ + 5 cos θ − 10 cos3 θ + 5 cos5 θ
= 16 cos5 θ − 20 cos3 θ + 5 cos θ
θ
tan 4θ = __________________________
cos4
cos4 θ −6 cos2 θ sin2 θ + sin4 θ
_________________________
cos4 θ
_____ 4 sin θ
4 sin θ − ______3
cos θ cos3 θ
_____________________ 4 tan θ − 4 tan3 θ
tan 4θ = = _________________
cos4 θ − ______
_____ 6 sin2 θ + _____
sin4 θ 1 − 6 tan2 θ + tan4 θ
cos θ
4 cos θ
2 cos4 θ
π + i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π 8.
4)
E X A M P L E 31
4
π − i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π 8.
6)
E X A M P L E 32
6
= −__ + √3 i
1 ___
2 2
SOLUTION We first write 1 + i in polar form and then use de Moivre’s theorem.
__
1 + i = √2
arg (1 + i) = tan−1 (1) = __π
4
__
π + i sin __
1 + i = √2 ( cos __ π
4 4)
__
π + i sin __
π 10
[
(1 + i)10 = √2 ( cos __
4 4) ]
( )
__
10π + i sin ____
= (√2 )10 cos ____ 10π (using de Moivre’s theorem)
4 4
= 25 ( 0 + i ) = 32i
25
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 1C
1 Find the modulus of each of the following.
(a) 2 + 5i (b) 3 + 7i (c) −1 − 4i (d) −1 + 2i
(e) cos θ + i(2 sin θ)
2 Find the argument of each of the following.
(a) 2 + 4i (b) 3 − i (c) −1 + 2i (d) −4 − 2i
3 Write each of the following in exponential and polar form.
__ __
(a) 2 − √3i (b) 2i − √3 (c) 1 − i
4 Using de Moivre’s theorem, find the value of each of the following.
π + i sin __
(a) ( cos __ π 9
3) [ (2π + i sin ___
2π
)]
10
(b) 2 cos ___
3 5 5
(c) ( cos π
___ + i sin )π
___ 6 π
(d) ( cos + i sin )
__ π
__ 8
18 18 2 2
5 Write each of the following in the form x + iy.
__
(a) (1 + i)20 (b) (3 − √3 i)12
__
(c) (−√3 + i)9 (d) (1 − i)5
π + i sin __
Evaluate ( cos __ π .
6)
−3
6 6
7 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express sin 4θ and cos 4θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ.
Hence show that cos 4θ = 8 cos4 θ − 8 cos2 θ + 1 and
sin 4θ = 4 sin θ(2 cos3 θ − cos θ).
8 Find cos 7θ in terms of cos θ.
9 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express sin 3θ and cos 3θ in terms of sin θ and cos θ.
Hence find tan 3θ in terms of tan θ.
1 − 6 tan θ + tan θ
2 4
26
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
Circles
Let c ∊ ℂ and r ∊ ℝ. The locus of z satisfying the condition Im (z)
When using the
r
equation, make z − c = r
c
sure that the
coefficient of z is a circle with centre c and radius r.
is 1 and the Re (z)
complex number 0
c is governed by
the negative sign.
__
E X A M P L E 34 Describe and sketch the locus of z where z − 1 − i = √2
__
SOLUTION z − 1 − i = √2 Im (z)
__
⇒ z − (1 + i) = √2
Write the equa
tion in the form The locus of __
z is a circle centre (1, 1) (1, 1)
z − c = r where and radius √2 √2
the negative sign Re (z)
governs the fixed 0
number 1 + i.
SOLUTION z − 2 + i = 1
Re (z)
⇒ z − (2 − i) = 1 0
Is the locus in the
standard form? So z lies on a circle with centre (2, –1)
at (2, −1) and radius 1 unit.
27
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 36 Describe and sketch the locus of z where
z + 2 + 4i = 2. Im (z)
(–2, –4)
z − a = z − b b
SOLUTION z − 1 + i = z − 1 − i Im (z)
⇒ z − (1 − i) = z − (1 + i)
The locus of z is the perpendicular locus of z
2
bisector of the line joining (1, −1)
(1, 1)
to (1, 1). This is the real axis. 1
Re (z)
1
–1
(1, –1)
–2
28
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
E X A M P L E 38 Describe and sketch the locus of z satisfying the condition z − 2 − 2i = z + i.
–2
E X A M P L E 39 Describe and sketch the locus of z satisfying the condition z + 1 + 2i = z − 1 + 3i.
Halfline
Let a ∊ ℂ, and the angle θ be measured in radians. Im (z)
Can you identify The locus of z satisfying the condition locus of z
why it is a half
line and why arg (z − a) = θ
the end point is θ
excluded? is a halfline starting at a a
Re (z)
(but excluding a) and making 0
an angle of θ radians with the
positive real axis.
29
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 40 π.
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z − 1 − i) = __
4
⇒ (z − (1 + i)) = __ π locus of z
4
π
The locus of z is a halfline starting at (1, 1) 4
Write the equa [excluding (1, 1)] and making an angle (1, 1) Re (z)
tion in the form π radians with the real axis.
of __ 0
arg (z − a) = θ. 4
E X A M P L E 41 3π .
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z + 1 + i) = ___
4
SOLUTION 3π
arg (z + 1 + i) = ___
Im (z)
4
⇒ arg (z − (−1 − i)) = ___ 3π locus of z
4
The locus of z is a halfline starting at
Write the equa
(−1, −1) [excluding (−1, −1)] and Re (z)
tion in the form
making an angle of ___3π radians with 3π 0
arg (z − a) = θ. 4 4
the positive real axis. (–1, –1)
E X A M P L E 42 π.
Describe and sketch the locus of z where arg (z + 2 + 3i) = __
6
Straight line
Let z = a + λb, λ ∊ ℝ, a, b ∊ ℂ.
The locus of z is a line passing through a and parallel to b.
30
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
3
SOLUTION The locus of z is a line passing through
locus of z
(1, 1) and parallel to (2 − i). 2
1 (1, 1)
Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
–1 (2, –1)
–2
–2
3
SOLUTION The locus of z is a line passing through
2
(3, 2) and parallel to −1 − 3i. (3, 2)
1
Re (z)
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
–1
–2 locus of z
–3
(–1, –3)
–4
Inequalities
When identifying the region represented by an inequality, we first draw the region
bounded by the boundary line. Then we can shade the appropriate region satisfied by
the inequality.
31
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 46 Indicate on an Argand diagram the set of points satisfying the conditions
π.
z − 1 − i ≤ 2 and arg (z − 1 − i) ≤ __
4
SOLUTION First we ignore the inequality and sketch the locus for z − 1 − i = 2. This can be
written as z − (1 + i) = 2, which is a circle centre (1, 1) and radius 2. Once the
boundary line (the circle) is drawn, the appropriate region must be shaded.
Since the inequality is ‘less than or equal to’, the circle must be solid and everything
inside the circle is shaded.
For arg (z − 1 − i) ≤ __ π, we first draw
4
arg (z − 1 − i) = __π ⇒ arg (z − (1 + i)) = __π Im (z)
4 4
The locus of z is a halfline, starting π
arg (z – 1 – i) =
at (1, 1) (but excluding (1, 1)) and making 4
π radians with the positive
an angle of __
2 Region
4
real axis. After drawing this line, look at
(1, 1)
the inequality and shade the appropriate Re (z)
0
region. Remember, if the equality is
included the boundary line must be solid
and if the boundary line is excluded z – 1 – i = 2
draw it as a broken line.
E X A M P L E 47 Shade the region in the Argand diagram representing the set of complex numbers z
satisfying the condition z − 4 − 5i ≤ 4. Find the greatest and least value of z.
32
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
E X A M P L E 48 Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points representing all complex numbers z
satisfying the inequality z − 3 − 4i ≤ 2. Find the least value of arg (z).
Intersecting loci
33
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 50 On a single Argand diagram sketch the loci given by
(a) z − 2 − 2i = 1 π
(b) arg (z) = __
4
Hence, find the exact values of all complex numbers z satisfying both (a) and (b).
__
π
a = (2√2 − 1) cos ( __
4)
__ __
( )
__
√2 √2
a = (2√2 − 1) ___ =2− ___
2 2
Since the triangle is isosceles a = b.
Therefore the first point of intersection is
__ __
√2
2 − ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 − ___
2 )
To find the second point of intersection, c + id:
__
Length of OB = 2√2 + 1
π = _______
cos ( __
4 ) 2√2 + 1
__c
__
π
c = (2 √2 + 1) cos ( __
4)
__ __
(2)
__
√2 √2
c = (2 √2 + 1) ___ = 2 + ___
2
Since the triangle is isosceles c = d.
Therefore the second point of intersection is
__ __
√2
2 + ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 + ___
2 )
The two points of intersection are
__ __ __ __
√2
2 − ___
2 ( √2
+ i 2 − ___ ) √2
and 2 + ___
2
√2
+ i 2 + ___
2
. ( 2 )
34
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
x + iy − 1 + i = x + iy + 2 + 3i
(x − 1) + i(y + 1) = (x + 2) + i(3 + y)
________________ ________________
√(x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = √(x + 2)2 + (3 + y)2
Squaring both sides: (x − 1)2 + (y + 1)2 = (x + 2)2 + (3 + y)2
Expanding both sides
x2 − 2x + 1 + y2 + 2y + 1 = x2 + 4x + 4 + 9 + 6y + y2
0 = 6x + 4y + 11
The Cartesian equation is 6x + 4y + 11 = 0
SOLUTION Let z = x + iy
Substituting into z − 2 + i = 2z − 1 − i gives
x + iy − 2 + i = 2x + iy − 1 − i
Rearranging
x − 2 + i(y + 1) = 2(x − 1) + i(y − 1)
________________ ________________
√(x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 2√(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2
Squaring both sides
(x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 4[(x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2]
∴ x2 − 4x + 4 + y2 + 2y + 1 = 4x2 − 8x + 4 + 4y2 − 8y + 4
0 = 3x2 + 3y2 − 10y − 4x + 3
The Cartesian equation is 3x2 + 3y2 − 10y − 4x + 3 = 0
35
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 1D
36
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 1
SUMMARY
Complex numbers
Conjugate of z = z, or z* y
z = x – iy ()
arg (z) = θ = tan–1 x
z – a= z – b, a, b ∈ℝ
θ is measured from the Perpendicular bisector
positive real axis, of the line joining a to b
z z = x2 + y2
θ is in radians and –π < θ ≤ π
arg (z – a) = θ, a ∈ℝ
z = r(cos θ + i sin θ ) Halfline starting at a
if z1 = a + bi, z2 = c + di
then (excluding a) making an
z1 + z2 = (a + c) + i(b + d) angle of θ radians with the
z = reiθ positive real axis
z1 – z2 = (a – c) + i(b – d)
De Moivre’s theorem z = a + λ b, a, b ∈ℂ, λ ∈ℝ
For a real number n Straight line passing through
z1z2 = (a + bi) (c + di) (cos θ + i sin θ )n = cos nθ + i sin nθ a and parallel to b
= (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i
z1 a + bi a + bi c – di
= = ×
z2 c + di c + di c – di
z1 = z2 a = b, c = d
37
M O DUL E 1
Checklist
Review exercise 1
1 −1 + 2i.
(a) Simplify _______
3+i
(b) Find the modulus and argument of −5 + 12i.
2 5 − 12i, find the modulus and argument of z.
Given that z = _______
3 + 4i
3 Find the square root of 16 − 30i in the form x + iy where x, y ∊ R.
4 Show that 1 + 4i is a root of the equation 2z3 − z2 + 32z + 17 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
5 __ of the equation z − 2z + 6 = 0, giving your answers in the
(a) Find the roots 2
__
6 A complex number z satisfies the inequality z − (−2 + 2 √3 i) ≤ 2.
Sketch the locus of z on an Argand diagram. Find
(a) the least possible value of z, (b) the greatest possible value of arg (z).
7 Express each of the following complex numbers in exponential form.
__
(a) 1 − √3 i (b) sin α − i cos α (c) 1 + cos 2θ + i sin 2θ
8 Show that 3 + 2i is a root of the equation 3z3 − 16z2 + 27z + 26 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
9 Describe and sketch the following loci on the same Argand diagram.
(a) z = z − 4 π
(b) arg (z − i) = __
4
Hence find the complex number which satisfies both equations.
__
10 Use de Moivre’s theorem to express (√3 − i)6 in the form a + bi.
3 + 4i .
11 The complex number w is given by w = ______
1 − 2i
(a) Express w in the form a + bi, where a and b are real.
(b) Sketch an Argand diagram showing the point representing w.
Show on the same diagram the locus of the point z such that z − w = 1.
(c) Find the greatest value of arg z for points on this locus.
__
12 Show that z = 1 + √2 i is a root of the equation 2z3 + z2 − 4z + 15 = 0.
Hence find all the roots of the equation.
13 (a) Given that z1 = 1 − i, find z18.
(b) Given also that z1z2 = 5 + 12i, find z2 in the form c + di.
( )
θ
__ θ .
(c) Show that eiθ = 2e i 2 cos __
2
14 (a) Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points representing all complex
numbers z satisfying both the inequalities z − i ≤ 1 and z − i ≤ z.
(b) Find the square root of −5 + 12i. Hence solve z2 + 4z = 9 − 12i = 0.
eiα where 0 < α < 2π.
15 The complex number z is given by z = ______
1 − eiα
__
2
__
2 (
Show that z = − + cot ( ) i.
1 1 α
__
2 )
16 Find the modulus and argument of −7 + 8i.
Hence express (−7 + 8i)8 in the form x + yi.
1
17 (a) If w = 4 − 3i, express w + __
w in the form a + bi.
(b) Find the square roots of 4i.
(c) Sketch on an Argand diagram the set of points satisfying z < z − 1 and
π < arg z < __π.
− __
4 4
18 Describe the locus given by z − 1 = z + i and z − (3 − 3i) = 2 and sketch
both loci on an Argand diagram.
Find, in an exact form, the points of intersections of the loci.
39
M O DUL E 1
19 (a) Evaluate (1 − i)15.
2π
___
5i
e giving your answer correct to three significant figures.
(b) Evaluate ___
3π
___
e4i
cot θ − i in exponential form.
20 Express ________
cot θ + i
21 Show that the Cartesian equation of the locus of z where
z − 1 − i = 2z − 2 + 3i
(
is x − __
3 ) ( 3 )
13 2 = ___
7 2 + y + ___ 68 .
9
Clearly describe the locus of z.
nα
α e 2 i.
22 Prove that for all n ∊ ℤ and α ∊ ℝ, (1 + cos α + i sin α)n = 2n cosn ( __
___
2 )
23 Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that cos 5θ = 16 cos5 θ
− 20 cos3 θ
+ 5 cos θ.
__
1 + √5 .
π = ______
By considering the equation cos 5θ = 0, show that cos ( __
5) 4
2 π
Hence deduce the exact value of cos ( ).
___
10
40
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 2
Differentiation
KEYWORDS/TERMS
EFSJWBUJWFtUSJHPOPNFUSJDGVODUJPOtQPMZOPNJBMt
DIBJOSVMFtDPNQPTJUFGVODUJPOtFYQPOFOUJBM
GVODUJPOtMPHBSJUINJDGVODUJPOtQSPEVDUSVMFt
RVPUJFOUSVMFtUBOHFOUtOPSNBMtJNQMJDJU
EJČFSFOUJBUJPOtTFDPOEEFSJWBUJWFtQBSBNFUSJD
EJČFSFOUJBMtJOWFSTFUSJHPOPNFUSJDGVODUJPOt
QBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWFtĕSTUQBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWFtTFDPOE
PSEFSQBSUJBMEFSJWBUJWF
41
M O DUL E 1
Standard differentials
Differentiation was introduced in Unit 1. We found derivatives of functions using
the definition (from first principles) and we spent time differentiating products
and quotients of trigonometric functions and polynomials. The table of standard
differentials is given below with the extension for Unit 2 included. Familiarise
yourself with this table. In this table a and b are constants.
Function Derivative
xn nx n−1
(ax + b)n na(ax + b)n−1
ex ex
eax+b aeax+b
ln x 1
__
x
a
______
ln (ax + b) ax + b
sin x cos x
cos x − sin x
tan x sec2 x
sec x sec x tan x
cosec x − cosec x cot x
cot x − cosec2 x
1
_______
______
arcsin x
√1 − x2
−1
_______
______
arccos x
√1 − x2
1
______
arctan x
1 + x2
dy
___ dv + v ___
du
Product rule y = uv = u ___
dx dx dx
du − u ___
v ___ dv
u
Quotient rule y = __ dy ___________
v ___ = dx 2 dx
dx v
Differentiation of ln x
Let f (x) = ln x
f (x + h) − f (x)
By definition f ′(x) = limh→0 _____________
h
f (x) = ln(x + h)
ln(x + h) − ln x
f ′(x) = lim ______________
h→0 h
h→0 [ (
x+h
ln _____
= lim _________
h
x )
]
= lim __
h→0 h
(
1 ln 1 + __h
x )
42
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
h ⇒ h = xt. As h → 0, t → 0, therefore
Let t = __
x
[
f ′(x) = lim __
t→0
1 ln(1 + t)
xt ]
Remember 1 ln(1 + t)__1t
= lim __
x
1
__ t→0
lim (1 + t) t = e
t→0 = __ 1
1 ln e = __
x x
1.
Hence when f (x) = ln x, f ′(x) = __
x
Differentiation of ex
ln y = x
__ dy
1 ___ dy
___ x
y dx = 1 therefore dx = y = e
dy
Hence when y = ex, ___ = ex .
dx
EXAMPLE 1 Differentiate with respect to x: (a) y = e4x, (b) y = 3e−2x, (c) y = 6e3x+5
43
M O DUL E 1
2+3
EXAMPLE 2 Differentiate y = e4x with respect to x.
SOLUTION This is a function of a function with 4x 2 + 3 being the function inside the
exponential function.
Use the chain We let u = 4x2 + 3
rule.
dy du = 8x 2+3 ← inside
Then y = eu and ___ = eu, ___ y = e4x
du dx ↑
Using the chain rule: outside
From the table
on page 42 dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
d (e x ) = e x
___
dx du dx
dx = 8x eu
Substituting u = 4x2 + 3 gives
dy
___ = 8x e4x +3
2
dx
3 + 2x
EXAMPLE 4 Find the gradient of the curve y = 5e3x when x = 0.
dy
SOLUTION We need to find ___ when x = 0.
dx g(x)
Since y = e3x +2x, let u = 3x 3 + 2x, and y = 5eu
3
↓
3 + 2x
y = 5e3x
du = 9x2 + 2
___ ↑
dx f
dy
___ dy
= 5eu ___ = f ′g(x) × g′(x)
du dx
= 5(9x2 + 2)e3x + 2x
3
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du = 5 (9x2 + 2)eu ↑ ↑
dx du dx g′(x) f ′g(x)
= 5 (9x2 + 2)e3x +2x
3
dy
When x = 0, ___ = 5(9(0)2 + 2) e3(0) +2(0) = 10e0 = 10
3
dx
44
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
Try these 2.1 (a) Find the gradient function of (i) y = 4e3x2+7x+2 (ii) y = etan x
π.
(b) Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = e3 cos x − sin x at x = __
2
(c) Given that y = 5esec x, find the rate of change of y with respect to x.
d [ln x] = __
Moving on to logarithmic functions, recall that ___ 1 and
dx x
d [ln (ax + b)] = ______
___ a , where a and b are constants.
dx ax + b
SOLUTION y = ln (cos x − sin x) is a function of a function with cos x − sin x inside the
logarithmic function.
We let u = cos x − sin x and y = ln u
dy __ y = ln (cos x − sin x)
du = −sin x − cos x and ___
___ =u 1
dx du dy ___________
___ 1
= × (−sin x − cos x)
dy dy dx cos x − sin x
du
___ = ___ × ___
dx du dx −sin x − cos x
dy __ = ____________
cos x − sin x
___ 1
= u × (−sin x − cos x)
dx
−sin x − cos x
= ____________ (substituting u = cos x − sin x)
cos x − sin x
SOLUTION Let u = ex + 6 ∴ y = ln u
Hence
du = ex and ___ dy __
___ =1
dx du u
dy ___dy ___
___ = × du
dx du dx
1
= __ 1
______ ex
______
u × e = ex + 6 × e = ex + 6 (since u = ex + 6)
x x
45
M O DUL E 1
EXAMPLE 8 (
Differentiate y = ln _____
x+2 )
x + 1 with respect to x.
SOLUTION Using rules of logs will make it easier to differentiate the function.
(
y = ln _____
x+2 )
x + 1 = ln (x + 1) − ln (x + 2)
( ln ( __ab )= ln a − ln b )
dy 1
1 − _____
Hence ___ = _____
dx x + 1 x + 2
_______
EXAMPLE 9 Differentiate y = ln √2x2 + 3 .
_______ 1
y = ln √2x2 + 3 = ln (2x 2 + 3) 2
__
SOLUTION f g
↓ ↓
Using the rules of logs (ln x n = n ln x) 1 ln (2x2 + 3)
y = __
2
1 ln (2x2 + 3)
y = __ dy __
2
function inside ___ = 1 × _______
1 × 4x
dx 2 2x2 + 3
Differentiating using the chain rule ↑ ↑
f ′g g′
[ ]
dy __ 2x
___ 1
= 1 _______ (4x) = _______
dx 2 2x2 + 3 2x2 + 3
46
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
dy
E X A M P L E 10 Given that y = 2x, find ___ when x = 2.
dx
SOLUTION Let y = 2x
Taking logs to base e,
If the derivatives
are known they ln y = ln 2x
can be used as
standard results, ∴ ln y = x ln 2
e.g. Differentiating both sides with respect to x:
d ( 3x ) = 3x ln 3.
___ dy
1 ___
__
dx y dx = ln 2
dy
∴ ___ = y ln 2
dx
dy
Since y = 2x, replacing this in ___, we get
dx
dy
___ = 2x ln 2
dx
dy
Hence if y = 2x then ___ = 2x ln 2.
dx
Replacing x = 2,
dy
___ = 22 ln 2 = 4 ln 2
dx
dy
E X A M P L E 11 Given that y = log10 x, find ___.
dx
dy
E X A M P L E 12 Given that y = log3 x, find ___.
dx
( )
dy _____________
2x + 1 , show that ___ −5
E X A M P L E 13 Given that y = ln ______ = .
x−2 dx (2x + 1)(x − 2)
SOLUTION y = xx
y dx = x ( x ) + ln x = 1 + ln x
__ dy
1 ___ 1
__
dy
∴ ___ = xx ( 1 + ln x )
dx
dy
Substituting x = 1, ___ = 11 ( 1 + ln 1 ) = 1
dx
48
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
_____
dy ______
1 − x , show that ___
E X A M P L E 15 Given that y = ln _____
1+x √ = 1 .
dx x2 − 1
_____
1−x
SOLUTION
√
y = ln _____
1+x
Remember (
y = ln _____
1+x )
1 − x __12
EXERCISE 2A
1 Find the derivative of the following functions.
(a) y = ln (4x − 5) (b) y = ln (x2 + 2x + 4)
(c) y = ln (3x2 + 2) (
2x + 1
(d) y = ln ______
x−2 )
y = ln ( ______
7x − 2 )
(e) y = ln(4x + 7)6 (f) 4x + 1
( )
______
5x − 3
(g) y = ln _______ (h) y = ln √3 − 4x
(3x+5)4
(i) y = ln cos3 x
2 Find the rate of change of y with respect to x for the following functions.
(b) y = 7e5x + 2
2
(a) y = 4e x
______
3+3x − 2
(c) y = e x (d) y = e√4x − 1
(e) y = ecos x − sin 2x (f) y = etan 4x
(g) y = e6 cos 6x (h) y = 5ecos 4x + 3
______
(i) y = 4e−√ x2 + cos x
49
M O DUL E 1
3 Find the gradient function for each of the following.
(a) y = 7x (b) y = 6x
(c) y = (4x + 1)x (d) y = (1 − 2x)x+1
(e) y = log2 (2x + 1) (f) y = log3 x 2
_____
(g) y = log10 √x + 2 (h) y = 5 log4 (2 − 3x)
dμ dμ
7 Show that ___ = 4 tan t when μ = ln (3 cos4 t) and find the value of ___ when
dt dt
π
t= .
__
4
8 Find the gradient of the curve f (x) = x2x + 1 at x = 1.
( )
dy
4x + 2 find ___
9 Given that y = ln ______ .
3x − 1 dx
( )
__
dy π when y = ln ________
10 Show that ___ = 2 √2 at x = __ sin2 x .
dx 4 1 + cos x
dy
E X A M P L E 16 Find ___ when y = ex ln x.
dx
SOLUTION Since y = ex ln x is a product, we use the product rule to differentiate the function.
= ex ( __
1 + ln x
x )
50
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
dy x+1 .
E X A M P L E 17 Find ___ when y = _______
dx 2x2 + 1
SOLUTION x+1
y = _______
2x2 + 1
Use the quotient du = 1
Let u = x + 1, ___
rule. dx
dv = 4x
v = 2x2 + 1, ___
dx
dv
du − u ___
v ___
dy __________
___ dx dx
Substituting into = , we get
dx v2
(2x2 + 1)(1) − (x + 1)(4x)
dy ______________________
___ =
dx (2x2 + 1)2
2x + 1 − 4x − 4x
2
= ________________
2
(expanding and simplifying the numerator)
(2x2 + 1)2
−2x − 4x + 1 = ___________
2
= _____________ 1 − 4x − 2x 2
SOLUTION y = cos 3ϕ tan 3ϕ is a product of two functions of ϕ, so we can use the product rule.
Let u = cos 3ϕ, v = tan 3ϕ
du = −3 sin 3ϕ, ___
___ dv = 3 sec2 3ϕ
dϕ dϕ OR
dy dv + v ___
du y = cos 3ϕ tan 3ϕ
Substituting into the product rule ___ = u ___
dϕ dϕ dϕ sin 3ϕ
= cos 3ϕ ______
dy cos 3ϕ
___ = 3 sec2 3ϕ cos 3ϕ − 3 sin 3ϕ tan 3ϕ
dϕ y = sin 3ϕ
( sin 3ϕ
= 3 (tan2 3ϕ + 1) cos 3ϕ − sin 3ϕ ______
cos 3ϕ ) dy
___
dϕ
= 3cos 3ϕ
(
sin2 3ϕ
= 3 ______
2
cos 3ϕ
sin2 3ϕ
cos 3ϕ + cos 3ϕ − ______
cos 3ϕ )
= 3 cos 3ϕ
E X A M P L E 22 ex
Find the gradient function of the curve y = __________ .
cos (2x) + 6
e x
SOLUTION y = __________ is a quotient of two functions of x.
cos (2x) + 6
du − u ___
v ___ dv
dx
Using the quotient rule y = ___________dx
v2
where u = ex v = cos (2x) + 6
du = ex
___ dv = −2 sin (2x)
___
dx dx
(cos (2x) + 6) ex − ex (−2 sin (2x))
dy _____________________________
___ =
dx (cos (2x) + 6)2
52
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
2+5
E X A M P L E 23 Find the gradient of the curve θ = 6 cos ( 3t ) e4t at t = 0.
2+5
SOLUTION θ = 6 cos (3t) e4t represents a product of two functions of t.
Using the product rule
= 8tew = 8te4t +5
2
When t = 0,
dθ = 6e4(02)+5 [8(0) cos (3(0)) − 3 sin (3 (0))] = 0
___
dt
(b) Find the gradient of the following functions at the given point.
π
(i) θ = tan (t + 3) sec t, when t = __
4
(ii) θ = e4t−1 (t + 2), when t = 0
3
EXERCISE 2B
1 Find the derivatives of the following functions.
(a) (2x + 3) ln x (b) (4x − 1) sin x2
dθ when t = π.
π sin 2 (t − π), find the value of ___
Given that θ = cos ( t + __
2)
3
dt
4 Find the coordinates of the point on the curve y = 4 xex at which the gradient is 0.
dy
5 Given that y = 4x, show that ___ = 32 ln 2 when x = 2.
dx
dy
6 Find the values of x for which ___ = 0, where y = x 2x.
dx
__
dθ = 2 √2 e2t sin 2t + __
7 Given that θ = e2t sin 2t, show that ___
dt ( π4 ).
dθ when t = __
Hence find the value of ___ π.
dt 8
dy
8 Show that y = 4e−2 when ___ = 0 where y = x2 ex.
dx
dy
5 when ___
9 Given that y = ln (sin x − cos x), show that tan x = __ = 4.
3 dx
dx = ___
10 A function x is given by x = ln (sec t + tan t). Show that x = __21 ln 3 when ___ 2__ .
dt √3
54
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
E X A M P L E 24 Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = (2x + 1)x−2 at the point x = 0.
dy
SOLUTION The gradient of the tangent is ___ at this point.
dx
y = (2x + 1)x−2
Taking logs to base e, we get
ln y = ln {(2x + 1) x−2}
ln y = (x − 2) ln (2x + 1)
Differentiating with respect to x
1 ___
__ 2(x − 2)
dy _______ Note
y dx = 2x + 1 + ln (2x + 1) Use the product rule, where
u = x − 2, v = ln (2x + 1).
When x = 0, y = (2(0) + 1)0−2 = 1
du = 1, ___
___ dv = ______
2
Substituting into the derivative dx dx 2x + 1
2(0 − 2)
dy ________
___ = + ln (2(0) + 1)
dx 2(0) + 1
−4 + ln 1 = −4
= ___
1
dy
SOLUTION The gradient of the tangent is ___ at x = 1.
dx
Using the product rule with u = x + 2 and v = ln x
du = 1
___ and ___dv = __
1
dx dx x
dy 1 + (1) ln x
We have ___ = (x + 2) __
x
dx
Substituting x = 1
dy
___ 1 + (1) ln 1 = 3
= (1 + 2) __
dx 1
∴ The gradient of the tangent is 3.
E X A M P L E 26 (
Find the gradient of the normal to the curve y = ln _____
x−1 )
x + 2 at the point x = 2.
dy
SOLUTION We find the gradient of the tangent first, i.e. ___ when x = 2.
dx
y = ln (
x +
_____
x −1
2
)
Using rules of logs
y = ln (x + 2) − ln (x − 1)
Since the tangent and normal are perpendicular to each other the gradient of the
1 1
normal is − __ __
m and the equation of the normal is y − y1 = − m (x − x1).
E X A M P L E 27 π.
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x cos x at the point x = __
2
SOLUTION y = xcos x
Find the gradient of the tangent
ln y = ln xcos x = (cos x) ln x
Differentiating with respect to x
y dx = cos x ( x ) − (sin x) ln x
__ dy
1 ___ 1
__
dy π
∴ ___ = − ln __
dx 2
Hence the equation of the tangent is
π x − __
π
2( 2)
y − 1 = − ln __
π x − __
π
2( 2)
y = 1 − ln __
π + 1 + __
y = −x ln __ π ln __
π
2 2 2
E X A M P L E 28 Find the equation of the tangent and the equation of the normal to the curve
π.
y = x2 cos x when x = __
2
SOLUTION π by differentiating
We find the gradient of the curve at x = __
2
y = x2cos x
Using the product rule
u = x2, v = cos x
du = 2x, ___
___ dv = −sin x
dx dx
dy
___ = −x2sin x + 2x cos x
dx
56
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
π,
When x = __
2
dy
___
dx
= − ___( )
π2 sin __
2
π + 2 __
2 ( π2 ) cos __π2
= − ___ π2
4
π, y = __
( π2 ) cos __π2 = 0
2
When x = __
2
π, 0 , m = − ___
∴ At ( __ π2
2 ) 4
The equation of the tangent is
π2 x − __π
4 (
y − 0 = −___ 2)
π2 x + ___
π3
y = − ___
4 8
π , the gradient of the normal is ___
Since the gradient of the tangent is − ___
2 4 .
4 π2
The equation of the normal is
π
π2 ( 2)
4 x − __
y − 0 = ___
4 x − __
y = ___ 2
π2 π
E X A M P L E 29 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ex cos x at the point x = 0.
SOLUTION y = ex cos x
We use the product rule to find the gradient function.
u = ex, du = ex
___
dx
v = cos x, dv = −sin x
___
dx
dy dy
___
___ dv + v ___
= u ___ du = −ex sin x + ex cos x
dx dx dx dx
dy
When x = 0, ___ = −e 0 sin 0 + e0 cos 0
dx
=1
We need the value of y: when x = 0, y = e0 cos 0 = 1
dy
∴ At (0, 1), ___ = 1
dx
The equation of the tangent is
y − 1 = 1(x − 0) = x
y=x+1
x − 1 at the point x = 2.
(a) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = ______
Try these 2.5 x+1
(b) Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = ex sin x at the point x = 0.
(c) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve and the equation of the normal to
the curve y = x2 ln (x + 1) when x = 1. Give your answer in exact form.
57
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 2C
In questions 1–4, find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point.
1 y = x cos x, ( __ π, 0
2 )
2 y = ______
x ln x (
x2 + 2 , 2, _____
6
2 ln 2 )
( )
3 y = (4x + 2) e4x−1, __41 , 3 4 y = ln sin 2x, ( __ π, 0
4 )
In questions 5 and 6, find the gradient of the normal to the curve at the given
value of x.
e x+3
5 y = x3 e x 3 + 3x, x = 1 6 y = _________
ln (2x + 1)
, x=1
7 Given that the gradient of the normal to a curve is − __41 at the point (2, 3),
find the equation of the tangent to the curve at (2, 3).
8 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2x+1 at x = __21 .
9 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2ex at the point (1, e).
Leave your answer in terms of e.
10 Given that y = (x2 + 1) cos 2x, show that the equation of the tangent to the
curve at (0, 1) is y = 1.
11 Show that the equation of the normal to the curve y = sin x e cos x at (0, 0) is
ey + x = 0.
dy
12 Given that y = 8 cos 2x sin 2x, show that ___ = 16 cos 4x. Hence find the
dx
π.
equation of the tangent to the curve at x = __
4
−1
13 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = etan x at the point x = 1.
dy
14 The equation of a curve is given by y = ln (cos 2x). Find ___ and the equation of
π. dx
the normal to the curve at x = __
6
x + 2 at the points
15 Find the equations of the normals to the curve y = _________
x2 + x − 2
where the curve cuts the xaxis.
16 The equation of a curve is y = x 3 + 6x 2 + 11x + 6. Find
(a) the gradient at the point (1, 1),
(b) the xcoordinate of the point at which the tangent to the curve is parallel to
the tangent at (1, 1).
Implicit differentiation
The functions we have worked with so far have all been given by equations of the
form y = f(x). A function of this form is an explicit function. For example, the
______
2x + 3 , y = e x+2 are all explicit functions.
2
√
functions y = 4x + 3x − 2, y = ______
x+4
There are functions in which y cannot be written explicitly in terms of x. In these
functions y is said to be in implicit form. For example, in equations such as
x2 + 3xy − 4y3 = 4x and x4 + ex+y − x2y = 6y, y is defined implicitly as a function
dy
of x. The technique for finding ___ for implicit functions is called implicit differentation.
dx
58
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
d [y2] = ___
___ dy
d [y2] × ___
SOLUTION
dx dy dx
dy
= 2y ___
dx
dy
We make use of the chain rule, keeping in mind that the differential of y is ___ .
dx
SOLUTION [x2y2] is a product of two functions of x, so we need to use the product rule.
Let u = x2, v = y2
du = 2x, ___
___ dv = 2y ___dy
dx dx dx y = uv
∴ ___
dx [ dy
d [x2 y2] = x2 2y ___
dx ]
+ y2[2x]
dy dv + v ___
⇒ ___ = u ___
dx dx
du
dx
dy
= 2x 2 y ___ + 2xy 2
dx
dy
E X A M P L E 32 Find ___ in terms of x and y for the equation x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4.
dx
SOLUTION x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4
Differentiating term by term, we have
d [x2] = 2x
___
dx
dy
d [3y] = 3 ___
___
dx dx
___
dx ( dy
d [2xy2] = 2x 2y ___
dx )
+ y2 (2), using the product rule with u = 2x and v = y2
dy
= 4xy ___ + 2y2
dx
d [4] = 0
___
dx
∴ Differential of x2 + 3y + 2xy2 = 4 is
dy dy
2x + 3 ___ + 4xy ___ + 2y2 = 0
dx dx
dy
Making ___ the subject of the formula
dx
dy dy
3 ___ + 4xy ___ = −2y2 − 2x
dx dx
dy
___ [3 + 4xy] = −2y2 − 2x
dx
−2y2 − 2x
dy _________
___ =
dx 3 + 4xy
59
M O DUL E 1
( )
dy 1, 1 .
E X A M P L E 33 Given that 3xy + 4x2 y3 = 5x, find the value of ___ at __
dx 2
( )
1 (1)3 − 3(1)
5 − 8 __
dy _________________
___ = 2
dx
( )
3 __
2 2 ( )
1 2 (1)2
1 + 12 __
5−4−3
= _________
3+3
__
2
4
= − __
9
∴ ___
dx
dy
dx( )
d [ex+y] = eu × 1 + ___
d [3x2] = 6x
Now ___
dx
dy
d [−2y] = −2 ___
___
dx dx
d [1] = 0
___
dx
The differential of ex+y + 3x2 − 2y = 1 is
( dy
dx ) dy
ex+y 1 + ___ + 6x − 2 ___ = 0
dx
dy dy
ex+y + ex+y ___ + 6x − 2 ___ = 0
dx dx
dy dy
ex+y ___ − 2 ___ = −6x − ex+y
dx dx
dy x+y
___ [e − 2] = −6x − e x+y
dx
dy __________
___ = −6x − ex+y
dx e −2
x+y
−6(0) − e0 ___
dy __________
When x = 0, y = 0, ___ = = −1 = 1
dx e −2
0 −1
dy
Try these 2.6 (a) Find ___ for
dx
(i) 3x2y2 + 4x = 6x
(ii) 6x2y + 2x2y2 = 4xy
(iii) 7x3 + 4y = 3y2
(b) Find the gradient of the following at the given point.
(i) 4e3x+y − 2x2 = 4 at (0, 0)
π
(ii) cos (xy) − 3x 4 + 3 = 0 at ( 1, __
2)
E X A M P L E 35 Find the equation of the tangent and the equation of the normal to the curve
xy2 − 3x2y − 4x = 0 at the point (1, 4).
( dy
d [xy2] = y2 + x 2y ___
___
dx dx )
___
dx ( dy
d [3x2y] = 3 x2 ___
dx
+ 2xy )
d [4x] = 4
___
dx
( dy
dx ) ( dy
∴ y2 + x 2y ___ − 3 x2 ___ + 2xy − 4 = 0
dx )
61
M O DUL E 1
Substituting x = 1, y = 4
( dy
dx ) ( dy
)
42 + 2(4) ___ − 3 ___ + 2(4) − 4 = 0
dx
dy dy
16 + 8 ___ − 3 ___ − 24 − 4 = 0
dx dx
dy
5 ___ = 12
dx
dy ___
___ = 12
dx 5
The equation of the tangent at x = 1, y = 4 with gradient ___12 is
5
12 (x − 1)
y − 4 = ___
5
12
y = x − ___
___ 12 + 4
5 5
y= 12
___ x+ 8
__
5 5
5
12 , the gradient of the normal is − ___
Since the gradient of the tangent is ___ 12 .
5
The equation of the normal is
5
y − 4 = − ___
12 (x − 1)
5
y = − ___ 5
___
12 x + 12 + 4
5
y = − ___ 53
___
12 x + 12
Differentiation of y = tan−1x
Let y = tan−1 x
Applying the tan function to both sides
tan y = x
Differentiating with respect to (w.r.t.) x
dy
d [tan x] = sec2x
___ sec2 y ___ = 1
dx dx
dy _____
___ = 1
dx sec2 y
Recall that sec2 y = 1 + tan2 y
∴ sec2 y = 1 + x2, since x = tan y.
dy ______
___ = 1
dx 1 + x2
d [tan−1 (x)] = ______
___ 1
dx 1 + x2
dy
Try these 2.7 Find ___ when
dx
(a) y = cos−1 x (b) y = cosec−1 x
(c) y = cot−1 x (d) y = sec−1 x
dy
E X A M P L E 36 Find ___ when y = sin−1 (2x).
dx
dy
E X A M P L E 37 Given that y = tan−1 (x2 + 1) find ___.
dx
63
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 38 Find the derivative of θ = t2 sin−1 (t).
EXERCISE 2D
dy
In questions 1–8 , differentiate each function with respect to x and hence find ___ in
dx
terms of x and y.
1 x4 + xy3 − y2 = 2 2 y = xe2y
3 cos (xy) + 4x2 = 7x 4 x2 + xy + y3 = 0
5 x(x2 + y2) = y3 6 xe y = x2 + 2
7 1 + __
__ 1 = __
1 8 sin x tan y = 4
x2 y 2 9
In questions 9 –1 4 , find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point.
9 x4 − 2x2y + 3y = 2 at (1, 1) 10 xy − 2x + y2 = 4 at (0, 2)
11 x2y3 + 4xy = 7x at ( __83 , 2 ) 12 ex+y − 3xy − 2 = y at (ln 2, 0)
13 3x2y2 − 2y3 = −4 at (1, 2) 14 (xy − y3)3 = 5y2 + 22 at (4, 1)
15 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x2 + 4y2 − 2xy = 7 at the point
(1, −1).
dy
16 Given that ex + y + cos x = 4y + 2, show that ___ = __31 when x = 0 and y = 0.
dx
17 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve xy2 + y3 = 6x + 3y at (1, 2).
18 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve xy + x2 = y2 that is parallel to
(a) the xaxis (b) the yaxis.
19 A computer is programmed to draw the graph of the function
(x2 + y2)3 = 64x2y2. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at (2, 0.56).
20 Find by implicit differentiation the four points on the curve
(x2 + y2)2 = x2 − y2 where the tangent line is parallel to the xaxis and the
Remember two points where the tangent line is parallel to the yaxis.
64
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
Second derivatives
d 2y
Recall that ___2 or f ″(x) is the second derivative of y w.r.t. x or the second
dx
derivative of the function x. To find the second derivative, we differentiate the
first derivative.
d2y dy
E X A M P L E 40 Given that y = 4e−2x + e−3x show that ___2 + 5 ___ + 6y = 0.
dx dx
d2y
E X A M P L E 41 If y = ex cos 2x, find ___2 .
dx
SOLUTION y = ex cos 2x
u = ex, v = cos 2x
du = ex, ___
___ dv = −2 sin 2x
dx dx
65
M O DUL E 1
dy
___ = −2ex sin 2x + ex cos 2x
dx
= ex(−2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
Differentiating again w.r.t. x
d2y
___ = ex(−4 cos 2x − 2 sin 2x) + ex(−2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
dx2
= ex(−4 cos 2x − 2 sin 2x − 2 sin 2x + cos 2x)
= ex(−3 cos 2x − 4 sin 2x)
d2y dy
E X A M P L E 42 Given that y = ex(cos 2x + sin 2x) show that ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0.
dx dx
= ex cos 2x − 7ex sin 2x + 2ex sin 2x − 6ex cos 2x + 5ex cos 2x + 5ex sin 2x
= 6ex cos 2x − 6ex cos 2x + 7ex sin 2x − 7ex sin 2x
=0
d2y dy
Hence ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0
dx dx
EXERCISE 2E
d2y
x2 . Find ___
1 An equation is given by y = _____ .
x+1 dx2
d2y dy
2 Show that y = (2x + 5)e3x satisfies the equation ___2 − 6 ___ + 9y = 0.
dx dx
d2y dy
3 Given that y = Ae−2x + Bex, show that ___2 + ___ − 2y = 0.
dx dx
2(y − 1)
d2y _______
x , show that ___
4 Given that y = _____ = .
x+1 dx 2 (x + 1)2
5 The relationship between the two variables x and y is given by
d2y dy
y = ex[Acos 2x + B sin 2x]. Show that ___2 − 2 ___ + 5y = 0.
dx dx
66
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
Parametric differentiation
First derivative of parametric equations
Parametric equations were introduced in Unit 1, Module 2. If the coordinates of
a point P(x, y) are given as x = f(t), y = g(t) where t is a third variable called the
parameter of the equation, the equations x = f(t), y = g(t) are called the parametric
equations and the parametric differential is
dy ___dy ___
___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dt
dy
dx and ___
SOLUTION First find ___ .
dt dt
x = 4t2 + 5
dx = 8t
___
dt
y = 6t2 + t3
dy
___ = 12t + 3t2
dt
dy ___dy ___ dy ___ dy ___
___ = × dt ___ = ÷ dx
dx dt dx dx dt dt
12t + 3t2 = ___
= ________ 3t2
12t + ___
8t 8t 8t
3t
3 + __
= __
2 8
dy 3 __
Hence ___ = __ + 3t
dx 2 8
dy
E X A M P L E 44 Find the value of ___ when t = 1 for the equation defined as
dx
x = 4t − 3, y = 7t2 + 5t +1.
3
dy
E X A M P L E 45 Given that x = tan−1(t) and y = t3, find ___ in terms of t.
dx
dx = ______
___ dy
1 , ___
SOLUTION = 3t2
dt 1 + t 2 dt
dy dy dx
Remember Since ___ = ___ ÷ ___ , we have
dx dt dt
d tan−1x ______
___ 1
dx 1 + x2 dy ______2
___ = 3t
dx _____
1
1 + t2
= 3t2(1 + t2)
SOLUTION To find the equation of the tangent at t = 1, we need to find the values of x and y
when t = 1, and the gradient of the tangent when t = 1.
When t = 1, substituting into x = t + 2, y = t2 gives
x = 1 + 2, y = 12
∴ x = 3, y = 1
Since x = t + 2, y = t2
To find the
dy
gradient, find ___. dy
dx = 1, ___
___
dx = 2t
dy ___dy dx
dt dt
___ = ÷ ___
dx dt dt dy dy dx
Since ___ = ___ ÷ ___ , we have
dx dt dt
dy __
___ = 2t = 2t
dx 1
When t = 1
dy
___ = 2(1) = 2
dx
The equation of the tangent at x = 3, y = 1 and gradient 2 is
y − 1 = 2(x − 3)
y = 2x − 6 + 1
y = 2x − 5
68
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
E X A M P L E 47 Find the equation of the normal to the curve x = 2 sin t, y = cos 2t at the point with
π.
parameter __
2
dy
SOLUTION Stationary points exist where ___ = 0.
dx
dy dy dx
Since the equation is in parametric form ___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dy
dx = −15 + 18t and ___ = 6 − 2t
___
dt dt
dy 6 − 2t
Hence ___ = _________
dx −15 + 18t
dy
___ 6 − 2t = 0
= 0 ⇒ _________
dx −15 + 18t
∴ 6 − 2t = 0
t=3
69
M O DUL E 1
When t = 3, x = 25 − 15(3) + 9(3)2, y = 6(3) − (3)2
x = 25 − 45 + 81 = 61, y = 18 − 9 = 9
The coordinates of the stationary point are (61, 9).
d 2y [ ]
d ___
__
dt dx
___ = ______
dy
(by the chain rule)
dx2 dx
___
dt
d2y
E X A M P L E 49 Given that x = t2 + 5t − 4, y = t3 + 3t + 1, find ___2 .
dx
SOLUTION
d 2y [ ]
d ___
__
Since ___2 = _______
dy
dy
dt dx we first find ___ where
dx dx
___ dx
dt
dy dy dx
___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dx 2t + 5 and ___ dy
Now ___ = = 3t2 + 3
dt dt
dy ______
___ 3t2 + 3
= 2t + 5
dx
Now __
dy
d ___
dt dx[ ]
= __ [
3t2 + 3
d _______
dt 2t + 5
= ]
(2t + 5)(6t) − (3t2 + 3)(2)
______________________
(2t + 5)2
(using the quotient rule)
SOLUTION
d 2y [ ]
Since ___2 = ______
dy
d ___
__
dy
dt dx we first find ___ where
dx dx
___ dx
dt
dy dy dx
___ = ___ ÷ ___
dx dt dt
dx _______
___ 1 dy
= ______ , ___ = 2t + 2
dt √1 − t2 dt
dy _______ ______
___ 2t + 2 (2t + 2) √ 1 − t2
= 1 =
dx _______
______
√1 − t2
[ ]
dy ______
= __ [ (2t + 2) √1 − t2 ]
d ___
__ d
dt dx dt
70
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
______ ______
t(2t + 2)
2 ( )
1 (−2t)(1 − t2)− __12 = 2 √1 − t2 − ________
= 2 √1 − t2 + (2t + 2) __ ______
√1 − t2
2(1 − t2) − 2t2 −2t ____________
−4t2 ______
− 2t + 2
= ________________
______ =
√1 − t 2
√1 − t2
d 2y dt dx
___ _______
2 =
[ ]
dy
d ___
___ −4t2 ______
− 2t + 2
____________
√1 − t2
= ____________ = −4t2 − 2t + 2 = −2(2t2 + t − 1)
dx dx
___ 1
_______
______
dt √1 − t2
EXERCISE 2F
dy d 2y
In questions 1–8, find ___ and ____2 in terms of t.
dx dx
1
__
1 x = t + 1, y = 2t − 1 2 x = 6t2 + 1, y = 2t2 + 3
3 x = t3, y = t2 4 x = t + 2, y = 2t2 − t − 1
5 x = et, y = 7e2t 6 x = 5 cos t, y = 4 sin t
7 x = cos3 t, y = 4 sin3 t 8 x = t sin t, y = t cos t
In questions 9–14, find the value of the gradient of the curve at the given point.
9 x = et, y = e−t, t = 0 10 x = 2t2 + 1, y = 3t2 + 2, t = 1
11 x = 3t, y = 1 − t, t = 4 5t , y = 0, t = 2
12 x = ______
2t + 1
6
13 x = t(2t + 1)2, y = ________
______ , t = 1 14 x = 3t, y = log2 (2t + 1), t = 1
√ 4t + 3
15 A curve is given by the parametric equation x = t2 + 2t, y = t3 − 3t + 1.
dy
Find ___ in terms of t. Hence find
dx
(a) the equation of the tangent and normal for t = 0
(b) the value of t for the turning points.
1 , y = 1 − 2t, find the points on the curve where the
16 Given that x = _____
1+t
gradient is 1. Hence write down the equations of the tangent at these points.
17 The parametric equations of a curve are x = t(t2 + 1)3, y = t2 + 1.
Find and simplify the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point with
parameter t = 3.
18 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x = sec θ, y = tan θ at the point
with parameter α.
19 Given that the parametric equations of a curve are x = 3(θ − sin θ),
dy dy
1 θ. Hence find the value of ___
y = 3(1 − cos θ), show that ___ = cot __ π.
when x = __
dx 2 dx 3
__ __ dy
___
20 If x = √2 (1 − cos θ) and y = √2 sin θ, show that = cot θ and find the
dx
π.
equation of the tangent at θ = __
4
71
M O DUL E 1
Partial derivatives
In Unit 1 when finding the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change of one
variable with respect to another, only one independent variable and one dependent
variable were present. By definition
f (x + h) − f (x)
f´(x) = limh→0 _____________
h
We can extend this result to a function of two or more variables. We find the
derivative of the function with respect to one variable while holding the other
variable constant. This is called a partial derivative.
First order partial derivatives
D EFIN IT IO N
The first partial derivatives of the function z = f(x, y) are the two functions defined by
f(x + h, y) − f(x, y)
fx(x, y) = lim _________________
h→0 h
f(x, y + h) − f(x, y)
fy(x, y) = lim _________________
h→0 h
wherever these limits exist.
fx(x, y) is the first partial derivative with respect to x and fy(x, y) is the first partial
derivative with respect to y.
∂f ∂f
E X A M P L E 51 Find the partial derivatives ___ and ___ of the function f(x, y) = x3 + 4x2y3 − y4.
∂x ∂y
∂f
SOLUTION We can differentiate term by term and then add to find each derivative. To find ___ we
∂x
differentiate with respect to x while keeping y constant.
∂ (x3) = 3x2
___
∂x
∂ (4x2y3) = 8xy3
___ ∂ (x2) = 2x and our
(4y3 is treated as a constant so we find ___
∂x ∂x
derivative becomes 4y3 × 2x = 8xy3)
∂ (y4) = 0
___ (since y4 is treated as a constant when differentiating with respect to x)
∂x
∂f
Hence ___ = 3x2 + 8xy3
∂x
∂f
To find ___, we differentiate with respect to y while keeping x constant
∂y
72
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
∂ (x3) = 0
___ (since x is treated as a constant when we are differentiating
∂y
with respect to y).
∂ (4x2y3) = 12x2y2
___ ∂ (y3) = 3y2 and
(4x2 is treated as a constant so we find ___
∂x ∂y
our derivative becomes 4x2 × 3y2 = 12x2y2).
∂ (y4) = 4y3
___
∂y
∂f
Hence ___ = 12x2y2 − 4y3
∂y
SOLUTION (a) Since we have the product of two functions of x, we use the product rule:
Let u = x2 + y, v = cos (2x2y)
∂u
___ ∂v
___
∂x = 2x, ∂x = −TJO x y) × xy)
∂z = −xy x + y) TJO xy) +x DPT xy)
∴ ___
∂x
(b) Using the product rule with u = x2 + y, v = cos (2x2y)
∂u
___ ∂v
___
∂y = 1, ∂y = −2x sin (2x y)
2 2
( ∂f
) ∂f
2
fyy ∂ ___
= (f ) = ___ = ___
y y ∂y ∂y ∂y 2
The function fxy is the second order partial derivative of f with respect to x first and
then with respect to y, and fyx is the second order partial derivative of f with respect
to y first and then with respect to x. Partial derivatives fxy and fyx are equal if and only
if both the function and the partial derivatives are continuous.
E X A M P L E 53 ∂ z = _____
Give that z = ln (2xy + y2) show that _____
2 ∂z. 2
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
∂2z = ___ 2x + 2y
∂ ________
____
∂x∂y (
∂x 2xy + y2 )
(2xy + y2)(2) − (2x + 2y)(2y)
= _________________________
(2xy + y2)2
4xy + 2y2 − 4xy − 4y2 2y2
__________
= ___________________ = −
(2xy + y2)2 (2xy + y2)2
∂ z = ____
Hence ____
2 ∂z. 2
∂x∂y ∂y∂x
∂2f ∂2f
E X A M P L E 54 The function f (x, y) = e−3x cos y. Find ___2 and ___2.
∂x ∂y
E X A M P L E 55 Two resistors R1 and R2 are placed in parallel. They have a combined resistance R,
1 + __
given by R = __ ∂R and ____
1 . Find ____ ∂R .
R1 R2 ∂R1 ∂R2
74
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
E X A M P L E 56 An electric circuit has parallel resistances R1 and R2. The current i through R1 can be
found from
IR2
i = _______
R1 + R2
∂i .
where I is the total current. Find ___
∂R2
E X A M P L E 58 The volume of a right circular cone of height h cm and base radius r cm is given by
1 πr2h.
V = __
3
∂2V when h = 6 cm
Find (a) ____ ∂2V when r = 2 cm.
(b) ____
∂r 2 ∂h2
75
M O DUL E 1
(b) Keeping r constant and differentiating twice with respect to h, we get
∂V __
___ = 1 πr2
∂h 3
∂2V = 0
____
∂h2
∂2V = 0.
Hence, when r = 2 cm, ____
∂h2
Laplace’s equation
∂2u + ___
The partial differential equation ___ ∂2u = 0 where u = f(x, y) is called Laplace’s
∂x 2 ∂y2
equation. The solutions derived from this equation are called harmonic functions
and they play an important role in electrical and heat conduction.
E X A M P L E 59 ∂ z + ___
2
Show that the equation z = x2 − y2 satisfies the equation ___ ∂ z = 0.
2
∂x2 ∂y2
SOLUTION z = x2 − y2
∂z = 2x
___ (since we treat y as a constant)
∂x
∂2z = 2
___
∂x2
Also
∂z = −2y
___ (treating x as a constant)
∂y
∂2z = −2
___
∂y2
Now
∂2z + ___
___ ∂2z = 2 − 2 = 0
∂x 2 ∂y2
∂2z + ___
Hence z = x2 − y2 satisfies the equation ___ ∂2z = 0
∂x 2 ∂y2
Cobb–Douglas function
Cobb and Douglas modelled the total production P of an economic system as a
function of labour L and investment K. The function used to model production is
P(L, K) = bLα K1– α
where P is the total production, L is the amount of labour and K is the amount of
∂P is the rate at which production changes
capital invested. The partial derivative ___
∂L
with respect to labour and is called the marginal productivity of labour. The partial
∂P is the rate of production with respect to capital and is called the
derivative ___
∂K
marginal productivity of capital.
76
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
(a) What is the output if the capital investment is TT $1 728 000 and
729 workerhours of labour are used?
(b) Does the output double if both the capital investment and the size of the labour
force in (a) doubles?
∂Q
(c) Find the marginal productivity of capital ___
∂K
when the capital expenditure is
TT $1 728 000 and the level of labour is 729 workerhours.
77
M O DUL E 1
(c) t =x + 3y +z + 6xyz
%JČFSFOUJBUJOHXJUISFTQFDUUPz
LFFQJOHxBOEyDPOTUBOU
XFHFU
∂t =z + 6xy
__
∂z
∂t =
___
∂z
SOLUTION ∂t = 6y − 3x2y
(a) ___
∂x
8IFOx = 1, y = −1
∂t = −1) −
−1)
___
∂x
∂t = −6 + 3 = −3
___
∂x
∂t = 3z
(b) __
∂z
∂t = 6z
___
∂z
8IFOz = 1,
∂ t =
= 6
___
∂z
∂t = __
(c) ____
∂z∂y ∂z ∂y
∂t
[ ]
∂t ___
∂ 6x + 3y2 − x3
= __
∂z ( )
= 6 − 3x2
When x = 1,
∂2t = 6 − 3(1)2
____
∂z∂y
=6−3=3
E X A M P L E 63 ∂w, ___
Let w = 2x2 + yz. Find ___ ∂w and ___
∂w .
∂z ∂y ∂x
SOLUTION w = 2x2 + yz
∂w = y, keeping x and y constant.
___
∂z
∂w = z, keeping x and z constant.
___
∂y
∂w = 4x, ___
___ ∂ (yz) = 0, keeping y and z constant.
∂x ∂x
78
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
SOLUTION (a) Keeping y and z constant, and differentiating with respect to x, we get
∂w = 12xy2z2 + 3z3 + 8xy2
___
∂x
(b) Keeping x and z constant, we get
∂w = 12x2yz2 + 8x2y
___
∂y
(c) Keeping x and y constant, we get
∂w = 12x2y2z + 9xz2
___
∂z
EXERCISE 2G
1 Given that w = x2y − 2x + y3, find the first partial derivative ___∂w and ___
∂w.
∂x ∂y
∂ z ∂
___z
2 Find ∂x and ∂y if z = (x y + 3y )(x + y ) .
___ 2 3 2 2 4
∂x2 ∂y2
∂2z , ____
In questions 6–10, find ___ ∂2z , ____
∂2z and ___∂2z for each of the functions z.
∂x 2 ∂y ∂ x ∂ x ∂ y ∂y2
6 z = 3x − 4x y + y .
2 2 2 3
∂x ∂y ∂t ∂x∂y∂t
12 If w = e–z ∂ w + ____
2
(sin x + cos y), show that ____ ∂ w = ___
2 ∂w.
∂x2 ∂y2 ∂z
79
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY
Differentiation
d [In(ax + b)] = a
dx ax + b
d [sin x] = cos x
dx
Quotient rule
d [xy3] = x 3y2 dy + y3(1)
dx ( dx ) d2y
=
d dy
dx2 dt dx [ ]
÷ dx
dt
dy
y=u = 3xy2 + y3
v dx
d [sin(ax + b)] = a cos (ax + b)
dx
v u − u dv Partial derivatives
dy dx dx
d [cos x] = −sin x =
dx dx v2
d [cot x] = −cosec2x
dx
Second partial derivatives
d [sin−1(x)] = 1 ∂ 2u , ∂ 2u , ∂ 2 u , ∂ 2u
dx √1 − x2 ∂ x2 ∂ 2y ∂ x ∂ y ∂ y ∂ x
d [cos−1x] = −1
dx √1 − x2
d [tan−1(x)] = 1
dx √1 + x2
d [ax ] = ax In x
dx
d [log x] = 1
dx a x ln a
80
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
Checklist
Review exercise 2
______ d 2y
1 Given that x = sin−1 t, y = √1 − t2 find and simplify ___2 .
dx
dy
___
2 Find the value of at t = 0 when x = (4t − 1) , y = 2t.
3
dx
3 Differentiate the following functions with respect to x.
(
4x + 3
(a) ln ______
2x − 5 ) (b) y = 3x ln x
4 Show that the gradient of the tangent to the curve y = ln sin3x at x = π
__ is 3.
4
5 A curve is represented parametrically by x = 4t − 2, y = 4t + 3.
2
(a) Calculate the length of the chord that joins the points with parameters
t = 0 and t = 1.
(b) Find the equation of the tangent and normal to the curve at t = 1.
6 Find the gradient of the normal to the curve at the given point.
1
(a) y = sin−1(4x), x = __
4
(b) y = tan−1 __
2( )
1x , x = 4
−1
(c) y = x tan (2x + 1), x = 0
81
M O DUL E 1
d2y dy
7 Given that y = x tan−1 x, show that (1 + x2)___2 + 2(x − 1) ___ = 2.
dx dx
8 Given that y = ex(A cos 3x + B sin 3x), where A and B are constants, show that
d 2y
___ dy
− 2 ___ + 10y = 0.
dx2 dx
9 A curve is given parametrically by x = t 3 + 2t, y = t 4 + 2t.
dy d2y
(a) Find ___ and ___2 in terms of t.
dx dx
(b) Show that there is no tangent to the curve that is vertical.
dy
10 The equation of a curve is given by xy3 + 3xy − x2 = 4x. Find ___ as a function
dx
of x and y.
11 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve x2 + y2 − 4xy = 6 at the point (1, −1).
12 Find all the points on the graph of x2 + y2 = 4x + 4y at which the tangent is
parallel to the xaxis.
13 The parametric equations of a curve are x = a cos3 θ, y = a sin3 θ.
dy
Show that ___ = −tan θ.
dx
π is √__
Show also that the equation of the normal at θ = __ 3 x − y = a.
6
______
3x + 8 at the
point x = 0.
√
14 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = ln 3 ______
x+2
82
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 2
dy
20 Given that 2x+y = x3 + 3y, find ___.
dx
21 Find the second partial derivaties of f(x, y) = 6x3 + 12x2y2 − 3y3.
22 Show that the function f (x, y) = ex sin y satisfies the equation
fxx + fyy = 0
23 Find the first partial derivatives of the functions:
(a) w = xy2z3 + 3yz
(b) w = ln(x + 3y + 4z)
24 The total resistance R produced by three conductors with resistance R1, R2, R3
connected in a parallel electrical circuit is given by the formula
__ 1 + __
1 = __ 1 + __1
R R1 R2 R3
∂2R .
∂R and ____
Find ___
∂R1 ∂R21
25 Let f(x, y) = x2 sin (yz). Find fxx, fyy, fzz and fxyz.
83
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 3
Partial Fractions
KEYWORDS/TERMS
SBUJPOBMGSBDUJPOtQSPQFSGSBDUJPOtJNQSPQFS
GSBDUJPOtQBSUJBMGSBDUJPOtMJOFBSGBDUPSt
RVBESBUJDGBDUPStSFQFBUFEGBDUPS
84
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
EXAMPLE 1 5x + 7
Separate ____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x + 2)
SOLUTION Since the denominator consists of two distinct linear factors, we have
5x + 7
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
Remember (x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2
Every distinct Multiply both sides of the identity by the denominator of the lefthand side to
linear factor in
obtain
the denominator
must have a 5x + 7
____________ A × (x + 1)(x + 2) + _____
× (x + 1)(x + 2) ≡ _____ B × (x + 1)(x + 2)
fraction associ (x + 1)(x + 2) x+1 x+2
ated with it.
∴ 5x + 7 ≡ A(x + 2) + B(x + 1) [1]
85
M O DUL E 1
Substitute x = −2 into [1] to eliminate A
Note
5(−2) + 7 = A(−2 + 2) + B(−2 + 1)
The first method
of finding A and −3 = −B
B is to substitute
B=3
values for x on
both sides of the Substitute x = −1 into [1] to eliminate B
identity. The val
ues of x are found 5(−1) + 7 = A(−1 + 2) + B(−1 + 1)
from the zeros of
A=2
the denominator
i.e. x + 2 = 0 and 5x + 7
So ____________ 3
2 + ______
≡ ______
x + 1 = 0 give (x + 1)(x + 2) x+1 x+2
x = −2 and
x = −1.
EXAMPLE 2 2x + 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x − 3)(3x − 1)
SOLUTION Since the denominator of this proper fraction consists of two distinct linear factors,
we have
2x + 1
_____________ A + ______
≡ _____ B
(x − 3)(3x − 1) x − 3 3x − 1
86
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
SOLUTION The first term in the denominator can be factorised into x2 − 1 = (x − 1)(x + 1).
6x − 7x − 1 ≡ __________________
2
∴ _____________ 6x − 7x − 1
2
SOLUTION The denominator can be factorised into 2x2 + 5x + 2 ≡ (2x + 1)(x + 2).
6x + 10x + 2 ≡ ______________
2
∴ ______________ 6x + 10x + 2
2
87
M O DUL E 1
Multiplying throughout by x(2x + 1)(x + 2), we get
6x2 + 10x + 2 ≡ A(2x + 1)(x + 2) + Bx (x + 2) + Cx (2x + 1)
1
To find A, B and C we can substitute x = 0, x = − __
2 , x = −2 into the equation.
When x = 0,
6(0)2 + 10(0) + 2 = A(2(0) + 1)((0) + 2)
2 = 2A
∴A=1
1
__
When x = − 2 ,
( )
12
6 −__ 1
__
( ) 1
__ 1
__
( )(
2 + 10 −2 + 2 = B −2 − 2 + 2 )
3B
6 − 5 + 2 = − ___
__
4 4
6 3B
− __
4=− 4
___
B=2
When x = −2,
6 (−2)2 + 10 (−2) + 2 = C (−2)(2(−2) + 1)
6 = 6C
C=1
+ 10x + 2 ≡ __
6x2
∴ ______________ 1 + ______
2 + _____
1
(2x2 + 5x + 2)x x 2x + 1 x + 2
Note the sum of two fractions associated with the repeated linear factor.
88
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
EXAMPLE 5 2x + 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 2)(x + 1)2
SOLUTION Since the denominator consists of a distinct linear factor and a repeated linear factor,
we have
2x + 1
_____________ A + _____
≡ _____ C
B + _______
(x + 2)(x + 1)2 x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2
(one fraction for the distinct linear factor and the sum of two fractions for the
repeated linear factor).
Multiply both sides of the identity by the denominator of the lefthand side.
Note 2x + 1 = A(x + 1)2 + B(x + 2)(x + 1) + C(x + 2) [1]
The values of x Substitute x = −1 into [1]
that are chosen
to find A, B and C
2(−1) + 1 = A(−1 + 1)2 + B(−1 + 2)(−1 + 1) + C(−1 + 2)
are −1, −2 and −2 + 1 = A(0)2 + B(1)(0) + C(1)
0. The first two
values are found −1 = C
from the zeros of Substitute x = −2 into [1]
the denominator
(x + 1 = 0 and 2(−2) + 1 = A(−2 + 1)2 + B(−2 + 2)(−2 + 1) + C(−2 + 2)
x + 2 = 0) and −4 + 1 = A(−1)2 + B(0)(−1) + C(0)
the third value
can be any arbi −3 = A
trary value of x.
To find B we can substitute any other value for x.
Substitute x = 0, A = −3, C = −1 into [1]
2(0) + 1 = −3(0 + 1)2 + B(0 + 2)(0 + 1) + (−1)(0 + 2)
1 = −3 + 2B − 2
6 = 2B
3=B
Hence
2x + 1
_____________ −3 + _____
≡ _____ −1 = _____
3 + _______ 3 − _____
3 − _______
1
(x + 2)(x + 1)2 x + 2 x + 1 (x + 1)2 x + 1 x + 2 (x + 1)2
SOLUTION Since the denominator of this fraction consists of one repeated factor and one
distinct linear factor, we have
3x2 − 1 ≡ __
________ C
B + _____
A + __
x2(x + 1) x x2 x +1
Multiplying throughout by x2(x + 1), we have
3x2 − 1 ≡ Ax(x + 1) + B(x + 1) + Cx2
When x = 0,
−1 = B(0 + 1)
B = −1
89
M O DUL E 1
When x = −1,
3(−1)2 − 1 = C(−1)2
C=2
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
3=A+C
Substituting C = 2, we have
3=A+2
A=1
3x2 − 1 ≡ __
∴ ________ 1 + _____
1 − __ 2
x2(x + 1) x x2 x +1
SOLUTION Since the denominator of this fraction consists of one repeated linear factor and one
distinct linear factor, we have
A × (x + 1)3 x
_____ x2 + x − 1 ≡ _____
_________ B
A + _______ C D.
x+1 + _______ + __
(x + 1)3x x + 1 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)3 x
= A(x + 1)2 x
B × (x + 1)3 x
_______ Multiplying throughout by (x + 1)3x, we have
(x + 1)2
x2 + x − 1 ≡ Ax(x + 1)2 + Bx(x + 1) + Cx + D(x + 1)3
= B(x + 1) x
= Ax(x2 + 2x + 1) + Bx2 + Bx + Cx + D(x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 1)
C × (x + 1)3 x
_______
(x + 1)3 = Ax3 + 2Ax2 + Ax + Bx2 + Bx + Cx + Dx3 + 2Dx2 + Dx + Dx2
= Cx + 2Dx + D
D × (x + 1)3 x
__ = x3(A + D) + x2(2A + B + 3D) + x(A + B + C + 3D) + D
x
= D(x + 1)3 When x = 0,
−1 = D
When x = −1,
(−1)2 + (−1) − 1 = C (−1)
C=1
Equating coefficients of x3, we have
0=A+D
Substituting D = −1, we have
0=A−1
A=1
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
1 = 2A + B + 3D
90
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
6x2 − x − 2
(a) __________ Ask yourself
x (x − 1)
2
EXAMPLE 8 4
Separate ______________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1)
SOLUTION First check that the quadratic factor does not factorise. This fraction consists of one
distinct linear factor and one quadratic factor in the denominator, so we have
4
______________ Bx + C
A + _______
≡ _____
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1) x + 1 2x2 + 1
Multiply both sides of the identity by (x + 1)(2x2 + 1)
4 ≡ A(2x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) [1]
Substitute x = −1 into [1]
4 = A(2(−1)2 + 1) + (B(−1) + C)((−1) + 1)
4 = 3A
4
A = __
3
Substitute x = 0 into [1]
4 = A(2(0)2 +1) + (B(0) + C)(0 + 1)
4=A+C
4+C
4 = __
3
8
4 = __
C = 4 − __
3 3
91
M O DUL E 1
Substitute x = 1 and also the values for A and C into [1]
Note
Since we have
4 = __
3 ( 3 )
8 (1 + 1)
4 (2(1)2 + 1) + B(1) + __
found A and C, 4
__
4 = (3) + 2B + 16
___
to find B we can 3 3
16
___
equate coeffi 2B = − 3
8
B = − __
cients or substi
tute any other 3
value for x. Hence
Equating coef 4
__ −8 x + __
___ 8
ficients of x2, we 4
______________ _____
3 ________
3 3 4 8(1 − x)
≡ + ≡ _______ + _________
get 0 = 2A + B. (x + 1)(2x2 + 1) x + 1 2x + 1
2 3(x + 1) 3(2x 2 + 1)
SOLUTION The denominator consists of one linear factor and one quadratic factor, so we have
2x2 + 1 ≡ __
________ Bx + C
A + _______
x(x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
Multiplying throughout by x(x2 + 1), we have
2x2 + 1 ≡ A(x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)x
= Ax2 + A + Bx2 + Cx
= (A + B)x2 + Cx + A
Substituting x = 0, we have
1=A
Equating coefficients of x2, we have
2=A+B
∴2=1+B (Substituting A = 1)
B=1
Equating coefficients of x, we have
C=0
2x2 + 1 ≡ __
∴ ________ x
1 + ______
x(x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
Ask yourself
Is the fraction proper, is the denominator factorised, are the factors linear or quadratic or
both, are the factors repeated, what are the fractions associated with the factors of the
denominator, what is the fastest method of finding the constants?
92
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
SOLUTION We have a repeated quadratic factor and a linear factor in the denominator, therefore
the partial fractions are:
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _______
______________ Cx + D + _____
Ax + B + ________ E
(x + 4)2(x + 1)
2 x2 + 4 (x2 + 4)2 x + 1
⇒ 2 = − ___ 9 + C + ___
36 + ___ 72 ⇒ C = __
1
25 25 25 5
Hence
−__
9
25 x + 25
__
9 _1 x + _4 __
9
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _________
______________ + ________
5 5
+ _____
25
(x2 + 4)2(x + 1) x2 + 4 (x2 + 4)2 x + 1
This simplifies to
______________ 9(1 − x)
2x2 + x + 8 ≡ _________ x + 4 + ________
9
+ _________
(x + 4)2(x + 1) 25(x2 + 4) 5(x2 + 4)2 25(x + 1)
2
1 − x + 2x2 − x3
(b) ______________
x(x + 1)
2 2
93
M O DUL E 1
Improper fractions
If the degree of the numerator is equal to or higher than that of the denominator, the
expression is an improper fraction. Change the fraction to a mixed fraction and then
separate into partial fractions.
E X A M P L E 11 x3 − 1
Separate _____________ into partial fractions.
(x + 1)(x2 + 1)
x −1
3
∴ _____________ x +x+2
2
≡ 1 − _____________
(x + 1)(x2 +1) (x + 1)(x2 + 1)
x2 + x + 2 ≡ _____
_____________ Bx + C
A + _______
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) x + 1 x2 + 1
94
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
2x − 1
x − x − 1 ≡ x + ____________
3
∴ ____________
2 2x − 1
(x + 1)(x − 2) (x + 1)(x − 2)
2x − 1
Separating ____________ into partial fractions, we have
(x + 1)(x − 2)
2x − 1
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x + 1)(x − 2) x + 1 x − 2
⇒ 2x − 1 ≡ A(x − 2) + B(x + 1)
When x = 2,
2(2) − 1 = B(2 + 1)
3 = 3B
B=1
When x = −1,
2(−1) − 1 = A(−1 − 2)
−3 = −3A
A=1
2x − 1
∴ ____________ 1 + _____
≡ _____ 1
(x + 1)(x − 2) x + 1 x − 2
Hence
x3 − x2 − 1 ≡ x + _____
____________ 1 + _____
1
(x + 1)(x − 2) x+1 x−2
Extension
Investigation: Can you work out what happens if there
is a repeated quadratic fraction?
95
M O DUL E 1
EXERCISE 3A
In questions 1–25, separate the expression into partial fractions.
1 2
____________ 2 3x
____________
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x − 1)(x + 2)
3 4x
______________ 4 2x + 3
____________
(3x + 2)(2x + 1) (x − 1)(x − 2)
5 x
___________ 6 4
___________
2x2 − 5x + 2 x2 + 7x + 12
7 x+1
________ 8 x
_____________
x2(x + 2) (x + 1)2(x + 3)
9 3x + 5
_____________ 5
10 ______________
x(x2 − 4x + 4) (x + 1) (x − 1)
2 2
7
11 ______________ 5x + 2
12 _________
(x − 4) (2x + 1)
2 2x (3x − 1)
2x + 1
13 ________ 3x − 2
14 _________
(x + 1)x
2 (x + 4)x
2 2
x
15 ______________ 4x
16 _________________
(x + 2)(4x + 3)
2 (x + x + 1)(x + 1)
2
2
17 ______________ 7x − 5
18 ___________________
(4x + 2)(x + 2)
2 (3x + 1)(2x + 5x + 4)
2
12x2 − 3x − 10
19 ______________ x2 + 8x
20 ____________
(2x + 1)(3x − 4) (x + 2)(x − 1)
12x2 + 10x + 15
21 ______________ −11x − 15
22 ___________________
(x + 2) (1 − x)
2 (2x + 1)(2x − 5x − 3)
2
5x2 + 8x + 5
23 __________________ 1
24 ______
(2x + 1)(x + x + 1)
2 3x −8
2x2 − 3x + 5
25 _____________
(x + 1)(x + 4)
2
4x + 4x + 1 in the form A + __
2
26 Write the fraction ___________ C .
B + _____
x(x + 1) x x+1
96
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 3
(x − 4)(x2 + x + 1)
SUMMARY
Partial fractions
Proper Improper
fractions fractions
A λ1 λ2 λ3 λn Ax + B Ax + B + Cx + D Go to proper
+ + + ... +
ax + b cx + d (cx + d)2 (cx + d)3 (cx + d)n ax2 + bx + c ax2 + bx + c (ax2 + bx + c)2 fractions
97
M O DUL E 1
Checklist
98
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 4
Integration
KEYWORDS/TERMS
JOUFHSBUJPOtEJČFSFOUJBUJPOtDPOTUBOUPGJOUFHSBUJPOt
SFDPHOJUJPOtQBSUJBMGSBDUJPOTtTVCTUJUVUJPOt
JOUFHSBUJPOCZQBSUTtMJNJUTPGJOUFHSBUJPO
99
M O DUL E 1
Integration is the reverse of differentiation. Recall that whenever we integrate a
function without limits we need to add a constant of integration.
There are four methods of integration that we use for the CAPE syllabus: integration
by recognition, integration using partial fractions, integration by substitution and
integration by parts.
Recognition makes use of a set of standard integrals that you must be familiar with. As
soon as you look at the function that has to be integrated you should recognise its form
and be able to write down the result. For integration using partial fractions the function
being integrated is a rational function that can be split into parts. Once the split is done,
the resulting fractions will be simpler to integrate than the original function. Substitu
tion is generally used when integrating composite functions. When a substitution is
used, the original function is replaced and the resulting function will be of a form that
can be integrated quite easily. Integration by parts makes use of the product rule for
differentiation and is used to integrate some products of functions. All methods of
integration break down the function being integrated to a simpler form.
Integration by recognition
Integrating by recognition makes use of the standard list of integrals in this table.
Function Integral
xn x n+1
_____ + c, n ≠ −1
n+1
1
__
x ln  x  + c
1
______ 1 
__
a ln ax + b + c

ax + b
ex ex + c
e ax+b 1 ax+b + c
__
ae
sin x − cos x + c
1
sin (ax + b) −__
a cos (ax + b) + c
cos x sin x + c
cos (ax + b) 1
__
a sin (ax + b) + c
tan (ax + b) 1
__
a ln sec (ax + b) + c
sec2 x tan x + c
100
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
Function Integral
x +c
ln tan __
cosec x  ( )
2
cot x ln  sin x  + c
f ′ (x)
____ ln  f (x)  + c
f (x)
[ f (x) ]
________
n+1
f ′ (x)[ f (x) ]n + c, n ≠ −1
n+1
f ′ (x) e f (x) e f (x) + c
1
________ x
sin−1 ( __
a) + c
______
√a2 − x2
1
_______ 1
__ x
−1 __
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c
EXAMPLE 1 ∫
1
Find _______
(3x + 1)
d x.
∫
1
1 d x = __
Using ______
ax + b a ln  ax + b  + c where a = 3, b = 1,
∫
1 ln  3x + 1  + c
1 d x = __
we get ______
3x +1 3
EXAMPLE 2
∫
1
Find ________
(3x + 1)3
d x.
SOLUTION ∫
This integral is of the form (ax + b)n where a = 3, b = 1, n = −3.
∫ 1
________
(3x + 1)3 ∫
d x = (3x + 1)−3 d x
(3x + 1)−2
1 _________
= __ +c
3 −2
= −__ 1
1 (3x + 1)−2 + c = −_________ +c
6 6(3x + 1)2
EXAMPLE 3 ∫
Find e4x+5 d x.
SOLUTION ∫ 1 ax+b + c.
From the table e ax+b d x = __
ae
Substituting a = 4, b = 5, we get
∫ 1 e 4x+5 + c
e 4x+5 d x = __
4
EXAMPLE 4 ∫
Find e3−2x d x.
SOLUTION ∫ 1 ax+b + c
This is of the form e ax+b d x = __
ae
where a = −2, b = 3.
∫ 1 e3−2x + c
e3−2x d x = −__
2
101
M O DUL E 1
dy
EXAMPLE 5
dx ∫
Given that y = 3x, find ___ and hence find 3x d x.
SOLUTION y = 3x
Taking ln on both sides, we have
Using the chain
rule: ln y = ln 3x
d ln y
___ = x ln 3
dx
[ ]
dy
d ln y × ___ Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we have
= ___ [ ] dx
dy dy
1 ___
__
= __
dy
1 ___ y d x = ln 3
y dx
dy
Therefore ___ = y ln 3
dx
Substituting y = 3x, we have
dy
___ = 3x ln 3
dx
To find the integral we can use integration as the reverse of differentiation.
Since
d [3x] = 3x ln 3
___
dx
integrating both sides with respect to x, we get
∫
3x = 3x ln 3 d x
∫
= (ln 3) 3x d x
Hence
∫3x dx = ___
3 +c x
ln 3
EXAMPLE 6 ∫
Find ax d x, where a is a constant.
SOLUTION Let y = ax
Taking ln on both sides, we have
ln y = ln ax = x ln a
Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we have
d ln y = __ dy
dy
___
dx
[ ] 1___ y dx
1 ___
__
y d x = ln a d [ x ln a ] = ln a
___
dy dx
Therefore ___ = y ln a
dx
Substituting y = ax, we have
dy
___ = ax ln a
dx
To find the integral we can use integration as the reverse of differentiation.
Since
d [ax] = ax ln a
___
dx
102
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
∫
ax = ax ln a d x
∫
= (ln a) ax d x
Hence
∫ax dx = ____
a +c x
ln a
∫0 4x dx = ___
1 3 .
EXAMPLE 7 Show that
ln 4
∫
x
a + c = ax d x
SOLUTION Using ____ This result is worth remembering.
ln a
where a = 4, we have
∫ [ ]
1 4x 1
4x d x = ___
0 ln 4 0
4 1 40
= ___ − ___
ln 4 ln 4
4 − ___
= ___ 1
ln 4 ln 4
3
= ___
ln 4
π d x.
EXAMPLE 8 ∫
Find tan ( 3x + __
2)
SOLUTION ∫ 1
Using the standard form for tan (ax + b) d x = __
a ln sec (ax + b) + c
∫tan ( 3x + __π2 ) dx = __31 ln sec ( 3x + __π2 ) + c
EXAMPLE 9 ∫ 1
Find ____________π d x.
cosec ( x + __
2)
1
Recall that ______
SOLUTION cosec x = sin x
π
π = sin ( x + 2 )
1
∴ ____________ __
cosec ( x + __
2)
∫ 1
Using sin (ax + b) d x = −__
a cos (ax + b) + c
∫ ____________
1
cosec ( x + __
2)
π
__ π
π d x = ∫sin ( x + 2 ) d x = −cos ( x + 2 ) + c
__
∫
E X A M P L E 10 2x d x.
Integrate ______
1 + x2
SOLUTION d [1 + x2] = 2x
___
dx
Let f (x) = 1 + x2
f ′(x) = 2x
f ′ (x)
∫
This integral is of the form ____ d x = ln  f (x)  + c.
f (x)
∫
2x
∴ ______2 d x = ln  1 + x2  + c
1+x
x+2
E X A M P L E 11 ∫
Integrate __________
x2 + 4x + 1
d x.
SOLUTION d [x2 + 4x + 1] = 2x + 4.
___
dx
f ′ (x)
∫
This is of the form _____ d x.
f (x)
We can rewrite the integral as
f′
↓
Note 2(x + 2)
x+2
∫ __________ d x = __ ∫ __________
1 dx
1 × 2 = 1. Our
__ x2 + 4x + 1 2 x2 + 4x + 1
2 ↑
function has not f
x+2
∫
changed. ∴ __________ 1 ln [x2 + 4x + 1] + c
= __
x + 4x + 1 2
2
E X A M P L E 12 ∫
Show that tan x d x = ln sec x + c
SOLUTION sin x
Writing tan x = ____
cos x
∫ tan x dx = ∫ ____
sin x
cos x d x
−sin x d x,
= −∫ ______ d [cos x] = −sin x
___
cos x dx
= −ln cos x + c
= ln (cos x)−1 + c, using rules of logarithms
= ln sec x + c
E X A M P L E 13 ∫ex d x.
Find ______
1 + ex
f ′(x)
SOLUTION
dx ∫
d [1 + ex] = ex the integral is of the form ____
Since ___
f (x)
d x = ln  f (x)  + c.
ex d x = ln 1 + ex + c
∫
∴ ______
1 + ex
104
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
1
__
E X A M P L E 14 Find ∫ ln x
___
x d x.
SOLUTION ___ 1
d [ln x] = __
dx x
f ′(x)
∫ ____
f (x)
d x = ln  f (x)  + c
1
__
∴ ∫ ln x
___
x d x = ln  ln x  + c
∫ ______ ∫ ______
x dx 3 x dx
(a) (b)
x +5
4 x −1
2
3x + 1
(c) ∫ ____
cos x d x
sin x
(d) ∫ ___________
3x2 + 2x + 1
dx
∫
1
__
E X A M P L E 15 Integrate 2x (1 + x2) 2 d x.
E X A M P L E 16 ∫
Integrate cos x sin4 x d x.
∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) [f (x)]n d x = cos x (sin x)4 d x
5
sin x + c
= _____
5
105
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 17 ∫
Find tan4 x sec2 x d x.
tan5 x + c
= _____
5
E X A M P L E 18 Find __
x ∫
1 (ln x) d x.
∫
(a) _______x
______ dx
√1 + x2
∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = 2xe x d x = e x + c
2 2
∫ 2
Since we are interested in xe x d x we can write the function as
106
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
E X A M P L E 20 ∫
Find sec2x e tan x d x.
∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = sec2 x e tan x d x
= e tan x + c
E X A M P L E 21 ∫
Find cos x e sin x d x.
∫ ∫
∴ f ′(x) e f (x) d x = cos x esin x d x
= e sin x + c
with careful
recognition. (c) ∫x2e x +1 dx
3
(d) ∫sin x ecos x d x
EXERCISE 4A
Write down the integrals of the following functions.
Remember
These can all
1 ∫e7x dx 2 ∫e4x+2 dx
be integrated
by recognition.
You should be
3 ∫e5−2x dx 4 ∫ ______
4x + 5
1
dx
able to map
each function to
one in the table 5 ∫ ______
7x − 2
3dx 6 ∫ ______
2 dx
4 − 3x
given at the
beginning of the
chapter. 7 ∫ tan ( 2x + __π4 ) 8 ∫ sec2 ( __π2 − 3x ) dx
9 ∫ ___________
1
π dx
sec ( 2x − __ )
10 ∫ ___________
1
cosec (x + 2)
dx
4
11 ∫ ___________
1
cos2 (3x + 1)
dx 12 ∫6x2e x dx 3
__
13 ∫ sin x ecos x d x 14 ∫ ___
1 e x dx
√x
__ √
107
M O DUL E 1
17 ∫______
x dx
x2 + 9
18 ∫ _________
cos x d x
2 sin x + 1
∫ ______
2
∫__________
19 4 sec x d x 2
20 2x d x
2 tan x − 5 5 − x3
∫ ______ ∫ _______
e 3x arcsin x dx
21 dx 22 ______
e3x + 1 √1 − x2
__________
23 ∫ √tan2 3x + 1 dx 24 ∫ __
1 sin ( __
x ) dx
1
x2
Integration by substitution
The method of substitution is used to simplify the functions into a standard form
and then integrate these functions. When using a substitution, each function in the
integral must be replaced by a new variable; if there are limits within the integral it is
advisable to change the limits as well.
_____
E X A M P L E 22 ∫
Using the substitution u = 1 + x find x √1 + x d x.
Step 3 Change x
Again u = 1 + x ⇒ x = u − 1.
_____ __
Substituting du = d x, √1 + x = √u, x = u − 1, we have
_____ __
∫ x √1 + x dx = ∫ (u − 1) √u du
∫
1
__
= (u − 1)u 2 du
108
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
∫(u − 1)u 2 du = ∫ u 2 − u 2 du
1
__ 3
__ 1
__
5
__ 3
__
= ___
u − ___ u +c
2 2
5
__ 3
__
2 2
2 u __25 − __
= __ 2 u __23 + c
5 3
Substituting u = 1 + x, we have
_____
∫ x √x + 1 dx = __52 (1 + x) 2 − __32 (1 + x) 2 + c
5
__ 3
__
x + 1 d x.
E X A M P L E 23 Using the substitution u = 2x + 1, find ________
______
√2x + 1 ∫
SOLUTION Since we are using a substitution we need to convert all our x’s to u’s.
x + 1 dx
∫ ________
______
√2x + 1 Ask yourself
Let u = 2x + 1 Why is 2x + 1 being used as the
substitution?
Starting with d x
Notice that
______
du = 2
___
√ 2x + 1 is a
dx
composite
function. We du = 2 dx
use the function 1 du = dx
__
inside as the 2
substitution.
1 d u.
We will replace d x by __
2
______ __
Next: √2x + 1 = √u since u = 2x + 1
______ __
We will replace √2x + 1 by √u
109
M O DUL E 1
1
= __
4
∫( u__21 + u − 12 ) du
__
[ ]
3
__ 1
__
= __ u 2 + ___
1 ___
4 __
3
u 2 + c = __
1
__
1 __
4 3 [
2 u __23 + 2u __21 + c
]
2 2
Substituting u = 2x + 1
We now replace
2 [3 ]
x + 1 d x = __
∫ _______
3
__ 1
__
u to get back ______ 2 (2x + 1) 2 + 2(2x + 1) 2 + c
1 __
our integral as a √2x + 1
function of x. 3
__ 1
__
1 (2x + 1) 2 + (2x + 1) 2 + c
= __
3
1
__
E X A M P L E 24 Evaluate ∫02 _______
x d x using the substitution u = 1 − x2.
______
√1 − x2
_1
SOLUTION ∫02 _______
x
______
√1 − x2
dx
Step 1
Replace d x by a function of u
Since u = 1 − x2
du = −2x
___
dx
1
−__
2 du = x d x
1
Remember The integral contains x d x, which we can replace by −__
2 du.
With substitutions Step 2
you should: _____
t Change dx Convert √1 − x2 to a function of u.
to du. ______ __
110
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
Substituting, we get
1 x −1 d u3
∫02 √1 − x2 dx = ∫14 ____
__ _______ __
______ __
2 √u
∫__43 ____
1 1 du
= __ (switching the limits and changing the sign)
2 √u
[ ( )]
1
__ 1
u2
= ____
1
2 __ 3
__
2 4
[ ()]
1
__
3
= 1 − __ 2
4
__
√3
= 1 −___ 2
EXERCISE 4B
1 x
Find the integral ________
(4x + 2)3 ∫
d x using the substitution u = 4x + 2.
2 x
Use the substitution u = 6x2 + 8 to find ________
_______
√6x2 + 8
d x. ∫
∫1 ________
3 x 8.
3 Using the substitution u = 2x − 1, prove that d x = ___
(2x − 1)3 25
2
∫0 ______ ∫
2 8
1
3x d x = ______
4 Given that y = x3 show that d y. Hence evaluate the
1+x 6
0 1 + y2
integral.
x + 1 d x using u = 3x − 2.
∫1 ________
2
5 Evaluate ______
√ 3x − 2
______
∫0
4 98 .
6 Using the substitution u = x2 + 9, prove that x √x2 + 9 d x = ___
3
3 + 12x + 2
7 ∫
8x___________
Find _____________
√x4 + 3x2 + x
d x using the substitution u = x4 + 3x2 + x.
111
M O DUL E 1
∫ ________
−1
When solving 11 ln tan x d x
x 12 ∫x3e x 4+5 d x
questions 9–21,
∫ ______ 14 ∫9xe 4−3x2 d x
x dx3
look back at 13
questions 1– 8 1 + x4
and identity why 2
__
∫ ∫
15 x (x2 + 4)8 d x 16 x 3 dx
______
that particular 1
__
substitution was 1 + x3
∫ ____________
used. This will 2
∫
17 sec 4x dx 18 3
_______
______
−1
e sin (x) d x
help you choose (1 − 3 tan 4x)5 √1 − x 2
substitutions for
questions 9–21. 19 ∫ x cos ( x2 + __π2 ) dx 20 x + 1 dx
∫ _________
x2 + x − 1
21 ∫ _________
cos 3x d x
4 + sin 3x
Integration by parts
Our third method of integration is derived directly from the product rule for differ
entiation. Integration by parts is used to integrate some products of functions of x.
d [uv] = u ___
Recall that ___ du
dv + v ___
dx dx dx
Integrating both sides with respect to x, we have
∫dv d x + v ___
uv = u ___
dx ∫
du d x
dx
∫ dv d x = uv − v ___
∴ u ___
dx
du d x
dx ∫
This is the formula for integrating by parts. Let us see how to use it.
E X A M P L E 25 ∫
Find xex d x.
Be careful with
your choice of
SOLUTION
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
Using integration by parts u ___
dx∫
du d x. functions for
u and v. If we
Compare the lefthand side of the formula with your integral. switch the
functions,
Remember ∫u ___
dx ∫
dv d x ≡ xex d x
dv = x,
u = ex, ___
dx
∫x ex2 dx is done dv .
We must assign one of the functions to u and the other to ___
dx
du = ex,
___
dx
1 x2, our
by recognition dv = ex
∴ Let u = x, ___ v = __
2
dx
∫
integral
but xex dx is Look at the formula on the righthand side becomes
integrated by
parts. ∫ du d x
uv − v ___
dx
__
2 ∫
1 x2ex − __
1x2 exdx
2
du.
We need u, v, ___ which is more
dx complex than the
du we differentiate u = x.
To find ___
dx one we started
dv = ex.
To find v we integrate ___ with.
dx
We have u = x ___ dv = ex
dx
du = 1 v = ex
___
dx
112
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
Substituting into
∫u ___
dx ∫ du
dv d x = uv − v ___
dx
dx
E X A M P L E 26 ∫
Find x sin x dx.
SOLUTION ∫u ___
dx ∫ du
dv d x = uv − v ___
dx
d x.
∫
Comparing u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ x sin x d x
dx
Let u = x, ___dv = sin x
dx
du = 1,
∴ ___ v = −cos x
dx
∫
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x,
dx
E X A M P L E 27 ∫
Use integration by parts to find ln x d x.
∫ln x dx = ∫1 ln x dx.
Comparing with ∫u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ 1 ln x d x, in this case we must let u = ln x
dx
(since we know the differential of ln x and we are going to integrate ln x).
dv = 1
Let u = ln x, ___
dx
du = __
___ 1, v=x
dx x
∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
du dx
dx
∫ln x dx = x ln x − ∫ __1x × x dx
∫
= x ln x − 1 d x
= x ln x − x + c
113
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 28 ∫
Find tan−1 x d x.
∫u ___ ∫
dv d x ≡ 1 tan−1 (x) d x
dx
dv = 1
u = tan−1 x, ___
dx
Remember du = ______
1 ,
___ v=x
dx 1 + x2
∫ ______
x dx
1 + x2
∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
Substituting into u ___ du d x
∫
2 ∫ 1 + x2
1 ______
= __ 2x dx dx dx
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
= __
2 ∫tan−1 x dx = x tan−1 x − ∫ ______
x dx
1 + x2
since ∫ __
f' dx = ln f
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
f = x tan−1 x − __
2
∫0 x2ex dx.
1
E X A M P L E 29 Evaluate
d x = ∫ x2ex d x
1
∫u ___
SOLUTION dv
dx 0
Let u = x2, dv = ex
___
dx
du = 2x, v = ex
___
dx
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x
dx ∫
∫0 x2ex dx = [x2ex]01 − ∫0 2x ex dx
1 1
= [ 12e1 − 02e0 ] − 2 ∫ x ex d x
1
= e − 2 ∫ x ex d x
1
∫0 x ex dx by parts again.
1
We need to integrate
Remember
dv = ex
Let u = x, ___
You must decide dx
on the functions du = 1, v = ex
___
dv.
for u and ___ dx
dx
∫0 x ex dx = [x ex]10 − ∫0 ex dx
1 1
Since we are
dv we
integrating ___
dx = [x ex − ex]10 = (1e1 − e1) − (0e0 − e0)
must know the
integral of this =1
function.
∫0 x2ex dx = e − 2 (1) = e − 2
1
∴
When we have a definite integral, we need to evaluate the integral at each stage or we
can integrate until the end and then substitute the limits.
114
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
E X A M P L E 30 ∫
Find ex cos x d x.
∫ ∫
∴ ex cos x dx = ex sin x − ex sin x dx
∫
Now we find ex sin x dx using integration by parts.
dv = sin x
Let u = ex, ___
dx
du = ex, v = −cos x
___
dx
∫ ∫
∴ ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex cos x dx
∫ ∫
Substituting ex sin x dx = −ex cos x + ex cos x dx into
∫ 1 [ ex sin x + ex cos x ] + c
Hence ex cos x dx = __
2
dv be the
Notice we need to integrate by parts twice at each stage. We let u = ex and ___
dx
trigonometric function.
EXERCISE 4C
In questions 1–8, use integration by parts to find the integrals.
∫1 x ln x dx ∫x2 cos x dx
2
1 2
π
__
∫ x 2 ln x dx ∫02 x sin 2x dx
1
__
3 4
5 ∫x e2 x dx 6 ∫x2 ln x dx
115
M O DUL E 1
7 ∫x3 ln x dx 8 ∫x3 arctan x dx
_____
∫0 x √1 + x dx.
1
9 Use integration by parts to find
0
_______
12 Show that ∫arccos (2x) d x = x arccos (2x) − __21 √1 − 4x2 + c.
13 Use integration by parts to find ∫x2 ln (5x) d x.
14 Show that ∫ (ln x)2 d x = e + 2.
e
1
π
15 Find ∫
__
2 ex sin x d x.
1
π − __
16 Show that ∫ arctan x d x = __ 1 ln 2.
0 0 4 2
17 Use integration by parts to show that
______
∫x5 √1 + x3 dx = __92 x3 (x3 + 1) 2 − ___
3
__ 5
__
4 (x3 + 1) 2 + c.
45
π
__
Show that ∫ 2 3x cos 2x d x = −__
3
18 2.
0
__
19 Show that ∫ √θ ln θ d θ = ___
4
16 ln 4 − ___
28 .
1 3 9
E X A M P L E 31 ∫ x
Determine ____________
(x + 1)(x + 2)
d x.
SOLUTION x
Separating ____________ into partial fractions
(x + 1)(x + 2)
x
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2
Multiplying by (x + 1)(x + 2) gives
x ≡ A(x + 2) + B (x + 1)
When x = −1, −1 = A (−1 + 2)
−1 = A
When x = −2, −2 = B (−2 + 1)
B=2
116
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
x
∴ ____________ −1 + _____
2
≡ _____
x+1 x+2
(x + 1)(x + 2) We can also write
−1 and _____
_____
x+1
2 are two standard integrals.
x+2 ∫____________
x
(x + 1) (x + 2)
dx
x+1
E X A M P L E 32 ∫
Determine _____________
(x + 2)(x2 − 4)
d x.
SOLUTION x+1
We separate _____________ into partial fractions as follows.
(x + 2)(x2 − 4)
This is a proper fraction, so we need to factorise the denominator
x2 − 4 = (x − 2)(x + 2)
x+1
∴ _____________ x+1
≡ _____________
(x + 2)(x2 − 4) (x + 2)2 (x − 2)
We now have a repeated linear factor in the denominator and a distinct linear factor.
x+1
______________ A + _______
≡ _____ B C
+ ______
(x + 2)2 (x − 2) x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
Multiply by (x + 2)2 (x − 2) ⇒ x + 1 ≡ A (x + 2)(x − 2) + B (x − 2) + C (x + 2)2
When x = 2, 2 + 1 = C (2 + 2)2
3 = 16C 3
so C = ___
16
When x = −2, −2 + 1 = B (−2 − 2)
−1 = −4B 1
so B = __
4
Comparing coefficients of x2:
0=A+C
0 = A + ___3
There are no 16
terms in x 2 on 3
the LHS. On the A = −___
16 3 1
__ 3
___
RHS
+ −___
A × x × x = Ax 2 ∴ x 1
_____________ ≡ 16
_____ + _______
4 + 16
_____
(x + 2)2 (x − 2) x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
and C(x + 2)2
3 1
__ 3
___
gives Cx 2
x+1 −___
∴0=A+C ∫ _____________
(x + 2)2 (x − 2)
dx = ∫ 16
_____ + _______
4 +
x + 2 (x + 2)2 x − 2
16
_____ dx
3
= −___ 1
__
∫ −2 3
___
16 ln x + 2 + 4 (x + 2) d x + 16 ln x − 2 + c
3 1
__ 3
___
= −___ −1
16 ln x + 2 − 4 (x + 2) + 16 ln x − 2 + c
3 1
________ 3
___
= −___
16 ln x + 2 − 4 (x + 2) + 16 ln x − 2 + c
117
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 33 x
Separate _____________ into partial fractions and hence show that
(x + 1)(x2 + 1)
π
∫
1 _____________
x 1
d x = −__ __
0 (x + 1)(x + 1)
2 4 ln 2 + 8 .
SOLUTION x
_____________ ≡ _____ Bx + C
A + _______
(x + 1)(x + 1)
2 x + 1 x2 + 1
⇒ x ≡ A (x2 + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
When x = − 1, − 1= A (2)
A = −__ 1
2
When x = 0, 0 = A + C
0 = −__1+C
2
C = __1
2
Equating the coefficients of x2
0=A+B
0 = −__1+B
2
1
B = __
2
−_12 _1 x + _1
∴ x
_____________ ≡ _____ _______
+ 22 2
(x + 1)(x + 1)
2 x + 1 x +1
Note
−_12 _1 x + _1
∫0 ∫0
1 x 1
_____________ dx = _____ + _______
2 2
dx
∫ ______
1 dx =
1 + x2
(x + 1)(x2 + 1) x+1 x2 + 1
tan−1 (x) + c _1 x + _1 _1 x _1
______
2
Separating 2 2 ______
into 2 2 ______
+ 22
(Standard form) x +1 x +1 x +1
∫ x
______
1 + x2
dx
∫0 _____ 2 ∫0 x2 + 1 2 ∫0 x2 + 1
1 1 1
1 ______
1 d x + __ x d x + __
1 ______ 1
1 dx
= −__
2 x+1
= __ ∫
1 ______
2x dx
2 1 + x2
[ ]
1 1 1 1
1 ln (1 + x2) + c
= __ = −__ __ __ −1
2 ln (x + 1) + 4 ln (x + 1) + 2 tan (x)
2
2 0
∫
f' (x)
____ dx
f (x)
= ln f (x) + c
[ 1
= −__ 1
__ 1
__ −1 1
__
] [ 1
__ −1
2 ln 2 + 4 ln 2 + 2 tan (1) − − 2 ln 1 + 4 ln 1 + tan (0) ]
π
1 ln 2 + __
= −__
4 8
∫3 __________
4 2
x
E X A M P L E 34 Evaluate dx
x2 − 3x + 2
1
x2
__________
SOLUTION is an improper fraction x2 − 3x+2 ) x2
x − 3x + 2
2
−x2 − 3x + 2
By long division 3x − 2
x2
__________ 3x − 2
≡ 1 + __________ ∴ 2 x 2
__________
x − 3x + 2
2 x − 3x + 2
2 x − 3x + 2
3x − 2
= 1 + __________
3x − 2 ≡ ____________
__________ 3x − 2 x2 − 3x + 2
x2 − 3x + 2 (x − 2)(x − 1)
118
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
3x − 2
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(x − 2)(x − 1) x − 2 x − 1
3x − 2 ≡ A(x − 1) + B (x − 2)
When x = 1, then 1 = −B ⇒ B = −1
When x = 2, then 6 − 2 = A ⇒ A = 4
3x − 2 ≡ _____
__________ 4 − _____
1
x2 − 3x + 2 x − 2 x − 1
x2
Hence __________ 4 − _____
≡ 1 + _____ 1
x − 3x + 2
2 x−2 x−1
d x = ∫ ( 1 + _____
∫3 __________ x −2 x − 1)
4 x2 4
∴ 4 − _____
1 dx
x2 − 3x + 2 3
= [x + 4 ln (x − 2) − ln (x − 1)]43
= (4 + 4 ln 2 − ln 3) − (3 + 4 ln 1 − ln 2)
= 4 − 3 + 4 ln 2 + ln 2 − ln 3
= 1 + 5 ln 2 − ln 3
( )
32
= 1 + ln ___
3
E X A M P L E 35 3x + 1 ≡ __
2
Find the values of A, B and C for which ________ Bx + C .
A + _______
x (x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
3x2 + 1 dx = ln (cx (x2 + 1)).
∫
Hence show that ________
x (x2 + 1)
3x2 + 1 ≡ __
_________ Bx + C
A + _______
x (x2 + 1) x x2 + 1
∫ ( 1x + ______
3x + 1 d x = __
∫ _________ x2 + 1 )
2 2x d x
x (x2 + 1)
= ln x + ln (x2 + 1) + ln c
= ln (cx (x2 + 1))
119
M O DUL E 1
Try these 4.7 Find
Remember
(a) ∫ ___________
x
x2 + 7x + 12
dx
∫______
2x dx
1− x 2
3x2 + x + 1 d x
(b) ∫ ______________
(x + 1)(2x2 + 1)
can be done by
recognition or
partial fractions.
∫ __________
x 3 Recognition is
(c) dx
x2 + 3x + 2 much faster.
EXERCISE 4D
Find the integrals in questions 1–23.
1 ∫ _____
x + 2 dx
x 2 2x + 3 d x
∫ ______
x−2
5x + 7 d x
∫ ______ ∫ _____
2
x dx
3 2x − 1
4 x−2
x3 + x + 2 d x
5 ∫ _________
x+1
6 ∫ ____________
1
(x + 2)(x − 3)
dx
7 ∫ ____________
4
(x − 3)(x − 7)
dx 8 ∫ _____________
3x
(2x + 3)(x + 1)
dx
x+2
9 ∫ __________
x
x2 + 5x + 6
dx 10 ∫ ___________
3x2 − 8x + 4
dx
5x − 2 d x
11 ∫ __________
6x2 + x − 2
12 ∫ _____________
4x
(x2 − 4)(x − 3)
dx
4x + 2 8x + 2x − 24 d x
∫ __________________ ∫ ______________
2
13 dx 14
(x − 1)(x + 2)(x + 3) (x2 + 4x)(x − 2)
3x + 8x − 8 43 − 22x − 3x
∫ ___________________ ∫ ___________________
2 2
15 dx 16 dx
(x + 2)(2x2 − 3x − 2) (2x2 − 7x + 3)(x + 2)
17 ∫ ________
1
x (x2 + 1)
dx 18 ∫ ______
1 dx
x3 − 8
5x − 4x + 4 4x + 4x + 1 d x
∫ __________________ ∫ ___________
2 2
19 dx 20
(x + 2)(x2 − 2x + 2) x (x + 1)
x + 3x − 2 d x x + x + 2x + 1 d x
∫ __________ ∫ ______________
4 3 2
21 22
x2 − 1 x (x2 + 1)
x + 3x + 3 d x
∫ __________
2
23
x2 + 2x + 1
Ask yourself
Is the differential of the denominator contained in the numerator?
∫ 2x
______
1 − x2
dx = −ln  1 − x2  + c
d [ 1 − x2 ] = −2x
i.e. ___
dx
Instead of partial fractions you can use recognition to integrate this function.
120
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
3x + 3x + 2 ≡ ______
2
24 Given that ______________ Bx + C , find A, B and C.
A + _______
2 2x + 1
(2x + 1)(x + 1) 2 x +1
∫0 ______________
1
Hence show that 3x2 + 3x + 2 d x = __ π
1 ln 6 + __
(2x + 1)(x2 + 1) 2 4
x + x + x + 2 d x = arctan x + __
26 Show that ∫______________
3 2 1 ln (x2 + 2) + c.
4 2x + 3x + 2 2
27 Evaluate ∫0 _________________
2
3x2 − 5 d x.
2 (x + x + 1)(x − 2)
Function Integral/procedure
sin x − cos x + c
cos x sin x + c
x +c
ln tan __
cosec x  ( )
2
cot x ln sin x + c
1
sin x cosn x, n ≠ −1 −_____
n + 1 cos x + c
n+1
121
M O DUL E 1
π d x.
E X A M P L E 36 ∫
Determine sin ( 4x − __
2)
E X A M P L E 40 ∫
Find sin x cos6 x d x.
E X A M P L E 41 ∫
Find sin x cosn x d x, n ≠ −1.
122
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
E X A M P L E 42 ∫
Find cos x sinn x d x, n ≠ −1.
E X A M P L E 43 ∫
Determine tann x sec2 x d x, n ≠ −1.
∫ tann+1 x + c,
tann x sec2 x d x = _______
n+1
n ≠ −1
E X A M P L E 44 ∫
Find sin2 x d x.
SOLUTION 1 − cos 2x
Since sin2 x = _________ cos 2x = 1 − 2 sin2x
2
E X A M P L E 45 ∫
Find cos2 x d x.
SOLUTION 1 + __
Since cos2 x = __ 1 cos 2x
2 2
E X A M P L E 46 ∫
Find sin3 x d x.
∫ ∫
we have sin3 x d x = sin x sin2 x d x
Substituting sin2 x = 1 − cos2 x
123
M O DUL E 1
cos x + c
= −cos x + _____
3 ∫ ↑
cos3 x
= − − sin x (cos x)2 dx = −_____
3
3 f
E X A M P L E 47 ∫
Find cos3 x d x.
We can integrate sin5 x, cos5 x, sin7 x, cos7 x, etc. using the same procedure as for
sin3 x and cos3 x.
E X A M P L E 48 ∫
Find sin4 x d x.
∫
∴ sin4 x d x = ∫[ __41 − __12 cos 2x + __14 ( __21 + __21 cos 4x ) ] dx
= ∫( __
1 − __ 1 cos 2x + __ 1 + __
)
1 cos 4x d x
4 2 8 8
E X A M P L E 49 ∫
Find tan2 x d x.
∫ tan2 x dx = ∫ (sec2 x − 1) dx
= tan x − x + c
E X A M P L E 50 ∫
Determine tan3 x d x.
E X A M P L E 51 ∫
Find cos 4x sin 2x d x.
∫ cos 4x sin 2x d x = __ ∫(
1 sin 6x − __
2
1 sin 2x d x
2 )
1 cos 6x + __
= − ___ 1 cos 2x + c
12 4
125
M O DUL E 1
E X A M P L E 52 ∫
Find cos 5x cos 3x d x
∫ cos 5x cos 3x d x = __
1
∫( 1
__
2 cos 8x + 2 cos 2x d x )
1 sin 8x + __
= ___ 1 sin 2x + c
16 4
π
__
E X A M P L E 53 Find ∫0
2 4 sin 6x sin 2x d x.
1 sin 4 __
= __
2 [
( π2 ) − __41 sin 8 ( __π2 ) − __21 sin 4 (0) − __41 sin 8 (0) ]
=0
E X A M P L E 54 1
Using the substitution x = a sinθ, show that ________
_______
√a2 − x2
∫
d x = sin−1 ( __
a ) + c.
x
126
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
_______
= √ a2 cos2 θ
= a cos θ
∫
= 1 dθ = θ + c
∫
1
∴ ________
_______ d x = sin−1 ( __
a )
x +c
√a − x
2 2
E X A M P L E 55 ∫
1 d x = __
Show that _______
a +x
2 2 a ( a )
x + c, using the substitution x = a tan θ.
1 tan−1 __
= a2 + a2 tan2 θ
= a2 (1 + tan2 θ )
θ dθ
∫ _______ ∫ aa2sec
2
1 d x = _______
a2 + x2 sec2 θ
= ∫ __
1 1
__
a dθ = a θ + c
Since x = a tan θ
x
tan θ = __
a
θ = tan−1 ( __
a)
x
∫
∴ _______
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c
1 d x = __
1 x
−1 __
∫
E X A M P L E 56 1
Find _________
________ d x.
√4 − 25x2
SOLUTION 1
Writing _________
________ 1
in the form ________
_______ we get
√4 − 25x2
√a − x2
2
1
_________
________ 1
= ____________
___________
√4 − 25x2
√ ( )
25 4
___ − x2
25
127
M O DUL E 1
1
= _____________
________
√( )
___
2
√ 25 __ 2 − x2
5
1
__
5
_________
= ________
√( )
2 2 − x2
__
5
∫__________
1
________ d x = __ ∫
1 _________1 ________
√( 5 ) − x2
√ 4 − 25 x2 5 2
__ 2
()
x +c
1 sin−1 __
= __
5 _2
5
= __
5
5x + c
1 sin−1 ___
2 ( )
E X A M P L E 57 1
∫
Determine __________
x2 +2x + 2
d x.
∫ 1
∴ __________
x2 + 2x + 2
1
d x = ___________
1 + (x + 1)2∫ x+1 +c
dx = tan−1 _____
1 ( )
= tan−1 (x + 1) + c
E X A M P L E 58 ∫
1 d x.
Find ______
4 + x2
SOLUTION ∫ ______ ∫ 22 +1 x2 dx
1 d x = ______
4 + x2
Since _______∫
1 d x = __
a2 + x2 a tan ( a ) + c, substituting a = 2 gives
1 x
−1 __
∫ 1 d x = __
______
22 + x2 ( 2x ) + c
1 tan−1 __
2
E X A M P L E 59 1
∫
Find _______
4 + 9x2
d x.
SOLUTION 1
Writing the function _______ 1 , we get
in the form _______
4 + 9x2 a2 + x2
∫ _________
1 1 ________
d x = __ ∫ 1 dx
(9 )9
(3)
4
__ 2
__ 2
9 +x 2 + x2
Since ______
a2 +x2 ∫ a tan ( a ) + c, substituting a = 3 gives
1 d x = __
1 x
−1 __ 2
__
__
∫
1 ________
1
9 ( _2 )2 + x2
3
1 __
d x = __
9 _2
3
[ x +c
1 tan−1 __
_2
3
( )]
3 tan−1
1 × __
= __
9 2 ( ___
2)
3x + c
= __
6
3x
1 tan−1 ___
2 ( )+c
128
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
E X A M P L E 60 ∫1
Find ________
_______
√4 − 9x2
d x.
_______ _________
√( )
SOLUTION 4 − x2
√4 − 9x2 = 9 __
9
_______
√( __9 − x )
__
= √9 4 2
________
√( __3 ) − x
2 2
=3 2
∫1
∴ ________
_______ 1
d x = ___________
________ dx∫
√4 − 9x
√( )
2 2
__ 2
3 − x2
3
()
1 sin−1 __
= __ x +c
3 2
__
3
= __
3
3x + c
1 sin−1 ___
2 ( )
∫−1 _____________
E X A M P L E 61 Evaluate
1 1 d x.
____________
√−x2 + 2x + 8
[ x−1
( )]
1
= sin−1 _____
3 −1
2
= sin−1 (0) − sin−1 −__
3 ( )
= 0.729 73 = 0.730 (3 d.p.)
E X A M P L E 62 1
∫
Determine __________
x2 + 4x + 6
d x.
∫ 1
∴ __________
x2 + 4x +6
1
d x = ___________
2 + (x + 2)2
dx ∫
129
M O DUL E 1
∫ __ 1
= ______________
( √ 2 )2 + (x + 2)2
dx
SOLUTION x = 2 tan θ
dx = 2 sec2 θ dθ
3
__ 3
__
( x2 + 4 )2 = ( 4 tan2θ + 4 )2
3
__
= [ 4( 1 + tan2θ ) ]2
3
__
= ( 4 sec2 θ )2
= 8 sec3θ
Now
2 sec θ dθ
∫________ dx = ∫ _______
2
1
( 2
3
)2
__ 8 sec3 θ
x +4
= __∫
1 ____
1 dθ
4 sec θ
1 cos θ dθ
= __
4 ∫
1 sin θ + c
= __
4
x
Since tan θ = __
2
x
sin θ = _______
______
√4 + x2 √4 + x2 x
∴ ∫________
( 2
1
3
)2
= __
4
x
1 _______
√4 + x2
__
+c ______
θ
x +4 2
________
√9 − 4x2 dx using the substitution x = __3 sin θ.
E X A M P L E 64 ∫
Find _________
x2 2
SOLUTION 3 sin θ
x = __
2
dx = __3 cos θ dθ
2 _____________
_______
√
√9 − 4x2 = 9 − 4 __23 sin θ 2
_____________
( )
√
= 9 − 4 __ 9 sin2 θ
4 ( )
__________
= √9 − 9 sin2 θ
___________
= √9(1 − sin2 θ)
_______
= √9 cos2 θ
= 3 cos θ
130
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
_______
√9 − 4x2 d x = ________
3 cos θ × __
∫
∴ ________ ∫
3 cos θ dθ
x2 3 sin θ 2 2
__
2 ( )
cos2 θ
2
= __ _____
3 × 3 sin2 θ dθ ∫
∫ ∫
= 2 cot2 θ dθ = 2 (cosec2 θ − 1)dθ
= −2 cot θ − 2θ + c
Since x = __ 3 sin θ 3
2 2x
sin θ = __2x
3 θ
θ = sin−1 __2 x
_______
3 ( )
_______
√9 − 4x2
√ 9 − 4x2
∫√ −
(
2
3 )
9
∴ ________ 4x = − ________ 2x + c
− 2 sin−1 __
2
dx x cot θ =
√9 − 4x2
x 2x
(a) ∫ ______
1 dx
9 + x2
(b) ∫ ________
1
4 + 25x2
dx
(c) ∫ ____________
4
9x2 + 6x + 16
dx (d) ∫ __________
1
________
√−x − 2x
2
dx
∫_____
1 dx,
2
x –1 ∫_____
x –1 ∫x 1+ 1 dx
x dx, _____
2 2
Can you identify which method of integration is best for each one?
EXERCISE 4E
1 ∫
Find tan3x sec2x dx.
2 ∫
Show that sin 7x sin 3x dx = __
8
1 sin 10x + c.
1 sin 4x − ___
20
3 1
∫
Find (a) ________
25x2 + 4
dx ∫ 1
(b) ________
16x2 + 9
dx ∫ 1
(c) _______
2x2 + 6
dx
4 ∫
Show that cos2 x sin4 x dx = ___
16
1 sin 4x − ___
1 x − ___
64
1 sin3 2x + c.
84
π
∫04 tan2 x sec4 x dx = ___
__
5 Show that 8.
15
6 1
By completing the square of x2 + 6x + 13, find ___________
x2 + 6x + 13
dx. ∫
______
7 Using the substitution x = 2 sin θ, find √4 − x2 dx. ∫
8 ∫
Find (a) cos 8x cos 6x dx ∫
(b) sin 7x cos 3x dx ∫
(c) cos 6x sin 2x dx
131
M O DUL E 1
9 Evaluate ∫ 1
1 ____________
2 + 4x + 10 dx.
0 4x
∫ 1
Hence find _________
______
x2 √ 4 + x2
dx.
________
12 Find ∫√1 − cos x dx.
1
13 Evaluate ∫
2
x dx.
______
+ x2
01
∫sin x
14 Find _________
________
√ 1 + cos x
dx.
∫ 1
Hence find _________
______
x √ 9 − x2
2
dx.
132
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
SUMMARY
Integration
∫x dx = xn+1 + c, n ≠ –1
n+1
n
∫(a + b) dx = a1 (a n+ +b) 1
n
n+1
+ c, n ≠ –1 ∫fg(x)dx Use the rules of partial
fractions to split up the ∫u dx dx = uv –∫v dx dx
dv du
∫sin(ax + b) dx = – a1 cos(ax + b) + c
∫cos x = sin x + c
∫cos(ax + b) dx = a1 sin(ax + b) + c
∫tan x dx = lnsec x  + c
∫cot x dx = lnsin x  + c
∫sec x dx = lnsec x + tan x  + c
∫cosec x dx = lntan (2) + c
x
∫sec x dx = tan x + c
2
∫cosec x dx = –cot x + c
2
x
∫ √a 1– x
2 2
dx = sin–1 a + c ()
1 tan–1 x + c
∫a
1
2 + x2
dx = a a ()
∫ f (x) dx = lnf(x) + c
f’(x)
n+1
∫f’(x)[f (x)] dx = [f (x)]
n
n +1
+ c, n ≠ –1
133
M O DUL E 1
Checklist
■ Integrate by substitution.
■ Integrate by parts.
■ Integrate using partial fractions.
■ Integrate trigonometric functions.
■ Integrate inverse trigonometric functions.
1 1
■ Integrate functions of the form _______
a2 + x2
and ________
_______ .
2 2
√a − x
Review e x e r c i s e 4
_____
1 ∫
(a) Find x √ 1 + x d x.
(b) Evaluate
π
__ 2
∫ ∫1 ______
2 (ln x)
(i) 4 2 cos2 4x d x (ii) x dx
0
2 ∫
Find x cosec2 (x) d x.
3 Evaluate
2x + 1 d x
∫0 ____________
1
∫1
2 1
(a) ______ (b) dx
x−2 (1 + x)(2 − x)
4 Find
(a) ∫ ________
1
3 d x using the substitution x = 3sec θ
__
(x − 9) 2
2
∫ x (1 + 3x2) 2 dx
1
__
(b) ______
4 − x d x.
∫0 √______
1 2
5 Use the substitution x = 2 sin2 θ to evaluate
2x
∫4 x2 − 5x + 6 dx = ln ( 9 ).
6 Show that
5 2
__________ 16
___
134
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 4
∫1 x3 ln x dx.
e
8 Evaluate
∫0 4x dx.
4
9 Find the exact value of
5
10 Find the values of A, B and C for which _____________ Ax + B + _____
= _______ C .
2 2 x+1
(x + 1)(x + 4) x +4
∫0 _____________
2
Hence find the exact value of 5 d x.
(x + 1)(x2 + 4)
1
11 Express ______________ A + _______
in the form _____ B C
_____
(x + 1) (x − 2)
2 x+1 2 + x − 2 where A, B and
(x + 1)
1
C are constants. Hence find ______________
(x + 1) (x − 2)
2 ∫d x.
__
∫ ∫0
1 √3 1
= __ 6 cos2 θ d θ. Hence find the exact value of ________ d x.
3 0 (x2 + 9)2
13 Find ∫_______________
1
_____________ d x.
2
√−x − 6x + 16
14 By using the substitution x = 4cos2 θ + 7sin2 θ, evaluate
7 1
∫4 √(x − 4)(7 − x) dx.
______________
____________
__
(4 − π) √2
15 Show that ∫
1 π
___
12 x sin 3x d x = __________.
0 72
15 − 13x + 4x = _____
16 Given that ______________ A + _______
B 2 C
_____
1−x
(1 − x) (4 − x)
2 2 + 4 − x , find the constants
(1 − x)
A, B and C.
15 − 13x + 4x2 d x, giving the exact value in terms of
∫
3
Hence evaluate _____________
2 (1 − x) (4 − x)
2
logarithms.
π
__
20 Evaluate ∫ 2 ex cos x d x.
0
135
M O DUL E 1
CHAPTER 5
Reduction Formulae
KEYWORDS/TERMS
SFEVDUJPOGPSNVMBtJOUFHSBUJPOCZQBSUT
136
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5
∫
We have In = sinn−1 x sin x d x
dv = sin x
Using integration by parts, let u = sinn−1 x, ___
dx
To find the differential of sinn−1 x we use the chain rule (bring down the power,
reduce the power by 1 and multiply by the differential of sin x)
du = (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos x, v = −cos x.
___
dx
Substituting into
∫u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x
dx
we get
∫
In = −cos x sinn−1 x − (−cos x)(n − 1) sinn−2 x cos x d x
∫
= −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos 2 x d x
Substituting cos 2 x = 1 − sin2 x
∫
In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1) sinn−2 x (1 − sin2 x) d x
In−2 = ∫sinn−2 x d x
∴ In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2 − (n − 1)In
137
M O DUL E 1
Making In the subject of the formula
In + (n − 1)In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2
∴ n In = −cos x sinn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2, n≥2 (1 + (n − 1) = n)
A reduction formula for In = ∫ sinn x d x is therefore
1 n−1
In = −__ n−1 I ,
_____
n sin x cos x + n (
n−2 ) n≥2
SOLUTION ∫
Let In = cosn x d x
We write cosn x = cosn−1 x cos x Use the integration by
dv = cos x parts formula:
Using integration by parts, let u = cosn−1 x, ___
To differentiate u we use the chain rule.
dx
∫u ___
dv dx = uv − ∫v ___
dx
du dx
dx
du = (n − 1) cosn−2 x (−sin x), v = sin x
___
dx
∫
In = sin x cosn−1 x − sin x [(n − 1) cosn−2 x (−sin x)] d x
∫
= sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) cosn−2 x sin2 x d x
Substituting sin2 x =1− cos 2 x, we have
∫
In = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1) cosn−2 x (1 − cos2 x) d x
∫
The reduction formula for In = cosn x d x is
nIn = sin x cosn−1 x + (n − 1)In−2, n≥2
To find I4, substitute n = 4 in the reduction formula:
4I4 = sin x cos3 x + 3 I2
3I
1 sin x cos 3 x + __
I4 = __
4 4 2
Substituting n = 2 in the reduction formula:
2I2 = sin x cos x + I0
1 sin x cos x + __
I2 = __ 1I
2 2 0
138
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5
∫ ∫
Since In = cosn x d x, when n = 0, I0 = cos0 x d x
∫
I0 = 1 d x = x + c
1 sin x cos x + __
∴ I2 = __ 1 (x + c)
2 2
I4 = __
4
3 __
1 sin x cos3 x + __
4 2 [
1 sin x cos x + __
1 x + __
2
1c
2 ]
3 sin x cos x + __
1 sin x cos3 x + __
I4 = __ 3x + A
4 8 8
∫
In= tann−2 x tan2 x d x
Substitute tan2 x = sec2 x − 1
∫
In = tann−2 x (sec2 x − 1) d x
In−2 = ∫tann−2 x d x
n−1
tan x − I ,
∴ In = _______ n≥2
n−1 n−2
∫0 xnex dx
1
SOLUTION In =
Integrating by parts, let
dv = ex
u = xn, ___
dx 139
M O DUL E 1
du = nx n−1,
___ v = ex
dx
Substituting into u ___
dx ∫
dv d x = uv − v ___
du d x, we have
dx ∫
∫0 nxn−1 ex dx
1
In = [xnex]0 −
1
∴ In = e − n ∫ x
1
n−1 e x dx
0
In−1 = ∫ xn−1 ex d x
1
0
∴ In = e − nIn−1, n≥1
Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, we get
n = 3 ⇒ I3 = e − 3I2
n = 2 ⇒ I2 = e − 2I1
n = 1 ⇒ I1 = e − I0
To find I0 we use
∫0 x ne x dx
1
In =
1
∫0 x 0e x dx = ∫0 e xdx
1
When n = 0, I0 =
= [e x]0
1
= e1 − e0 = e − 1
Substituting I0 = e − 1
I1 = e − [e − 1] = 1
I2 = e − 2(1) = e − 2
I3 = e − 3[e − 2] = e − 3e + 6
= 6 − 2e
π
__
EXAMPLE 5 Given that In = ∫0 sinn x dx find a reduction formula for In and use this formula to
2
determine I4.
π
__
SOLUTION In = ∫0 sinn x dx
2
In = ∫0 sinn−1 x sin x dx
2
∫0
__
In = [ −sinn−1 x cos x ] 02 + (n − 1) sinn−2 x cos2 x d x
2
π
π cos __
π − (−sinn−1 0 cos 0) + (n − 1)
__
π
__ π
__
= (n − 1) ∫0
2
sinn−2 x d x − (n − 1) ∫0 sinn x dx
2
140
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5
In = (n − 1)In−2 − (n − 1) In
In + (n − 1)In = (n − 1)In−2
∴ nIn = (n − 1)In−2
n−1 I ,
In = _____
(
n n−2 ) n≥2
4 − 1 I = __
To find I4 we substitute n = 4 ⇒ I4 = _____ 3I
4 4−2 4 2 ( )
Substitute n = 2 ⇒ I2 = I01
__
2
3
__ 1
__ 3I
I = __
So I4 =
4 2 0 ( )
8 0
π
__
π π
∫0 1 dx = [x]0 = __π2
__ __
∫0
π
__
I0 = sin0 x d x =
2 2
2
π = ___
3 __
∴ I4 = __ 3π
8 2 16 ( )
∫0 (1 + x3)4 dx.
1
evaluate
∫0 (1 + x3)n dx
1
SOLU TION In =
Let u = (1 + x3)n dv = 1
___
dx
du = n(3x2)(1 + x3)n−1, v = x
___
dx
∫0 n(3x2)(1 + x3)n−1x dx
1 1
In = [ x(1 + x3)n ] 0 − (integration by parts)
3x3(1 + x3)n
We have 3x3 (1 + x3)n−1 = ___________
1 + x3
∫
1 3
Remember 3x (1 + x3)n d x
In = 2n − n ______
01+x
3
x3
Separate ______3
1+x Now ______ x3 + 1 − 1 = ______
x3 = _________ x3 + 1 − ______
1 = 1 − ______
1
1 1+x 3 x +1
3 x3 + 1 x3 + 1 x3 + 1
into 1 − ______
1 + x3
∫0 ( 1 − ______
1
1
1 + x3 )
∴ In = 2n − 3n (1 + x3)n d x
∫0 [ (1 + x3)n − (1 + x3)n−1 ] dx
1
= 2n − 3n
or
∫0 (1 + x3)n dx + 3n ∫0 (1 + x3)n−1 dx
1 1
1 = 2n − 3n
x3 + 1)x3
x3 + 1 = 2n − 3n In + 3nIn−1
−1
x3 3nIn + In = 2n + 3nIn−1
∴ ______
1 + x3 (3n + 1)In = 2n + 3nIn−1, n ≥ 1, which is a reduction formula for the integral
1
= 1 − ______
∫0(1 + x3)4 dx = I4 we can use the reduction formula to find this integral.
1
1 + x3 Since
141
M O DUL E 1
Using (3n + 1) In = 2n + 3nIn−1
n = 4 ⇒ (12 + 1)I4 = 24 + 3(4) I3
13I4 = 16 + 12I3
n = 3 ⇒ 10I3 = 23 + 3(3)I2
10I3 = 8 + 9I2
n = 2 ⇒ 7I2 = 22 + 3(2)I1
7I2 = 4 + 6I1
n = 1 ⇒ 4I1 = 2 + 3I0
∫0(1 + x3)n dx
1
Since In =
I0 = ∫ (1 + x3)0 d x = ∫ 1 d x = [x]0 = 1
1 1 1
0 0
∴ 4I1 = 2 + 3 (1)
4I1 = 5
5
I1 = __
4
5 = ___
7I2 = 4 + 6 __ 23
4 2 ( )
23
I2 = ___
14
23
10I3 = 8 + 9 ___
( )
14
10 [ ( 1423 ) ]
1 8 + 9 ___
I = ___
3
= ___ [
1 ____ 207
112 + ____
10 14 14 ]
319
= ____
140
319
13I4 = 16 + 12 ____
140 ( )
[
957
1 16 + ____
I4 = ___
13 35 ]
1517
= _____
455
EXERCISE 5A
In questions 1–5, find a reduction formula for each of the integrals.
1 ∫
In = xne2x d x 2 ∫
In = xn sin x d x
142
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 5
__
______
∫0
√3 7.
7 (a) Use the substitution u = 1 + x2 to show that x √1 + x2 d x = __
3
__
______
∫0
√3
(b) Given that In = xn √1 + x2 d x, prove that
n−1
____
(n + 2) In = 8(3) 2 − (n − 1) In−2, n ≥ 2.
(c) Find I5.
n + 1 I − __
∫0 xne−x dx, show that In + 2 = ( _____
1
1 e−1.
2 ) n 2
Given that In =
2
8
Hence find I5 in terms of e.
0
Use the reduction formula to find I4.
__ π
12 Given that In = ∫ 4 sinn x d x, show that nIn = ___
1__ n + (n − 1)I . Hence, find
n−2 ( √2 )
0
the volume formed when the region bounded by the curve y = sin2 x, the lines
π and the xaxis is rotated through 2π radians about the xaxis.
x = 0, x = __
4
0
find the volume formed when the region bounded by the curve y = x2ex, the
xaxis, the lines x = 0 and x = 1 is rotated through 2π radians about the xaxis.
Leave your answer in terms of e.
143
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY Reduction formulae
∫
In = sinn x dx ∫
In = tann x dx
= ∫sin n – 1x sin x dx
∫
= tann – 2 x tan2 x dx
= –cos x sinn – 1 x + ∫
(n – 1)sinn – 2 x cos2 x dx
∫
= tann – 2 x (sec2 x – 1)dx
= –cos x ∫
sinn – 1 x + (n – 1) sinn – 2 x(1 – sin2 x) dx
tann – 1 x
= –cos x sinn – 1 x + (n – 1)In – 2 – (n – 1) In = – In – 2
n –1
1 cos x sinn – 1 x + n – 1 I
In =
n ( )
n n–2
∫
Reduction formula for cosn x dx is
derived in a similar manner.
Checklist
144
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 6
Trapezoidal Rule (Trapezium Rule)
KEYWORDS/TERMS
BSFBVOEFSBDVSWFtFRVBMTVCJOUFSWBMTt
USBQF[JVNSVMFtPWFSFTUJNBUFtVOEFSFTUJNBUF
145
M O DUL E 1
The area under a curve
We can approximate the area under a curve by dividing the region into n equal
subintervals and forming trapezia of equal width within each subinterval. The area
under the curve can then be estimated by adding the areas of the n trapezia.
y
d d d d d x
x0 = a x1 x2 x3 x4 xn – 1 xn = b
∫a f (x) d x.
b
Area under the curve y = f (x) from a to b =
Dividing the interval [a, b] into n equal
subintervals, we have Remember
b−a
d = _____
1 (sum of parallel sides)
Area of trapezium = __
n 2
× perpendicular height
where d is the width of one interval.
Finding the area of each trapezium, we have
parallel sides are
1st: Area = __ d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
1 [ f (x ) + f (x )]d = __ f (x0) and f (x1)
2 0 1 2 0 1
Notes d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
1 [ f (x ) + f (x )]d = __
2nd: Area = __ parallel sides are
2 1 2 2 1 2
(i) x0 = a, xn = b. f (x1) and f (x2)
(ii) The region 3rd: Area = __ d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
must be split 2 2 3
∫a
b
into n equal f (x) d x ≈ sum of the areas of the trapezia
subintervals.
∫a f (x) dx ≈ __21 d [ f (x0) + f (x1)] + __21 d [ f (x1) + f (x2)] + __21 d [ f (x2) + f (x3)] + . . .
b
(iii) If there are n
intervals we
will have 1 d [ f (x ) + f (x )]
+ __
(n + 1) 2 n−1 n
xcoordinates. 1 d [ f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + f (x ) + . . . + f (x )
= __
(iv) The trap 2 0 1 1 2 2 n−1
ezium rule + f (xn−1) + f (xn)]
may either
overestimate d [ f (x ) + 2f (x ) + 2f (x ) + . . . + 2f (x ) + f (x )]
= __
or under 2 0 1 2 n−1 n
( __21 interval width ) [1st yvalue + last yvalue + twice (sum of all yvalues in between)]
if we take
more trapezia.
Let us use the rule to estimate some integrals.
146
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6
SOLUTION 1
Let f (x) = ______
1 + x2
Dividing the interval into five subintervals we get
1 − 0 = __
d = _____ 1
5 5
1 until we reach 1.
∴ Starting at x = 0 we can get the other values of x by adding __
5
0 1 2 3 4 1
5 5 5 5
1 , we have
Drawing up a table of x and f (x) = ______
1 + x2
x f (x)
0 1 =1
______
1 + 02
1
________ = 0.96154
1
__
5 ( )
1 2
1 + __
5
1
________ = 0.86207
2
__
5 ( )
2 2
1 + __
5
3 1
________ = 0.73529
__
5 ( )
3 2
1 + __
5
4 1
________ = 0.609 76
__
5 ( )
4 2
1 + __
5
1 = 0. 5
______
1
1 + 12
∫
b
1 d [ f (x ) + f (x ) + 2[f (x ) + f (x ) + . . . + f (x )]]
f (x) d x ≈ __
a 2 0 n 1 2 n−1
∫0 ______ 2 (5)
1
1 d x = __
1 __
1 [(1 + 0.5) + 2(0.961 54 + 0.862 07 + 0.735 29 + 0.609 76)]
1 + x2
= 0.784 (3 d.p.)
∫0 _____
1 1 d x, using the trapezium rule with six equal
EXAMPLE 2 Find an estimate of the integral
x+1
subintervals.
SOLUTION Let f (x) = _____1 . Since we have six intervals the width of one interval is
x+1
d = _____ 1 − 0 = __
b − a = _____ 1
n 6 6
The xvalues can be found by adding __ 1 , starting from 0 until we reach 1.
6
1 , __
∴ x = 0, __ 3 , __
2 , __ 5 , 1.
4 , __
6 6 6 6 6
147
M O DUL E 1
Drawing up a table for x and f (x), we have
x 1
f (x) = _____
x+1
0 1 =1
_____
0+1
1 = 0.857 14
_____
1
__ 1
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.75
_____
2
__ 2
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.666 67
_____
3
__ 3
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.6
_____
4
__ 4
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.545 45
_____
5
__ 5
6 1 + __
6
1 = 0.5
_____
1 6
1 + __
6
we get
∫0 _____ 2 (6)
1
1 d x ≈ __
1 __
1 [1 + 0.5 + 2(0.857 14 + 0.75 + 0.666 67 + 0.6 + 0.545 45)]
x+1
8.338 52
= _______
12
= 0.695 (3 d.p.)
5
EXAMPLE 3 Given that I = ∫0 2−x dx, find an estimate for I using the trapezium rule with
four intervals. By sketching the graph of y = 2−x show that the trapezium rule
overestimates the value of I.
SOLUTION Since we have four intervals, the width of each interval is
5 − 0 = 1.25
d = _____
4
The values of x are found by adding 1.25 starting from 0, therefore
x = 0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, 5.
x f (x) = 2−x
0 2−0 = 1
1.25 2−1.25 = 0.420 45
2.5 2−2.5 = 0.176 78
3.75 2−3.75 = 0.074 33
5 2−5 = 0.031 25
148
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6
5
∫0 2−x dx ≈ __12 (1.25)[1 + 0.031 25 + 2(0.420 45 + 0.176 78 + 0.074 33)]
= 1.483 98
= 1.484 (3 d.p.)
1
y = 2–x
x
0 1.25 2.5 3.75 5
The shaded region above the curve is included in the trapezium rule, so we have an
overestimate.
∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx.
2 ______
EXAMPLE 4 Using the substitution u = x2 + 1 find the value of
Find an estimate of the integral using the trapezium rule with eight equal
subintervals. Compare the two values.
∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx
2 ______
SOLUTION
Since u = x2 + 1
du = 2x d x
1 du = x d x
∴ __
2
______
__
√x2 + 1 = √u
Changing limits:
when x = 0, u = 02 + 1 = 1
when x = 2, u = 22 + 1 = 5
[ ] [ ]
______ 5 5 1 u __21 du = __ 2 u __23 5 = __
1 5 __23 − 1 = 3.393 45
∫0 ∫ ∫
2 1 √__ 1 × __
∴ x √ x2 + 1 d x = __ u du = __
1 2 1 2 2 3 1 3
149
M O DUL E 1
Table of values:
______
x f (x) = x √ x2 + 1
______
0 0 √ 02 + 1 = 0
________
0.25 0.25 √ 0.252 + 1 = 0.257 69
_______
0.5 0.5 √0.52 + 1 = 0.559 02
________
0.75 0.75 √ 0.752 + 1 = 0.937 50
______
1 1 √ 12 + 1 = 1.414 21
________
1.25 1.25 √ 1.252 + 1 = 2.000 98
_______
1.5 1.5 √1.52 + 1 = 2.704 16
________
1.75 1.75 √ 1.752 + 1 = 3.527 24
______
2 2 √ 22 + 1 = 4.472 14
______
∫0 x √x2 + 1 dx ≈ __12 ( __41 ) [0 + 4.472 14 + 2 (0.257 69 + 0.559 02 + 0.937 50 + 1.414 21
2
_______
∫0 √16 − x2 dx using the trapezium rule with x = 1, x = 2, x = 3 and x = 4.
4
EXAMPLE 5 Estimate
SOLUTION _______
x f (x) = √ 16 − x2
_______
0 √16 − 02 = 4
_______ ___
1 √16 − 12 = √15
_______ ___
2 √16 − 22 = √12
_______ __
3 √16 − 32 = √7
_______
4 √16 − 42 = 0
_______
∫0 √16 − x2 dx ≈ __21 (1)[4 + 0 + 2 (√15 + √12 + √7 )] = 11.982 84 = 11.983 (3 d.p.)
4 ___ ___ __
EXERCISE 6A
In questions 1–8, use the trapezium rule with the given number of subintervals to
approximate the given integral.
∫ ∫
1 4
1 e x d x, n = 4
2
2 1 d x, n = 8
______
01+x
3
0
150
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6
∫1 _____ ∫0 __________
2 6
3 ln x d x, n = 6 4 1 d x, n = 6
1+x x + x2 + 1
4
π
∫0 ∫0 x2 sin x dx, n = 4
1 __
5 e −√x d x, n = 8 6
∫1 ln (x3 + 2) dx, n = 3
2 5
7 8 ∫2 xex dx, n = 3
______
∫0 √x2 + 1 dx using six subintervals.
1
9 Find an approximate value for
10 Show that ∫
1 π. Use the trapezium rule with six intervals to find an
1 d x = __
_____
0 1+x2 4
∫0 ______
1 1 d x. Hence estimate π to 3 d.p.
approximation of
1 + x2
1
(a) four intervals (b) eight intervals.
∫1 __1x dx.
2
Find the percentage error in the approximations by evaluating
π
12 Use the trapezium rule with two intervals to estimate ∫ 3 sin2 x d x.
__
0
π
∫03 sin2 x dx.
__
Find an exact value of
13 The region bounded by the curve y = e cos x, the xaxis and the lines x = 0 and
π, __
x = π, is denoted by R. Use the trapezium rule with ordinates at x = 0, __ 3π ,
π, ___
4 2 4
π to estimate the area of R, giving three decimal places in your answer.
π
14 Use the trapezium rule with five intervals to estimate ∫ 2 _________
__
1
________ d x.
0 √ 1 + cos x
15 Use the trapezium rule, with ordinates at x = −1, x = −__12 , x = 0, x = __12 and
_________
∫−1 √ln (3 + x) dx giving three significant figures
1
x = 1, to estimate the value of
in your answer.
16 Determine the approximate area between the curve y = x3 + x2 − 4x − 4, the
ordinates x = −2 and x = −1 and the xaxis by applying the trapezium rule
with four intervals. Compare the result obtained by this method with the true
area obtained by integration.
151
M O DUL E 1
SUMMARY
Trapezium rule
b
Used to estimate definite integrals. ∫ a f(x) dx ≈ d2 [f(x0) + f(xn) + 2[f(x1) + f(x2) + ... + f(xn–1)]]
Formula must use the upper and –a
d=bn
lower limit of the integral.
n = number of intervals
The interval [a, b] must be divided
into n equal subintervals.
Overestimate Underestimate
Checklist
152
MODULE 1tCHAPTER 6
Module 1 Tests
Module 1 Test 1
1 (a) Differentiate with respect to x
πx
(i) 6e x+1 sin ( __
4 )
[3]
______
(ii) sin−1 √1 − 2x [4]
dθ when t = 2
(b) Given that θ = 4−t, find ___ [4]
dt
(c) (i) Express 2 8x + 10
___________ in partial fractions. [4]
2x + 5x − 3
∫
8x + 10
( )
2 15
(ii) Hence, show that ___________ ___
2 + 5x − 3 d x = 2 ln 4 [4]
1 2x
−π ≤ tan−1 x ≤ __
(d) Given that y = tan−1 x, where ____ π , prove
2 2
dy ______
___ 1
that = [6]
d x 1 + x2
2 ∫
x
(a) (i) Using the substitution u = 1 − x2, find _______
______
√1 − x2
d x. [4]
∫0
1
(ii) Hence, find sin−1 x d x. [4]
π
__
(b) If In = ∫
2 n
0
t π − n(n − 1)I for n ≥ 2.
cos t dt, prove that In = ( __
n
2) n−2
(c) The trapezium rule, with two intervals of equal width, is to be used to find
an approximate value for ∫20 e−2x d x. Explain, with the aid of a sketch,
why the approximation will be greater than the exact value of the integral.
Calculate the approximate value and the exact value, giving each answer
correct to 3 d.p. [8]
3 (a) The parametric equations of a curve are defined in terms of θ by
x = 4 + 2 cos θ, y = 2 cos 2θ
dy
(i) Show that ___ = 4 cos θ. [4]
dx
π
(ii) Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at θ = __ [4]
2
(b) Given that variables x and y are related by the equation y2 + sin (xy) = 2,
dy
show that ___ = 0 when x = __π , y = 1. [7]
dx 2
153
M O DUL E 1
Module 1 Test 2
dy
1 (a) Find ___ if
dx
(i) y = tan3 3x + 4 cos2 x [3]
______
1 + x2
2+x√
(ii) y = ln ______ [4]
__________
(iii) y = √ sin (x2 + 4) [4]
d2y
(b) Given that y = sin−1 (2 − x), find ___2 . [4]
dx
3x 2+ x + 4
(c) (i) Express 2_____________ in partial fractions. [5]
(x + 1)(x + 1)
3x + x + 4 d x.
2
∫0 _____________
1
(ii) Hence, find [5]
(x2 + 1)(x + 1)
∫0 x4e3x dx.
1
Hence find [10]
(b) The parametric equations of a curve are defined by x = ln (2t + 1),
y = t2 − 1. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
when t = 1. [8]
dy 2
(c) Given that xy + 2x2y2 = 3x, show that ___ = −__ 5 when x = 1 and y = 1.
dx
Hence, find the equation of the tangent at (1, 1) giving your answer in
the form ax + by = c where a, b and c are integers. [7]
e
3 (a) Find the exact value of ∫1 x3 ln x dx [5]
(b) Use de Moivre’s theorem to show that
4 tan θ − 4 tan θ
tan 4θ = _________________
3
1 − 6 tan2 θ + tan4 θ
Hence or otherwise solve the equation
x4 − 6x2 + 1 = 0
nπ .
giving your answer in the form tan ___
8 ( ) [10]
(c) (i) Find complex numbers v = x + iy such that x, y ∈ ℝ and
v 2 = 3 + 4i. [5]
(ii) Hence, or otherwise, solve for z the equation
z2 − (4 + 3i)z + 1 + 5i = 0 [5]
154
2
Sequences, Series and
Approximations
155
M O DUL E 2
CHAPTER 7
Sequences
KEYWORDS/TERMS
TFRVFODFtDPOWFSHFOUtEJWFSHFOUtPTDJMMBUJOHt
QFSJPEJDtBMUFSOBUJOHtHFOFSBMUFSNtSFDVSSFODF
SFMBUJPOtMJNJUtMJNJUMBXTGPSTFRVFODFT
156
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of all positive integers, while a
series is a list of numbers added together. A sequence can be written as
(i) a list of terms (ii) a formula (or function) or (iii) a recurrence relation
Notation: If un is a sequence, it is denoted by {un} or (un). In the sequence {un}, the
terms are u1, u2, u3, u4, . . .
We can graph a sequence since a sequence represents a function. A finite sequence
contains only a finite number of terms. An infinite sequence is unending.
Types of sequence
The different types of sequences can be described as: convergent, divergent,
oscillating, periodic or alternating.
Convergent sequences
A sequence {un} is convergent if the values approach a fixed point as n increases, that
is, lim un = l
n→∞
un
Divergent sequences
Any sequence which does not converge is called a divergent sequence. A sequence
which diverges can (i) diverge to positive infinity, (ii) diverge to negative infinity.
un
Oscillating sequences
Oscillating sequences are neither convergent nor divergent. For example, the
sequence −1, 2, −3, 4, −5, . . . is an oscillating sequence, as is the sequence 1, 0,
3, 0, 5, 0, 7, . . . Oscillating sequences can be divided into two types:
(i) an oscillating finite sequence which is bounded but not convergent
157
M O DUL E 2
(ii) an oscillating infinite sequence which is neither bounded nor diverges to +∞ or −∞.
Bounded and oscillating
un un
Oscillating sequence
which is neither
bounded nor
diverges to +∞ or –∞.
n n
Periodic sequences
A periodic sequence is a sequence which repeats its terms regularly. The smallest
interval with which the sequence repeats itself is the period of the sequence.
The sequence 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, . . . is a periodic sequence with period 3.
Alternating sequences
An alternating sequence is a sequence with terms that alternate between positive and
negative values. Alternating sequences can be convergent, divergent or oscillating.
For example, the sequence −1, 0, 3, −0.3, 0, 0.3, −0.03, . . . is alternating and
convergent; the sequence −1, 1, −1, 1, −1, . . . is oscillating.
EXAMPLE 1 Given the general term of the sequence un = 4n + 2, write down the first four terms
of the sequence.
SOLUTION un = 4n + 2
Substituting n = 1, u1 = 4(1) + 2
=4+2
=6
n = 2, u2 = 4(2) + 2
=8+2
= 10
n = 3, u3 = 4(3) + 2
= 12 + 2
= 14
158
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7
n = 4, u4 = 4(4) + 2
= 16 + 2
= 18
The first four terms of the sequence are 6, 10, 14 and 18.
EXAMPLE 2 4 .
Identify the first five terms of the sequence un = ______
3n + 2
SOLUTION 4
un = ______
3n + 2
4
n = 1, u1 = ________ 4 = __
= _____ 4
3(1) + 2 3 + 2 5
n = 2, 4
u2 = ________ 4 = __
= _____ 1
4 = __
3(2) + 2 6 + 2 8 2
4
n = 3, u3 = ________ 4 = ___
= _____ 4
3(3) + 2 9 + 2 11
n = 4, 4
u4 = ________ 4 = ___
= ______ 4 = __
2
3(4) + 2 12 + 2 14 7
n = 5, 4
u5 = ________ 4 = ___
= ______ 4
3(5) + 2 15 + 2 17
1
Write down the first six terms of the sequence un = (−1)n+1 __
EXAMPLE 3 n . ( )
1 = (−1)2 (1) = 1
n = 1, u1= (−1)1+1 __
SOLUTION
1 ( )
n = 2, u2= (−1)2+1 ( __21 ) = (−1) ( __21 ) = −__21
3
1 __
∴ The first six terms of the sequence are 1, −__ 1 __1 __
1 __1
2, 3, −4, 5, −6.
Try these 7.1 Write down the first six terms of the following sequences.
n (−1)n
(a) un= 4n + 3 (b) un= _____
n+2
(c) un = ________
3(n + 1)
159
M O DUL E 2
Finding the general term of a sequence
by identifying a pattern
We should be able to write down the general term of a sequence when given a list of
its terms. To do this, we look for a connection between the subscript that identifies
the term and the term itself.
EXAMPLE 4 1 , __
Find the general term of the sequence 1, __ 1 , ___
1 , __
1,…
3 9 27 81
EXAMPLE 5 Find the nth term of the sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, …
EXAMPLE 6 Find the nth term of the sequence 4, 12, 20, 28, 36, …
160
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7
EXAMPLE 7 1 , _____
Find the nth term of the sequence _____ 1 , _____
1 , _____
1 ,…
1×2 2×3 3×4 4×5
EXAMPLE 8 Given that u1, u2, u3, . . . are the terms of a sequence with u1 = 2 and un+1 = 4un − 1,
find the first four terms of the sequence.
161
M O DUL E 2
EXAMPLE 9 Write down the first five terms of the sequence un = nun−1 where u1 = 1.
E X A M P L E 10 4 . Given that u = 3,
A sequence is generated by the recurrence relation un+1 = ______
un + 2 1
find u2, u3, u4 and u5.
SOLUTION
4
un+1 = ______
un + 2
4 = __
n = 1: u2 = ______ 4
u1 + 2 5
4 = _____
n = 2: u3 = ______ 4 = ___ 20 = ___
10
u2 + 2 __ 4 + 2 14 7
5
4 = ______
n = 3: u4 = ______ 4 = ___ 28 = __
7
u3 + 2 ___ 10 + 2 24 6
7
n = 4: u5 = 4
______ _____
= 4 = ___ 24
u4 + 2 __ 7 + 2 19
6
4 10
Hence, u2 = , u3 = , u4 = __
__ ___ 7 , u = ___
24 .
5 7 6 5 19
Try these 7.3 Find the first five terms of these sequences.
(a) un+1 = __ 2n
un , u1 = 1
(b) un = 3un−1 − 2, u1 = 4
n+2 , u =1
(c) un+1 = _______
3u + 1
n
1
Convergence of a sequence
The sequence u1, u2, u3, … converges to a real number l, or has limit l provided
Note that un can be made as close to l as possible. This can be done by choosing n to be
If lim un does sufficiently large. We write
n→∞
not exist or is lim un = l
infinite we say n→∞
the sequence If the sequence does not converge, then the sequence diverges.
diverges.
162
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 7
The limit laws for sequences are similar to the limit laws for functions studied in Unit 1:
If the limits lim un = l1 and lim vn = l2 exist, then
n→∞ n→∞
lim un vn = l1 l2
(b) n→∞
u __1 l
vn = l
n
(c) n→∞
lim ___
2
lim kun = k lim un, where k is a constant.
(d) n→∞ n→∞
8n 2
E X A M P L E 11 Let un = ____________ . Find lim un.
6n2 + 3n + 2 n→∞
8n 2
SOLU TION un = ____________
6n2 + 3n + 2
8n2
lim un = lim ____________
n→∞ n→∞ 6n + 3n + 2
2
8
= _____________
6 + 3(0) + 2(0)
8 = __
= __ 4
6 3
4.
Hence, un converges to __
3
______
4n − 1 . Is u convergent?
E X A M P L E 12
√
Let un = ______
n+1 n
1
4n − 1
lim u = lim ______
__
SOLU TION
n→∞ n n→∞ n + 1 ( ) 2
4n − 1
= ( lim ______
1
__
n+1 )
2
n→∞
1 1
__
4 − __
( n
= lim _____
n→∞ 1
1 + __
n )
2
1
4−0
= _____
__
(
1+0 ) 2
__
= √4 = 2
163
M O DUL E 2
We can apply l’Hôpital’s rule to find the limit of a sequence in the same way we apply
l’Hôpital’s rule to find the limit of a function.
Rule
L’Hôpital’s rule was covered in Unit 1:
f (x) 0
Suppose that we have lim ____ = __ or any indeterminate form, then
x→a g (x) 0
f (x) f ′(x)
lim ____ = lim ____.
x→a g (x) x→a g′(x)
Try these 7.4 Determine whether the following sequences converge and find the limit of those that
do converge.
(a) un = 1 + __98
n
n2 − 3n + 6
(b) un = ___________ n3
(c) un = _______
() 2n + 5
2 6n + 1
2
EXERCISE 7A
In questions 1–9, write down the first five terms of each sequence.
1 un = 2n + 1 2 un = n2 + 3
n−1
un = _____ 5 n
un = __
3 n 4 4 ( )
5 un = (−1)n (2n − 1) 6 2n
un = __
n
n 2 3n
7 un = __ 8 un = ______
en 2n + 1
9 un = (−1)n+1 n3
In questions 10–19, write down the nth term of the given sequence.
In questions 20–29, the sequences are defined recursively. Find the first four terms of
each sequence.
20 un = 2 + 4un−1, u1 = 3
21 un = 4n + 2un−1, u1 = 1
22 un = (un−1)(un−2), u1 = 1, u2 = 2
23 un+1 = un + d, u1 = a
24 un = −3un−1, u1 = __13
25 un = (n − 1) − un−1, u1 = 5
__ ________
26 un = √3 + √2 + un−1, u1 = 1
2u
27 un = _____
n−1
n+2
, u1 = 2
3u
28 un = ______
n−1
2n + 1
, u1 = 1
5u
29 un = _____
2 , u1 = 4
n−1
n
In questions 30–39, decide whether the sequence converges or diverges.
If the sequence converges, find the limit of the sequence.
4n + 3
30 un = ______ 3n − 5
31 un = ______
2n − 1 6n + 7
n + 4n + 1
2
32 un = __________ 6n + 5
33 un = _______
2
2 2n + 3 n+2
− 3n + 4
n3
34 un = ___________ 35 un = __32
n
n −n+6
2 ()
n (ln n)2
36 un = 1 + __97 () 37 un = ______
n
______
6n − 1 1−n 3
√
38 un = ______
5n + 2
39 un = _______
2 + 3n
2
as a function of n, i.e.
An infinite sequence is unending un = f(n)
An oscillating sequence is
(i) bounded and not convergent,
or (ii) unbounded and does not
diverge to +∞ or –∞
An alternating sequence is of
the form un = (–1)n an where
an is a nonnegative real number
Checklist
CHAPTER 8
Series
KEYWORDS/TERMS
TVNtTFSJFTtTJHNBOPUBUJPOt
TVNNBUJPOMBXTtDPOWFSHFODFt
EJWFSHFODFUFTUtJOUFHSBMUFTU
167
M O DUL E 2
The sum of the terms of a sequence is called a series. An infinite series is the sum of
the terms of an infinite sequence. Therefore, for the sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . , the
corresponding infinite series is u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . .
For the infinite series u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . , Sn represent the sum of the first n terms.
∴ S1 = u1 (the first term)
S2 = u1 + u2 (the sum of the first two terms)
S3 = u1 + u2 + u3 (the sum of the first three terms)
Sn = u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . + un (the sum of the first n terms)
S1, S2, S3, . . . , Sn form a sequence and each term of this sequence is called a partial sum.
S1 is called the first partial sum, S2 is the second partial sum, . . . , Sn is the
nth partial sum.
SOLUTION Let us look for a pattern using the first term in the various products: 3, 5, 7, 9, . . .
Each term goes up by 2. Therefore, the general form is 2r + b. Since the first term is 3,
i.e. 3 = 2 × 1 + b, b = 1.
∴ 2r + b = 2r + 1.
168
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
Now 7, 12, 17, 22, . . . goes up by 5. Therefore, 5r + c represents the terms in this
sequence. Since the first term is 7, i.e. 7 = 5 × 1 + c, c = 2.
EXAMPLE 3 5 + 1 + ___
Write in sigma notation: 1 + __ 11 + ___ 17 + . . .
14 + ___
4 16 32 64
SOLUTION 5 + __
2 + __
First we rewrite as __ 8 + ___ 7 + ___
11 + ___ 17 + . . .
2 4 8 16 16 64
(
3r − 1
∴ ur = ______
2r )
∞
5 + 1 + ___
Hence, 1 + __
4
7 + ___
11 + ___
16 16
17 + . . . =
64 ∑( ______
r =1 2 )
3r − 1
r
1 + _____
(b) _____ 1 + _____
1 + _____
1 +...
2×3 3×4 4×5 5×6
(c) 9 + 13 + 17 + 21 + 25 + . . .
Sum of a series
The following standard results can be used to find the sum of many series.
n
∑ r = ________
r =1
n(n + 1)
2
n
∑r
r =1
2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _______________
6
n
∑
r =1
n2(n + 1)2
r 3 = _________
4
169
M O DUL E 2
(ii) ∑ cur = c ∑ ur where c is a constant. Note: There is no rule for the
product or quotient.
Example: ∑ 4r = 4 ∑ r
∑(ur vr) ≠ ∑ur ∑vr
(iii) ∑(ur + vr) = ∑ur + ∑vr ∑ur
∑( __vrr ) ≠ _____
u
n n n
Example: ∑ (r2 − r) = ∑ r2 − ∑r ∑vr
r=1 r=1 r=1
25
EXAMPLE 4 Find ∑r
r=1
n
SOLUTION Using ∑ r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2
and substituting n = 25, we get
25
∑ r = __________
r=1
25 (25 + 1) ______
2
=
25(26)
2
= 25 × 13 = 325
30
EXAMPLE 5 Find ∑(r − 2)
r=1
∑r=1
(r − 2) = ∑ ∑2
r=1
r−
r=1
n
Recall that ∑r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2
30
∴ ∑ r = __________
r=1
30 (30 + 1) ______
2
=
30(31)
2
= 31 × 15 = 465
n
Also recall that ∑c = n × c
r=1
30
∴ ∑ 2 = 30 × 2 = 60
r=1
30 30
∴ ∑ ∑2 = 465 − 60 = 405
r=1
r−
r=1
30
Hence, ∑(r − 2) = 405
r=1
40
EXAMPLE 6 Find ∑r (r + 2)
r=1
170
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
Separating, we have
40 40 40
∑
r=1
r(r + 2) = ∑r=1
r2 + 2 ∑r
r=1
n
Using ∑rr=1
2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _______________
6
40
n = 40 ⇒ ∑r
r=1
2 40(41)(81)
= _________ = 22 140
6
n
Also using ∑r = ________
r=1
n (n + 1)
2
40
n = 40 ⇒ ∑r = ______
r=1
40 (41)
2
= 820
40
∴ ∑ r(r + 2) = 22 140 + 2(820) = 22 140 + 1640 = 23 780
r=1
All our summations started at r = 1 and all the standard results start at r = 1.
What if the lower limit changes? Let us see what happens.
25
EXAMPLE 7 Find ∑r
r = 11
∑r = ∑r − ∑r
r = 11 r=1 r=1
i.e. if we sum from r = 1 to r = 25 and subtract the sum from r = 1 to r = 10, then
we are left with the sum from r = 11 to r = 25. We can now apply our standard
results to the RHS.
25 25 10
∑r = ∑r − ∑r
r = 11 r=1 r=1
25 (25 + 1) 10 (10 + 1)
= __________ − __________
2 2
25 (26) 10 (11)
= ______ − ______
2 2
= 25 × 13 − 55 = 325 − 55 = 270
20
EXAMPLE 8 Evaluate ∑r (r − 1)
r=8
171
M O DUL E 2
Since our lower limit is 8, we need to rearrange as follows:
20 20 7
∑
r=8
(r 2 − r) = ∑
r=1
(r2 − r) − ∑(r
r=1
2 − r)
20 20 7 7
= ∑
r=1
r2 − ∑ ∑ ∑r
r=1
r−
r=1
r2 +
r=1
∑
r=1
(r + 4) = ∑ ∑4 = ________
r=1
n(n + 1)
r+
2
+ 4n
r=1
= __ n (n + 9)
n [(n + 1) + 8] = __ (factorising)
2 2
n
E X A M P L E 10 Find the sum of ∑ r (r − 1)
r=1
∑r(r − 1) = ∑
r=1 r=1
(r2 − r) = ∑ − ∑r
r=1
r2
r=1
(separating)
r=1 6
n(n + 1)(2n − 2)
= _______________
6
2n(n + 1)(n − 1)
= _______________
6
n(n + 1)(n − 1)
= ______________
3
172
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
n
E X A M P L E 11 Find and simplify ∑r (r − 1)
r=1
2
n n n n
SOLUTION ∑
r=1
r 2(r − 1) = ∑
r=1
(r 3 − r 2) = ∑ ∑r
r=1
r3 −
r=1
2
n2 (n + 1)2 n (n + 1)(2n + 1)
= _________ − _______________
4 6
3n2 (n + 1)2 − 2n(n + 1) (2n + 1)
= ____________________________
12
n (n + 1) [3n(n + 1) − 2(2n + 1)]
= ____________________________
12
n (n + 1) (3n2 + 3n − 4n − 2)
=__________________________
12
n (n + 1) [3n2 − n − 2]
= ___________________
12
n (n + 1)(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= _____________________
12
2n
E X A M P L E 12 Find and simplify ∑(3r + 2)
r=1
2n 2n 2n
SOLUTION ∑(3r + 2) = 3∑r + ∑2
r=1 r=1 r=1
Since the upper
limit is 2n,
3(2n)(2n + 1) remember to
= ____________ + 2 (2n) replace n by 2n
2
in the standard
= 3n(2n + 1) + 4n result.
= n[3(2n + 1) + 4)]
= n[6n + 3 + 4]
= n[6n + 7]
2n
E X A M P L E 13 Show that ∑ r(r −1) = __n3 (7n − 1)
r=n+1
2
2n 2n
SOLUTION ∑
r=n+1
r(r − 1) = ∑ (r − r)
r=n+1
2
2n 2n n n
= ∑
r=1
r2 − ∑ ∑
r=1
r−
r=1
r2 + ∑r
r=1
(expanding)
173
M O DUL E 2
Substituting the standard results,
2n
∑ r(r + 1) = __________________
r=n+1
2n(2n +1)(2(2n) + 1) __________
6
−
2n(2n + 1) _______________
2
−
6
+
n(n + 1)
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) ________
2
n(2n + 1)(4n + 1) n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n(n + 1)
= ________________ − n(2n + 1) − _______________ + ________
3 6 2
Factorising, we have
2n
2n
E X A M P L E 14 Show that ∑ (3r + 4) = __n2 (9n + 11)
r=n+1
SOLUTION We need to rearrange the summation so that the lower limit will start at 1.
2n 2n n
2n 2n n n
=3 ∑ ∑
r=1
r+
r=1
4−3 ∑ ∑4
r=1
r−
r=1
3(2n)(2n + 1) 3n(n + 1)
= ____________ + 4(2n) − _________ − 4(n)
2 2
3n(n + 1)
= 3n(2n + 1) + 8n − _________ − 4n
2
n
= __ [6(2n + 1) + 16 − 3(n + 1) − 8]
2
n (12n + 6 + 16 − 3n − 3 − 8)
= __
2
n (9n + 11)
= __
2
2n 2n
(c) ∑ r (4r − 1)
r=n+1
(d) ∑ r (r
r=n+1
2 + 4)
174
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
EXERCISE 8A
In questions 1–10, write the series in sigma notation.
1 1 + __21 + __41 + __18 + ___
1 +...
16
2 1 + 4 + 7 + 10 + 13 + 16 + 19 + 22 + . . .
3 3 − 5 + 7 − 9 + 11 − 13 + 15 − 17 + . . .
4 12 + 20 + 28 + 36 + 44 + 52 + 60 + 68 + . . .
5 1 + __
__ 1 + __
1 + ___
1 + ___
1 +...
2 5 8 11 14
6 1 + __
__ 1 + ___
1 + ___
1 +...
2 5 10 17
7 1 + __
__ 1 + __
2 + ___
4 +...
2 3 9 27
8 3 + ___
3 + __ 3 + ___
3 +...
4 16 64
9 96 + ____
24 + ___
6 + ___ 384 + . . .
7 49 343
10 2 − __56 + ___
18 − ____
25 125
54 + . . .
n n
17 ∑_____
r , the (k − 2)th term
r+2
r=1
18 ∑______
3r + 1 , the (k + 1)th term
r+4
r=1
n n
∑ _______ ∑________
2 (r − 1)
r r
19 3 , the (k + 1)th term 20 , the (k + 1)th term
4r + 5
r=1
2
r=1
r+5
20 22
23 ∑3r
r=1
3 24 ∑(6r + 4)
r=1
10 25
25 ∑7r(r + 1)
r=1
26 ∑6r(r − 2)
r=1
15 10
27 ∑(r + 2r − 3)
r=1
2 28 ∑(2r − 1)
r=1
2
13
29 ∑r (2r
r=1
2 − 1)
175
M O DUL E 2
In questions 30–34, find the sum of the series.
28 40
30 ∑r
r = 10
31 ∑(r − 1)
r=8
15 30
32 ∑r
r=7
2 33 ∑(2r + 5)
r = 12
17
34 ∑r(r + 1)
r=5
n n
37 ∑r(2r − 1)
r=1
38 ∑4r(r + 2)
r=1
n n
39 ∑(r + 1)(r − 3)
r=1
40 ∑r(r − 1)(r − 2)
r=1
r=n 2n
41 ∑(r + 2)(r − 4)
r=1
42 ∑ (r − 2)
r=n+1
2n 2n
43 ∑ 3r (r + 1)
r=n+1
44 ∑ (r
r=n+1
3 − r)
2n
45 ∑ 2r(r − 1)
r=n+1
2n
46 Prove that ∑ (4r − 3) = n(15n + 14n + 3n − 3)
r=n+1
3 3 2
n
47 Show that ∑(4r + 1) = __31 n(4n + 6n + 5)
r=1
2 2
n 20
48 Show that
r=1
∑ n (3n − 1). Hence find
(3r − 2) = __
2 r = 10
(3r − 2). ∑
n 40
49 Show that ∑r=1
n(n + 1)(4n − 1)
r(2r − 1) = _______________. Hence find
6 r = 15
∑
r(2r − 1).
Method of differences
The method of differences is used to find the sum of a series whose general term can
be written as the difference of terms. If we can write ur = f (r + 1) − f (r), then the
sum of the series can be found as follows.
n n
∑u = ∑ {f (r + 1) − f (r)}
r=1
r
r=1
= f (n + 1) − f (1)
176
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
Notice that pairs of terms sum to zero except f(n + 1) and f (1).
n
∴ ∑u = f (n + 1) − f (1)
r=1
r
n
E X A M P L E 15 1
Show that _______ 1 − _____
= __
r(r + 1) r r + 1
1 . Hence find
∑ _______
1 .
r(r + 1)
r=1
( 1 + __
= 1 − __
2
1 − __
2 3 ) ( )
1 + __
1 − __
3 4 ) (
1 + … + _____
1 − _____
1
n − 2 n −1 ( )
+ ( _____
n − 1 n) (n n + 1)
1 − __ 1 − _____
1 + __ 1
= 1 − _____1
n+1
n
∴ ∑ 1
_______
r = 1 r(r + 1)
1
= 1 − _____
n+1
= n2 + 2n + 1 − 1
= n2 + 2n
n
(b) When n = 20, ∑(2r + 1) = 20 + 2(20)
r=1
2
= 400 + 40 = 440
E X A M P L E 17 1
Separate ____________ into partial fractions. Hence show that
(r − 1)(r + 1)
n
∑____________
2
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n (n + 1)
SOLUTION 1
____________ A + _____
≡ _____ B
(r − 1)(r + 1) r − 1 r + 1
⇒ 1 = A(r + 1) + B(r − 1)
[r = 1] ⇒ 1 = 2A
1=A
__
2
[r = −1] ⇒ 1 = −2B
−__1
2=B
1
∴ ____________ 1
= _______ 1
−_______
(r − 1)(r + 1) 2(r − 1) 2(r + 1)
n n
∑
r=2
1
____________
(r − 1)(r + 1)
= ∑[ _______
r=22(r − 1) 2(r + 1) ]
1 1
− _______ Substitute values for r
1 − _____1 and add:
into ____
n r−1 r+1
1
= __
2 ∑( _____
r=2r − 1 r + 1)
1 − _____
1
r=2: 1
1 − __
3
1 1
[ ] + − __
r=3: __
1 1 + __
= __ 1 − __
1 − _____
1 2 4
2 2 n n+1
r=4: 1 − __
+ __ 1
2 [2 n n + 1]
1 __ 3 − __
1 − _____
1 3 5
= __ //
/
1 − _____
1
[ ]
3n(n + 1) − 2(n + 1) − 2n r = n − 2 : + _____
1 _______________________
= __ n−3 n−1
2 2n(n + 1) 1 − __ 1
r = n − 1 : + _____
n−2 n
2[ ]
= __ 3n + 3n − 2n − 2 − 2n
2
1 _____________________ 1 − _____1
2n(n + 1) r=n: + _____
n−1 n+1
2 [ 2n(n + 1) ]
3n − n − 2
2
1 ___________
= __
[2 (3n2n(n + 1) ]
+ 2)(n − 1)
1 ______________
= __
n
⇒2 ∑ ____________
1
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n(n + 1)
n
Hence, ∑ ____________
2
(r − 1)(r + 1)
r=2
(3n + 2)(n − 1)
= ______________
2n(n + 1)
178
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
∑
r=1
3r(r + 1) = ∑[r (r + 1)(r + 2) − (r − 1)(r)(r + 1)]
r=1
1
__ 1
__
E X A M P L E 19 Show that 1
______________ = ________
2 − _____________
2 .
n(n + 1)(n + 2) n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2)
N ∞
Find
n=1
∑
n(n +
1
______________
1)(n + 2)
and deduce
n=1 n(n∑+
1
______________
1)(n + 2)
.
1
__ 1
__ 1
__
(n + 2) − (n) 1
__
SOLUTION ________
2 − _____________
2 = ______________
2 2
n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2) n(n + 1)(n + 2)
1 n + 1 − __
__ 1n
= ______________
2 2
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
1
= ______________
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
∑[ ]
N N 1
__ 1
__
∴ ∑ 1
______________
n = 1 n(n + 1)(n + 2)
= ________
2
n = 1 n(n + 1)
− _____________
2
(n + 1)(n + 2)
N
1
= __ ∑[ 1
________ 1
− _____________
2 n = 1 n(n + 1) (n + 1)(n + 2) ]
= __ [
1 ____
1 − ____
1 + ____
1 − ____
1 +...
2 1(2) 2(3) 2(3) 3(4)
1
+ ________ 1
− ________ 1
+ ________ 1
− _____________
(N − 1)N N(N + 1) N(N + 1) (N + 1)(N +2) ]
1 __
= __ [
1 − _____________
1
2 2 (N + 1)(N + 2) ]
1 − ______________
= __ 1
4 2(N + 1)(N + 2)
179
M O DUL E 2
As N → ∞, (N + 1)(N + 2) → ∞
1
Therefore ______________ 1 − ______________
→ 0 and __ 1 1
→ __
2(N + 1)(N + 2) 4 2(N + 1)(N + 2) 4
∞
Hence, ∑ ______________
1 1.
= __
n(n + 1)(n + 2) 4
n=1
n ∞
E X A M P L E 20 Find ∑[
r=1
1 − _______
__ 1
r 2 (r + 1)2
. Hence find
] ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ]
1
2 2
.
n
SOLUTION ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ] ( 1
2
1 = __
2 ) (2
1 − __
1 + __
2 3 )
1 − __
( (n −1 1) − __n1 )
1 + . . . + _______
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ __
(
1 − _______
1
n2 (n + 1)2 )
1
= 1 − _______
(n + 1)2
1
As n → ∞, (n + 1)2 → ∞ so _______ →0
(n + 1)2
∞
∴ ∑ [ __r1 − _______
r=1 (r + 1) ]
2
1 =1 2
n
Try these 8.4 (a) 1
Express __________ in partial fractions. Hence, find
r 2 + 5r + 6 ∑ __________
1
r + 5r + 6
r=1
2 .
∞
Deduce ∑ __________
1
r + 5r + 6
r=1
.2
n
(b) Given that 2r ≡ r(r + 1) − (r − 1)r, find ∑r.
r=1 ∞
1
(c) Express ______________
(2r + 1)(2r + 3)
in partial fractions. Find ∑______________
1
(2r + 1)(2r + 3)
r=1
Convergence of a series
FUSn = u1 + u2 + u3 + . . . + un*GMJN Sn = S
UIFTFSJFTJTDPOWFSHFOUBOEUIF
n→∞
TFSJFTDPOWFSHFTUPS*GMJN Sn = ∞PSMJN Sn = −∞PSMJN SnEPFTOPUFYJTU
n→∞ n→∞ n→∞
UIFOUIFTFSJFTJTEJWFSHFOU
n
E X A M P L E 21 Given that ∑r = ________
r=1
n(n + 1)
2
, is the series convergent?
n(n + 1)
SOLUTION Let Sn = ________
2
n(n + 1)
MJN Sn =MJN ________
n→∞ n→∞ 2 =∞
4JODFMJN Sn = ∞
UIFTFSJFTEJWFSHFT
n→∞
180
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
n
E X A M P L E 22 Given that ∑( ______
r=2r − 1) 4 2 (n n + 1)
1 3 − __
= __
2
1 __
1 + _____
1 , is this series convergent?
SOLUTION 3 − __
Let Sn = __ 1 __
4 2 n n+1
1
1 + _____
( )
MJN S = MJN __
n →∞ n n→∞ 4
3 − __
1 __
[
1 + _____
2 n n+1
1
( )]
= MJN _ 3−_ 1 MJN __1−_ 1 MJN _____
1
n→∞ 4 2 n→∞ n 2 n→∞ n + 1
=_ 3
4 n→∞ n(
since MJN __ ( )
1 = 0 and MJN _____1
n→∞ n + 1
=0 ( ) )
Since MJN Sn = __ 3.
3, the series converges to the value __
n→∞ 4 4
Theorem
n
If ∑u converges then lim
n=1
n n→∞
un = 0.
Note: The converse is not true, i.e. if lim un = 0 the series does not necessarily
n→∞
converge.
Integral test
Suppose that f(x) is a positive decreasing function for x ⩾ k and that f(n) = un.
∞ n ∞
If ∫k f(x)dx is convergent then ∑un is also convergent and if ∫k f(x)dx is divergent
∞ n=k
Note that this test does not give the value that the series converges to if it converges;
it simply tells us whether the series converges or diverges.
∞
E X A M P L E 23 Show that ∑( __n1 ) diverges.
n=1
∞ ∞
SOLUTION 1,
Let f(x) = __
x ∫1 f(x)dx = ∫1 __x1 dx = ∞
1 + (1) __
1 + (1) __
1 + . . . + (1) __
1
Area of the rectangles = (1)(1) + (1) __
2 2 3 () () ()
n +
... ( )
= 1 + __ 1 + __
1 + __ 1 + __
1+...
2 3 4 5
∞
= 1
__
n ∑( )
n=1
181
M O DUL E 2
Since the rectangles overestimate the area under the curve,
y
∞ ∞
∑( ) ∫ x
n=1
1
n >
__
1
1 dx = ∞
__
y = 1x
∞ ∞
⇒ ∑
n=1
( __n1 ) > ∞ ⇒ ∑
n=1
( __n1 ) = ∞
∞
Hence the series ∑ ( __n1 ) diverges.
n=1
This series is known as the x
harmonic series. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
∞
E X A M P L E 24 Determine if ∑ ne
n=0
−n2 converges.
= [ − __ ]0
1 e−x ∞ 2
2
1
= __
2
∞ ∞
Since ∫0 f(x)dx converges, ∑ ne
n=0
−n2 will also converge.
n
E X A M P L E 25 Is ∑( _____
n=1
n
n + 1)
convergent?
n 1
SOLUTION lim _____
n→∞ (
n+1
= lim 1 − _____
n→∞ )n+1 ( )
=1
n
_____ ≠ 0, the series diverges.
Since lim
n→∞ n + 1 ( )
D'Alembert’s ratio test
∞
D’Alembert’s ratio test states that for a series of positive terms of the form ∑u n=0
n
u
(i) if nlim
→∞  
n+1
un < 1, then the series converges;
_____
u
(ii) if lim  _____
n→∞ u  > 1, then the series diverges;
n+1
n
u
(iii) if lim  _____
n→∞ u  = 1, then we need to test further.
n+1
n
182
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 8
∑ ____
2 n−1
E X A M P L E 26 Determine whether the series converges.
n
n=13
SOLUTION 2n−1 ,
Let un = ____ 2n
un+1 = ____
3 n
3n+1
Now
2n
____
u 3n+1 = ____ 3n
2n × ____ 2n−(n−1) = __
2
un = ____ = _______
____
n+1 _____
n−1 n+1 n−1 3
2 3 2 3n+1−n
3n
un+1

∴ lim ____
n → ∞ un 
> 1 ⇒ the series converges.
EXERCISE 8B
n
1 Find ∑________
1
(4r − 1)
r=1
. 2
2 Let f(r) = __ 1 − 2r .
1 . Show that f (r) − f (r − 1) = ________
r2n r2(r − 1)2
Hence find ∑
1 − 2r .
_________
r = 1 r (r − 1)
2 2
Show that the series converges and find the sum to infinity.
5 Show that (r + 4)(r + 5)(r + 6) − (r + 3)(r + 4)(r + 5) = 3(r + 4)(r + 5).
n
Hence find ∑(r + 4)(r + 5). Decide whether this series converges or diverges.
r=1
n
6 1
Express ___________ in partial fractions. Hence find ∑ ___________
1 .
4r + 8r + 3
2 4r + 8r + 3 r=1
2
9 −4
Given that ______________ A + ______
≡ ______ B find A and B.
(4r + 1)(4r − 3) 4r + 1 4r − 3
n
Hence find ∑______________
−4
(4r + 1)(4r − 3)
r=1
. Deduce the sum to infinity of the series.
n
10 Prove that ∑____________
2 n .
= _____
(r + 1)(r + 2) n + 2
r=1
N
11 Find ∑ [e
n=1
nx − e(n−1)x].
183
M O DUL E 2
SUMMARY
Series
Cancel terms
n n(n + 1)
∑r = 2 D’Alembert’s ratio test
r =1
Find the required sum
∞
n
∑r2 =
n(n + 1) (2n + 1) ∑un converges
r =1 6 n=0
when lim
n→∞ uu <1
n +1
n
n n2(n + 1)2
∑r3 = 4
r =1
If lim
n→∞  u u  > 1, the series diverges
n +1
n
2n 2n n
∑ur = ∑ur – ∑ur
r = n+1 r=1 r=1
If lim
n→∞  u u  = 1, test further.
n +1
n
Integral test
Let f(x) be a positive decreasing function, x ≥ k,
∞
and f(n) = un. If ∫k f(x) dx is convergent
∞ ∞
then ∑ n u is also convergent and if ∫k f(x) dx is
n=k ∞
divergent then ∑ un is also divergent.
n=k
Divergence test
If lim un ≠ 0 then ∑un
n→∞
will diverge. The converse is not true.
Checklist
CHAPTER 9
Principle of Mathematical Induction
(PMI): Sequences and Series
KEYWORDS/TERMS
TFRVFODFTtTFSJFTtNBUIFNBUJDBM
JOEVDUJPO
185
M O DUL E 2
The principle of mathematical induction (PMI) was introduced in Unit 1.
The four steps for PMI are
Step 1
Prove the statement is true for n = 1.
Step 2
Assume the statement is true for n = k.
Step 3
Prove the statement is true for n = k + 1.
Step 4
Deduce that, using PMI, the statement is true for all integers.
EXAMPLE 1 A sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . of integers is defined by u1 = 1 and un+1 = 2un + 3.
Prove by induction that, for all n ≥ 1, un= 2n+1 − 3.
=4−3
=1
uk+1 = 2[2k+1 − 3] + 3
= 2 × 2k+1 − 3 × 2 + 3
186
MODULE 2tCHAPTER 9
= 2(k+1)+1 − 6 + 3
= 2(k+1)+1 − 3
un
EXAMPLE 2 A sequence u1, u2, u3, . . . is defined by u1 = 1 and un+1= ______.
un+ 2
1 .
Show by induction that, for all n ≥ 1, un = ______
2n − 1
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